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Sample records for nuclear security culture

  1. Cultural Awareness in Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link

    SciTech Connect

    Nasser, Al-Sharif Nasser bin; Auda, Jasmine; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-11-20

    Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. This article argues that this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Furthermore, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its applications in the Jordanian context will be presented.

  2. Cultural Awareness in Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link

    DOE PAGES

    Nasser, Al-Sharif Nasser bin; Auda, Jasmine; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-11-20

    Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. This article argues that this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Furthermore, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its applicationsmore » in the Jordanian context will be presented.« less

  3. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  4. Organizational Culture for Safety, Security, and Safeguards in New Nuclear Power Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will contain the following sections: Existing international norms and standards for developing the infrastructure to support new nuclear power programs The role of organizational culture and how it supports the safe, secure, and peaceful application of nuclear power Identifying effective and efficient strategies for implementing safety, security and safeguards in nuclear operations Challenges identified in the implementation of safety, security and safeguards Potential areas for future collaboration between countries in order to support nonproliferation culture

  5. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers,E.; deBoer,G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former "Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security" at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that "good security is 20% equipment and 80% people." Although eliminating the "human factor" is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  6. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Cary E.; de Boer, Gloria; De Castro, Kara; Landers, John; Rogers, Erin

    2010-10-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the “human factor.” Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former “Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security” at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that “good security is 20% equipment and 80% people.”1 Although eliminating the “human factor” is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  7. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  8. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  9. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  10. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  11. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  12. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-02-24

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  13. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  14. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges.

    PubMed

    Englefield, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved.

  15. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  16. Conducting a Nuclear Security Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Snell, Mark K.

    2016-06-01

    There are three general steps that make up a nuclear security assessment: 1. Develop data Libraries that indicate how effective the physical protection measures are both individually but also as parts of subsystems and actual systems. 2. Perform Path Analysis 3. Perform Scenario Analysis Depending upon the nature and objectives of the assessment not all three of these steps may need to be performed; for example, at facilities with simple layouts there may not be a need to perform path analysis. Each of these steps is described within this report.

  17. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Robert C.; King, Maureen L.; Beck, Colleen M.; Falvey, Lauren W.; Menocal, Tatianna M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  18. Compressive sensing for nuclear security.

    SciTech Connect

    Gestner, Brian Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) detection has applications in nuclear material control, treaty verification, and national security. The neutron and gamma-ray radiation signature of SNMs can be indirectly observed in scintillator materials, which fluoresce when exposed to this radiation. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to the scintillator material is often used to convert this weak fluorescence to an electrical output signal. The fluorescence produced by a neutron interaction event differs from that of a gamma-ray interaction event, leading to a slightly different pulse in the PMT output signal. The ability to distinguish between these pulse types, i.e., pulse shape discrimination (PSD), has enabled applications such as neutron spectroscopy, neutron scatter cameras, and dual-mode neutron/gamma-ray imagers. In this research, we explore the use of compressive sensing to guide the development of novel mixed-signal hardware for PMT output signal acquisition. Effectively, we explore smart digitizers that extract sufficient information for PSD while requiring a considerably lower sample rate than conventional digitizers. Given that we determine the feasibility of realizing these designs in custom low-power analog integrated circuits, this research enables the incorporation of SNM detection into wireless sensor networks.

  19. Nuclear and Solar Energy: Implications for Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    FUTURE ....................................................................................34 1. Nuclear Plant Requirement...76 2. Plant Security .....................................................................................77 3... Plant Security .....................................................................................82 3. Resilience

  20. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  1. Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M.

    2000-09-01

    My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.

  2. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  3. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  4. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  5. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  6. Infrastructure Security and Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    uranium deposits in Eglab, Ougarta, southern Tassili, Timgaounine, Tinef, Abankor, Tahaggart 700,000 t phosphate rock /year Fuel fabrication UDEC...Nuclear Characteristics of Syria Parameter Characterization U supply Significant deposits of phosphate rock at Charkia, Knifes, Sawwaneh, and Wadi...technology. • Algeria has access to significant uranium supplies either through deposits, or phosphate ore, and has access to over 50 kg of Pu through its

  7. Nuclear Security in the 21^st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Daniel E.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear security has been a priority for the United States, starting in the 1940s with the secret cities of the Manhattan Project. In the 1970s, the United States placed radiation monitoring equipment at nuclear facilities to detect nuclear material diversion. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, cooperative Russian/U.S. programs were launched in Russia to secure the estimated 600+ metric tons of fissionable materials against diversion (Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability -- MPC&A). Furthermore, separate programs were initiated to detect nuclear materials at the country's borders in the event that these materials had been stolen (Second Line of Defense - SLD). In the 2000s, new programs have been put in place in the United States for radiation detection, and research is being funded for more advanced systems. This talk will briefly touch on the history of nuclear security and then focus on some recent research efforts in radiation detection. Specifically, a new breed of radiation monitors will be examined along with the concept of sensor networks.

  8. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  9. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  10. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins.

  11. Security or armageddon: Israel's nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book closely examines Israel's strategic choices and the probable impact of those choices on American and Soviet foreign policy. The contributors of this debate both Israeli and American, represent a very distinguished group of scholars, all well-known specialists on international security affairs. The author addresses such critical issues as Israel's dilemma of either continuing with its ''bomb in the basement'' policy or disclosing its nuclear capabilities; the long-term prospects for security through conventional deterrence; the probability of nuclear and other highly destructive forms of terrorism; the creation of a regional non-proliferation treaty for the Middle East; the role of international law; the effect of superpower relations on regional stability; the relevance of Jewish history; and the problem of regional proliferation.

  12. Review of July 2013 Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise November 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, Ann C.; Snow, Catherine L.; Townsend, Jeremy; Shannon, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This document is a review of the Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise which was hosted at ORNL in July 2013. Nuclear security culture and the insider threat are best learned through experience. Culture is inherently difficult to teach, and as such is best learned through modeled behaviors and learning exercise. This TTX, NSITE, is a tool that strives to aid students in learning what an effective (and ineffective) nuclear security culture might look like by simulating dynamic events that strengthen or weaken the nuclear security regime. The goals of NSITE are to stimulate complex thought and discussion and assist decision makers and management in determining the most effective policies and procedures for their country or facility.

  13. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  14. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, Kenan; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale Reactor

  15. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  16. Cultural perspectives of computer security

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, J.E.C.; Farrar, P.H.

    1994-12-31

    IBM installed thw rold`s first business computer at General Electric Applicance Park in Louisville, Kentucky in 1954. During these forty years the business world has undergone major changes. These changes, by necessity, also change culture, society and individuals lives.

  17. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, I.

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  18. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  19. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  20. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  1. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  2. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  3. Security robots for nuclear materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, R.

    1986-01-01

    Robots have successfully invaded industry where they have replaced costly personnel performing their tasks cheaper and better in most cases. There may be a place for a unique class of robots, security robots, in nuclear materials management. Robots could be employed in the functions of general response, patrol and neutralizing dangerous situations. The last is perhaps most important. Ion Track Instruments of Burlington, Massachusetts has designed an excellent unit to protect life in hazardous situations. The unit can detect, disrupt or remove explosives. It can enter dangerous areas to reconnoiter the extent of danger. It can communicate with those in a dangerous area. It can fight fires or clean an area using a 2 1/2 inch, two man hose. If necessary, it can engage an adversary in a fire fight using a twelve gauge shot gun.

  4. The role of the health physicist in nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime far

  5. The Role of the Health Physicist in Nuclear Security

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Edward J.; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime

  6. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  7. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-08-05

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  8. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  9. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Exelon Nuclear is the licensee and holder of Facility Operating License No....

  10. Certified Training for Nuclear and Radioactive Source Security Management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel

    2016-11-24

    Radioactive sources are used by hospitals, research facilities and industry for such purposes as diagnosing and treating illnesses, sterilising equipment and inspecting welds. Unfortunately, many States, regulatory authorities and licensees may not appreciate how people with malevolent intentions could use radioactive sources, and statistics confirm that a number of security incidents happen around the globe. The adversary could be common thieves, activists, insiders, terrorists and organised crime groups. Mitigating this risk requires well trained and competent staff who have developed the knowledge, attributes and skills necessary to successfully discharge their security responsibilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Institute for Nuclear Security are leading international training efforts. The target audience is a multi-disciplinary group of professionals with management responsibilities for security at facilities with radioactive sources. These efforts to promote training and competence amongst practitioners have been recognised at the 2014 and 2016 Nuclear Security and Nuclear Industry Summits.

  11. Nuclear safeguards and security: we can do better.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Warner, Jon S.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Martinez, R. K.; Lopez, L. N.; Pacheco, A. N.; Trujillo, S. J.; Herrera, A. M.; Bitzer, E. G. , III

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of practical ways to significantly improve nuclear safeguards and security. These include recognizing and minimizing the insider threat; using adversarial vulnerability assessments to find vulnerabilities and countermeasures; fully appreciating the disparate nature of domestic and international nuclear safeguards; improving tamper detection and tamper-indicating seals; not confusing the inventory and security functions; and recognizing the limitations of GPS tracking, contact memory buttons, and RFID tags. The efficacy of nuclear safeguards depends critically on employing sophisticated security strategies and effective monitoring hardware. The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has extensively researched issues associated with nuclear safeguards, especially in the areas of tamper/intrusion detection, transport security, and vulnerability assessments. This paper discusses some of our findings, recommendations, and warnings.

  12. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  13. Security Culture in Times of War: How Did the Balkan War Affect the Security Cultures in Germany and United States?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    like to thank Professor Rafael Biermann and Professor Donald Abenheim for their ongoing support and guidance as thesis advisors and for sharing their...relevant to the increasingly shared security culture among actors in the transitional process. The basic insight is this: culture matters in world...security cultures and changed policy choices. The thesis focuses on two components of security cultures, the shared perception of the use of force and

  14. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  15. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  16. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  17. Culture-independent diagnostics for health security

    DOE PAGES

    Doggett, Norman A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; ...

    2016-06-17

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamosmore » National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification–based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. Furthermore, this article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop.« less

  18. Culture-independent diagnostics for health security

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, Norman A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Slezak, Tom R.; Chain, Patrick Sam; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R.; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-06-17

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification–based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. Furthermore, this article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop.

  19. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  20. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  1. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  2. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  3. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 5 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 6 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Nuclear Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  4. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  5. Strengthening Domestic Nuclear Security Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meehan, Patrick [R-PA-7

    2014-09-18

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  7. The role of the weapons laboratory in nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.R. )

    1989-07-01

    The role of the Nuclear Systems/Surety Division and its relationship to the Air Force Weapons Laboratory are described. The Function and goals of the security section within that division, under basic DOD guidance, are considered. Reference is made to work on ballistic protection shrouds for Minuteman II and III and Air Force nuclear weapon shipping containers. BNL-TSO contributions to AFWL study projects are explained. This involvement has existed since 1984 in regard to security improvements for SAC alert aircraft. The work involves ballistic screening and development of a taxiway-gap cable vehicle barrier. Future activities may deal with alert system upgrades, access denial systems, security seals, comprehensive security analysis, and criteria development.

  8. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  9. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    SciTech Connect

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  10. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  11. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment.

  12. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  13. The Concept of Comprehensive Security: A Distinctive Feature of a Shared Security Culture in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    John S . Duffield, World Power Forsaken: Political Culture, International Institutions, and German Security Policy after Unification (Stanford: Stanford...34 Political Culture and State Behavior: Why Germany Confounds Neorealism." International Organization 53, no. 4 (Autumn 1999): 765-803. ———. John S ...Security Culture in Europe? 6. AUTHOR( S ) Markus Thomas Schmid 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval

  14. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I.; Duggan, Ruth

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  15. Nuclear Safeguards and Security Education at Russian Universities

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is assisting key Russian universities in developing safeguards and security degree programs to prepare the next generation of specialists who will be responsible for protecting nuclear material from illicit use. These programs include course and laboratory work in nuclear material measurements, vulnerability analysis, exterior and interior sensors, and legal aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) has graduated nine classes of master’s students, most of who are working in government agencies, research organizations, or pursuing their PhD. With DOE support, MEPhI has also established a 5½-year engineering degree program in safeguards and security. This is a hands-on degree that more closely meets the needs of nuclear facilities. The first class graduated in February 2007, marking a major milestone in Russian nonproliferation education. A second engineering degree program has been established at Tomsk Polytechnic University and is designed to reach those students east of the Ural Mountains, where many nuclear facilities are located. The first class will graduate in February 2009. This paper describes current development of these education programs, new initiatives, and sustainability efforts to ensure their continued viability after DOE support ends. The paper also describes general nonproliferation education activities supported by DOE that complement the more technical safeguards and security education programs.

  16. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  17. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  18. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  19. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  20. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-26

    the work plan in 2009, it did not support the adoption of a draft program of work for 2010.60 Ambassador Zamir Akram , Pakistan’s Permanent...Also see Statement by Ambassador Zamir Akram , Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the Conference on Disarmament, August 31, 2010. 61 Statement...by Ambassador Zamir Akram , February 18, 2010. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues Congressional Research Service 10

  1. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    Service 2 nonproliferation experts insight into the command and control of the Pakistani arsenal and its on- site safety and security procedures,”3 but...1980s. Highly-enriched uranium ( HEU ) is one of two types of fissile material used in nuclear weapons; the other is plutonium. The country’s main...United States that it would produce only LEU ,12 U.S. and Pakistani officials who were in government in 1990 indicated during a 1994 meeting that

  2. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-30

    Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007...for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  3. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile...and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock...Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080

  4. R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kammeraad, J E

    2009-04-02

    I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

  5. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013γ/s) due to special operation mode.

  6. Security Design of Remote Maintenance Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Based on ISO/IEC 15408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ryosuke; Oi, Tadashi; Endo, Yoshio

    This paper presents a security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants. Based on ISO/IEC 15408, we list assets to be protected, threats to the assets, security objectives against the threats, and security functional requirements that achieve the security objectives. Also, we show relations between the threats and the security objectives, and relations between the security objectives and the security functional requirements. As a result, we concretize a necessary and sufficient security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants that can protect the instrumentation and control system against intrusion, impersonation, tapping, obstruction and destruction.

  7. Theater Nuclear Force Survivability and Security Instrumentation. Engineering Development Phase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    THIS SHEET LINVENTORY o - Aproved I oi ;~ziTic :~ o |. .. Distiibutio,-; ni ,t, DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ACCESSION FOR NTIS GRA&I DTIC T"A D UNANNOUNCED...H 81 2 O 01 " DATE KECEIVED IN DTIC PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC OCT 79 70A h-10( 4.c DNA 5158F...THEATER NUCLEAR FORCE SURVIVABILITY SAND SECURITY INSTRUMENTATION ’ Engineering Development Phase o rhe BDM Corporation ’.0. Box 9274 kibuquerque

  8. Theater Nuclear Force Survivability and Security Instrumentation. Study Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-30

    o 2 a’. k ~)A. ~ I 01 4141 0) a.. k OJ*’ ~41 I I -c.~ N * ( -4 N 0) I 4~ .j C 00 *l-I zI. )j a’ A ~ f...DNA 4795F o ’ THEATER NUCLEAR FORCE SURVIVABILITY ’ AND SECURITY INSTRUMENTATION SStudy Phase The BDM Corporation 1801 Randolph Road SE Albuquerque...Entered) ’ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READINSTRUCTION H BEFORE COMPLETING FORM RIP= O ER /12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER

  9. Magnetic Imaging: a New Tool for UK National Nuclear Security

    PubMed Central

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joe C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications. PMID:25608957

  10. Magnetic Imaging: a New Tool for UK National Nuclear Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joe C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  11. Magnetic imaging: a new tool for UK national nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Brendan J; Watson, Joe C; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-22

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  12. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  13. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  14. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  15. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  16. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  17. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  18. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  19. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  20. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  1. Development of Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Infrastructure in Emerging Nuclear Nations Such as Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Kovacic, Donald N

    2008-01-01

    Infrastructure Preparedness and Vietnam Jacqueline L. Shipwash and Donald N. Kovacic (shipwashjl@ornl.gov, 865-241-9129, and kovacicdn@ornl.gov, 865-576-1459) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 The global expansion of nuclear energy will require international cooperation to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities, and sensitive technologies are not diverted to non-peaceful uses. Developing countries will require assistance to ensure the effective regulation, management, and operation of their nuclear programs to achieve best practices in nuclear nonproliferation. A developing nation has many hurdles to pass before it can give assurances to the international community that it is capable of implementing a sustainable nuclear energy program. In August of this year, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed an arrangement for Information Exchange and Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This event signals an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnam in the area of nuclear nonproliferation. This paper will address how DOE is supporting the development of secure and sustainable infrastructures in emerging nuclear nations such as Vietnam.

  2. Summary Comments: Nuclear Physics and Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Gamma-ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation (NPNSNP) meeting held in Tokai-mura, Japan from January 28th to 30th, 2014 revealed both the rapid evolution and growth of monoenergetic, laser-Compton, gamma-ray source technology and the emergence of numerous important applications enabled by this technology. More than 500M of large-scale source and development activities were represented at the meeting, including all of the major projects in the United States, Europe and Japan. The meeting was both highly stimulating intellectually and provided an excellent venue for the exploration of new collaborations between groups...

  3. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  4. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-05-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as

  5. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  6. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  7. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  8. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  9. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  10. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  11. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Khun, Vuthy Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  12. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  13. International Internships in Nuclear Safeguards and Security: Challenges and Successes

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolai I.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Sokova, Elena K.; Ford, David G.

    2010-04-20

    All students in the Russian safeguards and security degree programs at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and Tomsk Polytechnic University, sponsored by the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Education Project, take part in a domestic internship at a Russian enterprise or facility. In addition, a select few students are placed in an international internship. These internships provide students with a better view of how MPC&A and nonproliferation in general are addressed outside of Russia. The possibility of an international internship is a significant incentive for students to enroll in the safeguards and security degree programs. The U.S. members of the MPC&A Education Project team interview students who have been nominated by their professors. These students must have initiative and reasonable English skills. The project team and professors then select students to be tentatively placed in various international internships during the summer or fall of their final year of study. Final arrangements are then made with the host organizations. This paper describes the benefits of the joint United States/Russia cooperation for next-generation workforce development, some of the international internships that have been carried out, the benefits of these international internships, and lessons learned in implementing them.

  14. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  19. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  20. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  1. Applications Using High Flux LCS gamma-ray Beams: Nuclear Security and Contributions to Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear nonproliferation and security are an important issue for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Many countries now collaborate together for preventing serious accidents from nuclear terrorism. Detection of hidden long-lived radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides in a non-destructive manner is useful for nuclear safeguards and management of nuclear wastes as well as nuclear security. After introducing the present situation concerning the nuclear nonproliferation and security in Japan, we plan to show the present activities of JAEA to detect the hidden nuclear materials by means of the nuclear resonance fluorescence with energy-tunable, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) with an electron beam. The energy recovery linac (ERL) machine is now under development with the KEK-JAEA collaboration for realizing the new generation of gamma-ray sources. The detection technologies of nuclear materials are currently developed using the existing electron beam facilities at Duke University and at NewSubaru. These developments in Japan will contribute to the nuclear security program in Japan and to the assay of melted nuclear fuels in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  6. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 – 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  7. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  8. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  9. National Security in the Nuclear Age: Public Library Proposal and Booklist. May 1987 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dane, Ernest B.

    To increase public understanding of national security issues, this document proposes that a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on national security in the nuclear age be included in all U.S. public libraries. The proposal suggests that the books be grouped together on an identified shelf. Selection criteria for the…

  10. 78 FR 77606 - Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72 and 73 RIN 3150-AI78 Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear... known as the technical basis] document for a proposed rulemaking that would revise the security... responses to these comments, are located on the Federal e-Rulemaking Web site at...

  11. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Schrieber

    2008-07-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

  12. Nuclear Forensics: Scientific Analysis Supporting Law Enforcement and Nuclear Security Investigations.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.

  13. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M. A.; Brejnholt, N.; Hill, R.; Decker, T.; Alameda, J.; Soufli, R.; Pivovaroff, M.; Pardini, T.

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  14. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1 is... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The licensee...

  15. Defining nuclear security in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E

    2009-01-01

    A conference devoted to Reducing the Risks from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials presupposes that such risks exist. Few would disagree, but what are they? While debate on the nature and severity of risks associated with nuclear energy will always remain, it is easy to define a set of risks that are almost universally acknowledged. These include: (1) Nuclear warfare between states; (2) Continued proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade nuclear materials to states and non-state actors; (3) Terrorists or non-state actor acquisition or use nuclear weapons or nuclear materials; (4) Terrorists or non-state actors attack on a nuclear facility; and (5) Loss or diversion of nuclear weapons or materials by a state to unauthorized uses. These are listed in no particular order of likelihood or potential consequence. They are also very broadly stated, each one could be broken down into a more detailed set of discrete risks or threats. The fact that there is a strong consensus on the existence of these risks is evidence that we remain in an era of nuclear insecurity. This becomes even clearer when we note that most major trends influencing the probability of these risks continue to run in a negative direction.

  16. Peace and security in Northeast Asia: The nuclear issue and the Korean Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kihl, Y.W.; Hayes, P.; Scalapino, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Korean security was the focus of world-wide attention and concern in 1993--95 with North Korea's 'suspected' nuclear weapons program. Dubbed by some as the first post-Cold War nuclear crisis, it was triggered by the United Nations Security Council's move to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. Although the immediate crisis was defused diplomatically, the nuclear time bomb continues to tick on the Korean peninsula, and the issues remain under close international surveillance. This important book examines North Korea's nuclear controversy from a variety of perspectives, including nuclear reactor technology and technology transfer, economic sanctions and incentives, strategic calculus and confidence-building measures, the major powers, and environmental challenges that a nuclear-free zone in Korea will present.

  17. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Jenno, Diana M.

    2014-09-01

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  18. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  19. Understanding the Value of a Computer Emergency Response Capability for Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Peter Donald; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo

    2015-06-01

    The international nuclear community has a great understanding of the physical security needs relating to the prevention, detection, and response of malicious acts associated with nuclear facilities and radioactive material. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC_225_Rev 5) outlines specific guidelines and recommendations for implementing and maintaining an organization’s nuclear security posture. An important element for inclusion into supporting revision 5 is the establishment of a “Cyber Emergency Response Team (CERT)” focused on the international communities cybersecurity needs to maintain a comprehensive nuclear security posture. Cybersecurity and the importance of nuclear cybersecurity require that there be a specific focus on developing an International Nuclear CERT (NS-CERT). States establishing contingency plans should have an understanding of the cyber threat landscape and the potential impacts to systems in place to protect and mitigate malicious activities. This paper will outline the necessary components, discuss the relationships needed within the international community, and outline a process by which the NS-CERT identifies, collects, processes, and reports critical information in order to establish situational awareness (SA) and support decision-making

  20. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-07-16

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  1. Sixth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: The role of a strong regulator in safe and secure nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    The history of nuclear regulation is briefly reviewed to underscore the early recognition that independence of the regulator was essential in achieving and maintaining public credibility. The current licensing process is reviewed along with the status of applications. Challenges faced by both the NRC and the industry are reviewed, such as new construction techniques involving modular construction, digital controls replacing analog circuitry, globalization of the entire supply chain, and increased security requirements. The vital area of safety culture is discussed in some detail, and its importance is emphasized.

  2. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  3. Nuclear Weapons. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better Reflect Funding Estimates and Technology Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    metal. Recovery extraction centrifugal contactors A process that uses solvent to extract uranium for purposes of purification. Agile machining A...Appropriations, U.S. Senate NUCLEAR WEAPONS National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Weapons: National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better

  4. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Horak, Karl Emanuel; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Tolk, Keith Michael; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  5. Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensors to Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported. PMID:24755519

  6. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance sensors to cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-04-21

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported.

  7. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  8. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  9. Strategic nuclear targeting (Cornell studies in security affairs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Richelson, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents fourteen essays which provide a debate on issues related to nuclear arms policy. The strategic doctrines of the U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, and France are discussed and types of targeting-(population, economic, countermilitary, and counterpolitical)-and their feasibility are considered.

  10. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials estimates that Pakistan has enough fissile material...Adviser M. K. Narayanan said that the arsenal is safe and has adequate checks and balances.64 Similarly, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth ...Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download

  11. Securing Nuclear and Radiological Material in the Homeland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    measures at the facility, a ballistic vest, night vision goggles, a gas mask, handcuffs, and a pepper spray canister. Further investigation revealed...25 C. D. Ferguson , T. Kazi and J. Perera, Commercial Radioactive Sources: Surveying the Security Risks (Monterey Institute of...http://www.ewg.org/reports/nuclearwaste/faq/faq_terroristthreat_more.php (accessed 10 February 2006). Ferguson , C. D., T. Kazi, and J. Perera

  12. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  13. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  14. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    plan in 2009, it did not support the adoption of a draft program of work for 2010.58 Ambassador Zamir Akram , Pakistan’s Permanent Representative to the...Statement by Ambassador Zamir Akram , Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the Conference on Disarmament, August 31, 2010. 59 Statement by Ambassador...Zamir Akram , February 18, 2010. 60 Zia Mian and A.H. Nayyar, “Playing the Nuclear Game: Pakistan and the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty,” Arms

  15. Controlling Threats to Nuclear Security: A Hollistic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Pt, ~3° • pu n9 o L323s • Weapons Components Research Facilities Weapons Disassembly • HEU • All weapons components • LEU • Complete weapons • Pu...to support any level of analysis --broad, national or international policy level of analysis or highly detailed, site-specific level of analysis ...and context in a framework that would improve understanding, analysis and prevention of the theft of nuclear materials. Even the highly regarded

  16. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials estimates... Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock and key...Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download/attachments/748

  17. National Security to Nationalist Myth: Why Iran Wants Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    28 See what Scott Sagan notes is the “seminal text of neorealism,” Kenneth N. Waltz , Theory of International Politics...Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.” IAEA Information Circular. INFCIRC/140. Geneva: 22 April 1970. Waltz , Kenneth N. Theory of International...that includes both the new Iraqi government and Iran. A. BALANCE OF POWER AND MILITARY DOCTRINE: THE THEORY Neorealist theory predicates that

  18. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  19. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  3. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  4. National Security in the Nuclear Age. A Proposed Booklist and Public Education Ideas for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dane, Ernest B.

    A bibliography on national security in the nuclear age is divided into three sections. The first section describes a proposal calling for the compilation of a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on this issue to be included in all U.S. public libraries. Also discussed are selection criteria for the book list, project…

  5. Nuclear Weapons Security Crisis: What Does History Teach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    1. Polonium - 210 , used in nuclear weapons as a neutron initia- tor, has a half-life of 138 days, eventually decaying to lead-206. See “Factsheets and...FAQs: Polonium - 210 ,” International Atomic Energy Agency, available from www.iaea.org/Publications/Factsheets/ English/polonium210.html. 2. As...207- 210 . 59. Quoted in Rhodes, Twilight of the Bombs, p. 95. 60. See Chap. 2 by Tertrais in this volume. 61. There is no certainty about the role that

  6. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    Material Report 2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 7 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 8 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile...said that the arsenal is safe and has adequate checks and balances.41 Similarly, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David... University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download/attachments/748/Brief_22finalised.pdf 49 Alex Wagner, “U.S

  7. Cultural Diversity, Relocation, and the Security of International Students at an Internationalised University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The notion of "security" is an elusive concept that attracts varying interpretations. In this article, the authors adopt a definition that views security as a broadly applicable term that encompasses physical, social, and economic dimensions that relate to human rights, cultural difference, and relocation. The approach embraces the…

  8. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  9. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  10. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  11. Virtual real-time inspection of nuclear material via VRML and secure web pages

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Jortner, J.; Damico, J.; Friesen, J.; Schwegel, J.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories` Straight-Line project is working to provide the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of nuclear material. One of Straight-Line`s efforts is to create a system to securely disseminate this data on the Internet`s World-Wide-Web. To make the user interface more intuitive, Sandia has generated a three dimensional VRML (virtual reality modeling language) interface for a secure web page. This paper will discuss the implementation of the Straight-Line secure 3-D web page. A discussion of the pros and cons of a 3-D web page is also presented. The public VRML demonstration described in this paper can be found on the Internet at this address, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/NMM/. A Netscape browser, version 3 is strongly recommended.

  12. Virtual real-time inspection of nuclear material via VRML and secure web pages

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Jortner, J.; Damico, J.; Friesen, J.; Schwegel, J.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` Straight Line project is working to provide the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of nuclear material. One of Straight Line`s efforts is to create a system to securely disseminate this data on the Internet`s World-Wide-Web. To make the user interface more intuitive, Sandia has generated a three dimensional VRML (virtual reality modeling language) interface for a secure web page. This paper will discuss the implementation of the Straight Line secure 3-D web page. A discussion of the ``pros and cons`` of a 3-D web page is also presented. The public VRML demonstration described in this paper can be found on the Internet at the following address: http://www.ca.sandia.gov/NMM/. A Netscape browser, version 3 is strongly recommended.

  13. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  14. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  15. National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors—Mostly Nuclear Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Michael W.

    2009-12-01

    As with science, so with security—in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  16. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  17. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  18. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  19. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  20. Security Hardened Cyber Components for Nuclear Power Plants: Phase I SBIR Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franusich, Michael D.

    2016-03-18

    SpiralGen, Inc. built a proof-of-concept toolkit for enhancing the cyber security of nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructure with high-assurance instrumentation and control code. The toolkit is based on technology from the DARPA High-Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) program, which has focused on applying the science of formal methods to the formidable set of problems involved in securing cyber physical systems. The primary challenges beyond HACMS in developing this toolkit were to make the new technology usable by control system engineers and compatible with the regulatory and commercial constraints of the nuclear power industry. The toolkit, packaged as a Simulink add-on, allows a system designer to assemble a high-assurance component from formally specified and proven blocks and generate provably correct control and monitor code for that subsystem.

  1. Examination of Terrestrial Nuclear Energy’s Relevance to U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    foremost, building new nuclear reactors is expensive, largely due to very high initial capital costs. This is mostly associated with construction...calculation method, it is estimated that one cancer death would result from the Three Mile Island accident.115 Radon gas from naturally occurring...the United Nations Security Council, pursued missile delivery capabilities, and resisted international efforts to resolve through diplomatic means the

  2. NUCLEAR NEW BUILD-INTEGRATING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN RADIATION PROTECTION.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, Valentin; Bryant, Peter A; Cole, Peter

    2016-11-24

    Across the world, we are seeing a resurgence in Nuclear New Build. In the UK alone, plans are under way for the construction of 10 new reactors, using 4 different reactor designs all of which are to be provided by foreign vendors, and operated by 3 newly formed licensees within the UK. As these new licensees embark on the task of establishing themselves and progressing the design and build of these reactors, there are challenges faced in integrating the Radiation Protection Requirements and Culture from the various Foreign Investors and Vendors into the UK 'Context'. The following paper identifies the origin of the Radiation Protection Requirements within the UK and foreign investor/vendor countries, in an attempt to integrate them into the UK licensing and approval process. Thus, allowing due credit to be taken for the regulatory regime of the foreign countries where these reactors originate.

  3. How the radiologic and nuclear medical communities can improve nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H; von Hippel, Frank

    2007-04-01

    Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used to manufacture technetium-99m, the most widely used medical radioisotope in the world. Highly enriched uranium is also used to make nuclear bombs; 50 kg of HEU is enough to make a Hiroshima-type bomb. It is generally agreed that this technology is within the reach of a terrorist group; the main obstacle is acquiring HEU. Currently, as a legacy of the US and Soviet Atoms for Peace Program, there are civilian users of HEU in 40 countries, and about 1,000 kg are still being shipped each year. Unfortunately, the major international manufacturers of technetium-99m have been refusing to convert their production facilities to use low-enriched uranium (LEU), which cannot be used to make a nuclear bomb. Only 1% to 2% of the HEU is consumed in the process of producing technetium-99m. The remainder is accumulating in radioactive waste storage facilities. The radiologic and nuclear medical communities could make a tremendous contribution to a safer world by supporting the replacement of HEU with LEU in the production of technetium-99m. Low-enriched uranium is just as cost effective as HEU for the manufacture of technetium-99m and does not contribute to the risk for nuclear terrorism.

  4. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  5. Nucleoplasmic organization of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in cultured human cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The organization of eight small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (the U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 RNAs previously studied by others and three additional snRNAs, U11, U12, and 7SK) has been investigated in cultured human cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization with antisense DNA and 2'-O- Me RNA oligonucleotides. Using highly sensitive digital imaging microscopy we demonstrate that all of these snRNAs are widespread throughout the nucleoplasm, but they are excluded from the nucleoli. In addition, the U2, U4, U5, U6, and U12 snRNAs are concentrated in discrete nuclear foci, known as coiled bodies, but U1 and 7SK are not. In addition to coiled bodies, a classic speckled pattern was observed in the nucleoplasm of monolayer-grown HeLa cells, whereas suspension- grown HeLa cells revealed a more diffuse nucleoplasmic labeling. Immunofluorescence staining using various snRNP-specific antisera shows complete agreement with that of their antisense snRNA oligonucleotide counterparts. Although U2 RNA is concentrated in coiled bodies, quantitation of the fluorescence signals from the U2 antisense probe reveals that the bulk of the U2 snRNP is located in the nucleoplasm. Furthermore, simultaneous visualization of the U2 snRNAs and the tandemly repeated U2 genes demonstrates that coiled bodies are not the sites of U2 transcription. PMID:8491767

  6. Lessons Learned in Over a Decade of Technical Support for U.S. Nuclear Cyber Security Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Craig, Philip A.; Bass, Robert B.

    2013-09-05

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) nuclear cyber security team has been providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since 2002. This team has provided cyber security technical experties in conducting cyber security inspections, developing of regulatory rules and guidance, reviewing facility cyber security plans, developing inspection guidance, and developing and teaching NRC inspectors how to conduct cyber security assessments. The extensive experience the PNNL team has gathered has allowed them to compile a lenghty list of recommendations on how to improve cyber security programs and conduct assessments. A selected set of recommendations are presented, including the need to: integrate an array of defenisve strategies into a facility’s cyber security program, coordinate physical and cyber security activities, train phycial security forces to resist a cyber-enabled physical attack, improve estimates of the consequences of a cyber attack, properly resource cyber security assessments, appropropriately account for insider threats, routinely monitor security devices for potential attacks, supplement compliance-based requirements with risk-based decision making, and introduce the concept of resilience into cyber security programs.

  7. Walk the Talk: Progress in Building a Supply Chain Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to “go beyond compliance” for over a decade in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods, technology, and information along their supply chains. From conducting this work, PNNL identified indicators that a company can adopt as part of its commitment to nonproliferation ideals with a focus on supply chain security.

  8. Biba San Dymphna: Cultural Security and Mental Health on Guam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, Diane M.

    Nearly 20 years ago a culturally relevant program was created on the island of Guam. Inspired by the Gheel, the Belgium colony's humanized treatment of the mentally ill, the program is based on the island's Spanish heritage and makes use of Roman Catholic ritual in communal assembly and in commemorating developmental attainments. Beginning as a…

  9. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  10. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on ^237Np for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, Ryan; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    The smuggling of nuclear material and the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs both present grave risks to world security. Methods are needed to detect nuclear material smuggled in cargo, and for proper material accountability in civilian fuel re-processing facilities. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that can address both needs. It is a non-destructive active interrogation method that provides isotope-specific information. It works by using a γ-ray beam to resonantly excite levels in a nucleus and observing the γ-rays emitted whose energy and intensity are characteristic of that isotope. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions. NRF measurements on ^237Np will expand the nuclear database and will permit designing interrogation and assay systems. Measurements were made using the bremsstrahlung beam at the HVRL at MIT on a 7 g target of ^237Np with two incident electron energies of 2.8 and 3.1 MeV. Results will be presented with discussion of the relevant nuclear structure necessary to predict levels in other actinides.

  11. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  12. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  13. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  14. Enabling Technologies for Ultra-Safe and Secure Modular Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary E.; Middleton, Bobby; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Schleicher, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Atomics are pleased to respond to the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-e)’s request for information on innovative developments that may overcome various current reactor-technology limitations. The RFI is particularly interested in innovations that enable ultra-safe and secure modular nuclear energy systems. Our response addresses the specific features for reactor designs called out in the RFI, including a brief assessment of the current state of the technologies that would enable each feature and the methods by which they could be best incorporated into a reactor design.

  15. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  16. The Integration Process for Incorporating Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research Results into the National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    GALLEGOS, DAVID P.; CARR, DORTHE B.; HERRINGTON, PRESTON B.; HARRIS, JAMES M.; EDWARDS, C.L.; TAYLOR, STEVEN R.; WOGMAN, NED A.; ANDERSON, DALE N.; CASEY, LESLIE A.

    2002-09-01

    The process of developing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Knowledge Base (KB) must result in high-quality Information Products in order to support activities for monitoring nuclear explosions consistent with United States treaty and testing moratoria monitoring missions. The validation, verification, and management of the Information Products is critical to successful scientific integration, and hence, will enable high-quality deliveries to be made to the United States National Data Center (USNDC) at the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). As an Information Product passes through the steps necessary to become part of a delivery to AFTAC, domain experts (including technical KB Working Groups that comprise NNSA and DOE laboratory staff and the customer) will provide coordination and validation, where validation is the determination of relevance and scientific quality. Verification is the check for completeness and correctness, and will be performed by both the Knowledge Base Integrator and the Scientific Integrator with support from the Contributor providing two levels of testing to assure content integrity and performance. The Information Products and their contained data sets will be systematically tracked through the integration portion of their life cycle. The integration process, based on lessons learned during its initial implementations, is presented in this report.

  17. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  18. Walk the Talk: How PNNL is developing a Supply Chain Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen

    2015-09-30

    For the past decade, a team at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to “go beyond compliance” in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices in order to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods and information along their supply chains. As a result, PNNL has identified seven indicators that a company can adopt as part of their commitment to nonproliferation ideals.

  19. Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Nuclear and Space Security Tactics Training Center Project AFSPC053012 for Air Force Security Forces at Camp Guernsey, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Assessment Nuclear & Space Security Tactics Training Center Camp Guernsey, Wyoming endemic to moist soils near wetland meadows, springs, lakes , and...in alluvial substrates along riparian edges, gravel bars, old oxbows , and moist to wet meadows. Soils where Spiranthes have been found typically

  20. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  1. Do needs for security and certainty predict cultural and economic conservatism? A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Inzlicht, Michael; Lelkes, Yphtach

    2014-06-01

    We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with cross-national data from 51 nations reveal that valuing conformity, security, and tradition over self-direction and stimulation (a) predicts ideological self-placement on the political right, but only among people high in political engagement and within relatively developed nations, ideologically constrained nations, and non-Eastern European nations, (b) reliably predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and does so more strongly within developed and ideologically constrained nations, and (c) on average predicts left-wing economic attitudes but does so more weakly among people high in political engagement, within ideologically constrained nations, and within non-Eastern European nations. These findings challenge the prevailing view that needs for security and certainty organically yield a broad right-wing ideology and that exposure to political discourse better equips people to select the broad ideology that is most need satisfying. Rather, these findings suggest that needs for security and certainty generally yield culturally conservative but economically left-wing preferences and that exposure to political discourse generally weakens the latter relation. We consider implications for the interactive influence of personality characteristics and social context on political attitudes and discuss the importance of assessing multiple attitude domains, assessing political engagement, and considering national characteristics when studying the psychological origins of political attitudes.

  2. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  3. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  4. Improving the nuclear data base for non-proliferation and homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Bitteker, Leo J; Couture, Aaron J; Devlin, Matthew J; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Gavron, Avigdor; Hill, Tony S; Laptev, Alexander B; Nelson, Ronald O; O'donnell, John M; Taddeucci, Terry N; Tovesson, Fredrik K; Ulmann, John L; Wender, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Many of the technical advances in non-proliferation and homeland security require calculations of transport of neutrons and gamma-rays through materials. The nuclear data base on which these calculations are made must be of high quality in order for the calculated responses to be credible. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, three spallation neutron sources are being used to provide high-quality cross section and structure data with reactions induced by neutrons. Neutron transmission, neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections, neutron emission in fission, and gamma-ray production by neutrons are principal areas of research. Furthermore, these sources are also being used to validate calculations of the characterization and response of new detectors and detection techniques. Current research activities are summarized here.

  5. Review of DNA(Defense Nuclear Agency) Remote Security Station (RSS) Project. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report reviews the progress made during FY87 on the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) sponsored Remote Security Station (RSS). During this time frame, Sandia National Laboratories was tasked to develop a Phase 1 proof-of-principle system consisting of readily available hardware. The primary emphasis was placed upon development of software and sensor fusion techniques and, as a result, the Phase 1 hardware is not suitable for field deployment. The RSS consists of a portable (non-mobile) sensor platform and an intelligent controller. The paper includes descriptions of the sensor platform and control console hardware, as well as the software that runs the intelligent controller. The sensor fusion techniques originally considered are discussed, and the methods used in the current system are explained in detail. Phase 2 development of the RSS is scheduled for FY88, and a discussion of the planned improvements is included.

  6. National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Sandusky, Jessica A.

    2009-05-01

    This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the program began reaping the benefits of recently implemented changes. This report is organized by Fellowship class and the pertinent program activities for each, including: October 2007 Recruiting events and final applications (Class of 2008) Winter 2007 Selection and hiring (Class of 2008) Spring 2008 Career development roundtables (Class of 2007) Orientation planning (Class of 2008) Recruitment planning and university outreach (Class of 2009) May 2008 Closing ceremony (Class of 2007)

  7. Discrimination of osteoarthritic and rheumatoid human synovial cells in culture by nuclear image analysis.

    PubMed

    Delage, B; Giroud, F; Monet, J D; Ekindjian, O G; Cals, M J

    1999-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritic (RA) and osteoarthritic (OA) synovial cells in culture differ in their metabolic and proliferative behaviour. To assess links between these properties and nuclear changes, we used image analysis to study chromatin texture, together with nuclear morphometry and densitometry of OA and RA cells in primary culture. Chromatin pattern at the third day (D3) was heterogeneous and granular with chromatin clumps whereas at the final stage (D11) of culture a homogeneous and finely granular chromatin texture was observed. This evolution indicates global chromatin decondensation. These characteristics were more marked for RA than for OA nuclei. At each culture time, RA nuclei could be discriminated with high confidence from OA ones from parameters evaluating the organization of the chromatine texture. Nuclear image analysis is thus a useful tool for investigating synovial cell biology.

  8. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; McGehee, R.B.; Cottle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  9. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a

  10. The use of passive, secure cells for processing of highly active nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Ch.; Cavanah, P.; Richardson, J.

    2007-07-01

    Passive, secure cells (PSCs) have been used for over 50 years at the Sellafield nuclear site in the UK for radioactive processing plants. PSCs are designed and constructed with the expectation that there will be no need to enter them throughout the life of the plant. EnergySolutions has full and exclusive rights in North America to use the intellectual property and know-how generated at the Sellafield site and this includes all the design and operational data for PSCs. These data are thus available for use in the new build of nuclear plant currently being envisaged under the GNEP initiative. There are three types of PSC. Type 1 PSCs contain plant items with no maintainable moving parts, and pipework is all welded and radiographed to nuclear standards. Type 2 PSCs contain plant items with slowly rotating or intermittently moveable parts, but all maintainable items such as motors and gearboxes are located outside the cell, with sealed through-cell-wall drives. Type 3 PSCs are a newer design, dating from the 1980's, in which all maintainable in-cell items are designed as removable modules. The housings for the equipment are permanently welded into the in-cell pipework, and the modules can be withdrawn from these housings, through removable hatches in the PSC roof, into shielded steel 'flasks'. The flasks are moved to a maintenance cell where the modules are repaired or prepared for disposal. The process is reversed to re-install the modules back into service in the PSC. All three types of PSC have been shown to have operability, maintainability, reliability, space utilization, contamination control and worker radiation dose uptake advantages over canyon-based plants. The increased capital cost of PSCs over canyons is offset by decreased operating costs. Although PSCs have lower flexibility for process change than do canyons, this can be mitigated by the provision of spare cells and pipework at the design stage. Entry to PSCs is possible but has been required only

  11. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  12. National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center Environmental Programs Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, D. D.; Rohde, K.

    2003-02-26

    As environmental restoration (ER) projects move toward completion, the planning, integration, and documentation of long-term environmental stewardship (LTES) activities is increasingly important for ensuring smooth transition to LTES. The Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook (Handbook) prepared by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Service Center Environmental Programs Department (EPD) outlines approaches for integrating site-specific LTES planning and implementation into site ER baseline documentation. Since LTES will vary greatly from site to site, the Handbook also provides for flexibility in addressing LTES in ER Project life-cycle baselines, while clearly identifying Environmental Management (EM) requirements. It provides suggestions for enacting LTES principles and objectives through operational activities described in site-specific LTES plans and life cycle ER Project baseline scope, cost, and schedule documentation and tools for more thorough planning, better quantification, broader understanding of risk and risk management factors, and more comprehensive documentation. LTES planning applied to baselines in a phased approach will facilitate seamlessly integrating LTES into site operational activities, thereby minimizing the use of resources.

  13. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    SciTech Connect

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-22

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  14. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  15. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    impact on wasteform evolution and radionuclide mobility. Recent work on the molecular ecology of a range of nuclear facilities will be presented, and...near nuclear power plants. His research is concerned with the ecology and evolution of animals and plants with a special interest in how

  16. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Martikka, Elina; Hack, Tapani; Wiander, Timo

    2013-05-30

    This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation with either a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  17. Pulsed Power Science and Technology: A Strategic Outlook for the National Nuclear Security Administration (Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinars, Daniel; Scott, Kimberly Carole; Edwards, M. John; Olson, Russell Teall

    2016-10-17

    Major advances in pulsed power technology and applications over the last twenty years have expanded the mission areas for pulsed power and created compelling new opportunities for the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). This summary document is a forward look at the development of pulsed power science and technology (PPS&T) capabilities in support of the next 20 years of the SSP. This outlook was developed during a three-month-long tri-lab study on the future of PPS&T research and capabilities in support of applications to: (1) Dynamic Materials, (2) Thermonuclear Burn Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and (3) Radiation Effects and Nuclear Survivability. It also considers necessary associated developments in next-generation codes and pulsed power technology as well as opportunities for academic, industry, and international engagement. The document identifies both imperatives and opportunities to address future SSP mission needs. This study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). A copy of the memo request is contained in the Appendix. NNSA guidance received during this study explicitly directed that it not be constrained by resource limitations and not attempt to prioritize its findings against plans and priorities in other areas of the national weapons program. That prioritization, including the relative balance amongst the three focus areas themselves, must of course occur before any action is taken on the observations presented herein. This unclassified summary document presents the principal imperatives and opportunities identified in each mission and supporting area during this study. Preceding this area-specific outlook, we discuss a cross-cutting opportunity to increase the shot capacity on the Z pulsed power facility as a near-term, cost-effective way to broadly impact PPS&T for SSP as well as advancing the science and technology to inform future SSMP milestones over the next 5-10 years. The final page of the

  18. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  19. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency's Use of Geographic Information Systems for Nuclear Emergency Response Support

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Guber

    2001-06-01

    The U.S, Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Agency's (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) provides Geographic Information System (GIS) support during nuclear emergency response activities. As directed by the NNSA, the RSL GIS staff maintains databases and equipment for rapid field deployment during an emergency response. When on location, GIS operators provide information products to on-site emergency managers as well as to emergency managers at the DOE Headquarters (HQ) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, D.C. Data products are derived from multiple information sources in the field including radiological prediction models, field measurements taken on the ground and from the air, and pertinent information researched on the Internet. The GIS functions as a central data hub where it supplies the information to response elements in the field, as well as to headquarters officials at HQ during emergency response activities.

  20. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting... solicit comments on the revision of its draft safety culture policy statement, including the revised...; ML093030375), the results of the NRC's February 2010 workshop (February workshop) on safety culture,...

  1. Security-by-design handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Scharmer, Carol; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Tanuma, Koji; Ochiai, Kazuya; Iida, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This document is a draft SecuritybyDesign (SeBD) handbook produced to support the Work Plan of the Nuclear Security Summit to share best practices for nuclear security in new facility design. The Work Plan calls on States to %E2%80%9Cencourage nuclear operators and architect/engineering firms to take into account and incorporate, where appropriate, effective measures of physical protection and security culture into the planning, construction, and operation of civilian nuclear facilities and provide technical assistance, upon request, to other States in doing so.%E2%80%9D The materials for this document were generated primarily as part of a bilateral project to produce a SeBD handbook as a collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which represented the US Department Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under a Project Action Sheet PASPP04. Input was also derived based on tours of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) Rokkasho Mixed Oxide Fuel fabrication facilities and associated project lessonslearned. For the purposes of the handbook, SeBD will be described as the systemlevel incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new nuclear power plant or nuclear facility resulting in a PPS design that minimizes the risk of malicious acts leading to nuclear material theft; nuclear material sabotage; and facility sabotage as much as possible through features inherent in (or intrinsic to) the design of the facility. A fourelement strategy is presented to achieve a robust, durable, and responsive security system.

  2. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast...) Location. The following area is a security zone: All land and waters within 250 yards of the...

  3. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-07-01

    The world’s first master’s degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5½ year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2½ years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program’s specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training.

  4. Nuclear Energy Experiments to the Center for Global Security and Cooperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas M.

    2015-06-01

    This is to serve as verification that the Center 6200 experimental pieces supplied to the Technology Training and Demonstration Area within the Center of Global Security and Cooperation are indeed unclassified unlimited released for viewing.

  5. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  6. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Cárdenas-Aguayo, María Del Carmen; Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71's complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures.

  7. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71’s complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures. PMID:26378780

  8. Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Song, Jimei; Hua, Song; Song, Kai; Zhang, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study, we cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to provide not only nuclear donors with good morphology, normal biological characteristics, and chromosome quantity for tiger interspecies cloning, but also reliable data for further studying Siberian tiger. The results indicated that Siberian tiger ear fibroblasts can be successfully obtained by tissue culture either with or without overnight cold digestion, the cultured cells were typical fibroblasts with normal morphology, growth curve, and chromosome quantity; G0/G1 percentage increased and S percentage decreased with the confluence of cells. G0/G1 and S stage rate was significantly different between 40-50% and 80-90%, 95-100% confluence; there is no distinct difference between 80-90% and 95-100% confluence. The cells at the same density (80-90% confluence) were treated with or without 0.5% serum starving, GO/G1 rate of the former was higher than the latter, but the difference was not significant. GO/G1 proportion of 95-100% confluence was slightly higher than serum starving (80-90% confluence), but no significant difference. Therefore, the Siberian tiger fibroblasts we cultured in vitro can be used as donor cells, and the donor cells do not need to be treated with normal serum starvation during nuclear transfer; if we will just consider the rate of the G0/G1 stage cells, serum starvation can be replaced by confluence inhibition when cultured cells were more than 80-90% confluence.

  9. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, Fred C.; Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  10. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in blastocoele fluid and embryo culture medium: evidence and potential clinical use.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Elizabeth R; Shelling, Andrew N; Cree, Lynsey M

    2016-08-01

    The ability to screen embryos for aneuploidy or inherited disorders in a minimally invasive manner may represent a major advancement for the future of embryo viability assessment. Recent studies have demonstrated that both blastocoele fluid and embryo culture medium contain genetic material, which can be isolated and subjected to downstream genetic analysis. The blastocoele fluid may represent an alternative source of nuclear DNA for aneuploidy testing, although the degree to which the isolated genetic material is solely representative of the developing embryo is currently unclear. In addition to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be detected in the embryo culture medium. Currently, the origin of this nuclear and mtDNA has not been fully evaluated and there are several potential sources of contamination that may contribute to the genetic material detected in the culture medium. There is however evidence that the mtDNA content of the culture medium is related to embryo fragmentation levels and its presence is predictive of blastulation, indicating that embryo development may influence the levels of genetic material detected. If the levels of genetic material are strongly related to aspects of embryo quality, then this may be a novel biomarker of embryo viability. If the genetic material does have an embryo origin, the mechanisms by which DNA may be released into the blastocoele fluid and embryo culture medium are unknown, although apoptosis may play a role. While the presence of this genetic material is an exciting discovery, the DNA in the blastocoele fluid and embryo culture medium appears to be of low yield and integrity, which makes it challenging to study. Further research aimed at assessing the methodologies used for both isolating and analysing this genetic material, as well as tracing its origin, are needed in order to evaluate its potential for clinical use. Should such methodologies prove to be routinely successful and the DNA recovered

  11. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh..., California. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: all waters of the Pacific Ocean, from...°12′23″ N, 120°51′23″ W. . (b) Regulations. (1) In accordance with the general regulations in §...

  12. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  13. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  14. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  15. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  16. Russia’s Nuclear Weapons Dilemma: A Cooperative Approach to International Security in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Vladislav Zubok , "Tyranny of the Weak: Russia’s New Foreign Policy," World Policy Journal 9, no. 2 (1992): 203-205. 57 support for economic reform. They...8217 Views of the Soviet Army." Problems of Communism 37, no. 3-4 (May-August 1988): 110-116. Zubok , Vladislav . "Tyranny of the Weak: Russia’s New Foreign Policy." World Policy Journal 9, no. 2 (1992): i91-217. ...republics. 15 Kurt M . Campbell et al., Soviet Nuclear Fission: Control of the Nuclear Arsenal in a Disintegrating Soviet Union

  17. 76 FR 40352 - National Nuclear Security Administration; Amended Record of Decision: Site-Wide Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... similar to those estimated for transportation of radioactive material in other DOE NEPA documents. The air... includes the effort to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian.../EIS-0380-SA-02 include packaging the sealed sources (sometimes with a part of the larger device...

  18. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    help my wife and kids in their times of need cannot be conveyed in words. Lastly, I would like to express appreciation to my beloved wife of eleven...and Gulf of Mexico. Inner coastal ports, river terminals, and Great Lakes shipping ports will not be considered. The research on this subject is...2007, PLB’s security division placed in full-time service two video - equipped submersible robots (worth $30,000 each) outfitted with video , sonar

  19. Effect of growth factors on nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes during astroglial cell development and aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Spina Purrello, Vittoria; Cormaci, Gianfrancesco; Denaro, Luca; Reale, Salvatore; Costa, Antonino; Lalicata, Calogera; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Marchetti, Bianca; Avola, Roberto

    2002-03-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin (INS) are powerful mitogens and may regulate gene expression in cultured astrocytes by ADP-ribosylation process. Nuclear poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and mitochondrial monoADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) are the key enzymes involved in poly-ADP-ribosylation and mono ADP-ribosylation, respectively. In this investigation the effect of EGF, bFGF, IGF-I or INS on nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were assessed in nuclei and mitochondria purified from developing (30 DIV) or aging (90 and 190 DIV) primary rat astrocyte cultures. A marked increase of PARP activity in bFGF or IGF-I treated astroglial cell cultures at 30 DIV was found. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were greatly stimulated by treatment with EGF or INS alone or together in astrocyte cultures at 30 DIV. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities showed a more remarkable increase in control untreated astrocyte cultures at 190 DIV than at 90 DIV. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation process is involved in DNA damage and repair during cell differentiation and aging in culture. Twelve hours treatment with EGF, INS or bFGF significantly stimulated nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities in 190 DIV aging astrocyte cultures. The above results indicate that EGF, INS and bFGF may play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of chromosomal proteins including ADP-ribosylation process in in vitro models. This suggests that growth factors regulate genomic stability in glial cells during development and maturation, stimulating nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes in developing or aging astrocyte cultures.

  20. International Security Negotiations: Lessons Learned from Negotiating with the Russians on Nuclear Arms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    counterproposals during the Eisenhower and Kennedy years, see Glenn T. Seaborg with Benjamin S. Loeb, Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Test Ban (Berkeley...Cuba, and the Congo. Glen Seaborg summarizes the circumstances surrounding the nuclear testing talks by the end of the Eisenhower era: In this...47 Seaborg , Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Test Ban, 25. 48 In addition to the LTBT, the movement forward in arms

  1. Initial results from a multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography system for nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Day, Buckley E.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Danagoulian, Areg

    2016-10-01

    The detection of assembled nuclear devices and concealed special nuclear materials (SNM) such as plutonium or uranium in commercial cargo traffic is a major challenge in mitigating the threat of nuclear terrorism. Currently available radiographic and active interrogation systems use ∼1-10 MeV bremsstrahlung photon beams. Although simple to build and operate, bremsstrahlung-based systems deliver high radiation doses to the cargo and to potential stowaways. To eliminate problematic issues of high dose, we are developing a novel technique known as multiple monoenergetic gamma radiography (MMGR). MMGR uses ion-induced nuclear reactions to produce two monoenergetic gammas for dual-energy radiography. This allows us to image the areal density and effective atomic number (Zeff) of scanned cargo. We present initial results from the proof-of-concept experiment, which was conducted at the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the capabilities of MMGR to measure areal density and Zeff of container cargo mockups. The experiment used a 3.0 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator to create sources of 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas from the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction in a thick natural boron target; the gammas are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors after transmission through cargo mockups . The measured fluxes of transmitted 4.44 MeV and 15.11 MeV gammas were used to assess the areal density and Zeff. Initial results show that MMGR is capable of discriminating the presence of high-Z materials concealed in up to 30 cm of iron shielding from low- and mid-Z materials present in the cargo mockup.

  2. New Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of the supply chain for nuclear materials has historically been hampered by non-intrusive inspection systems that have such large false alarm rates that they are impractical in the flow of commerce. Passport Systems, Inc. (Passport) has developed an active interrogation system which detects fissionable material, high Z material, and other contraband in land, sea and air cargo. Passport's design utilizes several detection modalities including high resolution imaging, passive radiation detection, effective-Z (EZ-3D™) anomaly detection, Prompt Neutrons from Photofission (PNPF), and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) isotopic identification. These technologies combine to: detect fissionable, high-Z, radioactive and contraband materials, differentiate fissionable materials from high-Z shielding materials, and isotopically identify actinides, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), and other contraband (e.g. explosives, drugs, nerve agents). Passport's system generates a 3-D image of the scanned object which contains information such as effective-Z and density, as well as a 2-D image and isotopic and fissionable information for regions of interest.

  3. Securing Special Nuclear Material: Recent Advances in Neutron Detection and Their Role in Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear non-proliferation objectives, such as safeguarding nuclear material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional applications. Large multi-national programs targeting detection and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. Alongside these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development efforts have been directed towards the creation of next-generation assets. While much of this development has focused on gamma-ray spectrometers, neutron-detection technology remains an important component of the global strategy because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique multiplicity signatures offered by neutrons. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of 3He, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs for novel neutron-detection technologies, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nonproliferation.

  4. Is the Secure Base Phenomenon Evident Here, There, and Anywhere? A Cross-Cultural Study of Child Behavior and Experts' Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J.; Peña, Paola P.; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M.; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the…

  5. SAFEGUARDS CULTURE: WHAT IS IT AND DOES IT MATTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. With the support of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) the authors have attempted a rigorous analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, with the goal of determining its value to the international safeguards community, and to provide recommendations as to whether the concept deserves further development. As part of this analysis, the authors explore the distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance. The authors also discuss synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture.

  6. Analysis of trace neptunium in the vicinity of underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Kersting, A B

    2014-11-01

    A high sensitivity analytical method for (237)Np analysis was developed and applied to groundwater samples from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) using short-lived (239)Np as a yield tracer and HR magnetic sector ICP-MS. The (237)Np concentrations in the vicinity of the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire, and Chancellor underground nuclear test locations range from <4 × 10(-4) to 2.6 mBq/L (6 × 10(-17)-4.2 × 10(-13) mol/L). All measured (237)Np concentrations are well below the drinking water maximum contaminant level for alpha emitters identified by the U.S. EPA (560 mBq/L). Nevertheless, (237)Np remains an important indicator for radionuclide transport rates at the NNSS. Retardation factor ratios were used to compare the mobility of (237)Np to that of other radionuclides. The results suggest that (237)Np is less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides ((14)C, (36)Cl, (99)Tc and (129)I) as expected. Surprisingly, (237)Np and plutonium ((239,240)Pu) retardation factors are very similar. It is possible that Np(IV) exists under mildly reducing groundwater conditions and exhibits a retardation behavior that is comparable to Pu(IV). Independent of the underlying process, (237)Np is migrating downgradient from NNSS underground nuclear tests at very low but measureable concentrations.

  7. The Future World in Europe and Its Implications for the Security and Survivability of Non-Strategic Nuclear Forces, Volume 1.B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico , 87185 and Livermore, California 94550’ * for the United’States Department of Energy under Contract’DE-AC04-󈨐DP00789- D...could be used to improve safety and • Develop a Plan for Disposal of Weapons. A plan security. For example, storing nuclear warheads bep - should be

  8. Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rates in cultured lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    George, Alex; Dey, Rupraj; Bhuria, Vikas; Banerjee, Shouvik; Ethirajan, Sivakumar; Siluvaimuthu, Ashok; Saraswathy, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANEUP) in patients (CSAs, 0.0294±0.0038; CTAs, 0.0925±0.0060; DICs, 0.0213±0.0028; and CANEUPs, 0.0308±0.0035) compared to controls (CSAs, 0.0005±0.0003; CTAs, 0.0058±0.0015; DICs, 0.0005±0.0003; and CANEUPs, 0.0052±0.0013) where p<0.001. Similarly, spontaneous nuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi, 0.01867±0.00108; NPBs, 0.01561±0.00234; NBUDs, 0.00658±0.00068) compared with controls (MNi, 0.00027±0.00009; NPBs, 0.00002±0.00002; NBUDs, 0.00011±0.00007).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (1.525±0.005552) compared to healthy subjects (1.686±0.009520 ) (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral

  9. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  10. A practical strategy for reducing the future security risk of United States spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Chodak, P. III; Buksa, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Depletion calculations show that advanced oxide (AOX) fuels can be used in existing light water reactors (LWRs) to achieve and maintain virtually any desired level of US (US) reactor-grade plutonium (R-Pu) inventory. AOX fuels are composed of a neutronically inert matrix loaded with R-Pu and erbium. A 1/2 core load of 100% nonfertile, 7w% R-Pu AOX and 3.9 w% UO{sub 2} has a net total plutonium ({sup TOT}Pu) destruction rate of 310 kg/yr. The 20% residual {sup TOT}Pu in discharged AOX contains > 55% {sup 242}Pu making it unattractive for nuclear explosive use. A three-phase fuel-cycle development program sequentially loading 60 LWRs with 100% mixed oxide, 50% AOX with a nonfertile component displacing only some of the {sup 238}U, and 50% AOX, which is 100% nonfertile, could reduce the US plutonium inventory to near zero by 2050.

  11. Is the secure base phenomenon evident here, there, and anywhere? A cross-cultural study of child behavior and experts' definitions.

    PubMed

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J; Peña, Paola P; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the organization of children's behavior in naturalistic settings. Children (N = 547) were 10-72 months old. Child development experts (N = 81) from all countries provided definitions of optimal child secure base use. Findings indicate that children from all countries use their mother as a secure base. Children's organization of secure base behavior was modestly related to each other both within and across countries. Experts' descriptions of the optimally attached child were highly similar across cultures.

  12. OneDHS: The Department of Homeland Security’s Organizational Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    success stories. The first concerns New York City in the 1990s and the second highlights the Walt Disney Company and its chain of excellence. Both...difference that other actions were unable to produce. Walt Disney Company In contrast to a culture that has evolved over a number of years is a culture...designed from day one and constantly reinforced day in and day out for the last ninety years. The Walt Disney Company is an example of a culture

  13. Differential effects of culture and nuclear transfer on relative transcript levels of genes with key roles during preimplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreira, P N; Fernández-Gonzalez, R; Ramirez, M A; Pérez-Crespo, M; Rizos, D; Pintado, B; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2006-02-01

    It is well known that the preimplantation culture environment to which embryos are exposed influences the expression of developmentally important genes. Recently, it has been reported that MEMalpha, a culture medium commonly used for somatic cells, allows high rates of preimplantation development and development to term of mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. The objective of this study was to compare the differential effects of this medium and of the nuclear transfer procedure on the relative mRNA abundance of several genes with key roles during preimplantation. The relative mRNA levels of nine genes (Glut 1, Glut 5, G6PDH, Bax, Survivin, Gpx 1, Oct4, mTert and IGF2bp1) were quantified at blastocyst stage on cumulus cell cloned embryos cultured in MEMalpha, as well as on in vivo cultured and MEMalpha cultured controls. Only three of the nine transcripts analysed (Glut 5, Gpx 1 and Igf2bp1) were significantly down-regulated at blastocyst stage in in vitro produced controls. However, most genes analysed in our MEMalpha cultured cloned embryos showed altered transcription levels. Interestingly, between cloned and in vitro produced controls only the transcription levels measured for Glut 1 were significantly different. This result suggests that Glut 1 may be a good marker for embryo quality after cumulus cell nuclear transfer.

  14. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  15. A potential alternative/complement to the traditional thermal neutron based counting in Nuclear Safeguards and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, Dina; Naeem, Syed F.; Axell, Kåre; Trnjanin, Nermin; Nordlund, Anders

    2016-02-01

    A new concept for thermal neutron based correlation and multiplicity measurements is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the concept consists of using 2.223 MeV gammas (or 1.201 MeV, DE) originating in the 1 H (n , γ) 2 D-reaction instead of using traditional thermal neutron counting. Results of investigations presented in this paper indicate that gammas from thermal neutron capture reactions preserve the information about the correlation characteristics of thermal (fast) neutrons in the same time scale. Therefore, instead of thermal neutron detectors (or as a complement) one may use traditional and inexpensive gamma detectors, such as NaI, BGO, CdZnTe or any other gamma detector. In this work we used D8×8 cm2 NaI scintillator to test the concept. Thus, the new approach helps to address the problem of replacement of 3He-counters and problems related to the specific measurements of spent nuclear fuel directly in the spent fuel pool. It has a particular importance for Nuclear Safeguards and Security. Overall, this work represents the proof of concept study and reports on the experimental and numerical evidence that thermal neutron capture gammas may be used in the context of correlation and multiplicity measurements. Investigations were performed using a 252Cf-correlated neutron source and an 241Am-Be-random neutron source. The related idea of the Gamma Differential Die-Away approach is investigated numerically in this paper as well, and will be tested experimentally in future work.

  16. Understanding Information Security Culture in an Organization: An Interpretive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Donald Arlo

    2012-01-01

    Information systems are considered to be a critical and strategic part of most organizations today. Because of this it has become increasingly important to ensure that there is an effective information security program in place protecting those information systems. It has been well established by researchers that the success of an information…

  17. Maximum Security. The Culture of Violence in Inner-City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, John

    In an ethnographic reflection on 10 years experience working in the high schools of inner-city New York, issues of school safety, discipline, and violence are explored. The central proposition is that the mentality that relies on paramilitary security measures and technological devices, such as metal detectors, to achieve safe schools is only an…

  18. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  19. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  20. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    SciTech Connect

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  1. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  2. Defined media optimization for in vitro culture of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yan-Yan; Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Bing; Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to establish an efficient defined culture medium for bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. In this study, modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) without bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the basic culture medium (BCM), whereas the control medium was BCM with BSA. In Experiment 1, adding polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to BCM supported development of SCNT embryos to blastocyst stage, but blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number were both lower (P < 0.05) compared to the undefined group (6.1 vs. 32.6% and 67.3 ± 3.4 vs. 109.3 ± 4.5, respectively). In Experiment 2, myo-inositol, a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were added separately to PVA-supplemented BCM. The blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number of those three groups were dramatically improved compared with that of PVA-supplemented group in Experiment 1 (18.5, 23.0, 24.1 vs. 6.1% and 82.7 ± 2.0, 84.3 ± 4.2, 95.3 ± 3.8 vs. 67.3 ± 3.4, respectively, P < 0.05), but were still lower compared with that of undefined group (33.7% and 113.8 ± 3.4, P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, when a combination of myo-inositol, ITS and EGF were added to PVA-supplemented BCM, blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst cell number were similar to that of undefined group (30.4 vs. 31.1% and 109.3 ± 4.4 vs. 112.0 ± 3.6, P > 0.05). In Experiment 4, when blastocysts were cryopreserved and subsequently thawed, there were no significant differences between the optimized defined group (Experiment 3) and undefined group in survival rate and 24 and 48 h hatching blastocyst rates. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in expression levels of H19, HSP70 and BAX in blastocysts derived from optimized defined medium and undefined medium, although the relative expression abundance of IGF-2 was significantly decreased in the former. In conclusion, a defined culture medium containing PVA, myo-inositol, ITS, and EGF

  3. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  4. Risk Based Security Management at Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ek, David R.

    2015-09-01

    This presentation provides a background of what led to the international emphasis on nuclear security and describes how nuclear security is effectively implemented so as to preserve the societal benefits of nuclear and radioactive materials.

  5. Isolation, Culture, Differentiation, and Nuclear Reprogramming of Mongolian Sheep Fetal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaohu; Ling, Yu; Liu, Chunxia; Meng, Fanhua; Cao, Junwei; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Huanmin; Liu, Zongzheng; Zhang, Yanru

    2015-08-01

    We have characterized the differentiation potentiality and the developmental potential of cloned embryos of fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from Mongolian sheep. BMSCs were harvested by centrifuging after the explants method and the mononuclear cells obtained were cultured. The isolated BMSCs were uniform, with a fibroblast-like spindle or stellate appearance, and we confirmed expression of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG genes at passage 3 (P3) by RT-PCR. We measured the growth of the passage 1, 5, and 10 cultures and found exponential growth with a population doubling time of 29.7±0.05 h. We cultured the P3 BMSCs in vitro under inductive environments and were able to induce them to undergo neurogenesis and form cardiomyocytes and adipocytes. Donor cells at passages 3-4 were used for nuclear transfer (NT). We found the BMSCs could be expanded in vitro and used as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Thus, BMSCs are an attractive cell type for large-animal autologous studies and will be valuable material for somatic cell cloning and future transgenic research.

  6. What Are the Security Threats to Further Development of Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Informational Technology MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology NAS the National Academy of Sciences NCD National Cyber-Security Division NEI...fulfillment of DHS’s responsibilities and those of its National Cyber-Security Division ( NCD ). According to the GAO, the DHS and the NCD still

  7. Evaluation of Radionuclide Mobilization and Redistribution during Playa Lake Formation on the Frenchman Flat Playa, Nevada Nuclear Security Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFebre, K.; Hershey, R. L.; Decker, D.

    2011-12-01

    An array of programs has been investigating the environmental impacts of nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site since 1973. Because of above-ground testing in the 1950s, ground surface contamination on surface soils and neutron activation of nearby soil and materials has occurred from atmospheric deposition. Other concerns include redistribution of surface-deposited radionuclides by runoff, infiltration, wind, and other mechanical means. The goal of this study is to identify the potential for radionuclide mobilization and redistribution by chemical reactions during sporadic flooding of the Frenchman Flat Playa. Radionuclide mobility is dependent on a number of factors and might occur when the playa becomes flooded. Several geochemical processes that could mobilize and redistribute radionuclides include dissolution of playa minerals, precipitation of new minerals in different locations, sorption of radionuclides onto suspended or colloidal materials, and infiltration of soluble radionuclides to the subsurface environment. Following the heavy winter precipitation that flooded the playa in 2010 and 2011, playa-lake water samples were collected from easily accessed locations and analyzed for major ions, TDS, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and radionuclides; suspended/precipitated materials were characterized by XRD; and, water-soil geochemical reactions were modeled. The geochemical software PHREEQC was used to model the soil-water evolution of the playa-lake water over time. Inputs to model simulations include precipitation chemistry, major-ion chemistry from water samples, mineralogy from XRD analysis of sediments, and radionuclides from spectroscopic measurements or literature values. Model simulations were constructed in a series of steps so that important water-soil chemical reactions could be determined and the changes in the playa water chemistry quantified as a result of these reactions. As the sequence of steps is taken, the simulations become

  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Programs, activities to support the safe, secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.

    1993-12-31

    In September 1991 President Bush announced sweeping cuts in the US nuclear weapon stockpile as well as changes in deployment to remove significant numbers of weapons from alert status and to return to the US for storage many weapons formerly based abroad in US sites. In October 1991 President Gorbachev announced similar moves for the Soviet Union. Even though the Gorbachev announcement represented a substantial step forward in reducing tension between the US and the Soviet Union, the US continued to be concerned about the deteriorating situation in the Soviet Union and the prospects for internal stability. As a result, in November 1991 the Administration began talks with the Soviets in a number of areas including field disablement of nuclear weapons to prevent unauthorized use, emergency response in the event of a weapons accident, and command and control of nuclear weapons. The Nunn-Lugar legislation assured assistance to the Soviet Union in the safe, secure dismantlement (SSD) of weapons to implement the Gorbachev commitment and in the development of measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting and collaborating with the Department of Defense (DOD) in several areas due to the DOE responsibilities for developing, assembling, and dismantling US warheads and as the custodian of the nuclear materials stockpile. Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, controls the nuclear weapons of the Former Soviet Union. Thus, DOE`s nuclear weapon and nuclear materials expertise are being applied particularly to Russia. However, the DOE is also providing assistance to Belarus and is prepared to assist Ukraine and Kazakhstan as well if agreements can be reached. In this paper, the DOE SSD activities in support of DOD as the US Executive Agent will be discussed. Two areas will not be covered, namely, DOD activities and the purchase of highly enriched uranium.

  9. Cloned calves derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos cultured in chemically defined medium or modified synthetic oviduct fluid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Goo; Hong, So Gun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2011-03-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered to be a critical tool for propagating valuable animals. To determine the productivity calves resulting from embryos derived with different culture media, enucleated oocytes matured in vitro were reconstructed with fetal fibroblasts, fused, and activated. The cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) or a chemically defined medium (CDM) and developmental competence was monitored. After 7 days of culturing, the blastocysts were transferred into the uterine horn of estrus-synchronized recipients. SCNT embryos that were cultured in mSOF or CDM developed to the blastocysts stages at similar rates (26.6% vs. 22.5%, respectively). A total of 67 preimplantational stage embryos were transferred into 34 recipients and six cloned calves were born by caesarean section, or assisted or natural delivery. Survival of transferred blastocysts to live cloned calves in the mSOF and the CDM was 18.5% (to recipients), 9.6% (to blastocysts) and 42.9% (to recipients), 20.0% (to blastocysts), respectively. DNA analysis showed that all cloned calves were genetically identical to the donor cells. These results demonstrate that SCNT embryos cultured in CDM showed higher viability as judged by survival of the calves that came to term compared to blastocysts derived from mSOF cultures.

  10. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    evelo, stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  11. Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Aingeru; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Carbonero, Pilar; Pallardó, Federico Vicente; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA

  12. 76 FR 72007 - ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 50.82(a)(1)(i), the licensee certified to the U.S. Nuclear... effective immediately. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 10th day of November 2011. For the U.S. Nuclear... decontamination and dismantlement have begun. Completion of fuel transfer to the independent spent fuel...

  13. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  14. Deep nuclear invaginations are linked to cytoskeletal filaments - integrated bioimaging of epithelial cells in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Jorgens, Danielle M; Inman, Jamie L; Wojcik, Michal; Robertson, Claire; Palsdottir, Hildur; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Haina; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; López, Claudia S; Bissell, Mina J; Xu, Ke; Auer, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The importance of context in regulation of gene expression is now an accepted principle; yet the mechanism by which the microenvironment communicates with the nucleus and chromatin in healthy tissues is poorly understood. A functional role for nuclear and cytoskeletal architecture is suggested by the phenotypic differences observed between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Capitalizing on recent advances in cryogenic techniques, volume electron microscopy and super-resolution light microscopy, we studied human mammary epithelial cells in three-dimensional (3D) cultures forming growth-arrested acini. Intriguingly, we found deep nuclear invaginations and tunnels traversing the nucleus, encasing cytoskeletal actin and/or intermediate filaments, which connect to the outer nuclear envelope. The cytoskeleton is also connected both to other cells through desmosome adhesion complexes and to the extracellular matrix through hemidesmosomes. This finding supports a physical and/or mechanical link from the desmosomes and hemidesmosomes to the nucleus, which had previously been hypothesized but now is visualized for the first time. These unique structures, including the nuclear invaginations and the cytoskeletal connectivity to the cell nucleus, are consistent with a dynamic reciprocity between the nucleus and the outside of epithelial cells and tissues.

  15. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment

  16. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  17. National Security Issues 1981 Symposium. Strategic Nuclear Policies, Weapons, and the C3 Connection, October 13-14, 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Soviet culture and Soviet military of parity, which ultimately stabilizes the world and theory. accepts the status quo. The Soviet elite can never We... culture . These are vastly different meters or more. That embraces a wide spectrum from those of China, which is far less aggressive which we regard as...depth of Chinese cul- tinction which we draw between INF and strategic iure. By that I mean culture not only with a capital weapons does not exist in

  18. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  19. NSEP (National Security/Emergency Preparedness) fiber-optics system study, background report: nuclear effects on fiber-optic transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    The National Communications System (NCS) is responsible for defining reasonable enhancements that could be applied to commercial common carrier (or carriers'- carrier) fiber-optic systems that will be leased or owned by government agencies and which may be used for National Security/Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) purposes. This report provides background excerpted from many references used in the development of a multitier specification that identifies five levels of enhancement. (The multitier specification is presented in a separate report.) The report describes the nuclear environment for surface and in-atmosphere bursts outside of the blast region, where buildings and personnel would be expected to survive. In the environment, the vulnerability of optical fiber waveguides to fallout radiation is a primary concern. An assessment of fiber darkening, based on a review of unclassified literature, is presented. For exo-atmospheric nuclear bursts, the fiber optic system is exposed to High Altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiation. Unclassified levels of these nuclear effects have been obtained from published literature. The characteristics of future generations of optical-fiber systems, as described in current literature, are outlined.

  20. Identification of nuclear target proteins for S-nitrosylation in pathogen-treated Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Shekariesfahlan, Azam; Ageeva, Alexandra; Mengel, Alexander; von Toerne, Christine; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signalling molecule involved in the regulation of many different physiological processes in plants. One of the most imperative regulatory modes of action of NO is protein S-nitrosylation--the covalent attachment of an NO group to the sulfur atom of cysteine residues. In this study, we focus on S-nitrosylation of Arabidopsis nuclear proteins after pathogen infection. After treatment of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures with pathogens, nuclear proteins were extracted and treated with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). A biotin switch assay was performed and biotin-labelled proteins were purified by neutravidin affinity chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. A total of 135 proteins were identified, whereas nuclear localization has been described for 122 proteins of them. 117 of these proteins contain at least one cysteine residue. Most of the S-nitrosylated candidates were involved in protein and RNA metabolism, stress response, and cell organization and division. Interestingly, two plant-specific histone deacetylases were identified suggesting that nitric oxide regulated epigenetic processes in plants. In sum, this work provides a new collection of targets for protein S-nitrosylation in Arabidopsis and gives insight into the regulatory function of NO in the nucleus during plant defense response. Moreover, our data extend the knowledge on the regulatory function of NO in events located in the nucleus.

  1. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    PubMed

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site.

  2. Organizational Culture, 3S, and Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-01-31

    While Safety and Security Culture are well socialized among nuclear facility designers, the concept of safeguards culture is less well defined. One area where safeguards culture may play a helpful role is in the area of Safeguards by Design. This paper will include a theoretical discussion of organizational culture, leading with safety culture and security culture that are well known, and positing that there may be room to think about safeguards culture along with the others. It will also examine the utility of the 3S concept and how this concept has been used in training for newcomer states. These will lead into a discussion of how the addition of safeguards to the mix of safety by design and security by design can be valuable, particularly as it is socialized to newcomer states.

  3. Nuclear localization of nucleoside diphosphate kinase type B (nm23-H2) in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kraeft, S K; Traincart, F; Mesnildrey, S; Bourdais, J; Véron, M; Chen, L B

    1996-08-25

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases are metabolic enzymes found ubiquitously in cells. Recently, two known human isoforms of NDP kinase (A and B), identical to the protein products of the genes nm23-H1 and nm23-H2, respectively, have been implicated in cancer metastasis and transcriptional regulation. To date, NDP kinase has been studied extensively in tissue sections and its cellular localization was described as being cytoplasmic. However, the recently discovered role of the nm23-H2 gene product in transcriptional activation of the c-myc proto-oncogene also suggests a nuclear localization of the protein. In this study, we used isoform-specific antibodies against NDPK-B to examine the subcellular localization of the nm23-H2 gene product. The cytoplasmic fluorescence is intense and homogeneous with pronounced labeling in the centromere region. The distribution of NDPK-B in interphase nuclei exhibits a pattern of numerous uniformly dispersed fine dots with reduced staining of the nucleoli. To further characterize the nuclear localization of NDPK-B, in situ sequential extraction of nuclear components was performed. Brief exposure to Triton X-100 and subsequent treatment with RNase A do not change the nuclear staining pattern of NDPK-B. In contrast, treatment of Triton X-100-permeabilized nuclei with DNase I results in a significant loss of fluorescence. In mitotic prophase cells, the protein segregates from forming chromosomes and reappears in newly formed daughter nuclei after cell division. Taken together, the results indicate an association of NDPK-B with chromatin in interphase nuclei, supporting its proposed role in transcription.

  4. DoD Theater Nuclear Forces Survivability and Security (TNFSS): Compendium of Assessments Related to TNFSSCCC Program. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    I SThe BDM Corporation 7915 Jones Branch Drive McLean, Virginia 22102 31 December 1979 Topical Report for Period 27 November 1978-31 December 1979...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK The BDM Corporation AREA WORK UNIT NUMBERS 7915 Jones Branch Drive Subtask...IREDEIREMENTS TUEVI COMMANS0 AND CONTROL STUDY COMMUNICATIO NS AND TARGET ACOUISITIOW CONCEPTS IN -298 3 TACTICAL NUCLEAR WARFAREI I 1 TACTICAL RADIO

  5. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--Sudan...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S

  6. Differential nuclear envelope assembly at the end of mitosis in suspension-cultured Apium graveolens cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Kuroda, Chie; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    NMCP1 is a plant protein that has a long coiled-coil domain within the molecule. Newly identified NMCP2 of Daucus carota and Apium graveolens showed similar peripheral localization in the interphase nucleus, and the sequence spanning the coiled-coil domain exhibited significant similarity with the corresponding region of NMCP1. To better understand disassembly and assembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) during mitosis, subcellular distribution of NMCP1 and NMCP2 was examined using A. graveolens cells. AgNMCP1 (NMCP1 in Apium) disassembled at prometaphase, dispersed mainly within the spindle, and accumulated on segregating chromosomes, while AgNMCP2 (NMCP2 in Apium), following disassembly at prometaphase with timing similar to that of AgNMCP1, dispersed throughout the mitotic cytoplasm at metaphase and anaphase. The protein accumulated at the periphery of reforming nuclei at telophase. A probe for the endomembrane indicated that the nuclear membrane (NM) disappears at prometaphase and begins to reappear at early telophase. Growth of the NM continued after mitosis was completed. NMCP2 in the mitotic cytoplasm localized in vesicular structures that could be distinguished from the bulk endomembrane system. These results suggest that NMCP1 and NMCP2 are recruited for NE assembly in different pathways in mitosis and that NMCP2 associates with NM-derived vesicles in the mitotic cytoplasm.

  7. Radioactive Cesium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for determining Dispersal and Re-dispersal Mechanisms Downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Darin C. Snyder; James E. Delmore; Troy J. Tranter; Nick R. Mann; Michael L. Abbott; John E. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer lived radioactive cesium isotopes (135 and 137) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135 decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to Cs and the 137 decay chain less than one hour. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the 135Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the 137Cs plume. Samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, separated into segments, gamma counted to identify layers of activity and analyzed for 135Cs/137Cs ratios. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all the above ground shots subsequently washed onto the Lake by high intensity rain and windstorms producing a layering of Cs activity where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  8. Radioactive cesium isotope ratios as a tool for determining dispersal and re-dispersal mechanisms downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Darin C; Delmore, James E; Tranter, Troy; Mann, Nick R; Abbott, Michael L; Olson, John E

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer-lived radioactive cesium isotopes ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135-decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to (135)Cs, and the 137-decay chain less than one hour decay to (137)Cs. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the (135)Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the (137)Cs plume. Sediment core samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, sub-sampled and analyzed for (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all of the above ground shots subsequently washed onto Lake Mead by high intensity rain and wind storms producing a layering of Cs activity, where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  9. Zooplankton community structure of the sea surface microlayer near nuclear power plants and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Pan, Ming-Xiang; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

    2002-06-01

    The authors' surveys in May June 1999 (two cruises) at six sampling stations near nuclear power plants (NPP) and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay, Guangdong, revealed species composition, densities and body-size of the sea surface microlayer (SM) zooplankton (>35 μm). Results showed that protozoans and copepod nauplii were the predominant components, accounting for 65.40% to 95.56% of total zooplankton in abundance. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton (0.02 0.2 mm) reached 0.8235. The SM zooplankton community structure revealed in the present study was quite different from that revealed by investigations in the 1980s in Daya Bay. Difference of sampling method has important influence on the obtained zooplankton community structure. SM zooplankton consisted of micro- and mesozooplankton (0.2 2.0 mm), with micro-zooplankton being predominant. Some possible cause-effect relations between the zooplankton community structure and mariculture, nuclear power plants cooling systems and sampling method are discussed.

  10. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  11. A Breakfast for Bonaparte: U.S. National Security Interests from the Heights of Abraham to the Nuclear Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    States anu its allies without an adequate American nuclear force, with all that entails. And the restless shifts in the balance of power which have...34 which is a good deal more somber and realistic as a definition of the syndrome . In the conduct 22 ON WAR AND PEACE of a nation’s foreign policy, as in...to travel, and to do business. And immigrants poured into the colonies on an astonishing scale as part of the vast and restless migration of peoples

  12. Applications to cultural heritage diagnostics at the new nuclear microprobe beam line at CEDAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; Demortier, G.; Maruccio, L.; D'Elia, M.

    2009-06-01

    A nuclear microprobe beam line has been installed at CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The beam line is connected to the -30° port of the high energy switching magnet of a 3 MV HVEE 4130HC Tandetron accelerator. It is based on an Oxford Microbeam magnetic quadrupole triplet and its general features are presented. The results of functional tests are presented showing how a lateral spatial resolution as low as ˜2 μm has been achieved in vacuum by analysing standard reference material. The results obtained in the analysis of ancient radiocarbon dated biological tissues are presented for the identification and distribution of toxic elements such as Pb.

  13. Multistage production of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in insect cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Klöppinger, M; Fertig, G; Fraune, E; Miltenburger, H G

    1990-11-01

    The aim of our study was to establish an efficient system for the in vitro production of the insect pathogenic Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line. We optimized cultivation conditions for cell proliferation as well as for virus replication in a 1.5 litre stirred tank bioreactor. Cell and virus propagation were found to be optimal at a constant oxygen tension of 40%. In order to provide sufficient nutrients during virus synthesis filtration and perfusion devices were connected to the bioreactor. A virus production procedure in a repeated batch mode by using a two stage bioreactor system is described. Stage I was optimized for cell production and stage II for virus production.

  14. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    2004 revelations about a procurement network run by former Pakistani nuclear official A. Q. Khan, Islamabad has taken a number of steps to improve ...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s...context where these broader tensions and conflicts are present. 1 Pakistani efforts to improve the security of its nuclear weapons have been ongoing

  15. Development of a three-dimensional cell culture system based on microfluidics for nuclear magnetic resonance and optical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Vicent; Monge, Rosa; Celda, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    A new microfluidic cell culture device compatible with real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is presented here. The intended application is the long-term monitoring of 3D cell cultures by several techniques. The system has been designed to fit inside commercially available NMR equipment to obtain maximum readout resolution when working with small samples. Moreover, the microfluidic device integrates a fibre-optic-based sensor to monitor parameters such as oxygen, pH, or temperature during NMR monitoring, and it also allows the use of optical microscopy techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy. This manuscript reports the initial trials culturing neurospheres inside the microchamber of this device and the preliminary images and spatially localised spectra obtained by NMR. The images show the presence of a necrotic area in the interior of the neurospheres, as is frequently observed in histological preparations; this phenomenon appears whenever the distance between the cells and fresh nutrients impairs the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, the spectra acquired in a volume of 8 nl inside the neurosphere show an accumulation of lactate and lipids, which are indicative of anoxic conditions. Additionally, a basis for general temperature control and monitoring and a graphical control software have been developed and are also described. The complete platform will allow biomedical assays of therapeutic agents to be performed in the early phases of therapeutic development. Thus, small quantities of drugs or advanced nanodevices may be studied long-term under simulated living conditions that mimic the flow and distribution of nutrients. PMID:25553182

  16. Identification and characterization of a Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65 proteolytic fragment in nuclei of porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatocytes prepared from suckling pigs, and maintained in monolayer culture were used to investigate transcription factor activity at the cellular level. The hepatic response to proinflammatory signals is controlled by the activation of several transcription factors, including, Nuclear Factor-Kapp...

  17. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  18. A methodology to quantify the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry casks during security-related scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Luna, Robert Earl

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or purposeful forces/environments is an important aspect of the regulatory process in many facets of the nuclear industry. In particular, the transport and storage of radioactive materials is of particular concern to the public, especially with regard to potential sabotage acts that might be undertaken by terror groups to cause injuries, panic, and/or economic consequences to a nation. For many such postulated attacks, no breach in the robust cask or storage module containment is expected to occur. However, there exists evidence that some hypothetical attack modes can penetrate and cause a release of radioactive material. This report is intended as an unclassified overview of the methodology for release estimation as well as a guide to useful resource data from unclassified sources and relevant analysis methods for the estimation process.

  19. Medical screening reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Brown, C.H. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG were provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as medical screening information that could be used by physicians who are evaluating the parameters of the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The medical recommendations in this NUREG are similar in content to the medical standards contained in 10 CFR Part 1046 which, in part, specifies medical standards for the protective force personnel regulated by the Department of Energy. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 3 refs.

  20. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  1. Security at the Expense of Liberty: A Test of Predictions Deriving from the Culture of Control Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Justin T.; Mears, Daniel P.; Stewart, Eric A.; Gertz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In "The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society," David Garland linked contemporary crime control policies and welfare reforms to a cultural formation that he termed the "crime complex of late modernity." According to Garland, once established, the crime complex exerts a contemporaneous effect on…

  2. Secure Base Representations in Middle Childhood Across Two Western Cultures: Associations with Parental Attachment Representations and Maternal Reports of Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that one way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. That said, this work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present two studies and provide three critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from two western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct. PMID:26147774

  3. Secure base representations in middle childhood across two Western cultures: Associations with parental attachment representations and maternal reports of behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S

    2015-08-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that 1 way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. This work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present 2 studies and provide 3 critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from 2 western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct.

  4. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  5. Time-Domain Source Function (TDSF) for Nuclear and Chemical Explosions - Analysis around Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Chandan K.

    2017-02-01

    Displacement spectra from accelerograms recorded within a few kilometers (< 3.5 km) of nuclear and chemical explosion shot points indicate that the amplitude spectral level is not flat below the source corner frequency (fc), but increases gradually towards zero frequency. During an explosion, the volume in the immediate vicinity of the shot point is inelastic. In this paper, we develop a time-domain expression for the deformation at the elastic boundary limit of this volume, which in the frequency domain supports this observation. We refer to this expression as the time-domain source function (TDSF) of an explosion. The proposed TDSF has two terms, the first term representing a ”static" contribution and the second term a "dynamic" contribution to the total deformation field. The static contribution dominates over the dynamic contribution at frequencies below fc and causes the gradual increase in the spectral level. For the low-yield under/or over-buried explosions (yield < 5 Kt), fc is relatively high and this increase in spectral amplitude is pronouncedly observed. The correct interpretation of the observed spectral amplitudes below fc can, therefore, play a crucial role in estimating source parameters of explosions. For f > fc, the dynamic contributions dominate and decay approximately as f-2. For seismic waves propagating from the boundary Rel (a transition limit of the non-linear to the elastic zone) to large distances, the static and the dynamic wavefields are affected identically by attenuation and spreading. Hence, the attenuation corrected large distance explosion spectra should exhibit these spectral characteristics. An analysis of the regional P-wave spectra from a few low-yield explosions provides evidence for this finding and also for the yield scaling by a factor of 2 between the nuclear and chemical explosions, especially for similar emplacement conditions. We also illustrate that when convolved with a time function [exp (-C/Rel)H(t), where C is the

  6. Acetylcholine receptor clustering and nuclear movement in muscle fibers in culture

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the formation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters and the behavior of myonuclei in rat and chick skeletal muscle cells grown in cell culture. These cells were treated with a factor derived from Torpedo electric extracellular matrix, which causes a large increase in their number of AChR clusters. We found that these clusters were located preferentially in membrane regions above myonuclei. This cluster-nucleus colocalization is explained by our finding that most of the nuclei near clusters remain relatively stationary, while most of those away from clusters are able to translocate throughout the myotube. In some cases, clusters clearly formed first, then nuclei migrated underneath and became immobilized. If clustered AChRs later dispersed, their associated nuclei resumed moving. These results suggest that AChR clustering initiates an extensive cytoskeletal rearrangement that causes the subcluster localization of organelles, potentially providing a stable source of newly synthesized AChRs for insertion into the cluster. PMID:3793762

  7. Effects of long-term in vitro culturing of transgenic bovine donor fibroblasts on cell viability and in vitro developmental potential after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Bressan, F F; Miranda, M S; Bajgelman, M C; Perecin, F; Mesquita, L G; Fantinato-Neto, P; Merighe, G F K; Strauss, B E; Meirelles, F V

    2013-04-01

    Genetically modified animals have numerous applications, ranging from basic research to livestock production and agriculture. Recent progress in animal cloning by nuclear transfer has made possible the production of transgenic animals using previously genetically modified cell lineages. However, to produce such lineages, an additional time for in vitro culturing and great manipulation is needed. Herein, we aimed to characterize different aspects of genetically modified cells compared to control cells, and we also analyzed the development rate of embryos produced by nuclear transfer by using them as nuclei donors after short or long periods of in vitro culturing (early versus late passages). We hypothesized that the genetic material inserted in the genome of these cells, associated with the prolonged time in culture, ultimately alters cell growth physiology and cell viability, which leads to impaired nuclei reprogramming potential and consequent reduction in the production of cloned blastocysts. Fetal fibroblasts expressing the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein gene (eGFP) cultured for different periods in vitro were analyzed with respect to chromosomal numeric abnormalities, nuclear DNA fragmentation, the ratio of BAX and BCL2 gene transcripts, and the intensity of mitochondrial membrane potential, and they were then used as nuclei donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Early passages were defined as fewer than 11 passages, and late passages were 18th passage (18(th)p) to 21(st)p. No differences were observed in the percentage of cells with chromosomal abnormalities or in the mitochondrial membrane potential analysis. eGFP cells in late passages and control cells in early passages were not different regarding DNA fragmentation; however, control cells in late passages presented higher fragmentation (P < 0.05). The Bax and Bcl2 gene expression ratio in control and transgenic cells presented different patterns regarding cell conditions during culture. For

  8. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  9. Approaches to Quantify Potential Contaminant Transport in the Lower Carbonate Aquifer from Underground Nuclear Testing at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada - 12434

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert W.; Birdie, Tiraz; Wilborn, Bill; Mukhopadhyay, Bimal

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative modeling of the potential for contaminant transport from sources associated with underground nuclear testing at Yucca Flat is an important part of the strategy to develop closure plans for the residual contamination. At Yucca Flat, the most significant groundwater resource that could potentially be impacted is the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA), a regionally extensive aquifer that supplies a significant portion of the water demand at the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site. Developing and testing reasonable models of groundwater flow in this aquifer is an important precursor to performing subsequent contaminant transport modeling used to forecast contaminant boundaries at Yucca Flat that are used to identify potential use restriction and regulatory boundaries. A model of groundwater flow in the LCA at Yucca Flat has been developed. Uncertainty in this model, as well as other transport and source uncertainties, is being evaluated as part of the Underground Testing Area closure process. Several alternative flow models of the LCA in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU have been developed. These flow models are used in conjunction with contaminant transport models and source term models and models of contaminant transport from underground nuclear tests conducted in the overlying unsaturated and saturated alluvial and volcanic tuff rocks to evaluate possible contaminant migration in the LCA for the next 1,000 years. Assuming the flow and transport models are found adequate by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, the models will undergo a peer review. If the model is approved by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, it will be used to identify use restriction and regulatory boundaries at the start of the Corrective Action Decision Document Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. These initial boundaries may be revised at the time of the Closure Report phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. (authors)

  10. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P; Hubert, J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors’ engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors’ decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. Design A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study’s propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. Setting NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Participants Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Main Outcome measures Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Results Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit’s usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. Conclusions The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy. PMID:28210493

  11. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  12. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  13. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  14. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  15. Nuclear actin is partially associated with Cajal bodies in human cells in culture and relocates to the nuclear periphery after infection of cells by adenovirus 5.

    PubMed

    Gedge, L J E; Morrison, E E; Blair, G E; Walker, J H

    2005-02-15

    Cajal bodies are intra-nuclear structures enriched in proteins involved in transcription and mRNA processing. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy experiments using a highly specific antibody to actin revealed nuclear actin spots that colocalized in part with p80 coilin-positive Cajal bodies. Actin remained associated with Cajal bodies in cells extracted to reveal the nuclear matrix. Adenovirus infection, which is known to disassemble Cajal bodies, resulted in loss of actin from these structures late in infection. In infected cells, nuclear actin was observed to relocate to structures at the periphery of the nucleus, inside the nuclear envelope. Based on these findings, it is suggested that actin may play an important role in the organization or function of the Cajal body.

  16. Culture, Identity, and Information Technology in the 21st Century: Implications for U.S. National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    in those languages. North Ameri- ca and Europe continue to have the world’s highest literacy rates. Asia and Latin Amer- ica have the second-highest...Implications for U.S. National Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...in the areas of strategy, stability operations, and special operations and com- bating terrorism. Dr. Kusiak was the first program manager for the

  17. The Significance of Fire Service Culture as an Impediment to Effective Leadership in the Homeland Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Congress vested the Department of Homeland Security with responsibilities such as leading and managing change, planning change, initiating change, and...the collective’s responsibility for leading . This perspective is more consistent with current notions of society and the recognition of a global...there is no single right way to lead . A leadership style that is effective in one situation may not be as effective in another situation. Leadership

  18. Status of development of the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) for worldwide sustainable nuclear energy supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wade, D. C.; Nikiforova, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Massachusetts Institute of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress and improvements have been made on development of a pre-conceptual design of the Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concept since it was last reported on at ICAPP 05. SSTAR is a small, 20 MWe (45 MWt), exportable, natural circulation, fast reactor plant concept incorporating proliferation resistance for deployment in non-fuel cycle states and developing nations, fissile self-sufficiency for efficient utilization of uranium resources, autonomous load following making it suitable for small or immature grid applications, and a high degree of passive safety. Customers of SSTAR include: (1) clients looking for energy security at small capital outlay; (2) cities in developing nations; and (3) deregulated independent power producers in developed nations. The SSTAR pre-conceptual design integrates three major features: primary coolant natural circulation heat transport; lead (Pb) coolant; and transuranic nitride fuel in a pool vessel configuration. The Pb coolant flows upward through the core which is an open-lattice of large-diameter (2.5 centimeter) fuel pins containing transuranic nitride pellets clad bonded with liquid Pb to silicon-enhanced ferritic/martensitic (F/M) stainless steel arranged on a triangular pitch with spacing maintained by grid spacers; the core does not incorporate removable fuel assemblies as one means of restricting access to the fuel. The whole core is a single removable assembly with a long lifetime (30 years) at which time refueling equipment is brought onsite. Conversion of the core thermal energy to electricity is accomplished using a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converter providing higher plant efficiencies and lower balance of plant costs than the traditional Rankine steam cycle operating at the same reactor core outlet temperature. A control strategy has been developed for automatic control of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle in principle

  19. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.

    2009-12-02

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include {sup 3}He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors.We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  20. Moving forward with safety culture.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Radiation safety and protection of people are shared goals of the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A positive safety culture contributes to achieving radiation safety and protection of people, which are important to both the HPS and the NRC. Through unprecedented collaboration and engagement with diverse stakeholders, the NRC and the stakeholders developed a Safety Culture Policy Statement. The policy statement defines safety culture and describes the traits of a positive safety culture. Consideration of both safety and security issues and the interface of safety and security are underlying principles that support the policy. Examination of significant events, both within the nuclear industry and in society at large, illustrates how weaknesses in these traits can contribute to the occurrence and consequences of safety incidents, including serious injury and loss of life. With the policy statement in place, the NRC is moving forward with outreach and education about safety culture. Health physicists and other radiation safety specialists play an essential role in enhancing safety culture.

  1. Chios mastic fractions in experimental colitis: implication of the nuclear factor κB pathway in cultured HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Papalois, Apostolos; Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Lymperopoulou, Aikaterini; Agrogiannis, George; Papada, Efstathia; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2012-11-01

    The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.

  2. Glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin activates nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 in cultured human aortic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Matesanz, Nuria; Nevado, Julián; Lafuente, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Azcutia, Verónica; Vallejo, Susana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2003-01-01

    Diabetic vessels undergo structural changes that are linked to a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell signalling in the vasculature, where they can promote cell growth and activate redox-regulated transcription factors, like activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are involved in remodelling and inflammation processes. Amadori adducts, formed through nonenzymatic glycosylation, can contribute to ROS formation in diabetes. In this study, we analysed whether Amadori-modified human oxyhaemoglobin, glycosylated at either normal (N-Hb) or elevated (E-Hb) levels, can induce cell growth and activate AP-1 and NF-κB in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). E-Hb (1 nM–1 μM), but not N-Hb, promoted a concentration-dependent increase in cell size from nanomolar concentrations, although it failed to stimulate HASMC proliferation. At 10 nM, E-Hb stimulated both AP-1 and NF-κB activity, as assessed by transient transfection, electromobility shift assays or immunofluorescence staining. The effects of E-Hb resembled those of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). E-Hb enhanced intracellular superoxide anions content and its effects on HASMC were abolished by different ROS scavengers. In conclusion, E-Hb stimulates growth and activates AP-1 and NF-κB in human vascular smooth muscle by redox-sensitive pathways, thus suggesting a possible direct role for Amadori adducts in diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:14504138

  3. Context, Culture, and Connection: Avoiding the Counter-Productive Effects of Mirror Imaging In Theater Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    civilization” is that by exporting our culture, whether by cars, Coca - Cola , 12 music, fashion, entertainment, or CNN, we somehow convince the world to...unique and certainly not the prescribed process for relationship building in the TSC process, but it does have ingredients inherent to every...our relevant partners in the TSC engagement, as connections are the foundation for shared interests as well as an essential ingredient to obtaining

  4. National security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the views presented on October 31, 1991, at a GAO-sponsored conference on worldwide threats to U.S. national security. The conference was designed to provide insight into potential military threats to U.S. security interests and necessary modifications to current and planned U.S. forces to meet those threats. Conference participants, including defense analysts and retired military officers, discussed and analyzed the possibility of U.S. and allied involvement in various regional contingencies in Europe and the Soviet Union, Eat Asia and the Pacific, and the Near East and South Asia. Topics ranged from the possibility of nuclear war to a general discussion of low-intensity conflict. To serve as a starting point for discussion, we asked several of the participants to provide papers representing a wide range of views. The participants agreed that for many years the Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat to Europe shaped U.S. force planning but that the Soviet union no longer posed a conventional threat. Nuclear weapons held by the former Soviet republics and other nations, however, remain a concern. There was no agreement of the methodology for sizing U.S. forces. Some argued for sizing based on specific threats; other argued for flexibility to meet any and all contingencies and cited the Gulf War as a example.

  5. Homeland Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  6. Nuclear Testing and National Security,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    to negotiate a CTB with the Soviets and British. In 1958, according to Dr. Edward Tell- er’s biography , Dr. York "sold out" the interests of Livermore... Robert H. Kupperman and Donald Kerr (currently Los Alamos Director), com- menting on the SALT II debate, list some "fundamentals" for negoti- ated...Bishops," in America, published by the Jesuits of the United States and Canada, 8 March 1980, pp. 183-85. 21. Robert H. Kupperman and Donald M. Kerr

  7. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Power Research

    2007-11-01

    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  8. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-01

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  9. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  10. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  11. Nuclear DNA content of Vitis vinifera cultivars and ploidy level analyses of somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture.

    PubMed

    Leal, F; Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Pais, M S; Santos, C; Pinto-Carnide, O

    2006-09-01

    Flow cytometry was employed to determine the ploidy level of Vitis vinifera L. somatic embryo-derived plants obtained from anther culture. Only one among the 41 analysed plants (2.4%) presented somaclonal variation (tetraploidy); the other plants were diploid. No significant differences (Pnuclear DNA content of nine V. vinifera cultivars was also estimated using flow cytometry. A non-significant variation was found among the cultivars, with DNA content ranging from 1.17 pg/2C (cv. 'Tinta Barroca' and 'Viosinho') to 1.26 pg/2C (cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). These results and previous studies on other Vitis species suggest that Vitis genome is stable with regard to nuclear DNA content.

  12. The Influence of Soviet and American Political Culture on Negotiating Positions: The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    AD-Ri42 990 THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE 1/2 ON~ NEGOTIATING POS..(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA W R BLACKBURN...SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC 0f JUL1 3ŕ H THESIS THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICA CULTURE ON NEGOTIATING POSITIONS: THE INTERMEDIATE...4. TITL.E (and Sublto) S. TYPE[ OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Influence of Soviet and American Master’s Thesis Political Culture on Negotiating

  13. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  14. Cultural approach to the perception of risk. Analyzing concern about siting of a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Litmanen, T.

    1996-12-31

    The study of local residents` attitudes toward siting a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland took place in three municipalities (Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Agnekoski), which are being considered possible host communities for the plant. The survey showed that the NIMBY phenomenon is a common reaction in two of the three municipalities, and in the third a polarization of opinions into two opposing camps is evident. The analysis of the data indicates that the opposition consist of people who have less education, less knowledge about the facility, lower incomes, and a lower occupational status. The social base of the proponents is the opposite. The persons most critical towards the possible siting can be found among women, older people, voters of the Greens, retired persons and farmers. People who welcome nuclear waste in their vicinity can be found among men, the middle-aged, voters of the Conservative Party and business owners. The study of the perception of possible negative impacts (health and safety, environmental, economic and social) showed that residents in Kuhmo and Adnekoski were more concerned about possible hazards than the residents of Eurajoki. According to the cultural approach, these findings must be contextualized. Eurajoka, which holds more favorable attitudes than Kuhmo and Agnekoski, hosts a nuclear power plant. In the two other communities the opposition is greater, because the residents are unfamiliar with nuclear technology. The thesis of the paper is that in order to understand different opinions about the facility, one must understand the cultural logic of risk perception. People evaluate the risk as individuals, but also as members of different reference groups and in the context of local, national and international circumstances.

  15. Social Security for Composers and Free Lances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossel-Majdan, Karl

    1982-01-01

    Internationally, cultural policies are tending toward increased socioeconomic and legal support for creative artists. Austrian cultural policies which encourage art and cultural professional organizations, increased copyright protection, and greater social security for free-lance artists are discussed. (AM)

  16. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny; Pohlmann, Karl F.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  17. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  18. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John...

  19. Security sonar for water intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenbuhler, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

  20. Report on Department of Homeland Security Sponsored Research Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on Preparation for an Improvised Nuclear Device Event

    SciTech Connect

    A., B

    2008-07-31

    Following the events of September 11th, a litany of imaginable horribles was trotted out before an anxious and concerned public. To date, government agencies and academics are still grappling with how to best respond to such catastrophes, and as Senator Lieberman's quote says above, now is the time to plan and prepare for such events. One of the nation's worst fears is that terrorists might detonate an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an American city. With 9/11 serving as the catalyst, the government and many NGOs have invested money into research and development of response capabilities throughout the country. Yet, there is still much to learn about how to best respond to an IND event. My summer 2008 internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory afforded me the opportunity to look in depth at the preparedness process and the research that has been conducted on this issue. While at the laboratory I was tasked to collect, combine, and process research on how cities and the federal government can best prepare for the horrific prospect of an IND event. Specific projects that I was involved with were meeting reports, research reviews, and a full project report. Working directly with Brooke Buddemeier and his support team at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, I was able to witness first hand, preparation for meetings with response planners to inform them of the challenges that an IND event would pose to the affected communities. In addition, I supported the Homeland Security Institute team (HSI), which was looking at IND preparation and preparing a Congressional report. I participated in meetings at which local responders expressed their concerns and contributed valuable information to the response plan. I specialized in the psycho-social aspects of an IND event and served as a technical advisor to some of the research groups. Alongside attending and supporting these meetings, I worked on an independent research project which collected

  1. Enhancing European security

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, I.M.; Robertson, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book looks beyond the current national security debate to envisage a Europe in which conventional forces have been substantially reduced and nuclear weapons no longer perform a significant deterrent role. Means through which this goal can be achieved are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 47162 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more...

  3. 77 FR 21142 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more...

  4. 78 FR 41183 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information,...

  5. Curcumin mediated suppression of nuclear factor-κB promotes chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a high-density co-culture microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are characterised by joint inflammation and cartilage degradation. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitors are resident in the superficial zone of articular cartilage, damaged tissue does not possess the capacity for regeneration. The high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines present in OA/RA joints may impede the chondrogenic differentiation of these progenitors. Interleukin (IL)-1β activates the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which in turn activates proteins involved in matrix degradation, inflammation and apoptosis. Curcumin is a phytochemical capable of inhibiting IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of apoptotic and pro-inflammatory genes in chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of curcumin on IL-1β-induced NF-κB signalling pathway in MSCs during chondrogenic differentiation. Methods MSCs were either cultured in a ratio of 1:1 with primary chondrocytes in high-density culture or cultured alone in monolayer with/without curcumin and/or IL-1β. Results We demonstrate that although curcumin alone does not have chondrogenic effects on MSCs, it inhibits IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB, activation of caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2 in MSCs time and concentration dependently, as it does in chondrocytes. In IL-1β stimulated co-cultures, four-hour pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the production of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans (CSPGs), β1-integrin, as well as activating MAPKinase signaling and suppressing caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2. Conclusions Curcumin treatment may help establish a microenvironment in which the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines are antagonized, thus facilitating chondrogenesis of MSC-like progenitor cells in vivo. This strategy may support the regeneration of articular cartilage. PMID:20594343

  6. Secure Transportation of HEU in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-06

    The National Nuclear Security Administration has announced the final shipments of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from Romania. The material was removed and returned to Russia by air for storage at two secure nuclear facilities, making Romania the first country to remove all HEU since President Obama outlined his commitment to securing all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years. This was also the first time NNSA has shipped spent HEU by airplane, a development that will help accelerate efforts to meet the Presidents objective.

  7. The remote security station (RSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform.

  8. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  9. 48 CFR 952.204-2 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security. 952.204-2... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-2 Security. As prescribed... or are likely to involve classified information or special nuclear material: Security (MAR 2011)...

  10. 48 CFR 952.204-2 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security. 952.204-2... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-2 Security. As prescribed... or are likely to involve classified information or special nuclear material: Security (MAR 2011)...

  11. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  12. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  13. 48 CFR 952.204-2 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security. 952.204-2... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-2 Security. As prescribed... or are likely to involve classified information or special nuclear material: Security (MAR 2011)...

  14. 48 CFR 952.204-2 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security. 952.204-2... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-2 Security. As prescribed... or are likely to involve classified information or special nuclear material: Security (MAR 2011)...

  15. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  16. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  17. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  18. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  19. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  20. Perspectives on Global and Regional Security and Implications of Nuclear and Space Technologies: U.S.-Brazil Strategic Dialogue, Phase 2 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    enhanced leverage in South- South and BRICs groupings. 6 Under President Lula da Silva’s leadership, Brazil sought to actively enhance and promote its...State,” 25, 35-36; Joe Leahy and James Lamont, “ BRICs to Debate Creation of Common Bank,” Financial Times, March 20, 2012.   4   Challenges in the...conflict. As previously, mentioned, UNASUR is viewed as a proto-security community. The BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa) grouping

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fralix, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study centers on applications of both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes {sup 31}P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability

  2. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  3. Evaluation of Metabolomic Changes as a Biomarker of Chondrogenic Differentiation in 3D-cultured Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Proton (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Moo-Young; Chun, Song-I; Mun, Chi-Woong; Hong, Kwan Soo; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolomic changes in 3D-cultured human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in alginate beads, so as to identify biomarkers during chondrogenesis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods hMSCs (2×106 cells/mL) were seeded into alginate beads, and chondrogenesis was allowed to progress for 15 days. NMR spectra of the chondrogenic hMSCs were obtained at 4, 7, 11, and 15 days using a 14.1-T (600-MHz) NMR with the water suppression sequence, zgpr. Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm that that the hMSCs differentiated into chondrocytes and to analyze the metabolomic changes indicated by the NMR spectra. Results During chondrogenesis, changes were detected in several metabolomes as hMSC chondrogenesis biomarkers, e.g., fatty acids, alanine, glutamate, and phosphocholine. The metabolomic changes were compared with the Real-Time PCR results, and significant differences were determined using statistical analysis. We found that changes in metabolomes were closely related to biological reactions that occurred during the chondrogenesis of hMSCs. Conclusions In this study, we confirm that metabolomic changes detected by 1H-NMR spectroscopy during chondrogenic differentiation of 3D-cultured hMSCs in alginate beads can be considered as biomarkers of stem cell differentiation. PMID:24205199

  4. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (μGy/day) in the earthworms.

  5. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  6. Planning Without History or Cultural Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Iraqi Security Forces’ (ISF), Islamic State of Iraq, and the Levant (ISIL), “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.”, Culture 16. SECURITY...what occurred was an internal security dilemma between ethnic and religious cultural factions that could not be overcome within the ISF simply by...Figure 1. Iraq Intra-State Ethnic Security Dilemma Source: Created by the Author The US involvement changed the Iraqi cultural landscape so quickly

  7. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  8. Federal Funding for Health Security in FY2017.

    PubMed

    Boddie, Crystal; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This latest article in the Federal Funding for Health Security series assesses FY2017 US government funding in 5 domains critical to strengthening health security: biosecurity, radiological and nuclear security, chemical security, pandemic influenza and emerging infectious disease, and multiple-hazard and general preparedness.

  9. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Roadmaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear Security Administration,U.S. Department of Energy ,1000 Independence Ave., S.W.,Washington,DC,20585 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...that better match observables), and 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies 5 WSO6. Calculate energy ... NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROADMAPS Leslie A. Casey and W. Randy Bell Sponsored by the National Nuclear Security

  10. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  11. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  12. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  13. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  14. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  15. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  16. Amadori adducts activate nuclear factor-κB-related proinflammatory genes in cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nevado, Julián; Peiró, Concepción; Vallejo, Susana; El-Assar, Mariam; Lafuente, Nuria; Matesanz, Nuria; Azcutia, Veronica; Cercas, Elena; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus leads to a high incidence of several so-called complications, sharing similar pathophysiological features in several territories. Previous reports points at early nonenzymatic glycosylation products (Amadori adducts) as mediators of diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we analysed a possible role for Amadori adducts as stimulators of proinflammatory pathways in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Cultured HPMCs isolated from 13 different patients (mean age 38.7±16 years) were exposed to different Amadori adducts, that is, highly glycated haemoglobin (10 nM) and glycated bovine serum albumin (0.25 mg ml−1), as well as to their respective low glycosylation controls. Amadori adducts, but not their respective controls, elicited a marked increase of NF-κB activation, as determined by electromobility shift assays and transient transfection experiments. Additionally, Amadori adducts significantly increased the production of NF-κB-related proinflammatory molecules, including cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6, and enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, this latter leading to the release of NO by HPMCs. The effects of Amadori adducts were mediated by different reactive oxygen and nitrosative species (e.g. superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite), as they were blunted by coincubation with the appropriate scavengers. Furthermore, NO generated upon exposure to Amadori adducts further stimulated NF-κB activation, either directly or after combination with superoxide anions to form peroxynitrite. We conclude that Amadori adducts can favour peritoneal inflammation by exacerbating changes in NO synthesis pathway and triggering NF-κB-related proinflammatory signals in human mesothelial cells. PMID:15997235

  17. 78 FR 66984 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB); Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., nonproliferation, political- military affairs, international security, and related aspects of public diplomacy. The.... policy and issues regarding arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, cyber stability, energy security, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive...

  18. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  19. Effects of 5-fluorouracil in nuclear and cellular morphology, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeletal and caveolar distribution in primary cultures of smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Marcelo de Carvalho; Morrot, Alexandre; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world and is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The anti-metabolite 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of patients with colon cancer and other cancer types. 5-FU-based chemotherapy has been shown to be very efficient in the improvement of overall survival of the patients and for the eradication of the disease. Unfortunately, common side effects of 5-FU include severe alterations in the motility of the gastrointestinal tissues. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Primary smooth muscle cell cultures are an important tool for studies of the biological consequences of 5-FU at the cellular level. The avian gizzard is one of the most robust organs of smooth muscle cells. Here we studied the molecular and cellular effects of the chemotherapic drug 5-FU in a primary culture of chick gizzard smooth muscle cells. We found that treatment of smooth muscle cells with 5-FU inhibits cell proliferation by the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle and induce apoptosis. 5-FU induced a decrease in the percentage of histone H3-positive cells. Treatment of cells with 5-FU induced changes in cellular and nuclear morphology, a decrease in the number of stress fibers and a major decrease in the number of caveolin-3 positive cells. Our results suggest that the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the reduction of caveolin-3 expression could explain the alterations in contractility observed in patients treated with 5-FU. These findings might have an impact in the understanding of the cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle tissues and might help the improvement of new therapeutic protocols for the treatment of colon cancer.

  20. Nuclear Security: Action May Be Needed to Reassess the Security of NRC-Licensed Research Reactors. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-403

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloise, Gene

    2008-01-01

    There are 37 research reactors in the United States, mostly located on college campuses. Of these, 33 reactors are licensed and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Four are operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and are located at three national laboratories. Although less powerful than commercial nuclear power reactors,…

  1. 76 FR 31997 - Final Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    .... Department of Homeland Security on Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: R. Clyde Ragland, Project Manager (Security), Fuel Cycle and Transportation Security Branch, Division of Security Policy, Office...

  2. Securing Europe's future

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, S.J.; Hampson, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive review of the major political, social and economic issues that will shape the course of European security in the coming decade. It offers a thorough assessment of such critical questions as European views of the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative, the likely contribution of new technologies and tactics to NATO's conventional defense capabilities, and domestic factors that influence security policy. It also provides original analysis of a number of issues, such as economic dimensions of security, the quest for a European defense identity, protection of Western interests outside the NATO area, and the role of the European neutral states in the security sphere, that have not received the attention they deserve. It provides a fresh review of the nuclear question and of the German security debate in the aftermath of the initial U.S. INF missile deployments. The final chapter is a careful synthesis of the various contributions that advances a framework for assessing NATO's policy alternatives.

  3. Options for Meeting U.S. Navy Foreign Language and Cultural Expertise Requirements in the Post 9/11 Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    introduced in 2006 to more accurately measure foreign language proficiency. How well have Navy personnel performed on the new, more difficult test...to increase security and achieve common interests in the maritime domain. (Roughead, November 2008, p. 8) As a key measurement of the execution of...CALCULATE TIME ZONE CONVERSIONS C024 PERFORM SIGNALS SEARCH AND ACQUISITION C026 PERFORM INITIAL SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION C027 PROCESS ACQUIRED

  4. A comparative study via Monte Carlo simulation of new inorganic scintillator Cs2HfCl6 for applications in nuclear medicine, security and defense, and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Henry; Raby, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) is one of the most promising recently discovered new inorganic single crystal scintillator that has high light output, non-hygroscopic, no self-activity, having energy resolution significantly better than NaI(Tl), even approaching that of LaBr3 yet can also potentially be at a much lower cost than LaBr3. This study attempts to use Monte Carlo simulation to examine the great potential offered by this new scintillator. CHC's detector performance is compared via simulation with that of 4 typical existing scintillators of the same size and same PMT readout. Two halide-scintillators: NaI(Tl) and LaBr3 and two oxide-scintillators: GSO and LSO were used in this simulation to compare their 122 keV and 511 keV gamma responses with that of CHC with both spectroscopy application and imaging applications in mind. Initial simulation results are very promising and consistent with reported experimental measurements. Beside detector energy resolution, image-quality measurement parameters commonly used to characterize imaging detectors as in nuclear medicine such as Light Response Function (LRF) which goes in parallel with spatial resolution and simulated position spectra will also be presented and discussed.

  5. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  8. 78 FR 69139 - Physical Security-Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) submitted a letter on October 9, 2013 (Agencywide Documents Access and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Physical Security--Design Certification and Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...

  9. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  10. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  11. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  12. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ron; Rawl, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  13. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  14. 5 CFR 5801.102 - Prohibited securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited securities. 5801.102 Section... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION § 5801.102 Prohibited securities. (a) General prohibition. No covered employee, and no spouse or minor child of a covered employee, shall own...

  15. Is Saudi Arabia a Nuclear Threat?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom through informal security agreements, but a deterioration in U.S.-Saudi relations...replace their aging missile force with a nuclear-tipped inventory. The United States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom...48 1. Construction of Saudi Armed Forces...................................................48 2. The 1973 Oil Embargo

  16. US changes course on nuclear-weapons strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    US President Barack Obama has signalled a new approach to nuclear-weapons policy that limits their use against other states and documents how the country will ensure the viability of existing stockpiles. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), which sets out the US's nuclear strategy over a 10-year period, also calls for a highly skilled workforce to ensure "the long-term safety, security and effectiveness of the nuclear arsenal and to support the full range of nuclear-security work".

  17. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  18. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  19. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  20. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  1. 5 CFR 5801.102 - Prohibited securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited securities. 5801.102 Section 5801.102 Administrative Personnel NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL... reactors; (4) Architectural-engineering companies providing services relating to a nuclear power...

  2. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  3. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-09

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

  4. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  5. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  6. Cooperative global security programs modeling & simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Briand, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The national laboratories global security programs implement sustainable technical solutions for cooperative nonproliferation, arms control, and physical security systems worldwide. To help in the development and execution of these programs, a wide range of analytical tools are used to model, for example, synthetic tactical environments for assessing infrastructure protection initiatives and tactics, systematic approaches for prioritizing nuclear and biological threat reduction opportunities worldwide, and nuclear fuel cycle enrichment and spent fuel management for nuclear power countries. This presentation will describe how these models are used in analyses to support the Obama Administration's agenda and bilateral/multinational treaties, and ultimately, to reduce weapons of mass destruction and terrorism threats through international technical cooperation.

  7. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-22

    Fast, reliable, and accurate communications are essential for nuclear weapon accident response operations. Moreover, securing adequate internal ...activities near the scene of a nuclear weapon accident to speed the flow of information to the public and the internal audience. Although it is 183...Departments and Agencies in a nuclear weapon accident. Inherent in this event are the relationships between international , national, State, and

  8. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  10. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-14

    an end to Cold War thinking, we will reduce the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy , and urge others to do the same. —President...involved reducing the role of nuclear weapons in US national security strategy . The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), re- leased one year later, further...re- duce the importance of nuclear weapons in their national security strategy , it may have inspired them to rely more on nuclear weapons to meet

  11. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  12. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  13. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  14. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    NRC Mission: To license and regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, promote the common defense and security, and protect the environment. Scope of Responsibility: NRC's regulatory mission covers three main areas: - Reactors: commercial reactors for generating electric power and non-power reactors used for research, testing, and training; - Materials: uses of nuclear materials in medical, industrial, and academic settings and facilities that produce nuclear fuel; - Waste: transportation, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and waste, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities from service. A Changing Environment: - National security is dominant concern; - Obtain appropriate balance between safety and Security initiatives and Operational activities; - Multiple layers of systems, infrastructures for various licensees. Effective Communication: Not easy; Sound bites galore; Nuclear 'phobia'; Acceptability of risk; Balance of cost and benefits; Responsibility of the regulator, licensees and radiation protection professionals. Prioritized Licensee Groups: - High priority: Panoramic irradiators; manufacturers/distributors; - Medium priority: medical and research facilities, radiography, well-logging, broad-scope licenses, self-shielded irradiators, open-field irradiators, and other licensees; - Low priority: Portable gauges. Increased Security Measures: Security Zone; Control Access; Monitor, Detect, Assess, and Respond; Transportation Security; Additional control to secure portable and mobile devices; Liaison with Local Law Enforcement Agencies; Background Investigations and Fingerprinting; License Verification; Document Retention; Information Protection; Orders/Legally binding requirements to more than 3000 licensees. Orders Issued: Large Panoramic Irradiators Security Measures (60 Orders issued 6/03, Inspections done); Manufacturing and Distribution Licensees

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    Calendar Year 2007, NUREG -1885, July 2008, p. 7, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc- collections/congress-docs/correspondence/2008/boxer-07-01-2008.pdf. 25...Calendar Year 2007, NUREG -1885, July 2008, p. 8, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc- collections/congress-docs/correspondence/2008/boxer-07-01-2008.pdf

  16. 3 CFR - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... generate clean nuclear energy is crucial to our ability to combat climate change, enhance energy security... considers. Where appropriate, the Commission may also identify potential statutory changes. The...

  17. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadruple ment and stockpiling of vaccines , antidotes, antibi- resonance. Appendix G (SECRET) describes possi- otics...cultural diversity and economic dispersing chemical agents are virtually limitless. adversity (e.g., Africa). "* Regional conflicts that are deeply...be one goals through the utilization of mass destruction that the enemy can defeat with a vaccine or treat weapons, then the temptations for other

  18. A European Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Khoen; Hiller, Daniel; Castex, Christoph

    Tackling the complexity and interdependence of today's security environment in the globalized world of the 21st century is an everlasting challenge. Whereas the end of the Cold War presented a caesura of global dimension for the political and economic architecture and a realignment of power distribution and international relations between former adversaries, September 11th of 2001 may be seen as another caesura. Since then, specifically among countries of the Western hemisphere, traditional security paradigms and theories have been critically questioned and the different security cultures and perceptions have resulted in diverse security and defence policies as well as in security research efforts of individual countries. Consensus, it seems, exists on the question of what the threats are that our modern interconnected societies are facing. Whether looking at international terrorism, organized crime, climate change, the illegal trafficking of goods and people or naturally caused catastrophes, these phenomena all have in common that they are in most cases of transnational nature. Formerly existing dividing lines between internal and external security continue to fade, presenting an enormous challenge for those in charge of designing security policy and even more so for the various institutions safeguarding European security. That is why dissent often revolves around the question on how to get hold of these complex problems. Geographic location, cultural background, ethical make-up of society as well as relations with neighbouring countries are all important aspects to be considered when assessing the security culture and policy of individual countries.

  19. 78 FR 26795 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the National Radiological and Nuclear Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... SECURITY Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the National Radiological and Nuclear Detection Challenge AGENCY: Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DNDO announces the National Radiological and Nuclear Detection (Rad/Nuc) Challenge, a participation challenge being...

  20. Finnish Science and Culture[.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

  1. Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N

    2007-02-05

    The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.

  2. When trust defies common security sense.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2008-09-01

    Primary care medical practices fail to recognize the seriousness of security threats to their patient and practice information. This can be attributed to a lack of understanding of security concepts, underestimation of potential threats and the difficulty in configuration of security technology countermeasures. To appreciate the factors contributing to such problems, research into general practitioner security practice and perceptions of security was undertaken. The investigation focused on demographics, actual practice, issues and barriers, and practitioner perception. Poor implementation, lack of relevant knowledge and inconsistencies between principles and practice were identified as key themes. Also the results revealed an overwhelming reliance on trust in staff and in computer information systems. This clearly identified that both cultural and technical attributes contribute to the deficiencies in information security practice. The aim of this research is to understand user needs and problems when dealing with information security practice.

  3. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  4. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology.

  5. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  6. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  7. Image Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- ers...protection for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  8. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  9. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  10. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors.

  11. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  12. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    next generation fighter jets or nuclear material safeguards systems in complex nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is the intent of this paper to describe the cyber security programs that are currently in place, the experiences and successes achieved in industry including outreach and training, and suggestions about how other sectors and organizations can leverage this national expertise to help their monitoring and control systems become more secure.

  13. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  14. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  15. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  16. 10 CFR 95.19 - Changes to security practices and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes to security practices and procedures. 95.19 Section 95.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.19 Changes to...

  17. 10 CFR 95.21 - Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance. 95.21 Section 95.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.21 Withdrawal...

  18. Human Factors and Information Security: Individual, Culture and Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    1), 30-40. DeCotiis, T.A. & Summers, T.P. (1987). A path Analysis of a Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Commitment...efficacy is an individual’s belief in their ability to succeed in any given situation, and is a necessary antecedent of compliant behaviour. The model ...act of clicking the OK button is so habitual and common that people often follow this routine without properly considering the consequences . These

  19. 78 FR 2214 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ..., and Security Event Notifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplemental proposed...), and revise existing regulations governing security event notifications. The NRC proposed new... event notification requirements in 10 CFR part 73 to address imminent attacks or threats against...

  20. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  1. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  2. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  3. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  4. Safeguards and security research and development: Program status report, February-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.N.; Walton, R.B.

    1982-04-01

    This report, one of a series of biannual progress reports, describes the status of research and development in the Safeguards and Security Program at Los Alamos from February-July 1981. Most work covered here is sponsored by the Office of Safeguards and Security of the Department of Energy; however, project activities that are technically closely related to nuclear safeguards and security also are included where appropriate for conveying information useful to the nuclear community. The report comprises four major subject areas: Security Development and Support; Nuclear Materials Measurement and Engineering; Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support; and International Safeguards, Technology Transfer, and Training. Some technical topics included in the subject areas are computer and informational security, chemical and nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials, process modeling and analysis, nuclear materials accounting systems, evaluation of prototype measurement instrumentation and procedures in nuclear facilities, design and consultation for facilities, technical exchange, training courses, and international safeguards.

  5. French security policy: From independence to interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The book features the first-time translation of some of the most significant recent papers by leading French analysts of security affairs. Beginning with a look at continuity and change in French policy since de Gaulle, this books presents the evolution of French security policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Dr. Laird pays special attention to the French nuclear modernization process and to the trend in the last two decades toward greater emphasis on security interdependence within the Western Alliance at the expense of the classic Gaullist stance of independence. He examines the major dimensions of French security policy, particularly French nuclear employment policy and doctrine, the Franco-German relationship, and France's role in Europe and in East-West relations.

  6. Leveraging Safety Programs to Improve and Support Security Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Snell, Mark K.; Pratt, R.; Sandoval, S.

    2015-10-01

    There has been a long history of considering Safety, Security, and Safeguards (3S) as three functions of nuclear security design and operations that need to be properly and collectively integrated with operations. This paper specifically considers how safety programmes can be extended directly to benefit security as part of an integrated facility management programme. The discussion will draw on experiences implementing such a programme at Sandia National Laboratories’ Annular Research Reactor Facility. While the paper focuses on nuclear facilities, similar ideas could be used to support security programmes at other types of high-consequence facilities and transportation activities.

  7. Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J

    2009-01-21

    The fallacy of zero nuclear weapons, even as a virtual goal, is discussed. Because the complete abolition of nuclear weapons is not verifiable, nuclear weapons will always play a role in the calculus of assure, dissuade, deter and defeat (ADDD). However, the relative contribution of nuclear weapons to international security has diminished. To reconstitute the Cold War nuclear capability, with respect to both the nuclear weapons capability and their associated delivery systems, is fiscally daunting and not warranted due to competing budgetary pressures and their relative contribution to international security and nonproliferation. A proposed pathway to a sustainable nuclear weapons capability end-state is suggested which provides enough ADDD; a Dyad composed of fewer delivery and weapon systems, with trickle production at the National Laboratories and private sector to maintain capability and guard against technological surprise.

  8. American-Ukrainian Nuclear Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    dismantlement of the tactical weapons, Ukraine resumed the shipments. Washington’s 4 AMERICAN-UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR RELATIONS anxiety about the nuclear issue...identity, focusing on barring the use of the Ukrainian language as the Czars did in the 19th century, as well as in physically attempting to crush the...discussions with Ukraine were proceeding along the line of the possibility of a joint US-Russian security assurance and the possible language that any

  9. Nuclear Proliferation: A Historical Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program: Turning Points and Nuclear Choices, International Security, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Spring 1999), p. 183. 1971: The CANDU ... and CANDU fuel technology. Key timeline data: 1959: Office of Atomic Energy was established. See IAEA.org, “Country Profile: South Korea...Research Institute (KAERI) has developed both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and CANDU fuel technology. South Korea is has ratified the CTBT and the

  10. Suggestions for better election security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Warner, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Common Security Mistakes: (1) Electronic voting machines that fundamentally lack security thought and features, including an ability to detect tampering or intrusion, or to be reliably locked or sealed; (2) Failure to disassemble, inspect, and thoroughly inspect (not just test) a sufficient number of voting machines before and after elections in order to detect hardware or software tampering; (3) Assuming that tamper - indicating seals will either be blatantly ripped/smashed open, or else there is no tampering. In reality, even amateurs can spoof most seals leaving (at most) subtle evidence; (4) Inadequate seal use protocols and training of seal installers and inspectors. Failure to show examples of blatantly and subtly attacked seals to seal inspectors; (5) Over confidence in use of a voter verified paper record (VVPR), a VVPR is an excellent security countermeasure, but it is not a silver bullet, especially for an election organization with poor overall security; (6) Little or no insider thr at mitigation; and (7) A poor security culture, including denial and no a priori procedures for dealing with security questions or concerns.

  11. Teaching in a Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Robert K.

    1982-01-01

    The study of the nuclear weapons culture and of disarmament must be made central to the curriculum in the humanities, the sciences, and other subject areas. After discussing the contradictions of the nuclear age, the author suggests using consciousness-raising techniques, readings, films, and student research projects as means of reaching…

  12. Nuclear extrusion precedes discharge of genomic DNA fibers during tunicamycin-induced neutrophil extracellular trap-osis (NETosis)-like cell death in cultured human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomofumi; Saitoh, Noriko; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Yano, Ken-Ichi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that the nucleoside antibiotic tunicamycin (TN), a protein glycosylation inhibitor triggering unfolded protein response (UPR), induced neutrophil extracellular trap-osis (NETosis)-like cellular suicide and, thus, discharged genomic DNA fibers to extracellular spaces in a range of human myeloid cell lines under serum-free conditions. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of TN on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells using time-lapse microscopy. Our assay revealed a previously unappreciated early event induced by TN-exposure, in which, at 30-60 min after TN addition, the cells extruded their nuclei into the extracellular space, followed by discharge of DNA fibers to form NET-like structures. Intriguingly, neither nuclear extrusion nor DNA discharge was observed when cells were exposed to inducers of UPR, such as brefeldin A, thapsigargin, or dithiothreitol. Our findings revealed novel nuclear dynamics during TN-induced NETosis-like cellular suicide in HL-60 cells and suggested that the toxicological effect of TN on nuclear extrusion and DNA discharge was not a simple UPR.

  13. An in vitro investigation of a detachable fork-like structure as efficient nuclear-targeted sub-unit in A2780 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shan; Li, Lian; Zhu, Xi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2016-03-16

    The pharmacological target of many anticancer drugs is those molecules associated with genetic information which are localized in nucleus. To efficiently deliver drugs into cancer cell nucleus, in our previous study, a fork-like sub-unit, with one end conjugated with a targeting peptide named R8NLS (CRRRRRRRRPKKKRKV) and the other end conjugated with c-Myc oncogene inhibitor H1-S6A,F8A (H1) peptide, was linked onto the N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer via an enzyme degradable glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine (GFLG) tetrapeptide spacer. Here, an in vitro mechanism investigation of the fork-like sub-unit was studied in detail. We found that the fusion with two complementary R8 and NLS motifs is required to exert the multifunctional targeting capability of the tandem R8NLS peptide in overcoming various intracellular barriers, including enhancing cellular uptake, facilitating endosomal escape and penetrating through the double-layered nuclear membrane. Also required is the tactful detachment of the fork-like sub-unit from the copolymer in response to intracellular stimulus, because a smaller sub-unit not only increases the intracellular trafficking efficiency by reducing the size burden of magical bullet R8NLS, but also guarantees successful entry through the restricted nucleopore. Herein, this study highlights that both nuclear targeting ligand R8NLS and detachable fork-like sub-unit are dispensable for programmed nuclear delivery and may show feasibility on other drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles and micelles.

  14. Energy Security is National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    reactors p.nd even opened up drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ). However, the reality is, "Oil company experts believe ... in at...best 10 years time, ANWR could boost American production by 600,000 barrels a day.ŝ Additionally, it will take decades to build nuclear power plants...naturally make·the altermitive fuels cheaper and thus more attractive. Finally, further domestic drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ) and

  15. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  16. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  17. Cyber Security: Critical Infrastructure Controls Assessment Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Industry SANS ‐ CAG OASIS Private   ISA ‐99 <more…> SOX <more…> OWASP <more…> And Growing Day by Day……………….. CIP Security Controls Assessment...NERC-CIP NIST-Cyber Grid Chemical Cyber Physical System Security Standards PCI OASIS OWASP Nuclear Transportation ISA -99 CIP Security Controls...Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.  –           14. ISA  – Industrial Society for Automation 15. ISO – International Standards Organization

  18. Governing for Enterprise Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    1 2 W hat Is Governing for Enterprise Security? ................................................ 5 3 W hat Are the Risks...23 4.3 Determ ining Adequate Security ........................................................ 25 5 What Are the...security. Section 4 lays the foundation for determining how much security is enough and further expands the definition of adequate security. Section 5

  19. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  20. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  1. The Use of a Human Breast Tumor Progression Series and a 3-D Culture Model to Determine if Nuclear Structure Could Provide a Molecular and Therapeutic Marker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    beta-catenin. J Cell Biol 128:959-968. cadherin-binding protein plakoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci Gamallo C, Palacios J, Suarez A, Pizarro A, Navarro P...USA92:4522-4526. Quintanilla M, Cano A (1993): Correlation of E-cadherin Kartenbeck J, Schmid E, Franke WW, Geiger B (1982): expression with...catenin during axis speci- nuclear domains. J Cell Sci 110:239-247. fication inXenopus. J Cell Biol 139:229-243. Lallena M-J, Martinez C, Varcarcel J

  2. Human Health and Global Security. Relevance to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornfeld, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Programs in human health and global security should be incorporated into medical school curricula. Information about nuclear arms proliferation and unmet human health needs will help physicians exert a critical leadership role. (SK)

  3. Culture and Internal Security of Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    in Tibet. The Newars, the earliest known arrivals and most accomplished artisans and merchants in Nepal, have been living mostly in the Kathmandu...article, “Social Change in Conflict–Affected Areas of Nepal,” in Social Development Notes of the World Bank points out that the main root of the...January 2012, the local people in the Banke district closed down Nepalgunj- based customs office demanding endorsement of a bill from the Parliament to

  4. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  5. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  6. Interdicting a Nuclear-Weapons Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    every fowl of tyrant wing. Shakespeare, The Phoenix and the Turtle 1. Introduction Sixty years after the United States detonated the first nuclear...Carlyle, E. Skroch, K. Wood. 2006. Anatomy of a project to produce a first nuclear weapon. Sci. Global Security 14 163–182. International Atomic

  7. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  8. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  9. Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Dave; Kaiser, Krista; Martin, Lonnie; Hanson, Don; Harms, Gary; Quirk, Tom

    2014-11-28

    The Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories’ Technical Area Five (TA-V) is the leader in advancing nuclear technologies through applied radiation science and unique nuclear environments. This video describes the organization’s capabilities, facilities, and culture.

  10. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  11. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? ... form Search the Site Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  12. The expression of β-galactosidase during long-term cultured goat skin fibroblasts and the effect of donor cell passage on in vitro development of nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haijun; Peng, Hui; Liu, Fang; Ma, Qun; Zhang, Wenchang

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of β-galactosidase during long-term cultured goat skin fibroblasts and investigate the effects of donor goat age, sex, and cell passage on senescence and the effects of donor cell passage on in vitro development of nuclear transfer embryos. The results showed that, in the same cell passage, more β-galactosidase-positive cells were detected in cells from older donors than younger donors. Irrespective of the donor age, the number of positive cells was higher in later passages from passages 20 to 50. In the same passage from 20 to 50, the β-galactosidase-positive rate was higher in cells from 5-yr female goat than 5-yr male goat. Using fibroblasts from male goats at various passages as donor cells, reconstructed embryos had similar fusion and cleavage rates, but the blastocyst rate was higher for cells at passages 10 and 20 than passage 30. In conclusion, donor goat age and cell passage had significant effects on the β-galactosidase-positive rate; also, cells from 5-yr female goat had a higher β-galactosidase-positive rate than those from 5-yr male goat, and the donor cell passage affected the developmental potential of nuclear transfer embryos.

  13. Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    development, and planning, 63 Shultz: Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform budgeting and management are critical in reforming a defense...and Security Sector Reform Richard H. Shultz, Jr. JSOU Report 13-5 September 2013 Joint Special Operations University 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard...Assistance and Security Sector Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  14. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  15. US public perspectives on security

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2012-02-01

    We report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2011 on public assessments of contemporary and emerging interstate nuclear threats, support for strategic arms control, and preferences for responding to limited nuclear attacks on the United States. Additionally, we analyze public views of the threat of terrorism, including cyber attacks, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and preferences for responding to an act of radiological terrorism against the United States. Also, we report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2011 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public views on energy requirements, preferences for energy sources, energy conservation versus development, energy independence, implications of events at Fukushima, Japan, for US public support of nuclear generation, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and trust in nuclear risk assessments from government and other public sources. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  16. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  17. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  18. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  19. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    national security, resource management , and responsible command. The U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center acquires, conserves, and exhibits...sisted that the dangers of nuclear weapons prolifera- tion are manageable either by making future nuclear plants more “proliferation-resistant” or by...tion attendant to the further spread of nuclear energy programs are manageable . This view is fortified with a narrative. A sharp line is drawn

  20. Information security management system planning for CBRN facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lenaeu, Joseph D.; O'Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lewis, John; Mathers, Gemma; Rodger, Robert; Johnson, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this document is to provide guidance for the development of information security management system planning documents at chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) facilities. It describes a risk-based approach for planning information security programs based on the sensitivity of the data developed, processed, communicated, and stored on facility information systems.

  1. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  2. An integrated mobile system for port security

    SciTech Connect

    Cester, D.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.; Neri, F.; Petrucci, S.; Selmi, S.; Tintori, C.

    2011-07-01

    An integrated mobile system for port security is presented. The system is designed to perform active investigations, by using the tagged neutron inspection technique, of suspect dangerous materials as well as passive measurements of neutrons and gamma rays to search and identify radioactive and special nuclear materials. (authors)

  3. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  4. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  5. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  6. Applicability of Army Automation Security Guidance to Local Area Computer Network Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Emplovment of tactical fighters or compromise operational plans and targeting for nuclear missiles. [Ref. 1: p. 17] For example, one group of juvenile...everything from targeting ICBM’s to parceling out spaces in the Pentagon parking lot." [Ref. 2: p. 1] Given that "the flexibility of LANs for dynamic system...emphasis on security at the unit level. This section will address a few general computer network security points in terms of ADP target areas

  7. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services.

  8. Regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein expression by nuclear receptor PXR in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Nathalie; de Sousa, Georges; Bailly-Maitre, Béatrice; Gugenheim, Jean; Bars, Rémi; Lemaire, Géraldine; Rahmani, Roger

    2005-08-15

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a major role in the protection of the body by regulating the genes involved in the metabolism and elimination of potentially toxic xeno- and endobiotics. We previously described that PXR activator dexamethasone protects hepatocytes from spontaneous apoptosis. We hypothesise a PXR-dependent co-regulation process between detoxication and programmed cell death. Using primary cultured human and rat hepatocytes, we investigated to determine if PXR is implicated in the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, two crucial apoptosis inhibitors. In the present study we demonstrated that the treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with PXR agonists increased hepatocyte viability and protects them from staurosporine-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic capacity of PXR activation was correlated with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL induction at both the transcriptional and protein levels in man and rats, respectively. The inhibition of PXR expression by antisense oligonucleotide abolished PXR activators Bcl-xL induction. Accordingly, PXR overexpression in HepG2 cells led to bcl-2 induction upon clotrimazole treatment and protects cells against Fas-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that PXR expression is required for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL up-regulation upon PXR activators treatment in human and rat hepatocytes. They also suggest that PXR may protect the liver against chemicals by simultaneously regulating detoxication and the apoptotic pathway.

  9. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Special Procedures Applicable to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving...

  10. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  11. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  12. Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N.

    2007-07-01

    explain the occurrences of proliferation decisions. However, predicting major historical proliferation events using model-based predictions has been unreliable. Nuclear proliferation decisions by a country is affected by three main factors: (1) technology; (2) finance; and (3) political motivation [1]. Technological capability is important as nuclear weapons development needs special materials, detonation mechanism, delivery capability, and the supporting human resources and knowledge base. Financial capability is likewise important as the development of the technological capabilities requires a serious financial commitment. It would be difficult for any state with a gross national product (GNP) significantly less than that of about $100 billion to devote enough annual governmental funding to a nuclear weapon program to actually achieve positive results within a reasonable time frame (i.e., 10 years). At the same time, nuclear proliferation is not a matter determined by a mastery of technical details or overcoming financial constraints. Technology or finance is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for nuclear proliferation. At the most fundamental level, the proliferation decision by a state is controlled by its political motivation. To effectively address the issue of predicting proliferation events, all three of the factors must be included in the model. To the knowledge of the authors, none of the exiting models considered the 'technology' variable as part of the modeling. This paper presents an attempt to develop a methodology for statistical modeling and predicting a country's nuclear proliferation decisions. The approach is based on the combined use of data on a country's nuclear technical capability profiles economic development status, security environment factors and internal political and cultural factors. All of the information utilized in the study was from open source literature. (authors)

  13. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  14. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  15. 10 CFR 110.121 - Security clearances and access to classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security clearances and access to classified information. 110.121 Section 110.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.121 Security clearances and access to classified...

  16. [Radiation exposure of cultured tissue cells and animals (mice) within 10-kilometers zone of accident at Chernobyl nuclear plant. Effect on radiosensitivity to future radiation].

    PubMed

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasév, G G; Gotlib, V Ia; Alferovich, A A; Antoshchina, M M; Riabchenko, N I; Saenko, A S; Riabtsev, I A; Riabov, I N

    1993-01-01

    The effect of chronic low-level radiation exposure on radiosensitivity to posterior acute irradiation at high doses has been studied. Cells and mice were exposed within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster during various spaces of time (1-12 days), then over one or more days were additionally irradiated by doses of 1-4 Gy. It was shown that no adaptive response was developed under chronic exposure of cells and mice within the zone of disaster. On the contrary increased sensitivity to posterior irradiation was revealed. The number of cytogenetic damages of cultured tissue cells and marrow cells (chromosome aberrations and micronuclei) increases, the spectrum of aberrations being shifted to chromosome type, cells with multiaberration appearing. The decay of chromatine increases indicating an interphase death; the number of leucocytes in peripheral blood decreases.

  17. Components of a Course on National Security Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quester, George H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the components of a course on the formation of national security policy. Includes information on the amount of emphasis and instructional approach to take with each component of the course. Components include the nature of strategy, the role of war in international politics, disarmament and arms control, nuclear weapons and nuclear war,…

  18. Study of the characteristics of seismic signals generated by natural and cultural phenomena. [such as earthquakes, sonic booms, and nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, T. T.; Rasmussen, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic data recorded at the Tonto Forest Seismological Observatory in Arizona and the Uinta Basin Seismological Observatory in Utah were used to compare the frequency of occurrence, severity, and spectral content of ground motions resulting from earthquakes, and other natural and man-made sources with the motions generated by sonic booms. A search of data recorded at the two observatories yielded a classification of over 180,000 earthquake phase arrivals on the basis of frequency of occurrence versus maximum ground velocity. The majority of the large ground velocities were produced by seismic surface waves from moderate to large earthquakes in the western United States, and particularly along the Pacific Coast of the United States and northern Mexico. A visual analysis of raw film seismogram data over a 3-year period indicates that local and regional seismic events, including quarry blasts, are frequent in occurrence, but do not produce ground motions at the observatories comparable to either the large western United States earthquakes or to sonic booms. Seismic data from the Nevada Test Site nuclear blasts were used to derive magnitude-distance-sonic boom overpressure relations.

  19. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace speech in 1953 is remembered for engaging the world, and the Soviet Union in particular, in a dialogue about arms control and the formulation of a nuclear regime in which national and international security concerns growing from this unprecedented emerging and frightening new weapons capability would be addressed while tapping the civilian promise of nuclear applications for the good of mankind. Out of it came a series of initiatives, leading fifteen years later to the NPT, intended to allow the growth and spread of the beneficial uses of nuclear know-how while constraining the incentives and capabilities for nuclear weapons. The last 50 years has seen a gradual spread in nations with nuclear weapons, other nations with nuclear knowledge and capabilities, and still others with nuclear weapon intentions. Still most nations of the world have forgone weapon development, most have signed and abided by the NPT, and some that have had programs or even weapons, have turned these capabilities off. Yet despite this experience, and despite a relatively successful record up to a few years ago, there is today a clear and generally recognized crisis in nuclear governance, a crisis that affects the future of all the cross-cutting civilian/security issues we have cited. The crux of this crisis is a lack of consensus among the major powers whose support of international efforts is necessary for effective governance of nuclear activities. The lack of consensus focuses on three challenges: what to do about non-compliance, what to do about non-adherence, and what to do about the possible leakage of nuclear materials and technologies to terrorist groups. Short of regaining consensus on the priority to be given to nuclear material and technology controls, it is unlikely that any international regime to control nuclear materials and technologies, let alone oversee a growth in the nuclear power sector, will be successful in the tough cases where it needs to

  20. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.