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Sample records for nuclear smuggling deterrence

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies.

  2. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence FY 2016 Data Analysis Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Enders, Alexander L.; Harris, Tyrone C.; Pope, Thomas C.; Patterson, Jeremy B.

    2017-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) has facilitated the installation of more than 3,500 radiation portal monitors (RPMs) at 606 sites in 56 countries worldwide. This collection of RPMs represents the world’s largest network of radiation detectors and provides one element in the defense-in-depth approach that supports the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture. These systems support NSDD’s mission to build partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit transport of radiological and fissile material through strategic points of entry and exit at seaports, airports, and border crossings. NSDD works collaboratively with partner countries and international organizations to optimize the operation of these RPMs. The large amount of data provided by NSDD partner countries highlights the close cooperation and partnerships NSDD has built with 56 countries around the world. Thirty-seven of these countries shared at least some RPM-related data with NSDD in fiscal year 2016. This significant level of data sharing is a key element that distinguishes the NSDD office as unique among nuclear nonproliferation programs and initiatives: NSDD can provide specific, objective, data-driven decisions and support for sustaining the radiation detection systems it helped deploy. This data analysis report summarizes and aggregates the RPM data provided to the NSDD office for analysis and review in fiscal year 2016. The data can be used to describe RPM performance and characterize the wide diversity of NSDD deployment sites. For example, NSDD deploys detector systems across sites with natural background radiation levels that can vary by a factor of approximately six from site to site. Some lanes have few occupancies, whereas others have approximately 8,000 occupancies per day and the different types of cargo that travel through a site can result in site-wide alarm rates that range from near 0% at

  3. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system.

  4. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  5. Detector Requirements to Curb Nuclear Smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A

    2001-11-14

    The problem of stopping nuclear smuggling of terrorist nuclear devices is a complex one, owing to the variety of pathways by which such a device can be transported. To fashion new detection systems that improve the chances of detecting such a device, it is important to know the various requirements and conditions that would be imposed on them by both the types of devices that might be smuggled and by the requirement that it not overly interfere with the transportation of legitimate goods. Requirements vary greatly from low-volume border crossings to high-volume industrial container ports, and the design of systems for them is likely to be quite different. There is also a further need to detect these devices if they are brought into a country via illicit routes, i.e., those which do not pass through customs posts, but travel overland though open space or to a smaller, unguarded airport or seaport. This paper describes some generic uses of detectors, how they need to be integrated into customs or other law enforcement systems, and what the specifications for such detectors might be.

  6. Busting Myths about Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    weapon capabilities, while Iran remains on course to do so. Moreover, ongoing nuclear modernization programs in China and Russia point to the... Russia —that “the U.S. nuclear posture must be designed . . . not just [for] deterrence of enemies in time of crisis and war but also assur- ance of our...combat radius to reach Okinawa, Guam, and Hawaii from the main- land.10 Russia also continues a robust nuclear modernization program that includes silo

  7. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  8. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-15

    advisor at the Atomic Energy Commissariat ; a former nuclear submarine captain, currently senior advisor to the Director of Strategic Affairs, Ministry of...the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Atomic Energy Commissariat . Two excellent compilations of primary texts and sources have been published... Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA, discussed later in this chapter) when it was founded in 1945. B. Threat Perceptions The perception of a

  9. British nuclear deterrent after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Trident nuclear deterrent program is one of the United Kingdom`s largest-ever military acquisitions. Planned and initiated in the depths of the Cold War, it is now coming to fruition, when the most obvious justification for it--the Soviet threat to Western Europe--has disappeared. The continuation of the program is not in doubt; the money is largely spent or committed, and the main political parties agree on deploying the force. But the rationale needs refurbishment. Britain has traditionally preferred to represent her nuclear capability primarily as a contribution to NATO`s collective deterrence. The second center of decisionmaking concept defined a particular value for that contribution. This rationale seized the moral high ground (by associating Britain`s deterrent with NATO`s strategy to prevent war), guarded the proliferation flank, and underpinned Anglo-American relations.

  10. Nuclear deterrence in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Did India and Pakistan nearly fight a nuclear war in 1990? In a provocative 1993 article, Seymour M. Hersh claims that they did. During a crisis with India over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir, Pakistan openly deployed its main armored tank units along the Indian border and, in secret, placed its nuclear-weapons arsenal on alert. As a result, the Bush Administration became convinced that the world was on the edge of a nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India. Universe of cases is admittedly small, but my argument is supported by recent research indicating that preemptive attacks of any kind have been historically rarer than conventionally believed. The nuclear era has seen two instances of preventive attacks against nuclear facilities-the 1981 Israeli bombing of Iraq`s Osirak nuclear facility and the allied coalition`s 1991 air war against Iraq-but both of these actions were taken without fear of nuclear reprisal. In situations where nuclear retaliation has been a possibility, no leader of nuclear weapon state has chosen to launch a preemptive first strike. 97 refs.

  11. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  12. Future of strategic nuclear deterrence. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, J.

    1992-04-10

    The evolving role of our Strategic Nuclear Forces and the deterrent requirement of that force in a changing and volatile world are two of the most contentious issues facing this country's leadership. The debate surrounding these forces has been brought about by many diverse factors that include the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resultant end of the Cold War, bilateral arms control agreements and unilateral reductions which have reduced the number and operational status of nuclear forces, and a perceived reduction in the threat facing the U.S. and its allies. Additionally, the success of U.S. technology as seen in the effects of modern conventional munitions in the Gulf War and the proliferation of ballistic missile and nuclear weapons technology into Third World countries have further compounded the complexity of the issue. The concomitant changes in the focus and structure of U.S. and allied military forces have further fueled the debate. As the National Security Strategy and supporting National Military Strategy are evolving to meet new threats, it is essential to provide an analysis of the continued deterrent role of our Strategic Nuclear Force in this changing world.

  13. The nuclear debate: Deterrence and the lapse of faith

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This essay examines the growth of skepticism about the present system of nuclear deterrence. Tucker resists predicting the ultimate outcome, but he views the nuclear debate of this decade as an important ''lapse of faith'' in deterrence and he doubts there will ever be a full restoration of confidence.

  14. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  15. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  16. Dealing with a Nuclear Iran: Applying Historical Lessons in Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Israel is widely considered to have acquired nuclear weapons in the late 1960’ s . Although never acknowledged, the “overall consensus is that Israel...Harvard University Press, 1960), 3-20. 4 Ibid, 6. 5 Ibid, 187. 6 Frank C. Zagare and D. Marc Kilgour, Perfect Deterrence (Cambridge, UK...11 December 2011). Zagare , Frank C., and D. Marc Kilgour. Perfect Deterrence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

  17. What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2011-04-01

    Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

  18. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  19. Nuclear Deterrence in a Regional Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    with these questions. The first report’ presents a general re- formulation of deterrence geared toward potential regional adver - saries. The second... adver - saries are willing to take substantial risks because they frequently enter crises out of a desire to avert some loss, e.g., a loss of territory...the specific motivations of the adver - sary, the interests and reputation that affect the resolve of each con- testant (these may change as the

  20. Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J

    2009-01-21

    The fallacy of zero nuclear weapons, even as a virtual goal, is discussed. Because the complete abolition of nuclear weapons is not verifiable, nuclear weapons will always play a role in the calculus of assure, dissuade, deter and defeat (ADDD). However, the relative contribution of nuclear weapons to international security has diminished. To reconstitute the Cold War nuclear capability, with respect to both the nuclear weapons capability and their associated delivery systems, is fiscally daunting and not warranted due to competing budgetary pressures and their relative contribution to international security and nonproliferation. A proposed pathway to a sustainable nuclear weapons capability end-state is suggested which provides enough ADDD; a Dyad composed of fewer delivery and weapon systems, with trickle production at the National Laboratories and private sector to maintain capability and guard against technological surprise.

  1. Nuclear deterrence in the Arab-Israeli conflict. A case study in Egyptian-Israeli relations

    SciTech Connect

    Shikaki, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to achieve security and stability, and maximize the chances for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict, should Egypt and Israel adopt declared nuclear deterrence doctrines. Or would such a move be ineffective, dangerous, or even disastrous. The nuclearization of the Middle East is not necessary: military threats to the survival of the states in the region do not justify the introduction of nuclear weapons. Nuclearization is not desirable: deterrence theory's assumptions and implications exhibit intellectual weakness and its explanatory power is unsatisfactory; nuclear deterrence may reduce the frequency of war, but it pays little attention to the consequences of war; and in comparison to defense, nuclear deterrence may lack credibility. Presently, Israel has nuclear capability and delivery systems sufficient to provide security to its vital areas through deterrence of or defense against Arab attacks. The Arabs do not, however, believe that such security extends to the Arab territories occupied by Israel during the June 1967 war. To supply security, nuclear deterrence must be effective, stable, and credible. In a multinuclear environment, the Egyptians and Israelis are likely to meet the requirement for an effective deterrence: the possession of a nuclear capability sufficient to inflict an enormous amount of death and destruction. If the Arabs and Israelis sought and adopted strategies of deterrence, they might be able to meet the requirement for a stable deterrence: the acquisition of second strike capabilities.

  2. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    Freedman, Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 735. 4 Carl von Clausewitz, On...26 Scott D. Sagan , "How to Keep the Bomb from Iran," Foreign Affairs 85, (September/October 2006): 45 27 Matthew Bunn, "Bombs We Can Stop

  3. An Uncertain Deterrence: Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problems of Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNNERSm NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE An Uncertain Deterrence : Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problem of Stability...COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Uncertain Deterrence: Bernard Brodie, Indian Nuclear Strategy, and the Problems of...themselves anconsciously reject tie concept of deterrence based on retalirrtron’. The above statement was excerpted from Bernard Brodie’s 1959 sruc?y

  4. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  5. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-04

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  6. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    PubMed

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms.

  7. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D. Y.

    1998-11-16

    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC&A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC&A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  8. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Ventura, Jonathan S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-first century security challenges are multi-polar and asymmetric. A few nations have substantial nuclear arsenals and active nuclear weapons programs that still threaten vital US national security directly or by supporting proliferation. Maintaining a credible US nuclear deterrent and containing further proliferation will continue to be critical to US national security. Overlaid against this security backdrop, the rising worldwide population and its effects on global climate, food, and energy resources are greatly complicating the degree and number of security challenges before policy makers.This new paradigm requires new ways to assure allies that the United States remains a trusted security partner and to deter potential adversaries from aggressive actions that threaten global stability. Every U.S. President since Truman has affirmed the role of nuclear weapons as a supreme deterrent and protector of last resort of U.S. national security interests. Recently, President Bush called for a nuclear deterrent consistent with the 'lowest number of nuclear weapons' that still protects U.S. interests. How can this be achieved? And how can we continue on a path of nuclear reductions while retaining the security benefits of nuclear deterrence? Science and engineering have a key role to play in a potential new paradigm for nuclear deterrence, a concept known as 'capability-based deterrence.'

  9. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-13

    Soviet cities in response to a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. Initial plans made in 1946, for example, called for the destruction of “20 urban...deterrence fails. He asserts, in accordance with the logic of minimum deterrence, that holding an enemy’s cities at risk in times of peace initially seems...that minimum deterrence assumes a countervalue response even if a nation’s own cities are spared during a large-scale counterforce attack. That is, a

  10. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  11. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  12. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many

  13. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  14. Boom or Bust: Britain’s Nuclear Deterrent Beyond 2025

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    States nuclear arsenal dwarfs the UK’s inventory of 160 warheads. Also the U.S. operates multiple delivery systems vice the UK’s sole submarine launched...technician, Mordechail V anunu, disclosed the nature of his work at the Dimona nuclear plant in 1986 to the London Times Newspaper.22 During the...Syria. Today the Arab Spring nations do not have, or necessarily covet, nuclear weapons; however, with legitimate nuclear electric power plants within

  15. Preparing for the 2009 Nuclear Posture Review: Post-Cold War Nuclear Deterrence and the 2001 NPR Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of relying upon the minimalist idea of maintaining strategic deterrence only to prevent nuclear attack.[87] Joseph Pilat agrees and tries to make...Record Straight,” The Washington Quarterly 28, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 136. 87. Payne (2005), Op. Cit., 140. 88. Pilat , Op. Cit., 43. 89. Payne (2005...152. 91. Payne (2005), Op. Cit., 142. 92. Ibid., 146. 93. Joseph F. Pilat , “The New Triad,” in Wirtz and Larson, eds., Nuclear Transformation

  16. The Credibility of America’s Extended Nuclear Deterrent: The Case of the Republic of Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Robert Litwak, provided outstanding guidance during the topic selection. Dr. Kerry Kartchner of the policy division at the De- partment of State was an...deterrence is very much more than just a matter of having a fa- vorable military balance, and very much a matter of the nature and extent of ties...The fundamental reason why Turkish officials want to keep the [nuclear] weapons [in NATO] has more to do with the nature and the scope of Turkish

  17. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Deterrence Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    high level attention is focused on development of a national nuclear weapon strategy, and to assure that issues affecting the deterrence posture of...not appear to be a current problem in recruiting high caliber technical graduates to the NNSA and its contractors. There are two main areas of concern...year-to-year is as important to the issue of maintaining technical competence. High standards for basic educational qualifications and good training

  18. The Future of US Nuclear Deterrence and the Impact of the Global Zero Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-10

    www.northropgrumman.com/analysis-center/briefings/assets/triad-brief-to- afa -121009.pdf. 46. Cartwright et al., Global Zero U.S. Nuclear Policy Commission... AFA Air & Space Conference National Harbor, Maryland, 18 September 2012), 3, http://www.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-121002-064.pdf. 59...Century Deterrence.” AFA Air & Space Conference--National Harbor, Maryland, 18 September 2012. http://www.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-121002

  19. Deterrence versus Preemption: Assessing U.S. Nuclear Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2003-03-19

    Since coming into office in 2001, the Bush administration has enacted a series of controversial policies designed to create a more robust and more usable nuclear arsenal. From requiring new nuclear strike capabilities (including against non-nuclear countries), to threatening preemptive attacks, to investing billions of dollars in rebuilding the nuclear weapons production complex, the administration is systematically strengthening the role nuclear weapons play in defending the United States and its interests around the world. This presentation examines those policies and the thinking that underlies them. It questions the effectiveness of the administration's approach and explores some of the unintended consequences vis-a-vis U.S. policy toward North Korea, Iraq, Pakistan, and others. Finally, it takes a detailed look at current efforts to develop a new low-yield earth-penetrating nuclear weapon to destroy hardened underground facilities, assessing the feasibility of such a device and the potential effects of its use.

  20. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Postures in South Asia: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    the context of the publication in India of the "NSAB Draft Report ... on Indian Nuclear Doctrine," is Agha Shahi, Zulfiqar Ali Khan and Abdul Sattar...Minister of Pakistan, and Air Marshall Zulfiqar Ali Khan formerly was Pakistan’s Air Force Commander in Chief. 50 President Pervez Musharraf’s Oct. 19...pp. 67-87. Shahi, Agha, Air Marshall (retd.) Zulfiqar Ali Khan and Abdul Sattar, "Securing Nuclear Peace," The News International, October 5, 1999

  1. Nuclear Deterrence: Strong Policy is Needed for Effective Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    hypersonic boost glide vehicles to penetrate ballistic missile defense systems (p. 10-12). Finally, Russian nuclear scientists have discussed their...weapons such as missiles with multiple independently retargeted reentry vehicles (MIRVs) and mobile ICBMs.96 The NPR does advocate this position,97...have backed up this doctrine by developing and deploying advanced new strategic delivery vehicles and nuclear weapons, affirmed by statements from

  2. Method of increasing the deterrent to proliferation of nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rampolla, D.S.

    1982-08-17

    A process is claimed of recycling protactinium-231 to enhance the utilization of radioactively hot uranium-232 in nuclear fuel for the purpose of making both fresh and spent fuel more resistant to proliferation. The uranium-232 may be obtained by the irradiation of protactinium-231 which is normally found in the spent fuel rods of a thorium base nuclear reactor. The production of protactinium-231 and uranium-232 would be made possible by the use of the thorium uranium-233 fuel cycle in power reactors.

  3. Method of increasing the deterrent to proliferation of nuclear fuels

    DOEpatents

    Rampolla, Donald S.

    1982-01-01

    A process of recycling protactinium-231 to enhance the utilization of radioactively hot uranium-232 in nuclear fuel for the purpose of making both fresh and spent fuel more resistant to proliferation. The uranium-232 may be obtained by the irradiation of protactinium-231 which is normally found in the spent fuel rods of a thorium base nuclear reactor. The production of protactinium-231 and uranium-232 would be made possible by the use of the thorium uranium-233 fuel cycle in power reactors.

  4. DISARMAMENT AND DETERRENCE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLITICAL SCIENCE, *DISARMAMENT, *DETERRENCE, COLD WAR, USSR, USSR, COMMUNISM, NUCLEAR WARFARE, FOREIGN POLICY, GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN), ECONOMICS, LIMITED WARFARE, ARMS CONTROL, WESTERN EUROPE, UNITED STATES.

  5. U. S. /NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear deterrence: Paradox or pitfall. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, L.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present study examines the evolution of nuclear strategy with particular emphasis on the capacity of U.S./NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear forces. The current trend in NATO towards a certain denuclearization of the Central European states might well place an increased reliance on the sea-based theater nuclear weapons to counter Soviet theater nuclear forces in the Western Soviet Union. The present work analyzes the policy background of the NATO nuclear strategy from a European perspective in light of recent problems as a necessary precondition to an understanding of the more concrete issues of hardware. Although the U.S. Navy's nuclear-capable Tomahawk land attack cruise missile (TLAM/N) remains a potent and flexible nuclear strike asset, it is best suited for heavily defended high value fixed targets. Emphasis on offensive mobility in a future conflict will make carrier-based aircraft a more decisive platform from which to prosecute and destroy high value mobile targets. However, an analysis of the U.S. Navy's non-strategic nuclear forces reveals substantial deficiencies when compared with those of the Soviet Union. A declining U.S. Navy nuclear stockpile of air-deliverable strike weapons in combination with the lack of a long-range nuclear-capable stealth aircraft weakens the credibility of the aircraft carrier battle group as a nuclear deterrent force.

  6. DTIC review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear proliferation and deterrence in a changing political world

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, C.M.; Lee, C.; Foster, H.; Greene, E.; Levine, P.

    1995-08-01

    This collection of selected documents from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) addresses the formidable issue of protecting the United States and its people from potential nuclear destruction. With the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and, concomitantly, the end of the Cold War, new strategies for nonproliferation and deterrence must be devised and implemented. Potential threats from countries not previously seen as a danger, the escalation of regional conflicts and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are but a few of the considerations to be addressed. The authors of the following papers propose various plans and tactics to ensure United States national security and maintain world peace.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  8. Democracy and deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbitt, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book offers a different characterization of nuclear deterrence. Those models of nuclear deterrence arose from the strategic possibilities presented by air power while this book rejects the thesis, implicit in both ideologies, that modern nuclear strategy must be a perpetuation of the strategic bombing program that dominated the Second World War. The description of nuclear strategy is connected to the familiar distinction between central and extended deterrence. It is notorious that the debate about nuclear strategy has become detached from the precise political objectives that various strategies are supposed to serve. Any real contribution to analysis must renew this connection and thereby expose the strategic commitments and assumptions made. The author describes nuclear strategy as driven by developments in vulnerability which led to crises in extended deterrence although the relationship of central deterrence remained stable.

  9. Network Science for Deterrence: Sheathing the Sword of the Terrorism/Nuclear Horseman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    After 9/11, network analysis became popular as a way to connect and disconnect the dots. It was heralded as the new science with intrinsic value for understanding and breaking up terrorist groups, insurgencies and hostile foreign governments. The limit of the initially forwarded approach was that it focused on only the social network -- who talked to whom. However ,the networks of war, terror or nuclear or cyber, are complex networks composed of people, organizations, resources, and capabilities connected in a geo-temporal web that constrains and enables activities that are ``hidden'' in the web of everyday life. Identifying these networks requires extraction and fusion of information from cyber-mediated realms resulting in a network map of the hostile groups and their relations to the populations in which they are embedded. These data are at best a sample, albeit a very large sample, replete with missing and incomplete data. Geo-temporal considerations in addition to information loss and error called into question the value of traditional network approaches. In this talk, a new approaches and associated technologies that integrate scientific advances in machine learning, network statistics, and the social and organizational science with traditional graph theoretic approaches to social networks are presented. Then, examples, of how these technologies can be used as part of a deterrence strategy are described. Examples related to terrorism and groups such as al-Qaida and Hamas, cyber and nuclear deterrence are described. By taking this meta-network approach, embracing the complexity and simultaneously examining not just one network, but the connections among networks, it is possible to identify emergent leaders, locate changes in activities, and forecast the potential impact of various interventions. Key challenges, such as data-streaming and deception, that need to be addressed scientifically are referenced.

  10. An Analysis of the Morality of Intention in Nuclear Deterrence, with Special Reference to Final Retaliation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    effects is virtually the same, while the moral assessment of means differs greatly, although it is usually tied to the assessment of the goal, since...have the desired effect, implying that his belief may have no foundation in reality . But belie i.e, perception, is central to deterrence effectiveness...Perception constitutes reality in the relevant political arena. If both parties in a mutual deterrence situation befieve that forming the intention

  11. Morbidity rates on Vanguard Class submarines during nuclear deterrent patrol: a retrospective review over 13 years.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, M K; Scutt, M J

    2009-01-01

    The submarines responsible for the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent have carried a junior doctor as their medical officer since the program's inception. The Vanguard Class of submarine carries approximately 150 men and deploys for about 3 months at a time. One of the central tenets of submarine operations is to remain undetected and as such the submarine will only surface in an emergency, which may include the evacuation of casualties. The prime reason for carriage of a medical officer is to mitigate against the need to evacuate personnel for medical reasons. We examined the medical section of the patrol reports submitted upon completion of each patrol over a 13 year period to determine both the rates of medical and dental attendance onboard and also the occurrence of potential medical threats to patrol integrity. The most common reasons for attendance were dermatological and musculoskeletal, consistent with previous studies of this population and working environment. There were few dental cases due to the high rates of dental fitness in the pre-sailing crews. Patrol threatening cases occurred at a rate of approximately 1 per 3 patrols, with acute appendicitis being the most common presentation. This progressed to evacuation at a rate of 1 per 15 patrols, with the successful onboard management in 79% of cases. The junior doctor onboard has limited monitoring equipment and formulary, no diagnostic equipment, basic surgical equipment and no opportunity to seek senior advice, and is therefore reliant on clinical judgement. Despite the limitations placed on the doctor on board these submarines they have proven to be effective in reducing the rate of medical evacuation.

  12. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  13. Perseverance of Power: The Relevancy of Nuclear Deterrence in the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    evolved from its earliest use in the post-World War II multipolar environment, to the bipolar international order of the Cold War, through today ???s...for decision makers throughout the Cold War, and remains a source of debate today . Notably, central deterrence faces a significantly lower...American Jupiter missiles from Turkey.41 In the end, the Cuban Missile Crisis proved a watershed event in history, with effects felt long after

  14. The DTIC Review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear Proliferation and Deterrence in a Changing Political World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    warning. In intrastate situations, the deterrer’s task is more complex, not only because there may be many actors that require deterring, but also...situations may be more widespread than interstate conflict; and the United States may be self -deterred from committing ground forces to deter any but...force to the city of Kuwait sixty miles from the Iraq border in a few hours. Then Britain would have faced the far more difficult task of throwing the

  15. Intelligence briefing on smuggling of nuclear material and the role of international crime organizations, and on the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. Hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses nuclear smuggling and the role of international crime organizations in the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. The demise of the Soviet Union has weakened the control in Russia over nuclear materials. Statements of government officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  16. A theory of deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1991-03-20

    The purpose of this monograph is to start a theory of deterrence which has the capability of quantitatively answering the question of what is required to deter a nation or alliance from certain acts. Despite the existence of voluminous writing on deterrence, from the beginning of the nuclear age and even before, none of it attempts a theoretical discussion of how to calculate what it takes to deter a country from committing some acts which are objectionable to another country. Many theories of deterrence have already been created. They have exclusively been of two separate forms -- those of the social scientists, which deal with political questions, and how the concept of mass destruction psychological deters the initiation of war; and those of the mathematicians, who model the quantities of one country`s arsenal of strategic systems needed to destroy a certain portion of another country`s. Only the latter is quantitative, but they lack an essential element added to answer the question ``How much is enough?`` In order to use the techniques of operations research on the questions of what type and amount of weapons are adequate for deterrence, the definitions of quantities occurring in the calculations need to be made in quantifiable way. Numbers of weapons have been the only quantified parameter in previous deterrence calculations. Yet weapons alone do not deter. The threat of destruction and damage does. How is that threatenable damage to be measured, and as through defensive system construction, counterforce capability improvement, arms control, or other means, it becomes less when is the threshold for deterrence met and crossed? The calculation of this damage, and the implication of that damage to decision-makers capable of making a war initiation decision, is a complicated process, and it is what constitutes a theory of deterrence. 36 refs.

  17. Fuzzy Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    cognitive map. Three examples illustrate fuzzy cognitive maps‘ potential for understanding a non -state actor‘s decision-making calculus and...of the Cold War, the United States has wrestled with how rational deterrence applies to non -state actors in today’s complex security environment...Fuzzy logic’s themes of flexibility, adaptability, and ambiguity lay the foundation for applying fuzzy logic to non -state actor deterrence. Because

  18. Criminal Networks, Smuggling, and Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    strategies. Analysis of actual cases is essential to understanding the threat. • Nuclear smuggling travels the same routes as drugs and other illicit...Guerra Pereferica y el Islam Revolucionario: Origenes., Reglas y Etica de la Guerra Asimetrica (Peripheral Warfare and Revolutionary Islam: Origins

  19. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-14

    an end to Cold War thinking, we will reduce the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy , and urge others to do the same. —President...involved reducing the role of nuclear weapons in US national security strategy . The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), re- leased one year later, further...re- duce the importance of nuclear weapons in their national security strategy , it may have inspired them to rely more on nuclear weapons to meet

  20. Combating Nuclear Smuggling: DHS Has Made Some Progress but Not Yet Completed a Strategic Plan for Its Global Nuclear Detection Efforts or Closed Identified Gaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    polyvinyl toluene (PVT) portal monitors in many locations that the Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency within DHS, currently uses to screen...According to DHS officials, the department now scans nearly all containerized cargo entering the U.S. seaports for nuclear and radiologica materials...to protect critical port infrastructure from terrorism, particularly attacks using explosives and non-conventional threats that could cause major

  1. Miscalculated Ambiguity: The Effects of US Nuclear Declaratory Policy on Deterrence and Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    MIRVs) and anti-ballistic missile ( ABM ) technology began to re-invigorate thinking regarding nuclear warfighting explored under McNamara‘s counter...Nuclear Weapons and Nonproliferation: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary World Issues. ( ABC -CLIO, 2008), 6. policy proved deadly for this initial non

  2. The Credibility of America’s Extended Nuclear Deterrent: The Case of the Republic of Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    IAEA inspections of its nuclear research and mining programs.45 The United States should recognize Turkey’s compliance with these agreements and ...plant proposal; by 1970 a 400MW CANDU plant chosen; proposal called for plant operations in 1977 1966 Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  3. An Extended Deterrence Regime to Counter Iranian Nuclear Weapons: Issues and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    United States would do everything possible to prevent war in Europe from erupting . 10 Yet another lesson is that the United States and its NATO allies... progress is made in other areas of weapons design, Iran could start manufacturing nuclear weapons, much as already has been done by North Korea...hopeful outcome seems problematic. If so, the real issue will be the pace and timing of Iran’s progress toward becoming nuclear-armed. Economic conditions

  4. China’s Force Modernization and the Changing Concept of Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-21

    research and improve my analysis. Finally I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge the contributions of my family, my wife Delaine, and children Dylan ...Liberation Army As An Organization. Arlington, VA: Rand, 2002. Mederios, EvanS , ed. China’s Nuclear Future. Boulder, CA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc

  5. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  6. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  7. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  8. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  9. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  10. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  11. Deterrence at the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    by limited use of nuclear weapons. The Behavioral Model of Deterrence Will Predominate Cold War deterrence was built on the rational actor model...of the other, would be so risky that no one—regardless of cultural or behavioral attributes or institutional decision-making processes—would ever con...the Soviet Union developed mutual understanding of the limits of escalation and the “redlines” of crisis behavior and military action, though, as a

  12. Rogue States and Deterrence Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    s , Iran began reviving its civilian nuclear programs. In 2002 and 2003 clandestine research on fuel enrichment received international attention and...Deterrence Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Colonel Scott A. Enold 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Colonel Stephen Weiler Department of Command, Leadership, and Management 8

  13. Workshop Proceedings for USAF Institute for National Security Studies: Combatting Fissile Materials Smuggling Workshop #5, Held in Dublin, California, 3-4 February 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    medical isotopes which, although extremely toxic , cannot be used to create a nuclear detonation in a bomb. 21 Combatting Fissile Materials Smuggling...other toxic substances into U.S. markets. Now, our programs to stop nuclear smuggling in the NIS are better conceived and more professionally managed...5 3-4 February 1998 - the commercial strategy and nuclear cooperation, - the brain drain, - the necessity to maintain the appearance of global

  14. Application of Just War principles to nuclear war and deterrence in three contemporary theorists: Michael Walzer, Paul Ramsey, and William V. O'Brien

    SciTech Connect

    Sichol, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that the Just War tradition remains applicable in the nuclear age; three contemporary just war theorists have been selected to show that this is the case: Michael Walzer, political theorist; Paul Ramsey, theologian, and William V. O'Brien, professor of international law. Each is also influenced by his Jewish, Protestant and Roman catholic tradition respectively. The focus is on the principles of proportionality and discrimination, showing how the three theorists define, validate, and apply these principles to the conduct of war as compared to the concepts of the classic Just War theorists and to those expressed in the 1983 US Catholic Bishops' Statement. This Statement reflects the influence of the three secular theorists and also of contemporary moral theory. Just War principles are applied to the uses of nuclear weapons in war-fighting and deterrence and to actual public policy. Just War principles provide policy makers with a moral basis to move beyond national egoism by directing them to be concerned about the needs of the person and about the interdependence among states principles whose validity has often been assumed but whose application has never been so necessary.

  15. Deterrence and the impact of strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Lunghofer, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper examines the role of strategic defense in a deterrence strategy. Deterrence theory, strategic defense, the 1972 ABM Treaty, the national military strategy and Global Protection Against Limited Strikes are reviewed. It is asserted that the roles of nuclear forces and strategic defense are complimentary and stabilizing. The options to counter the threat of future proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the threat of accidental or unauthorized launch of ballistic missiles are examined with the conclusion that a comprehensive defense is necessary.

  16. Deterrence and Engagement: U.S. and North Korean Interactions over Nuclear Weapons since the End of the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    73 As Scott Sagan says: Strong states do what they can: they can pursue a form of internal balancing by adopting the costly, but self-reliant, policy...Renewed ed. Scott Sagan and Kenneth Waltz (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003). 72 In 1956, the United States abandoned French interests because...China, Britain, France and the Enduring Legacy of the Nuclear Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000), ch. 2. 74 Scott Sagan , “Why Do

  17. Beyond Armageddon: Deterrence with less. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbas, P.J.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the implications for nuclear deterrence between the United States and the Soviet Union brought about by the dramatic changes in the strategic environment during the 1980s. Specifically, it examines the potential for a new criteria of deterrence at significantly lower levels of strategic weapons. The analysis indicates that a targeting strategy which emphasizes economic and industrial facilities will deter the Soviet Union. This targeting strategy allows for a reduction to 1500 strategic weapons while maintaining the robustness of nuclear deterrence between the United States and the Soviet Union. Using as its criteria arms race stability, breakout stability, crisis stability, verification, predictability, consequences of war, and the security of friends and allies, this thesis concludes that a force structure comprised of the Trident D-5 Submarine-launched ballistic missile and the B-2 bomber best ensures deterrence both against the Soviet Union and any other nuclear power regardless of changes in their political or ideological orientation. To provide maximum flexibility while negotiating the agreement and to hedge against a breakdown in U.S/Soviet relations prior to implementation, the thesis recommends a modernization program for U.S. strategic forces including funding for the restructured Strategic Defense Initiative which is now named Global Protection Against Limited Strikes.

  18. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  19. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  20. Rationality, Culture and Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Postgraduate School Center on Contemporary Conflict is the research wing of the Department of National Security Affairs ( NSA ) and specializes in the...and neuroscience . None of these approaches, either alone or in combination, offers a perfect framework for predicting the outcomes of deterrence...constructivism, approaches based on domestic and bureaucratic politics, and behavioral approaches drawn from findings in psychology and neuroscience

  1. Turning off the tap: the real solution to cigarette smuggling.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2003-03-01

    The tobacco industry has argued that tobacco smuggling is caused by market forces, i.e., by the price differences between countries, which create an incentive to smuggle cigarettes from 'cheaper' to 'more expensive' countries, and so urged governments to solve the problem by reducing taxes to remove this differential, which will also, they say, restore revenue. Although such market forces have some effect, smuggling is in fact more prevalent in 'cheaper' countries, and reducing tax is not the solution. Where taxes have been reduced tobacco consumption has risen and revenue has fallen, with disastrous consequences for public health. The key to understanding cigarette smuggling is understanding the role of the tobacco industry. At the heart of cigarette smuggling is large scale fraud: container loads of cigarettes are exported, legally and duty unpaid, to countries where they have no market, and where they disappear into the contraband market. They are often smuggled back into the country of origin, where they are sold at a third to half price. It is therefore profitable because duty has been illegally evaded. The key to controlling cigarette smuggling is not lowering taxes, it is controlling the tobacco manufacturing industry and its exporting practices.

  2. On Nuclear Deterrence and Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    is at least questionable, particularly given the absence of any history of such cavalier presidential behavior. In addi- tion, because an opponent...Record—Senate, 5 March 1991, S2689. 11. R. Jeffrey Smith , “U.N. Says Iraqis Prepared Germ Weapons,” Washington Post, 26 August 1995, A-1. For a...Washington, DC: Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1990), 2547. 19. Smith , “U.N. Says Iraqis Prepared Germ Weapons,” A-19. 20

  3. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y; Sung, H; Yang, C; Shih, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Since market liberalisation in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT$4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT$10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. Design: 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Results: Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes—a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT$1000/month on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT$1000 (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. Conclusions: This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is

  4. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  5. Just war theory in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D.; Griesbach, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include the morality of war, the normative alternatives to war, national defense in the nuclear age, the environment of nuclear deterrence (empirical factors and moral judgments), morality and nuclear weaponry, the morality of nuclear deterrence and national defense in a changing strategic environment, alternatives to nuclear deterrence, and strengthening broadcasting capabilities into the USSR (e.g., Radio Liberty and Voice of America).

  6. Deterrence: potential for failure. Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    Having been exposed to the threat of nuclear annihilation all their lives, many of the post-war generation have adopted fatalistic attitudes about survival in a nuclear war. The premise that the world stands defenseless against these ultimate weapons is often accepted at face value. This same generation is now beginning to take the reins of power and must face the nuclear dilemma head-on and answer the question, Can the strategy that has served the nation so well during this era of assured destruction continue to protect the nation's security interests in the foreseeable future. The problem with deterrence is it's all or nothing nature. Deterrence is designed only to maintain peace. Should the strategy fail, it offers no guidance for the prosecution of war. This paper attempts to highlight the fragility of deterrence by identifying certain real-world factors that could cause the strategy to crumble. Perhaps the one factor having the most potential to bring about such a failure is the never-ending advance of science and technology - the same technology that made a possible defense against such weapons. Strategists and leaders must recognize the danger of continuing to rely on a strategy that is by no means foolproof. New alternatives for credible strategies must be considered today if the USA is to insure its security in the future.

  7. Tacit Knowledge Involvement in the Production of Nuclear Weapons: A Critical Component of a Credible US Nuclear Deterrent in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    form of the National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) at LLNL, the Dual-Axis Hydrodynamic Radiographic Test (DAHRT) Facility at LANL and the Z Machine at...not work, this knowledge adds little to sustaining capacity to design or build a nuclear weapon. Interestingly while the NIF and ASCI have...the novelty of the NIF wears off that the SSMP will not be stimulating. Further, it is hard to entice young scientists to remain at the laboratory

  8. The dynamics of deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Mark; Kilmer, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Because punishment is scarce, costly, and painful, optimal enforcement strategies will minimize the amount of actual punishment required to effectuate deterrence. If potential offenders are sufficiently deterrable, increasing the conditional probability of punishment (given violation) can reduce the amount of punishment actually inflicted, by “tipping” a situation from its high-violation equilibrium to its low-violation equilibrium. Compared to random or “equal opportunity” enforcement, dynamically concentrated sanctions can reduce the punishment level necessary to tip the system, especially if preceded by warnings. Game theory and some simple and robust Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate these results, which, in addition to their potential for reducing crime and incarceration, may have implications for both management and regulation. PMID:19706505

  9. Conventional Strategic Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.; Speed, R.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Bush Administration argues that the US, as the world's only remaining superpower, must be prepared to intervene militarily in regional conflicts. However, the traditional American way of fighting-relying on ground forces with heavy equipment, supported by naval and air forces--could prove too expensive, both monetarily and in terms of expected American casualties, to garner the support of the American public or Congress. This paper argues that the revolution in conventional weaponry demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War opens up the possibility of a new strategy--called Conventional Strategic Deterrence--that could reduce both financial costs and casualties (if it were necessary to implement the strategy) while still being a strong and credible deterrent to regional conflict.

  10. ''Whither Deterrence?'' A Brief Synopsis May, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nach, M; Sloss, L

    2002-05-29

    To most audiences, deterrence has been interconnected with nuclear weapons whose purpose had been to deter a Soviet attack. But, the Soviet Union has been gone for almost a decade. President George W. Bush has stated that Russia is not an enemy of the US and the numbers of nuclear weapons can be dramatically reduced. It is important to note that deterrence has always transcended nuclear weapons. The US' first line of deterrence has been its formidable conventional warfare capability, designed to prevent conflict and win wars if necessary. The role of nuclear weapons has been to deter the,use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction against U.S. interests during the conduct of conventional warfare and to ensure our ability to inflict massive destruction on any who would use nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, against us. With regard to the Soviet Union, the threat of the use of nuclear weapons was a critical component of our deterrent to prevent massive Soviet conventional attack against our allies in Europe. However, the events of September 11, 2001 make clear that we have not convinced all who seek to harm us that we will be able to respond in a manner to make them wish they had not even tried. The September 11 attacks, as well as other past conflicts, do not mean that deterrence has failed-it remains effective against the threats for which it was designed. We have known there are other threats for which we did not have a credible deterrent. The challenge is to sustain deterrence against the classic threats as they evolve in technical sophistication while remaining alert to the need to evaluate continuously our ability to deter previously unforeseen challenges. How then should we be looking at deterrence as we consider fifteen or so years in the future, say to about 2015? What will be the role of nuclear weapons and other instruments of mass destruction in the future? What should the US be doing to prepare for the future? In this

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  12. Using detection and deterrence to reduce insider risk

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R F; Carlson, R L; Udell, C J

    1988-06-01

    This paper addresses a new concept of interaction between adversary detection and deterrence. It provides an initial evaluation of the effects of these variables on the risk of theft of special nuclear material by an insider adversary and can be extended to the sabotage threat. A steady-state risk equation is used. Exercises with this equation show that deterrence, resulting from the prospect of detection, has a greater ability to reduce the risk than the detection exercise itself. This is true for all cases except those in which the probability of detection is 1. Cases were developed for three different types of adversaries that can be distinguished from one another by the level of detection they are willing to tolerate before they are deterred from attempting a theft. By considering the effects of detection, deterrence, and adversary type, the ground work is laid for designing cost-effective insider threat-protection systems. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brad; Santoro, David; Volpe, Tristan; Warden, John

    2016-01-20

    In contrast to the Cold War bilateral global competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, the modern nuclear age features a more complex, multiplayer arena on the regional scale. With the exception of the U.S. and Russia, most major powers retain relatively small nuclear arsenals or technical hedge capabilities. The U.S., with strong interests and security partnerships in Europe, Northeast Asia, and the Middle East, must navigate through long-standing rivalries and active conflicts while attempting to divine the intentions of less experienced nuclear decision makers in charge of weak domestic institutions. As a result, analysts and policymakers must think globally about U.S. extended deterrence. How have the requirements of extended deterrence and assurance changed? Are there important threads that connect each region? What should the U.S. do differently? To explore these questions, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security Research, in partnership with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Pacific Forum CSIS, held a workshop on “Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence” in Washington, DC on November 2, 2015. The workshop brought together approximately 40 U.S. and foreign deterrence specialists and government officials, all attending in their private capacities. The participants joined a day of not-for-attribution discussions on the changing deterrence and assurance requirements, the threads that connect the regions, and U.S. strategy to deal with emerging challenges. The following is a summary of key takeaways.

  14. Conflict with China: Prospects, Consequences, and Strategies for Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Burma / Myanmar . Above and beyond the dangers posed by a clash between the world’s two most populous countries, the presence of nuclear weapons on...Reconnaissance CBRNE Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear , High-Yield Explosives DMZ Demilitarized Zone DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea EEZ...most concern to the United States. 2 Conflict with China: Prospects, Consequences, and Strategies for Deterrence Occasions for Conflict North Korea

  15. The Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and Post Cold War Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    Leadership or Extraordinary Lunacy?" Air University, 2008. Bodman, Samuel, Robert Gates and Condoleeza Rice. "National Security and Nuclear Weapons...nuclearweapons.html. Garden, Timothy. Can Deterrence Last? Edited by David Bolton, Military Power. London: Buchan and Enright , 1984. Gartzke, Erik and Matthew...Kroenig. "A Strategic Approach to Nuclear Proliferation." Journal of Conflict Resolution 53, no. 2 (2009): 151-60. Gates, Robert . "Gates Says U.S. Needs

  16. Minimal Deterrence Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-17

    program ("Preparation a Ia Limitation des Essais Nucleaires "), centered around a facility using computer simulation of nuclear testing to develop...Navy regularly conducts such exercises to perfect their response in the event of an incident or accident within an on-board nuclear installation.87...34Contre le revisionnisme nucleaire ," Paris Ellipses, 1994. [Boniface, Pascal. "Against Nuclear Revisionism," Paris Ellipses, 1994.] Boniface, Pascal. La

  17. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. Conclusion: The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry. PMID:18784154

  18. Analysis of Deterrence (Briefing charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of Deterrence    CDR ( s ) Harrison Schramm Naval Postgraduate School    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis of Deterrence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Monterey,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING

  19. Prioritizing like nuclear smugglers

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    An individual or group attempting to smuggle nuclear material out of a country has a choice of what border crossing to use and how to do it. If it is possible to think like a smuggler and determine what preferences one would have, then we could protect those smuggler-preferred border crossings first. Thinking like a smuggler requires that one understand a host of things: who is likely to smuggle and what might they have obtained, where they might have gotten it, and where they would like to deliver or sell it, how they will attempt to pass customs, how they might travel on both sides of the border, and what influences they might have on customs officials. After collecting data on criminology, geography, and much else, it is necessary to paste the data together into scenarios to ensure that self-consistent smuggling plans are created. These lead to counter-smuggling opportunities. Smuggling by amateurs turns out to be of a different class than professional smuggling, and needs to be countered differently. This work also assists in formulating key policy questions useful to guide counter-smuggling efforts. This methodology was developed for DOE/NN-43 for assistance with prioritization within the Second Line of Defense program.

  20. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  1. Deterrence in Professional Military Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    guide operational planning; moreover, complex escalation scenarios in- creasingly are the focus of tabletops and war games in the strategic forces...Space Power Journal migrate to the classroom. This could include results of senior-level war games and the work of STRATCOM’s Strategic Deterrence

  2. Conventional Military Deterrence - Its Rise to Dominance and Its Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    149; Timothy Garden, Can Deterrence Last: Peace Through a Nuclear Strategy (London: Buchan & Enright, 1984), Chapter One, pg. 1; and Gerald Steinberg...Strategy," U.S. Army War College Guide to Strategy, eds. Joseph R. Cerami and James F. Holcomb, Jr. (Carlisle Barracks, PA.: Strategic Studies...a New Direction, (Kentucky: The University of Kentucky Press, 2001), 17-18. 16 Jentleson, 246. 17 James Robinson, "Technology, Change and the

  3. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  4. [Expansion of the tobacco industry and smuggling: challenges for public health in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Enrique Armendares, Pedro; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2006-01-01

    The international tobacco industry, in its constant quest for new markets, has expanded aggressively to middle- and low-income nations. At the same time there has been a marked increase in tobacco smuggling, especially of cigarettes. Smuggling produces serious fiscal losses to governments the world over, erodes tobacco control policies and is an incentive to international organized crime. In addition, smuggling results in increased demand for and consumption of tobacco, which in turn benefits the tobacco companies. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that the international tobacco industry has instigated cigarette smuggling and has participated directly in these activities, while at the same time carrying out costly lobbying campaigns to pressure governments against tax increases and to promote their own interests. Academic studies and empirical evidence show that tobacco control can be promoted through high tax rates without causing significant increases in smuggling. To achieve this tobacco smuggling must be attacked through the use of strategies including multilateral controls and actions such as those included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which establishes the basis for combating smuggling through an international, global approach. It is also necessary to increase the penalties for smuggling and to make the tobacco industry, including producers and distributors, responsible for the final destination of their exports.

  5. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  6. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  7. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    PubMed

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  8. Deterrence Theory in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Security Strategy are adequate to address the current and future strategic environment. Given the inability of the international system and...aggression and limited deterrence failures, deterrence theory in general is still applicable to the current and future strategic environment. While...

  9. Deterrence with China: Avoiding Nuclear Miscalculation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Israeli War of 1973, the fall of the Shah of Iran, the collapse of the Soviet Union and, most recently, 9 /11. —Mackubin ThoMas owens A s China rises and...20319 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9 . SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR...ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 9 19a. NAME OF

  10. Conventional Deterrence in the Second Nuclear Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    suggesting the terminology of opportunity versus necessity. 41. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky , “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk...Econo- metrica, 47 (March 1979), 263-91. Kahneman alone was the recipient of the Nobel Prize because Tversky died in 1996, and the Nobel Institute

  11. Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

    1999-08-31

    This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

  12. New British deterrent: strategic planning and domestic political implications. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    The British Government announced its intention in July 1980 to modernize its strategic nuclear deterrent with the deployment of the Trident I (C4) submarine-launched ballistic missile. The MIRVed Trident missile will have significantly increased capabilities of range, payload and target numbers. It also represents an enormous expense for the British to bear and high political and military opportunity-costs for capabilities which may not be vital to an effective and credible national strategic deterrent. The political difficulties likely to be encountered in bringing the Trident program to fruition may portend the loss of all British strategic capability, while resulting conventional weapons reductions may even contribute to lowering the threshold of agression in Western Europe and increasing the liklihood of the threatening circumstances a nuclear deterrent is designed to avoid. Alternative strategic options, such as Polaris or Poseidon SLMBs or cruise missiles, should be explored to achieve the strategic stability and guarantee which the British seek.

  13. Strategic, Tactical and Doctrinal Military Concepts. The Deterrence Concept: A Synthesis Based on a Survey of the Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    paper with some provocative and significant points.] 75 SZILARD , Leo 1964 "’Minimal Deterrent’ vs. ’Saturation Parity’" Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists...doctrine, 1945-1965. For especially relevant indi- vidual papers included in the book, see entries in this bibliography for Erithoven, Szilard , Waskow, and...March 1964 Kissinger 1965:376-91 [ Szilard , a scientist and arms control advocate, urges minimal deterrence, i.e., nuclear strategic arms reduc- tion

  14. Deterrence in the 1980s. Crisis and dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book considers the deterrence debate of the western world's defense policy and examines the effectiveness of deterrence as a strategy, both at present and in the future. It discusses the concept of deterrence and explores the ways in which the doctrine is converted into strategies by the superpowers. The book also addresses advances in technologies, the effects of these on deterrence, and the role of the superpowers' allies in the deterrence debate.

  15. Conventional Deterrence and the Falkland Islands Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    same task, just by a different means. Lawrence Freedman described deterrence as being “concerned with deliberate attempts to manipulate the behavior of...seriously if it does.”11 One of the most commonly accepted methods for manipulating an opponent’s behavior is to affect his “cost/ benefit calculation of...versus positive influence of inducements to affect behavior ; 7) inattention to deterrent capabilities at all levels of conflict.22 The issues of

  16. Little Boy to Star Wars the evolution of American deterrence. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Havey, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    The historical and sociological development of the American deterrent posture in the nuclear age is traced since the its dawn at Alamagordo, New Mexico, 16 July 1945, and the use of the Little Boy over Hiroshima three weeks later. A description of Western man's involvement in and reaction to pre-1945 catastrophic circumstances is followed by a comparative examination of the post-1945 changes in national policy in regard to the use and dangers of total war. Using Bernard Brodie as a theoretical deterrent baseline, the author analyzes the ethical and military shifts in U.S. declaratory (versus actual) nuclear policy, through Paul Nitze's statements of future policy in light of strategic defense. The author concludes that extremely effective--not necessarily perfect--defenses can be based dramatically on the beneficial effects of arms control. But at the same time, such a condition must inevitably result in a de facto reversion of U.S. nuclear policy to that of a small, non-counterforce force de frappe deterrent - similar in effect to that of the present French posture. The implications of this upon U.S.-Soviet force balance, the historical trends of the American Way of War, and the present deterrent mindset of the officer corps is left as a grave concern.

  17. Differential Deterrence: Studying Heterogeneity and Changes in Perceptual Deterrence among Serious Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Piquero, Alex R.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual deterrence has been an enduring focus of interest in criminology. Although recent research has generated important new insights about how risks, costs, and rewards of offending are perceived and internalized, there remain two specific limitations to advancing theories of deterrence: (a) the lack of panel data to show whether issues of…

  18. Strategic Defense Initiative: implications for US deterrence policy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    While ballistic missile defenses (formerly called ABMs) were believed foreclosed from the nuclear balance as a result of the ABM Treaty, the SDI program has brought ballistic missile defenses back into the strategic equation. It is possible to suggest that missile defenses may make a significant contribution to US national security. Given this proposition, the dissertation follows the analysis as outlined: (1) The original ABM debate of the late 1960s is reviewed with respect to the arguments of proponents and opponents of the ABM. This debate led the US to accept the dominance of offensive nuclear forces in the nuclear balance. (2) While the US had foresworn working on ballistic-missile defenses during the 1970s, the strategic nuclear balance and foundations of deterrence have changed. (3) US strategic nuclear policy has evolved since the late 1960s to incorporate three major policy schools: assured destruction, countervailing, and nuclear war-fighting. Ballistic missile defenses fit with these policies in quite different ways. (4) US strategic offensive nuclear forces may be altered significantly by the deployment of a missile defense. (5) A US missile defense could effectively break up the ABM Treaty and spell an end to the arms control process. On the other hand, the SDI also may serve as an impetus to a new arms control treaty which incorporates reductions in offensive nuclear forces.

  19. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  20. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  1. Complicity in contraband: British American Tobacco and cigarette smuggling in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Collin, J; LeGresley, E; MacKenzie, R; Lawrence, S; Lee, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in cigarette smuggling in Asia, and to assess the centrality of illicit trade to regional corporate strategy. Methods: Analysis of previously confidential documents from BAT's Guildford depository. An iterative strategy combined searches based on geography, organisational structure, and key personnel, while corporate euphemisms for contraband were identified by triangulation. Results: BAT documents demonstrate the strategic importance of smuggling across global, regional, national, and local levels. Particularly important in Asia, contraband enabled access to closed markets, created pressure for market opening, and was highly profitable. Documents demonstrate BAT's detailed oversight of illicit trade, seeking to reconcile the conflicting demands of control and deniability. Conclusions: BAT documents demonstrate that smuggling has been driven by corporate objectives, indicate national measures by which the problem can be addressed, and highlight the importance of a coordinated global response via WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:15564212

  2. Fundamental deterrence and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s brief respite from the specter of nuclear holocaust abruptly ended in May 1998 when India, 24 years after its only successful nuclear weapon test, detonated five more just sixty miles from its border with Pakistan. Pakistan quickly declared itself a nuclear power and threatened tests of its own. Various capitals issued condemnations and an assortment of largely symbolic political and economic sanctions. India then proclaimed a moratorium on further testing and announced its willingness to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as a declared nuclear power. Inevitably, India`s tests will prompt Pakistan and China to accelerate their own nuclear programs, to the detriment of regional stability in South Asia.

  3. Synopsis of the international workshop on illicit trafficking of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a synopsis is presented of the second ITWG (Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group) meeting that was held in Obninsk, Russia, on December 2-4, 1996, at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.

  4. Perceived deterrence and outcomes in drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Foltz, Carol; Lee, Patricia A; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    According to perceived-deterrence theory, the likelihood that an offender will engage in drug use or illegal activity is influenced by the perceived certainty of being detected for infractions or recognized for accomplishments, the perceived certainty of receiving sanctions for infractions or rewards for accomplishments, and the anticipated magnitude of the sanctions and rewards. This study evaluated drug court participants' perceived deterrence at monthly intervals during their enrollment in drug court. Exploratory cluster analysis (N=255) on the longitudinal scores yielded five subtypes of drug offenders characterized either by consistently elevated perceived-deterrence scores, consistently moderate scores, consistently low scores, increasing scores, or decreasing scores. The best outcomes were associated with consistently elevated scores, whereas the worst outcomes were associated with scores that declined over time as the participants became accustomed to the program. The clusters also differed in predicted directions on demographic variables. The correlational design does not permit inferences of causality; however, the results lend credence to perceived deterrence as a potential explanatory mechanism for the effects of drug courts.

  5. Strategic Deterrence for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    states are investing in their strategic arsenals , developing or modernizing nuclear forces as well as cyber and counterspace capabilities, and thus...States will maintain a safe, secure, and effective arsenal to deter any adversary and to guarantee that defense to our allies.3 In 2011 the “Four...nuclear arsenal . ř In his June 2013 Berlin speech, President Obama announced his assessment that we can ensure the security of America and our allies

  6. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonathan; Sen, Anindya; Stabile, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well.

  7. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  9. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  10. Changing Requirements of Assurance and Extended Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Larsen, eds., Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History, Vol. II (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC - CLIO, 2005...Appendix A Abbreviations ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ABMT Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty AEIO Atomic Energy Organization of Iran AKP Justice and... ABC -CLIO, 2005. Thranert, Oliver. “NATO, Missile Defence and Extended Deterrence.” Survival 51:6 (December2009-January 2010): 63–75. Wheeler

  11. 2015 Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Anthony

    2016-02-04

    In November 2015, the Center for Global Security Research, NSO, and Global Security program jointly sponsored a seminar investigating questions related to cross-domain deterrence at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the seminar, experts were asked to moderate discussion based on the four topics below. For each of these topics, we have compiled a short list of literature that will help analysts develop a baseline understanding of the issue.

  12. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD-A157 469 MECHRNISMS OF FEEDING DETERRENCE BY ZIZIPHINS(U) / CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY 8 P HRLPERN 30 NAY 65 SIID 7- BHP -CU-RRO RRO-i8882.2-LS DRAA2...OOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBERiS) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBERtS) 7- BHP -CU-ARO IJ,’tt . -4S 6a. NAME OF

  13. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    blame” as we explore the current efforts to prevent nuclear smuggling. Current US Policy President Obama once said, “A potential game changer would...Stop Nuclear Assistance to State Sponsors of Terrorism Act of 2009, International Uranium Extraction and Milling Control Act of 2009, Enhanced...detection capabilities, characterizes detector system performance, ensures effective response to detection alarms, integrates nuclear forensics

  14. Multinational Experiment 7. Deterrence Primer v. 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    between deterrence and compellence can be ambiguous and blurred in reality.18 For example, “a demand that an invader not proceed beyond a particular...distinctions between them; “deterrence may be used to reinforce compellence, and compellence to deter.”20 In spite of some ambiguities , and whilst the two... literary focus on extended deterrence. 23 General: refers to situations where there is no particular danger of potential attack yet an adversarial

  15. Beyond Armageddon: Deterrence with Less

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    it is the desired choice. Finally, it is necessary to consider the potential r ’rects the other three major nuclear powers may have on crisis...Effectiveness, vol. 3, The Second World War, ed. Allan R . Millet and Williamson Murray (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1988), pp. 19, 32-34, Kenneth J. Hagan...This People’s Navy (New York: The Free Press, 1991), pp. 327, 328; Robert W . Love, Jr., "Fighting a Global War, 1941-1945," in In Peace and War

  16. Interdicting Maritime Migrant Smuggling -- Applying Some Concepts of Operational Art to Coast Guard Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A paper submitted to the Naval War College faculty in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Joint Military Operations...ABSTRACT The issue of illegal human trafficking, smuggling, and migration in the maritime domain presents a challenge to the organizations charged with...LIEUTENANT COMMANDER, U.S. COAST GUARD A paper submitted to the faculty of the Naval War College in partial satisfaction of the requirements of Joint

  17. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  18. Remixing the ‘Appropriate Mix’: Reassessing NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture in the Face of New Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Anthony

    2016-05-31

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the countries of Europe face a renewed challenge from the east vis-à-vis the Putin regime in Moscow. In the face of these new challenges, NATO must reconsider its deterrence and defense posture in order to deter conflict in Europe. Unfortunately, Russian attempts to rewrite the rules of the post-Cold War international order by force have been coupled with nuclear saber rattling and overt nuclear threats. Russia’s nuclear threats, in addition to provocative changes to Russia’s nuclear posture in its Military Doctrine, are methods to make up for Russia’s conventional military inferiority relative to NATO and the United States. Some have described Moscow’s actions as laying the groundwork for a nuclear coercion strategy. While the decrease in the nuclear arsenals of Russia and the United States has reduced the likelihood of nuclear annihilation to an all-time low since the height of the Cold War, Russia’s nuclear coercion strategy is increasing the probability of nuclear employment in Europe. The probability of nuclear use is compounded by Russia’s tremendous local military advantage around its periphery in spite of U.S. global military primacy. This military advantage increases the incentive to use military force if Russian decision-makers conclude that a quick military victory is possible, or if Russian leaders miscalculate based on an incorrect assessment of military force balance or resolve of their adversary. The integration of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (referred to as the Baltics in this paper) into the NATO alliance in 2004 makes Russia’s military advantage in its periphery increasingly relevant. Each NATO state is required to assist any NATO state that comes under attack per Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. The Baltic states’ proximity to Russia, their weak indigenous militaries, their former status as Soviet Republics, large population of ethnic Russians, and Russian President

  19. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  20. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-08-05

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  1. Developmental, Familial, and Peer Deterrents to Adoption Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kyle N.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the developmental, familial, and peer deterrents that form barriers to adoption placement, based on interviews with 17 teen mothers in a residential facility. Analyzes responses based on an Eriksonian developmental model, and notes the role of family "cutoffs" and "re-admissions" and peer pressure as deterrents to…

  2. Sources of Deterrence: The Perceived Costs of Assault Versus Arrest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Richard; Williams, Kirk R.

    Recent panel studies of deterrence have reported little evidence that perceptions of legal sanctions promote deterrence. Yet those studies have consistently found that extralegal sanctions "inhibit" criminal involvement. Conclusions drawn from this line of research remain speculative, however, because they are guided by an unnecessarily…

  3. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger,

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  4. Large Bilateral Reductions in Superpower Nuclear Weapons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Taylor and- Francis, London and Philadephia, 1984. Szilard , Leo , "Minimal Deterrent vs Saturation Parity", Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, March 1964, pp...reduction of nuclear weapons. Szilard (1964) describes a Minimal Deterrent alternative that involves significant reductions in strategic and theater 0...nuclear forces. Szilard uses the mutual assured destruction criteria of 25 million people and calculates a U.S. strategic force of 40 1-3 Mt weapons

  5. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  6. MAD with aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some attack scenarios are likely to be exaggerated. In particular, it would seem to be unlikely that the humanity would be attacked simply because it might, sometime in the future, present a threat to the ETI. Even if communication proves to be difficult, rational decision-makers should avoid unprovoked attacks, because their success would be very difficult to assure. In general, it seems believable that interstellar conflicts between civilizations would remain rare. The findings advise caution for proposed interstellar missions, however, as starfaring capability itself might be seen as a threat. On the other hand, attempting to contact ETIs seems to be a relatively low-risk strategy: paranoid ETIs must also consider the possibility that the messages are a deception designed to lure out hostile civilizations and preemptively destroy them.

  7. Improving Road Safety through Deterrence-Based Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Jeremy D; Freeman, James E

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of road safety countermeasures to deter motorists from engaging in illegal behaviours is extremely important when considering the personal and economic impact of road accidents on the community. In many countries, deterrence theory has remained a cornerstone of criminology and criminal justice policy, particularly within the field of road safety, as policy makers and enforcement agencies attempt to increase perceptions regarding the certainty, severity and swiftness of sanctions for those who engage in illegal motoring behaviours. Using the Australian experience (particularly the tremendous amount of research into drink driving), the current paper reviews the principles underpinning deterrence theory, the utilisation of the approach within some contemporary road safety initiatives (e.g., random breath testing) as well as highlighting some methods to enhance a deterrent effect. The paper also provides direction for future deterrence-based research, in particular, considering the powerful impact of non-legal sanctions, punishment avoidance as well as creating culturally embedded behavioural change. PMID:21509205

  8. Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for fight against terrorism and smuggling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Palucci, Antonio; Puiu, Adriana; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-04-01

    We report the results of Raman measurements on some common military explosives and explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, in concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint or mixed with similar harmless substances to detect illegal compounds for smuggling activities. Raman spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope and a 785-nm laser in an analysis of <1 min. The spectral features of each illicit substance have been identified and distinguished from those belonging to the substrate fabric or from the interfering compound. Our results show that the application of Raman spectroscopy (RS) with a microscope-based portable apparatus can provide interpretable Raman spectra for a fast, in-situ analysis, directly from explosive particles of some μ, despite the contribution of the substrate, leaving the sample completely unaltered for further, more specific, and propedeutic laboratory analysis. We also show how the RS is suitable for detecting illegal compounds mixed with harmless substances for smuggling purposes or for counterfeiting activities.

  9. Overcrowded motor vehicle trauma from the smuggling of illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, Mary F; Judkins, Dan; Porter, John M; Latifi, Rifat; Williams, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    Overcrowded motor vehicle crashes caused by the very active criminal enterprise of smuggling illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest is a recent and under-recognized trauma etiology. A computerized database search from 1990 through 2003 of local newspaper reports of overcrowded motor vehicle crashes along the 281 miles of Arizona's border with Mexico was conducted. This area was covered by two level I trauma centers, but since July 2003 is now served only by the University Medical Center. Each of these crashes involved a single motor vehicle in poor mechanical shape packed with illegal immigrants. Speeding out of control on bad tires, high-speed rollovers result in ejection of most passengers. Since 1999, there have been 38 crashes involving 663 passengers (an average of 17 per vehicle) with an injury rate of 49 per cent and a mortality rate of 9 per cent. This relatively recent phenomenon (no reports from before 1998) of trauma resulting from human smuggling is lethal and demonstrates the smugglers' wanton disregard for human life, particularly when facing apprehension. Even a few innocent bystanders have been killed. These crashes overwhelm a region's trauma resources and must be recognized when planning the distribution of trauma resources to border states.

  10. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  11. Cracks in the New Jar: The Limits of Tailored Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-17

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and...an action. Deterrence by denial is the threat of successfully defeating an adversary‟s action.4 Another distinction exists between general...influenced by effects-based operations concepts. „Denying benefits‟ and „imposing costs‟ are simply alternate names for deterrence by denial and

  12. Here to Help: Third Party Deterrence Against Insurgent Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    that the new threat “of delinquent states and shadowy terrorist groups” was beyond the effects of deterrence.8 However, for those seeking an alternative...Eastern Europe. The relationships were congruent: the superpower provided a third-party deterrent effect and the host nation acquiesced...contested areas; generating uncertainty and unpredictability for insurgencies through randomness; and mitigating the effects of insurgent actions by

  13. Ballistic Missile Defense and Deterrence: Not Mutually Exclusive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-12

    Defense History As the deterrence debate raged, the U.S. began developing anti-ballistic missile ( ABM ) systems in the 1960’s. Kahn’s followers...advocated a robust ABM system to protect the entire nation, while Schelling’s camp was opposed to ABM systems, claiming that they were destabilizing and...differing views on the impact of an ABM system on deterrence, as well as the very high costs associate with deploying the system. Developing an

  14. Cyber Attacks, Attribution, and Deterrence: Three Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Cyber Attacks, Attribution, and Deterrence: Three Case Studies A Monograph by MAJ William Detlefsen United States Army School of...Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2015-01 Approved for public release...Deterrence: Three Case Studies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ William R. Detlefsen 5d. PROJECT

  15. Northeast Asia Nuclear Dilemmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    deterrence.40 Rather, analysts suggest that China fears that Japanese proliferation would beget Taiwan to renew its long- aborted nuclear weapons... abortive effort to establish...Cabinet Being Reshuffled After Rape Gaffes.” Associated Press, January 8, 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/japan-cabinet-being-reshuffled- rape -gaffes

  16. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. K.; Kristo, M. J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, Gordon B.

    2008-05-04

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unathorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  17. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-07-28

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  18. Germany and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    European leaders can contemplate how to spend peace dividends . So goes the common view.’ The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the unification of...Coulisses de la politique dtrang~re sous la Ve Rdpublique (Paris: Hachette, 1986); quoted in Yost, Strategic Culture, 25. 76 been respected to date.󈧒 The...Lothar Ruihl, La politique militaire de la cinqui~me rdpublique (Paris: Foundation Nationale des Sciences Politiques , 190-191; quoted in David S. Yost

  19. The British Nuclear Deterrent After the Cold War,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    collaborative project with France (the Air-Sol Longue Portee, or ASLP). - 37 - Such, then, was the position as Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union...security structure in Europe, while Brooke’s poem 񓞚"--"To turn, as swimmers into cleanness leaping Glad from a world grown old and cold and weary

  20. The value of vengeance and the demand for deterrence.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Özdemir, Yagiz; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-12-01

    Humans will incur costs to punish others who violate social norms. Theories of justice highlight 2 motives for punishment: a forward-looking deterrence of future norm violations and a backward-looking retributive desire to harm. Previous studies of costly punishment have not isolated how much people are willing to pay for retribution alone, because typically punishment both inflicts damage (satisfying the retributive motive) and communicates a norm violation (satisfying the deterrence motive). Here, we isolated retributive motives by examining how much people will invest in punishment when the punished individual will never learn about the punishment. Such "hidden" punishment cannot deter future norm violations but was nevertheless frequently used by both 2nd-party victims and 3rd-party observers of norm violations, indicating that retributive motives drive punishment decisions independently from deterrence goals. While self-reports of deterrence motives correlated with deterrence-related punishment behavior, self-reports of retributive motives did not correlate with retributive punishment behavior. Our findings reveal a preference for pure retribution that can lead to punishment without any social benefits.

  1. The Value of Vengeance and the Demand for Deterrence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Humans will incur costs to punish others who violate social norms. Theories of justice highlight 2 motives for punishment: a forward-looking deterrence of future norm violations and a backward-looking retributive desire to harm. Previous studies of costly punishment have not isolated how much people are willing to pay for retribution alone, because typically punishment both inflicts damage (satisfying the retributive motive) and communicates a norm violation (satisfying the deterrence motive). Here, we isolated retributive motives by examining how much people will invest in punishment when the punished individual will never learn about the punishment. Such “hidden” punishment cannot deter future norm violations but was nevertheless frequently used by both 2nd-party victims and 3rd-party observers of norm violations, indicating that retributive motives drive punishment decisions independently from deterrence goals. While self-reports of deterrence motives correlated with deterrence-related punishment behavior, self-reports of retributive motives did not correlate with retributive punishment behavior. Our findings reveal a preference for pure retribution that can lead to punishment without any social benefits. PMID:25285429

  2. Trends & Controversies: Sociocultural Predictive Analytics and Terrorism Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.

    2011-08-12

    The use of predictive analytics to model terrorist rhetoric is highly instrumental in developing a strategy to deter terrorism. Traditional (e.g. Cold-War) deterrence methods are ineffective with terrorist groups such as al Qaida. Terrorists typically regard the prospect of death or loss of property as acceptable consequences of their struggle. Deterrence by threat of punishment is therefore fruitless. On the other hand, isolating terrorists from the community that may sympathize with their cause can have a decisive deterring outcome. Without the moral backing of a supportive audience, terrorism cannot be successfully framed as a justifiable political strategy and recruiting is curtailed. Ultimately, terrorism deterrence is more effectively enforced by exerting influence to neutralize the communicative reach of terrorists.

  3. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  4. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  5. The long postwar and the politics of penicillin: early circulation and smuggling in Spain, 1944-1954.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries. As a commodity that crossed borders, penicillin, transiting between the law and hidden trade, between countries and social domains--between war fronts and from a war front to an urban site to be sold--reveals practices of the early years of prosperity in the 1950s. These transits were permanent tests of a society based on taxes and exchanges, law and bureaucracy, control, discipline and the creation of standards.

  6. Changing nature of Chinese nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, D.R.; Huill, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, analysts have believed that China was only interested in pursuing a minimalist, counter-value nuclear strategy that aimed at achieving strategic deterrence. This paper examines the possibility that Chinese nuclear strategy is changing in several ways: (1) it is moving to embrace a nuclear warfighting approach that encompasses tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons, and (2) it is moving from a counter-value to a counter-force strategic nuclear posture.

  7. 75 FR 21571 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Deterrence Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... proposed rule, we authorize other, more aggressive deterrence activities through separate provisions of the... injury or death of the animals. These guidelines also do not include more aggressive hazing activities... intrinsic to both sound management of the species and human safety, some more aggressive hazing...

  8. The Effect of Suspension as a Deterrent to Student Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Angela Coleman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of suspension as a deterrent to student misconduct. A mixed methods approach using both qualitative (interviews of administrators and teachers) and quantitative (discipline records of identified sixth graders) were utilized. In this case study approach, one-on-one semi-structured interviews were…

  9. Applying Deterrence Strategy to Agents of Asymmetrical Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Strategy, Disruptive Technology , Tailored Deterrence, Terrorist Psychology 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 151 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...SYSTEMS ..................................... 104 C. MODERN TERRORISM AS DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY ............ 106 D. STRATEGIZING BEYOND TECHNOLOGY ...more meaningful. Finally, I would like to offer a token of memoriam to my FDNY brothers and all those who perished as a result of the 9/11 attacks

  10. Deterrents to Women's Participation in Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore and define key factors that deter women from participating in continuing professional development (CPD) in the workplace. Four dimensions of deterrents that are caused by women's social roles, gender inequality and gender dimensions are discussed: family and time constraints, cost and work constraints, lack of…

  11. Arthropod deterrents from Artemisia pallens (Davana oil) components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Davanone, a key sesquiterpene component of davana oil, has been synthesized in five convenient steps. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes have been linked to insect deterrent properties. Based on initial screening of davana oil, davanone and its hydroxy precursors have been generated and are being evaluated...

  12. 2015 Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, A.

    2016-01-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted the 2nd Annual Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar on November 17th, 2015 in Livermore, CA. The seminar was sponsored by LLNL’s Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), National Security Office (NSO), and Global Security program. This summary covers the seminar’s panels and subsequent discussions.

  13. Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Cyber Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    February, 2017 This report is a product of the Defense Science Board...WASHINGTON, DC 20301–3140 DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD MEMORANDUM FOR THE UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY, AND LOGISTICS SUBJECT...Final Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Cyber Deterrence I am pleased to forward the final report of the Defense Science Board

  14. Reactive Black 5 dye degradation using filters of smuggled cigarette modified with Fe(3.)

    PubMed

    Glugoski, Letícia Polli; de Jesus Cubas, Paloma; Fujiwara, Sérgio Toshio

    2016-05-14

    This study presents an attempt to solve two serious environmental problems: the generation of toxic effluents and solid waste disposal. The work proposes recycling cigarette filters with the purpose of degrading reactive dyes, which are used in the textile industry. Filters of smuggled cigarettes were recycled through Fe(3+) immobilization on their surface. The material obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The factorial design revealed that the most suitable conditions for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye were obtained by using 1 g of material at pH 3.0 in a 100 mg L(-1) hydrogen peroxide solution. The material showed excellent performance in the Reactive Black 5 dye degradation process; in 60 min, 99.09 % dye was removed. At pH 7.0, the dye degradation was 72.67 %, indicating that the material prepared can be used at pH values greater than 3.0 without the occurrence of hydrated Fe(3+) oxide precipitation. Furthermore, the material showed no loss of catalytic activity after three degradation studies.

  15. Quantification of the Deterrent Effect of Radiation Portal Monitors Using a Decision Theory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2005-04-28

    Operation of radiation portal monitors (RPMs) can be modeled as a two-person game, with the RPM operator attempting to detect any nuclear weapon passing through the portal, while the opponent tries to pass it through undetected. A key element in the defender's decision strategy is the detection algorithm he employs, while a key element of the opponent's strategy is the threat density he employs. This article constructs a game-theoretic formulation for RPM operation and calculates the ''best'' strategy for each player, called the Minimax strategy. This solution allows one to quantify the deterrent effect that the inspection system has on the opponent--that is, the reduction in threat density due to use of the system.

  16. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  17. Teaching on Science, Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course focusing on science, technology, and the nuclear arms race. Two sample homework exercises and course topics are provided. Topics, with lists of questions that might be addressed, focus on nuclear weapons, alternatives to deterrence, and arms control. Approaches to teaching about the nuclear arms race are also provided. (JN)

  18. Nuclear Strategy and World Order: The United States Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Louis Rene

    The current U.S. nuclear strategy goes beyond the legitimate objective of survivable strategic forces to active preparation for nuclear war. The Reagan administration strategy rejects minimum deterrence and prepares for a nuclear war that might be protracted and controlled. The strategy reflects the understanding that a combination of counterforce…

  19. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.

  20. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    SciTech Connect

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-04-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation.

  1. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  2. Unmanned Bomber: The Effects It Will Bring to the Nuclear Triad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...of that competition over twenty-five years ago. 1 T. V. Paul, Richard J. Harknett, and James J...major war or nuclear attack. Some argue that deterrence worked while others disagree.5 However, the success of nuclear deterrence must not be its

  3. The Cult of Reputation: Deterrent or a Cause of War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    theories . The assumption is that states use other actors’ past behavior as a learning schema for generating expectations, and act according to such...DETERRENT OR A CAUSE OF WAR? by Hassan Farooq Ivan Atanasov Zapryanov December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Michael Freeman Second Reader...reasonable accma.cy based on his past actions, is central to many deten·ence theories . The assumption is that states use other actors ’ past behavior as a

  4. Cyber Deterrence: Tougher in Theory than in Practice?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    attackers at bay. For example, if the United States punished the families of suicide bombers, terrorists might be deterred from suicide bombing; however...physical asymmetry more so than cyber asymmetry. Russia—or groups sympa- thetic to Russia—had cyber- bullied tiny Estonia. Certainly, Russia did not...attacks, not to Iraq but back to the three teenagers .94 Disadvantages of Cyber Deterrence: Lack of Reassurance. Cyber espionage highlights one more problem

  5. British Nuclear Policymaking,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    devoted to capital spending.’ This has all Laken place although Britain’s economy has been seriously troubled by inflation, low productivity, and...American support was required to counterbalance Soviet influence in Western.Europe, Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Britain’s exhausted economy loomed as an...for a British deterrent. The simple truth is that when the Empire crumbled and the economy failed to recover, nuclear weapons became-and continue to

  6. Non-Strategic Nuclear Targeting in a Non-Nuclear Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    The principal deficiencies are found to be inadequate nuclear training throughout the officer education system and an unsatisfactory vision for nuclear...training throughout the officer education system and an unsatisfactory vision for nuclear operations in principal doctrinal manuals, such as FM 100-5...effective and responsive targeting methodology. An effective nuclear targeting system Is surely a more credible deterrent than an ineffective system , and if

  7. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  8. Isolation and characterization of an H10N7 avian influenza virus from poultry carcasses smuggled from China into Italy.

    PubMed

    Serena Beato, Maria; Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria

    2006-10-01

    Intensified official veterinary controls on warehouses supplying Chinese retailers resulted in the seizure of smuggled poultry products. Frozen and vacuum-packed frozen raw duck and chicken carcasses, and anatomic parts (legs) of these species, were collected and processed for laboratory investigations aiming at the detection of avian influenza virus. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) targeting the M gene, performed on the lung and trachea from duck and chicken carcasses, yielded positive results. Virus isolation attempts in specific pathogen free embryonated eggs yielded an H10N7 virus from the duck carcass. The isolate had an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.0, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a nucleotide homology of 97 and 96% with virus A/duck/Zhejiang/52/2000 (H5N1) for the PB2 and NS genes, respectively. The results of this study indicate that low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses may be introduced into a country through trade of carcasses regardless of the non-systemic nature of this disease. The export ban applied to countries affected by the H5N1 epidemic may result in increased smuggling of poultry products, which remains one of the means by which influenza viruses can cross-national boundaries. Increased surveillance at borders and at a national level is recommended.

  9. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  10. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  11. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  12. ''Whither Deterrence?'' Final Report of the 2001 Futures Project

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nacht, M; Sloss, L

    2002-05-01

    This study began in April of 2001 to address the question of what deterrence should look like in the future. This section presents a brief synopsis of the study--a longer, more comprehensive report follows. This study presents four futures as a tool for planners who must think ahead fifteen years or more, rather than a prediction of the future. None of the four futures will emerge in just the way that has been described. Fifteen years from now, some mix of these futures is more likely, or perhaps we will see a trend toward one future, but with the possibility that any of the other three could appear, perhaps quite swiftly.

  13. Potential feeding deterrents found in hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anne C.; Mullins, Donald E.; Jones, Tappey H.; Salom, Scott M.

    2012-07-01

    The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) has been a significant mortality agent of eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis Carriere) throughout a large portion of its geographic range. During a study investigating adelgid vigor in relation to host health, it was noted that adelgid extracts ranged from a yellow to a deep red color. Analysis by GC-MS identified the presence of the anthraquinone, chrysophanol and its anthrone precursor, chrysarobin in the extract. These compounds are predator deterrents in several other insects, including chrysomelid beetles. It is hypothesized that these compounds serve a similar purpose in the hemlock woolly adelgid.

  14. Integration of conventional and nuclear: What does it mean?

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo, Vincent A.; Miles, Aaron R.

    2016-08-04

    In October 2015, Secretary of Defense Carter called for NATO to better integrate conventional and nuclear deterrence. Four months later, Assistant Secretary of Defense Robert Scher stated in Senate testimony that the DoD is "working to ensure an appropriate level of integration between nuclear and conventional planning and operations."

  15. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  16. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  17. The Strategic Defense Initiative: New perspectives on deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative has evolved into a massively funded research and development effort with profound implications not only for weapons technology but also for East-West relations. In this book, preeminent figures from the policymaking and defense communities address critical aspects of the program, offering widely divergent points of view. Some contributors view SDI as the best way to develop alternatives to the strategy of retaliation by strengthening defensive deterrence, and they decry political reluctance to proceed with deployment. Others cite what they argue are virtually insurmountable technological obstacles to developing a ''perfect'' defense. They believe SDI will mean the end of arms control and an escalation of superpower competition in both offensive and defensive weapons. Some contributors look at the foreign policy perspectives, examining the fear of our NATO allies that SDI represents a progressive decoupling of the U.S. strategic deterrent from the defense of Europe. But as a counterpoint, some argue that SDI is not a doctrinal revolution in American strategic policy but rather a way to gain leverage over the Soviet strategic arsenal.

  18. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  19. French and British nuclear forces in an era of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.

    1992-12-31

    Britain and France have always been considered as special players in the nuclear deterrence game. Their respective arsenals have never exceeded a very small fraction of the USSR`s and the United States strategic forces; Britain`s and France`s rationales for having nuclear weapons have been based on criteria tailored specifically for medium nuclear powers. Moreover, in sharp contrast with both superpowers, the development costs of the French and British nuclear forces have been very high, penalizing conventional forces in the case of France and leading to a growing dependence on the United States in the case of the United Kingdom (UK). Finally, although Paris and London have been able to draw advantages from the possession of nuclear forces, they have never been in a position to offer an explicit nuclear guarantee to their European allies, thus leaving the United States as the sole provider of extended deterrence within the framework of the integrated military structure of the Atlantic alliance. The unchallenged nuclear preponderance of Moscow and Washington was a powerful instrument of influence in world affairs during the East-West confrontation. Accordingly, debates on deterrence have always been expressed in terms and concepts designed by Washington and never explicitly rejected by Moscow. On the contrary, terms and concepts similar to those used in France are now utilized by a new generation of Russian strategic analysts to argue for a redefinition of Russia`s deterrence posture. Today, however, this mechanism of control through preponderance is severely affected because it is likely that the function of nuclear deterrence will be reassessed in the new security environment prevailing after the end of the Cold War. Meanwhile, the prospect of a new world order leads the Western nuclear states to redefine their nuclear doctrine and restructure their strategic forces. 24 refs.

  20. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation.

    PubMed

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-05-29

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns.

  1. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation

    PubMed Central

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns. PMID:19480676

  2. On international fisheries agreements, entry deterrence, and ecological uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Hans; Grønbæk, Lone; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    2017-02-10

    A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock. As stated by experts in natural science, the fish ecology still has many open questions, for example how to predict population dynamics, migration patterns, food availability, etc. In some cases, parties disagree about the state, abundance, and migration of a stock, which can reduce the possibilities of reaching an agreement for exploitation of the stock. This paper develops a model and applies it to the North-East Atlantic mackerel fishery, in order to analyze an IFA under different ecological scenarios, and also combines the model with the economic theory of entry deterrence. The model is used empirically to determine whether the parties with original access to the resource have an advantage when forming an agreement with a new party in having the ability to fish the stock down to a smaller size and thereby prevent another party from entering into the fishery. With a basis in entry deterrence, combined with lack of information, the paper illustrates the obstacles that have made an agreement for the North-East Atlantic mackerel so difficult to achieve.

  3. The second coming of the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ikle, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear weapons were used for the first and only time in World War II, and the world has grown accustomed to their nonuse. But the overwhelming deterrent forces that worked during the Cold War will not provide protection against the new threats: terrorism and catastrophic accident. The arsenals and mindsets of the past half-century present a formidable barrier to change, but the United States must lead the way in preventing nuclear weapons from becoming acceptable.

  4. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on the Mosquito Toxicity and Biting Deterrency of Callicarpenal Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Similarly, the results from the catalytic hydrogenation of 1 above indicated that attack from the top was strongly preferred providing exclusively compound...movement away from its source, and a deterrent was defined as a chemical which inhibits feeding or oviposition when present in a place where insects would...in its absence, feed or oviposit . The bioassay method we used in this research specifically measured biting (feeding) deterrent properties of chemicals

  6. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  7. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  8. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  9. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  10. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    SUBTITLE Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...administration that may have to conduct a test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear deterrent force...continued) Soviet Union, excerpt from a report by Russian News Agency ITAR-TASS, September 23, 2005. 15 “Russia Supports CTBT as Key Element of Nuclear Non

  12. Is There Future Utility in Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Weapons Save Lives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    scale great power war, which has been avoided worldwide since the Atomic Age began. The United States must continue to resource the nuclear deterrent...breaking out.”2 Effectively, the argument is that nuclear weapons do not stop war. This is correct. A historical review from the inception of the Atomic ...financial tradeoffs, and argue that “… the price of global elimination of starvation, provision of health care, provision of shelter and clean water

  13. Deterrent Concentration Measurement with FTIR and Subsequent Ballistic Performance in Medium Caliber Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furrow, Keith W.; Ritchie, Steve J.; Morris, Amy

    2000-01-01

    To meet ballistic requirements, medium and small caliber propellants use deterrent coatings to obtain burn rate progressivity. The required amount and distribution of deterrent varies between gun systems, propellant types, and often between lots. Micro Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure deterrent gradients in RP36 propellants coated with methyl centralite (MC) at different deterrent levels and different processing conditions. The aromatic C-C bonds at 1496 cm(exp -1) wavenumber were used to monitor the deterrent profiles through the grain. Deterrent gradients measured with FTIR spectroscopy were then used to estimate burn rate gradients in the deterred grains. Burn rates were calculated from literature models and from closed bomb data of RP36 containing uniform deterrent concentration. Finally, the burn rate gradients were input into an IBHFG2 model of a 200 cc-closed bomb. The early flame spreading portion of the closed bomb ballistic cycle (0 to 0.2 P/Pmax) was roughly modeled by dividing the charge up into five propellant decks and igniting them at different times in the ballistic cycle. Pressure traces and vivacity curves from closed bomb shots were compared to predictions. In addition to the burn rate gradient, the closed bomb pressure trace was heavily dependent on ignition and flame spread. These two phenomena were not readily distinguishable from one another in deterred grains. The same RP-36 propellant was shot in a 25 mm M793TP round which was again modeled with IBHVG2. Peak pressure and muzzle velocity were accurately modeled when erosive burning effects were empirically factored into the model.

  14. Reputation systems, aggression, and deterrence in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Benard, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Why do individuals sometimes pursue apparently senseless aggression, whether on the street, in court, at work, or in politics? Past work converges on the idea that individuals do so to establish social rank and deter prospective challengers. However, the fundamental claims of this argument - that concerns for one's reputation cause individuals to behave aggressively, and that a reputation for aggression deters threats from others - remain controversial. This paper offers a theoretical argument linking concern for reputation to aggressive behavior and deterrence. The theory argues that in competitive interactions, determining one's likelihood of prevailing in conflict ("competitive ability") is crucial for deciding whether to pursue conflict, but also rife with uncertainty. This motivates individuals to engage in aggressive behavior to signal to others (perhaps falsely) that they are strong competitors. Two behavioral experiments test this argument, and find that reputation systems motivate aggressive behavior, competitive ability moderates this effect, and reputations for aggressive behavior deter aggression from others. The results contribute to understanding the role reputation systems play in the social organization of aggressive behavior.

  15. Computerized hospitals: an attraction or deterrent to recruitment in nursing?

    PubMed

    Rapko, H; Adaskin, E

    1993-01-01

    This article describes a survey of 202 nursing recruits at an 850 bed hospital newly computerized with an Integrated Hospital Information System (IHIS). The nurses answered questions concerning their demographic characteristics, their experience with computers, their attitudes to computers and whether the fact that the hospital was computerized affected their decision to apply for employment. Results of this study suggest that the nurses' decision to apply to this setting for employment did not depend upon the factor of computerization. The majority of recruits held positive attitudes towards computers and it appeared that nurse recruits might be part of an ever increasing computer-literate population. Those having less experience with computers indicated greater anxiety. Implications for recruitment strategies and education are that while no major deterrents may exist for recruitment, new nurses with no computer experience require special attention because they may have higher levels of anxiety about computers. In orientation they may need clarification of what computers can be expected to do in a nursing environment so that they do not form unrealistic expectations. They may need to be informed as to whether a hospital is using a more general Hospital Information System which serves the needs of all departments, or a Nursing Information System which is more closely directed to the nurses' own daily work, since it is the latter which will most affect their degree of contact with computers.

  16. Deterrence enhanced by SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, P.T.

    1987-03-23

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is an investigation by scientists, military leaders, and technologists of the feasibility of strategic defenses against ballistic missiles. Whether strategic defense is the way to go in the future remains to be seen. Although the capability of the envisioned layered, ground, and space-based defensive systems is not specifically addressed, the SDI research program's affect on national-security strategy and its formulation is examined. If found to be feasible and cost-effective, SDI will require a drastic change in our military strategy. This essay reviews how that strategy was formulated in the past in terms of a model and how strategic-defense strategy would be used in the future. More importantly, a discussion of how the SDI impacts on present US national strategy and enhances deterrence is presented. Its influence on technology, conventional defense, and arms controls are offered on this evolving strategic concept and the renewed vigor and interest it has provided in strategy formulation.

  17. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  18. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  19. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  20. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  1. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host.

  2. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies.

  3. The medium nuclear powers and nuclear stability: The Nth Country Problem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is about what is the impact of the three medium nuclear powers (Britain, France, and China) on nuclear stability. The purpose of studying this issue is to go beyond the thinking of the bipolar nuclear deterrence and to gain a better understanding of the meaning of a future multilateral nuclear world. Two different but complementary approaches -- structural realist and liberal institutionalist -- are used to interpret: (a) what are the structural reasons of the MNPs' nuclear behavior in the international system; and (b) what is the learning effect on their nuclear behavior. By examining the three countries' role in three aspects of nuclear stability (crisis stability, arms race stability, and nuclear nonproliferation), this thesis concludes that they are generally stabilizing to the international nuclear system, and rejects the relevance of the destabilizing propositions of the [open quotes]Nth Country Problem[close quotes] to the issue of the MNPs and nuclear stability.

  4. The Army Before Last: Military Transformation and the Impact of Nuclear Weapons on the US Army During the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    deterrent rather than increasing investment in nuclear weapons and delivery systems .9 This thinking was based on the Army’s belief that nuclear weapons...War .................................................. 21 Table 2. US Army Cannon Delivery System (Nuclear Capable)....................... 42 Table 3...US Army Rocket & Missile Systems 1953-1991................................. 43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  5. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program Paper. The Ingredients of Deterrence: Theory, Practice, and Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    country. In its simplest genre , deterrence amounts to the threat of one state to punish another state in order to keep the latter from acting against the...Deterrence Thirty Years Later - What Has Changed? Villars, Switzerland: International Institute for Strategic StudiesTwenty-first Annual Conference, 6

  6. Continuous exposure to the deterrents cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate does not alter the behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a generalist, cell sap-feeding insect species with piercing-sucking mouthparts, after continuous exposure to two deterrent secondary plant compounds are investigated. We compared in choice assays on bean leaf discs, the settling, feeding, and oviposition preferences of F. occidentalis females that had no experience with the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis-jasmone before testing (naïve thrips) vs. females that had been exposed to the deterrent compounds before testing (experienced thrips). The thrips were exposed to the deterrents at low or high concentrations for varied time periods and subsequently tested on bean leaf discs treated with the respective deterrent at either a low or a high concentration. Frankliniella occidentalis females avoided settling on the deterrent-treated bean leaf discs for an observation period of 6 h, independent of their previous experience. Our results demonstrate that feeding and oviposition deterrence of the jasmonates to the thrips were not altered by continuous exposure of the thrips to the jasmonates. Habituation was not induced, neither by exposure to the low concentration of the deterrents nor by exposure to the high concentration. These results indicate that the risk of habituation to two volatile deterrent compounds after repeated exposure is not evident in F. occidentalis. This makes the two compounds potential candidates to be integrated in pest management strategies. PMID:26726263

  7. The Effectiveness of the U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities as a Deterrent to the North Korean Missile Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    THE U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITIES AS A DETERRENT TO THE NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT by Issac G. Gipson December 2007 Thesis Advisor...SUBJECT TERMS Missile Deterrence, Missile Defense , North Korean Missile Threat, North Korean Missile Systems, U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities, 16...19 III. CURRENT MISSILE DEFENSE ANALYSIS AGAINST NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT

  8. Embracing the Moon in the Sky or Fishing the Moon in the Water? Some Thoughts on Military Deterrence: Its Effectiveness and Limitations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    particularly fond of two troublesome “strategic gums ”: containment and deterrence, which they kept chewing for decades.4 After the end of the Cold War...the “containment gum ” seemed marginalized, but, as for the “deterrence gum ,” they are still reluctant to spit it out.5 Deterrence as a fundamental

  9. Progress in counterfeit deterrence: the contribution of information exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Ian M.; Kontnik, Lewis T.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we establish the need for communication between organizations involved in the fight against counterfeiting crime. We also examine the paradox in providing information that could serve the criminal as well as those attempting to protect themselves from criminal activity. Counterfeiting is estimated to account for over 5% of world trade. It is a global operation with no respect for international borders. It is increasingly sophisticated and increasingly the province of organized crime, which applies the techniques developed for drug distribution to the production and distribution of counterfeit articles. To fight this crime there is an increasing plethora of authenticating features and technologies available. Many companies do not recognize the problem and the number of anticounterfeit technologies can be confusing for potential users. There is therefore a need for information about them, their comparative characteristics, to be easily available. At present there is inadequate communication between those who develop and produce anti-counterfeiting devices and those who use them, notwithstanding the marketing efforts of the former. Communication which stimulates and encourages the spread of information between those engaged in the fight against counterfeit crime can only help in that fight. But what we term 'the communication paradox' requires circumspection and care in the content and the distribution of such information. The communication paradox is that the better the channels of communication, the easier it is for criminals to get hold of that information. The challenge is to institute communications which are effective but restrictive. More communication of information between those engaged in counterfeit deterrence will enhance individual companies' and organizations' anticounterfeit efforts and thus contribute to an overall improvement in the fight against counterfeit crime.

  10. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior.

  11. Deterrent activity of hops flavonoids and their derivatives against stored product pests.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, J; Popłoński, J; Twardowska, K; Magiera-Dulewicz, J; Hurej, M; Huszcza, E

    2017-02-16

    Five flavonoids from hops, two of their derivatives, along with naringenin used as a model compound, were tested for their antifeedant activity against three coleopteran stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. The introduction, into the tested flavonoid molecules, of additional structural fragments such as prenyl or dimethylpyran moiety, is proposed to significantly alter the deterrent activity of the compounds. The prenyl moiety in flavonoids increased the deterrent activity of these compounds in all three of the grain feeding species used in the tests. It is also concluded that the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure increases its deterrent activity in S. granarius and T. confusum, but in one of the test insects, T. granarium, an increased feeding was observed in response to the introduction of dimethylpyran moiety to the flavonoid structure.

  12. Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment.

    PubMed

    Carlsmith, Kevin M; Darley, John M; Robinson, Paul H

    2002-08-01

    One popular justification for punishment is the just deserts rationale: A person deserves punishment proportionate to the moral wrong committed. A competing justification is the deterrence rationale: Punishing an offender reduces the frequency and likelihood of future offenses. The authors examined the motivation underlying laypeople's use of punishment for prototypical wrongs. Study 1 (N = 336) revealed high sensitivity to factors uniquely associated with the just deserts perspective (e.g., offense seriousness, moral trespass) and insensitivity to factors associated with deterrence (e.g., likelihood of detection, offense frequency). Study 2 (N = 329) confirmed the proposed model through structural equation modeling (SEM). Study 3 (N = 351) revealed that despite strongly stated preferences for deterrence theory, individual sentencing decisions seemed driven exclusively by just deserts concerns.

  13. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners.

  14. Preference and aversion for deterrent chemicals in two species of Peromyscus mouse.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1993-07-01

    Deterrent chemicals such as quinine hydrochloride (QHC1) are generally considered to be aversive to mammals at all detectable concentrations. However, several species contain individuals that drink solutions containing low concentrations of deterrents in preference to plain water. The present study examines this paradoxical preference in two species of mouse, Peromyscus melanotis and P. aztecus. Preliminary findings had suggested that whereas some P. aztecus prefer low concentrations of QHC1, no P. melanotis prefer any concentration of QHC1. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that individual mice that prefer low concentrations of QHC1 would respond similarly to four other deterrents described by humans as bitter and/or astringent (ouabain, hop extract, sucrose octaacetate, and tannic acid) in 48-h, two-bottle choice tests. Peromyscus aztecus displayed a large amount of intraspecific variation in response to all five deterrents. Those P. aztecus that drank low concentrations of QHC1 in preference to plain water were significantly more likely to respond similarly to low concentrations of the other deterrents. No P. melanotis displayed a preference for any concentration of either deterrent. Experiment 2 examined the temporal stability of the response to 0.1 mM QHC1 in P. aztecus over six consecutive choice tests. Mice were divided into three groups based on their initial response to the QHC1 solution (preference, no response, or rejection) and then subjected to the 12-day test. The response of mice within each of the groups did not change significantly over time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  16. Arms Control and British and French Nuclear Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    no doubt on the American nuclear guarantee. On the contrary, the British borrowed the French concept of a "second nuclear decision center " as...concept of alternate decision making centers as a rationale for independent deterrent capabilities argues that by having more than one alliance...debate has been rather unique in that it has centered on the question of retention or abdication of an independent dcterrent capability, rather than on

  17. Antifungal, Mosquito Deterrent, and Larvicidal Activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea , Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium culmorum, Phytohtora cactorum, and Erysiphe graminis. More recently, the research...the untreated positive growth controls were used to evaluate fungal growth . The SAS, Proc ANOVA (Statistical Anal- ysis System, Cary, North Carolina...were evaluated for their anti- fungal activity against Colletotrichum, Botrytis , Fusarium, and Phomopsis species and for their biting deterrent and

  18. Social Sources of Marital Violence and Deterrence: Testing an Integrated Theory of Assaults between Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents integrated theory which identifies attributes of intimate life assumed to reduce deterrent efficacy of arrest and thus increase probability of violence in marriage and marriagelike relationships. Research findings suggest that increased privacy, inequality, and legitimation of violence are associated with reduction in perceived arrest…

  19. Deterrents to Participation in Continuing Professional Education: A Survey of the NTRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsner, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study designed to identify deterrents to participation in continuing professional education experienced by professional members of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society. The four top ranked barriers were cost, work constraints, lack of quality, and lack of benefit. There were regional differences relative to which factors were…

  20. Juvenile Transfer and Deterrence: Reexamining the Effectiveness of a "Get-Tough" Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kareem L.; Myers, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Although research has examined the effectiveness of juvenile transfer on recidivism, there has been a lack of research done in assessing how well juvenile waiver to adult court meets the criteria necessary for deterrence to occur (i.e., certainty, severity, and swiftness of punishment). The purpose of this study is to assess how well juvenile…

  1. 48 CFR 32.107 - Need for contract financing not a deterrent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Need for contract... Need for contract financing not a deterrent. (a) If the contractor or offeror meets the standards... contractor's need for contract financing as a handicap for a contract award; e.g., as a responsibility...

  2. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  3. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  4. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  5. Differential Impact of Deterrence vs. Rehabilitation as Drug Interventions on Recidivism after 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Hung-En

    2003-01-01

    Deterrence through pain infliction and rehabilitation through therapy and training are often conceptualized as competing practices in crime control. With the resurgence of the diversion movement and therapeutic justice, increasingly more offenders are exposed to a particular combination of incarceration and treatment. Even for offenders diverted…

  6. Assessing specific deterrence effects of increased speeding penalties using four measures of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J J; Watson, A; Soole, D

    2015-11-01

    Traffic law enforcement sanctions can impact on road user behaviour through general and specific deterrence mechanisms. The manner in which specific deterrence can influence recidivist behaviour can be conceptualised in different ways. While any reduction in speeding will have road safety benefits, the ways in which a 'reduction' is determined deserves greater methodological attention and has implications for countermeasure evaluation more generally. The primary aim of this research was to assess the specific deterrent impact of penalty increases for speeding offences in Queensland, Australia, in 2003 on two cohorts of drivers detected for speeding prior to and after the penalty changes were investigated. Since the literature is relatively silent on how to assess recidivism in the speeding context, the secondary research aim was to contribute to the literature regarding ways to conceptualise and measure specific deterrence in the speeding context. We propose a novel way of operationalising four measures which reflect different ways in which a specific deterrence effect could be conceptualised: (1) the proportion of offenders who re-offended in the follow up period; (2) the overall frequency of re-offending in the follow up period; (3) the length of delay to re-offence among those who re-offended; and (4) the average number of re-offences during the follow up period among those who re-offended. Consistent with expectations, results suggested an absolute deterrent effect of penalty changes, as evidenced by significant reductions in the proportion of drivers who re-offended and the overall frequency of re-offending, although effect sizes were small. Contrary to expectations, however, there was no evidence of a marginal specific deterrent effect among those who re-offended, with a significant reduction in the length of time to re-offence and no significant change in the average number of offences committed. Additional exploratory analyses investigating potential

  7. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells.

  8. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-02-15

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism — nuclear terrorism — has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks — or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port — suddenly becomes possible.

  9. Can Deterrence Be Tailored? Strategic Forum, Number 225, January 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY... escala - tion—that is, nuclear use during war. If the primary objective were the former, the United States might say, “If you cross the 38th paral- lel

  10. Britain’s Nuclear Deterrent Force and the U.S.-U.K. Special Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    a surprise first-strike. Protecting this dinosaur , by building hardened silos, was beyond the willingness and ability of the British government to...Streak took at least 20 minutes to fuel-up, it was always extremely vulnerable to a surprise first-strike. Protecting this dinosaur , by building hardened

  11. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence: Deterring Iraq and Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    intervention. Pulling those babies out of their incubators was a huge miscalculation, and the new Iraqi regime will take care to ensure such excesses do...demands for democratic reform as the post -revolution “ baby boomers” (who constituted some 65 percent of the population) came of age, embraced Western...vision and values. This US drive to maintain its global freedom-of-action, combined with its post -Cold War strategic hegemony and military

  12. China’s New Undersea Nuclear Deterrent: Strategy, Doctrine, and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    art form, working together closely to bottle up Soviet forces operating in the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan. These “legacy” systems and well-devel...submarine and ballistic missile forces. They predict that China will soon put to sea an SSBN fleet more symmetrical with the U.S. Navy in terms of both...strike capability. By the late Cold War, 18 Ohio-class SSBNs armed with Trident II sea -launched ballistic mis- siles constituted the U.S. undersea

  13. The Erosion of US Nuclear Deterrence Credibility in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    Finally, future asymmetric or cross-domain threats promise to complicate the future geopolitical structure. As Colonel Dawkins wrote in a 2009 paper, a... Dawkins , Colonel James C., Jr., ―Rising Dragon: Deterring China in 2035.‖ Research Report. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College, 2009. Defense... Dawkins , ―Rising Dragon: Deterring China in 2035,‖ 39. 45 Congressional Commission, America’s Strategic Posture, 7. 46 Centers for

  14. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    no funding until 2005. The Navy believes production should start in 2015 . Approximately, three hundred missiles is the projected production...the future force structure. 37 System Bombers/Cruise Missiles SSBN/SLBM ICBM Industrial Base 2035/ 2015 2020 Issues/Concerns Continuous...Test (DARHT) - National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) - Enhanced LANSCE - Atlas Pulsed Power Facility - 100-fold improvement in computations - Provides

  15. Driving to Zero: Defining Credible Nuclear Deterrence in an Era of Disarmament

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. Biography Lieutenant Colonel Scott Jacobs is a student at the...drives to zero. 1 Introduction On 5 April 2009, President Obama spoke at Hradcany Square in Prague and declared “So today, I state clearly and...representative of different points along the continuum. 1 Remarks By President Barack Obama

  16. The Israeli Nuclear Alert of 1973: Deterrence and Signaling in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    facility taken by a U.S. Corona satellite in 1971. Courtesy of the Federation of American Scientists via www.nuclearweaponsarchive.org REPORT... F . McCants, Bradley Morris, 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William G. Rosenau 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...many as were ready, would be made operational, along with eight specially marked F -4s that were on twenty-four-hour alert at Tel Nof, the air force

  17. Essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria, as a repellent, an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against mosquitoes and biting flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presenting brief reviews of using catnip oil as an alternative control agent against biting insects, as well as their newly found larvicidal activities and oviposition deterrence including effectiveness and longevity....

  18. Third-Party Retaliation and the Psychology of Deterrence: Mapping the Psychological Mechanisms that Regulate Retaliation on Behalf of Others

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0334 Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: Mapping the psychological mechanisms that regulateretaliation...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/01/2012-04/30/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Third-Party Retaliation and the psychology of deterrence: mapping the... psychological mechanisms that regulate retaliation on behalf of others 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0179 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  19. Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Soosaimanickam Maria; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera. Results Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments. Conclusions PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H. armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India. PMID:25183105

  20. Extended Deterrence and Arms Control: A Collection of Conference Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    presented at the conference. It should be of interest to analysts working on political and defense issues. The views expressed by the authors should be...complete and the scheduled FY87 IOC will be met; additionally, work has begun on a simi- lar modernization of the Fylingdales site; - progress continues...on the development of the Nuclear Detonation Detection System, and we are working suc- cessfully toward an FOC late in this decade; - by the end of

  1. The Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K

    2007-01-30

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the movement of nuclear contraband. To achieve the objectives, all cases involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials must be vigorously pursued and prosecuted when appropriate. The importance of outreach and formal government-to-government relationships with partner nations affected by nuclear trafficking cannot be under-estimated. States that are situated on smuggling routes may be well motivated to counter nuclear crimes to bolster their own border and transportation security as well as strengthen their economic and political viability. National law enforcement and atomic energy agencies in these states are aggressively pursuing a comprehensive strategy to counter nuclear smuggling through increasing reliance on technical nuclear forensics. As part of these activities, it is essential that these organizations be given adequate orientation to the best practices in this emerging discipline including the categorization of interdicted nuclear material, collection of traditional and nuclear forensic evidence, data analysis using optimized analytical protocols, and how to best fuse forensics information with reliable case input to best develop a law enforcement or national security response. The purpose of formalized USG relationship is to establish an institutional framework for collaboration in international forensics, improve standards of forensics practice, conduct joint exercises, and pursue case-work that benefits international security objectives. Just as outreach and formalized relationships are important to cultivate international nuclear forensics, linking nuclear forensics to ongoing national assistance in border and transpiration security, including port of entry of entry monitoring

  2. Post-cold war nuclear dangers: Proliferation and terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1995-02-24

    This article discusses several aspects of post cold war nuclear problems facing both the world and the USA. Included are the following topics: four nuclear nightmare scenarios; availability of nuclear weapons, materials, and expertise; US programs to reduce smoggling of nuclear weapons and materials; US options in the future; Global options; and priority actions, including effective nuclear intelligence; read teams to find vulverablities and evaluate countermeasures to nuclear terrorism; accelerate development of advanced detection and disarmament technologies; implement urgent CISAC recommendation on management of nuclear materials and inherent security technologies; accelerate research and development of a globle space-based missile defence; ensure crediability of nuclear deterrent; accelerate development of conventional weapons that reduce the role of nuclear weapons. 9 refs.

  3. Development concept for a small, split-core, heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, E.; Breitwieser, R.; Niederauer, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    There have been two main deterrents to the development of semiportable nuclear reactors. One is the high development costs; the other is the inability to satisfy with assurance the questions of operational safety. This report shows how a split-core, heat-pipe cooled reactor could conceptually eliminate these deterrents, and examines and summarizes recent work on split-core, heat-pipe reactors. A concept for a small reactor that could be developed at a comparatively low cost is presented. The concept would extend the technology of subcritical radioisotope thermoelectric generators using 238 PuO2 to the evolution of critical space power reactors using 239 PuO2.

  4. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin E; Moe, Derek; Bond, Mary; Gasior, Maciej; Malamut, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Misuse, abuse and diversion of prescription opioid analgesics represent a global public health concern. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse and diversion of these medications, as well as potentially limiting medical consequences when misused or administered in error. ADFs aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or aversive. However, opioid ADFs may still be abused via the intended route of administration by increasing the dose and/or dosing frequency. The science of abuse deterrence and the regulatory landscape are still relatively new and evolving. This paper reviews the current status of opioid ADFs, with particular focus on different approaches that can be used to deter abuse, regulatory considerations and implications for clinical management.

  5. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    PubMed

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  6. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

    2006-09-01

    A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.

  7. Extended Deterrence and Allied Assurance: Key Concepts and Current Challenges for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI...for the development of a “tailored bilateral deterrence strategy” through table-top exercises and other activities . 41 Visible Engagement...addition, it hosts U.S. missile defense interceptors and key enabling systems such as AN TPY -2 radars. 78 Missile defenses are essential to U.S

  8. Biosynthesis and Regulation of Bioprotective Alkaloids in the Gramineae Endophytic Fungi with Implications for Herbivores Deterrents.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongping; Xie, Longxiang; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Four kinds of bioprotective alkaloids-peramine, loline, ergot alkaloid, indole-diterpenes, produced by grass-fungal endophyte symbioses, are deterrents or toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Ergot alkaloids have pharmacological properties and widely are used clinically. The regulation of alkaloids biosynthesis is under intensive study to improve the yield for better agricultural and medicinal application. In this paper, we summarize the structure, related genes, regulation, and toxicity of alkaloids. We focus on the biosynthesis and the regulation network of alkaloids.

  9. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure-Activity Relationship of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    manage in- sects (Hoel et al. 2010).Hence, identifyingnovel com- pounds for mosquito control is a priority. Products derived from plants might yield...1991). Plant products (e.g., fruit and seeds) can offer a rich source of fatty acids some of which seem to act as biting deterrents against mosquitoes...and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Miss State, MS 39762. 0022-2585/12/1370Ð1378$04.00/0 2012 Entomological Society of America Report

  10. Deterrence from Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    rand.org Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Long, Austin G. From Cold War to long war : lessons from six decades of Rand deterrence...author thanks the RAND Library staff for help with archival and classified materials. Any errors are the responsibility of the author. xiii...client: the U.S. Air Force. The inauguration of President John F. Kennedy in 1961 marked a turning point. Many current and former RAND analysts were

  11. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in chronological order, which also reflects their logical order of development, captures the main features of stability analysis; relates first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and addresses questions such as whether uncertainty in damage preference or defense deployment can be destabilizing. It illustrates the problems with alternative metrics, latency and reconstitution, and deep unilateral and proportional force reductions.

  12. Feeding Deterrent Effects of Catnip Oil Components Compared with Two Synthetic Amides Against Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Feeding Deterrent Effects of Catnip Oil Components Compared with Two Synthetic Amides Against... catnip , Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae), essential oil has been formulated and marketed as an alternative repellent for protection against biting...arthropods by several vendors. We isolated the major active components of catnip oil, E,Z- and Z,E-nepetalactone, and quantitatively measured their

  13. Identification of mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Ali, Abbas; Duke, Stephen O; Khan, Ikhlas

    2011-07-01

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas L., was performed to identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil. J. curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and parts of Africa to repel biting insects, primarily mosquitoes. The seed oil was thoroughly analyzed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection to identify the constituents in the oil. Identified constituents, both free fatty acids and triglycerides, were evaluated for activity in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrent assays. Furthermore, an oil condensation trap was used to demonstrate that free fatty acids or triglycerides are partially volatilized during the combustion process. These compounds were found to be responsible for the biting deterrency of the burned oil. Specifically, oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were all active at 25 nmol/cm2 above that of solvent control in Ae. aegypti biting deterrent assays. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were all more active than stearic acid in the same bioassay. Evaluation of the triglycerides containing each of these fatty acids revealed that tripalmitin, tristearin, trilinolein, and triolein all demonstrated significant activity above a solvent control at 10 microg/cm2, whereas tripalmitin was the most active. Due to literature reports suggesting larvicidal activity of the oil, J. curcas seed oil and its free fatty acid constituents also were evaluated against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae up to 500 ppm. Oleic acid was the only fatty acid having larvicidal activity against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae, with an LD50 of 47.9 ppm.

  14. Only in the Mind of the Enemy: Can Deterrence Effectiveness be Measured?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    use of positive incentives in addition to the developing a fear of negative consequences.4 The study by Paul Huth and Bruce Russett tried to...threat of unacceptable counteraction.”2 This chapter further discusses two methods used to deter adversary aggression through denial and punishment ...benefit analysis into believing that any perceived benefits are unlikely to be gained. The second method is deterrence by punishment . The

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  17. Deterrence & Influence in Counterterrorism. A Component in the War on al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Duncan , and Jeffrey Simon, “U.S. Countermeasures Against Terrorism.” 20See also National Commission on Terrorism (2000). 58 Deterrence and Influence in...Leadership + Cyberspace infrastructure + C3 and industry Tanks, soldiers Soft factors Current State of the art ? Goal + Integration and adaptation...Green Berets, he served in the Dominican Republic during the American inter- vention, and later in Vietnam (1966–1967), where he was deco - rated on

  18. An overview of prodrug technology and its application for developing abuse-deterrent opioids.

    PubMed

    Gudin, Jeffrey A; Nalamachu, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths as an epidemic. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death, with rates that have more than doubled since 1999. This crisis has developed concurrently with the increased prescribing and availability analgesic drugs, especially opioids, resulting from an effort on the part of clinicians to address a critical need for improved pain assessment and treatment. Clinicians have recognized that oftentimes, opioid analgesics are one of the few remaining options for patients who suffer with severe pain. A 2015 fact sheet issued by the Office of National Drug Policy stated: "While we must ensure better access to prescription medications to alleviate suffering, it is also vital that we do all we can to reduce the diversion and abuse of pharmaceuticals." The US Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance that encourages the research and development of abuse-deterrent formulation of opioids which have the potential to curtail abuse. Included among the recommended formulations for development of abuse-deterrent opioids are prodrugs. Prodrugs are chemically modified versions of pharmacological agents that must undergo a biochemical conversion following administration, often by enzymatic cleavage, to free the active drug. Prodrugs may be inherently abuse-deterrent because they are inactive or significantly less active until conversion to the active drug. This requirement for conversion in the GI tract can modify the pharmacokinetic profile and eliminate or reduce the euphoria when abusers change the route of administration. Abusers often attempt to extract the active drug for injection or insufflation. Prodrugs can be designed to be resistant to crushing or dissolving. In this article, we review the concept of prodrugs and introduce and examine the potential of abuse-deterrent opioid prodrugs.

  19. Escalation and Intrawar Deterrence During Limited Wars in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    equation and 6 that fear is not rational. Deterrence theorist Patrick Morgan underscores this point by asserting that small children, animals , and...effortless resort to violence genuinely conceived to be in the service of more exalted aims.”130 Thus, cruelty and murder were used to support the regime’s...not. 45. These toxins may be drawn from living plants or animals , or they may be synthetically reproduced. 46. Stockholm International Peace

  20. Deterrence and the Future of U.S.-GCC Defense Cooperation: A Strategic Dialogue Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Deterrence, Assurance, Middle East, Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC, Iran, Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, UAE...cold war between Iran and its Sunni Arab neighbors has worsened. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states in particular fear their Iranian neighbor’s...Iran and the P5+1 have not lessened this anxiety. Instead, Gulf Arab states believe a deal rewards Iran for bad behavior and puts it on the road to

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  2. The Major Asian Powers and the Korean Reunification Process: Catalysts or Deterrents?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    RD-Ai65 128 THE MAJOR ASIAN POWERS AND THE KOREAN REUNIFICATION 1/2 PROCESS- CATALYSTS OR DETERRENTS?(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL WASHINGTON DC J J...the Korean cultural heritage. This was followed by a review of current economic, political, social, and military systems in North and South Korea ... Korean question. This material supplemented details from current news media on North-South Korean rapprochement and major power actions vis-a-vis Korea

  3. Lactones: Part 11. Feeding-deterrent activity of some bi- and tricyclic terpenoid lactones.

    PubMed

    Paruch, E; Nawrot, J; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    2001-09-01

    The feeding-deterrent activities of thirteen synthetic terpenoid lactones, including isomeric bicyclic gamma-spirolactones with the limonene system and tricyclic gamma-lactones with the pinane system, were determined towards three storage pest insects: the adults of Sitophilus granarius, the adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum and the larvae of Trogoderma granarium. The configuration of chiral centres, as well as the presence of additional functional groups (double bond, iodine and hydroxy group) are important for antifeeding activity.

  4. Deterrence in the workplace: perceived certainty, perceived severity, and employee theft.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, R C; Clark, J P

    1983-12-01

    The phenomenon of employee theft is examined empirically, utilizing a deterrence paradigm. Employees selected randomly from three different industry sectors and metropolitan areas were asked to self-report their involvement in a number of property theft activities within the employment setting. Using a weighted least-squares logit regression analysis, the study found that the perception of both the certainty and severity of organizational sanctions were related to employee theft. Males reported more theft than did females, but contrary to previous research, no gender/certainty or gender/severity interactions were observed. The best-fit model did, however, contain two significant first-order interactions: age/certainty and age/severity. These interactions strongly suggest that younger employees are not as deterrable as their older peers, especially under conditions of both high certainty and high severity of punishment. While a number of possible explanations might account for differential deterrability according to age, a commitment to or stakes in conformity explanation is proposed.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K.; Andrewes, Samuel W.; Wu, Christopher S.; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J.

    2015-01-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  6. Risk based in vitro performance assessment of extended release abuse deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-03-16

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products.

  7. Fouling deterrence on the bivalve shell Mytilus galloprovincialis: a physical phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Scardino, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2004-01-01

    The physical nature of fouling deterrence by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated using high-resolution biomimics of the bivalve surface. The homogeneous microtextured surface of M. galloprovincialis (1.94 +/- 0.03 microm), the smooth surface of the bivalve Amusium balloti (0 microm), and moulds of these surfaces (biomimics) were compared with controls of smooth (0 microm) and sanded moulds, (55.4 +/- 2.7 microm) and PVC strips (0 microm) in a 12-week field trial. The shell and mould of M. galloprovincialis were fouled by significantly fewer species and had significantly less total fouling cover than the shell and mould of A. balloti over a 12-week period. However, the major effects were between surfaces with and without microtopography. Surface microtopography, be it structured as in the case of M. galloprovincialis shell and mould, or random as in the case of the sanded mould, had a lower cover of fouling organisms than treatments without microtopography after 6 weeks. There was also no difference between the effect of the M. galloprovincialis mould and the sanded mould. The strong fouling deterrent effects of both these surfaces diminished rapidly after 6 to 8 weeks while that of M. galloprovincialis shell remained intact for the duration of the experiment suggesting factors in addition to surface microtopography contribute to fouling deterrence.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K; Andrewes, Samuel W; Wu, Christopher S; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp.

  9. Risk based In Vitro Performance Assessment of Extended Release Abuse Deterrent Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2016-01-01

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976

  10. The Clinical Applications of Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Opioids.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Gopal; Berger, Jack M

    2016-07-01

    Opioids are the mainstay for treatment of acute pain and cancer pain, and also have a role in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. There has been, however, a growing public health problem stemming from the misuse of opioid analgesics leading to serious consequences. To deter abuse, new formulations of extended-release opioid analgesics and tamper-resistant opioids have recently been developed. The concept of abuse-deterrent extended-release opioids is relatively new and, although abuse may not be completely prevented, the utilization of such abuse-deterrent extended-release opioids could reduce this risk. Extended-release abuse-deterrent opioids have been found to have important clinical applications in cancer, acute pain, and chronic non-malignant pain for analgesia control with decreased incidence of tampering and abuse. In this review, different extended-release formulations of opioids available for clinical applications are presented with descriptions of the formulations, their physical properties, and the clinical studies performed to provide physicians with a better understanding of their uses.

  11. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Stacey L.; Barnes, Michael C.; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  12. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses

  13. The French Nuclear Policy in the New Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    deterrence. Such an association is more problematic with sea-based component. An accident under the sea or an attack during a patrol or in a harbor...Contractor: Dassault Aviation The Mirage 2000N ( Nucleaire ) is the nuclear strike component of France’s Force Aerienne Strategique (FAS). It is the...class carriers, the Clemenceau (R98) and Foch (R99), which have Toulon as their home port. Referred to by the French as PANs (Porte-Avions Nucleaire

  14. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-07

    Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear deterrent force. Absent such a test, the...the Administration’s effort to gain Senate support for the treaty.”17 Under Secretary of State Ellen Tauscher described elements of the

  15. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on ^237Np for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, Ryan; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    The smuggling of nuclear material and the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs both present grave risks to world security. Methods are needed to detect nuclear material smuggled in cargo, and for proper material accountability in civilian fuel re-processing facilities. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that can address both needs. It is a non-destructive active interrogation method that provides isotope-specific information. It works by using a γ-ray beam to resonantly excite levels in a nucleus and observing the γ-rays emitted whose energy and intensity are characteristic of that isotope. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions. NRF measurements on ^237Np will expand the nuclear database and will permit designing interrogation and assay systems. Measurements were made using the bremsstrahlung beam at the HVRL at MIT on a 7 g target of ^237Np with two incident electron energies of 2.8 and 3.1 MeV. Results will be presented with discussion of the relevant nuclear structure necessary to predict levels in other actinides.

  16. A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

    2008-10-29

    This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the

  17. Commentary from Westminster. Medical effects of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    Deitch, R

    1983-03-12

    A British Medical Association report on the medical consequences of nuclear war, scheduled for commercial publication in April 1983, could damage the Government's arguments for maintaining a nuclear deterrent. The gist of the BMA's findings is that Britain could not possibly cope with the aftermath of nuclear attack. Although Prime Minister Thatcher has made no comment, both the Home Office and the Department of Health and Social Security have criticized the report's negative conclusions. The BMA is expected to take up the issue at its annual meeting, and the Labour party has called for a Parliamentary debate on the report and its implications.

  18. NATO Reassurance and Nuclear Reductions: Creating the Conditions (Transatlantic Current, no. 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    response would be too slow to be effective . There is a clear nuclear element to these demands for reassurance. Senior leaders in the Baltic states...part due to concerns over the possible effect of U.S. NSNW withdrawal on the broader issue of nuclear deterrence and France’s force de frappe).16...but should include ambiguous sce- narios where more debate is needed. NATO is currently deciding how robust its next major exercise, Steadfast Jazz

  19. Peace in a nuclear age: The bishops' pastoral letter in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a discussion of The Challenge of Peace, the Catholic bishops' pastoral letter on nuclear war. It is a collection of twenty-five essays which confront issues raised by nuclear deterrence policy and the Catholic Church's response to this ethical dilemma. This book addresses the tradition of the Church, the making of public policy, religious ethics, and the implications for American Catholics.

  20. Weapons of Mass Destruction Conference: Avoiding a Nuclear Catastrophe. Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    is posed by Iran’s ballistic missiles—short-range Scud B and C missiles, medium-range Shahab - 3 and Ashura missiles, long-range Safir space launch...DEC 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Avoiding a Nuclear Catastrophe. Summary Report 5a...2010. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN: 978-1-58566211-1 1. Nuclear nonproliferation—Congresses. 2. Deterrence (Strategy)—Congresses. 3

  1. Asia’s Major Powers and the Emerging Challenges to Nuclear Stability Among Them

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    political and economic factors to consider. In Russia, policies will debated in the Duma , where many competing economic, political, and military...welcome a reunified Korea to the club of nuclear-armed democracies, mismanage its strategic competition with China in a way that magnifies Chinese...expanding the pool of allies, extending additional forms of deterrence, and possibly also growing the club of nuclear-armed democracies. In the

  2. What About the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility to Preserve this Planet for Future Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Glenn W.

    Part of a global effort, this brochure was written to increase understanding of the threat nuclear war poses to children. Several issues are raised and briefly discussed, including (1) the present capacity for annihilating the next generation or ending human life on this planet, (2) the inadequacy of deterrence, (3) the suffering of children after…

  3. Cult of deterrence: A moral and strategic critique of the anti-ballistic missile treaty. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, C.S.

    1997-12-30

    Ballistic missile defense is the morally and strategically superior alternative to the current system of deterrence, provided that it is responsibly implemented. Analysis of the Just War Criteria and the utilitarian justifications of deterrence present a moral obligation to pursue the alternative strategy of missile defense as a means of defending the United States. However, the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty does not allow earnest pursuit of this alternative, despite recent efforts to exploit its loopholes and broaden its meaning beyond any reasonable limit. Moreover, deterrence can no longer provide the guarantee of security that it did during the Cold War. Offense-Defense Theory shows that revisionist states are not subject to the same calculations of effective deterrence that the Soviet Union was during that period. This strategic analysis underlies the moral evaluations and further supports missile defense. The cult of deterrence is presented as an explanation for the failure to adapt national security policy to the new international structure, as European powers failed to perceive the offense-defense balance prior to World War I. The ABM regime threatens to reproduce those same mistakes with even greater consequences.

  4. Nuclear war: the facts on our survival

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Unless we reject the premise that a nuclear war can be waged rationally and one side can emerge victorious, a nuclear war could happen. Goodwin describes what will happen during and after a nuclear exchange. He describes the effects of heat and blast, and the effects and treatment of radiation exposure, then outlines simple protective steps individuals can take to improve their margin of safety. He describes a variety of civil defense and individual shelters that can be built, but questions how many will go to the necessary trouble. Photographs of Hiroshima and nuclear test sites illustrate the text. Public policy should focus first on sustaining deterrence and preventing war, according to Goodwin. 36 references, 40 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents.

  6. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The principal results of studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in their order of development. They capture the main features of stability analysis; relate first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and address whether different metrics, uncertain damage preferences, or the deployment of defenses can be destabilizing. The report explores differences between unilateral and proportional force reductions in the region of deep reductions where concern shifts from stability to latency.

  7. Will abuse-deterrent formulations of opioid analgesics be successful in achieving their purpose?

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, Bernard

    2012-09-10

    During the last 2 decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. This increase has been accompanied by a steep increase in abuse, misuse, and both fatal and non-fatal overdoses involving prescription opioids. The situation is already alarming in the US. Prescription opioid-related harm is a complex, multifactorial issue that requires a multifaceted solution. In this respect, formulations of opioid analgesics designed to resist or deter abuse may be a useful component of a comprehensive opioid risk minimization programme. Such formulations have or are being developed. Abuse-resistant opioids include those that use some kind of physical barrier to prevent tampering with the formulation. Abuse-deterrent opioids are not necessarily resistant to tampering, but contain substances that are designed to make the formulation less attractive to abusers. This article focuses on two products intended to deter abuse that were reviewed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The first (Embeda®) consists of extended-release morphine with sequestered naltrexone, an opioid antagonist that is released if the tablet is compromised by chewing or crushing. Although Embeda® exhibited abuse-deterrent features, its label warns that it can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists. Furthermore, tampering with Embeda® will result in the release of naltrexone, which may precipitate withdrawal in opioid-tolerant individuals. In March 2011, all dosage forms of Embeda® were recalled because the product failed to meet routine stability standards, and its return date to the market is currently unknown. The second product (Acurox®) was intended to be both tamper resistant and abuse deterrent. It consisted of an immediate-release oxycodone tablet with subtherapeutic niacin as an aversive agent and used a gel-forming ingredient designed to inhibit inhalation and prevent extraction of the drug for injection. The new drug

  8. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerquist, Barbara; Winsor, Martha; Mate, Bruce

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  9. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  10. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; van Loon, Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate

  11. Scientific impacts on nuclear strategic policy: Dangers and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeny, Spurgeon M.

    1988-12-01

    Nuclear weapons have revolutionized warfare, making a mutual capability for assured destruction a fact of life and mutual assured deterrence the underlying nuclear strategy of the superpowers. The program to find a technical solution to the threat of nuclear weapons by creating an impervious defense is fatally flawed by failure to consider responses available to a sophisticated adversary at much lower cost. Responses could involve: exploiting vulnerabilities; increased firepower; technical innovation; and circumvention. Efforts to achieve strategic defense would in fact increase risk of nuclear war by stimulating the nuclear arms race since history demonstrates neither side will allow its deterrent force to be seriously degraded. Defenses would increase instability in times of a crisis. Science has also reduced the risk of nuclear war by making possible improved control and safety of nuclear forces and predictability of US/Soviet relations, verifiability of arms control agreements, and survivable strategic systems. Science can be a tool for good or evil; mankind must be its masters not its slaves.

  12. Formulation Optimization of Hot Melt Extruded Abuse Deterrent Pellet Dosage Form Utilizing Design of Experiments (DOE)

    PubMed Central

    Maddineni, Sindhuri; Battu, Sunil Kumar; Morott, Joe; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Repka, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop techniques for an abuse-deterrent (AD) platform utilizing hot melt extrusion (HME) process. Formulation optimization was accomplished by utilizing Box-Behnken design of experiments to determine the effect of the three formulation factors: PolyOx™ WSR301, Benecel™ K15M, and Carbopol 71G; each of which was studied at three levels on TR attributes of the produced melt extruded pellets. A response surface methodology was utilized to identify the optimized formulation. Lidocaine Hydrochloride was used as a model drug, and suitable formulation ingredients were employed as carrier matrices and processing aids. All of the formulations were evaluated for the TR attributes such as particle size post-milling, gelling, percentage of drug extraction in water and alcohol. All of the DOE formulations demonstrated sufficient hardness and elasticity, and could not be reduced into fine particles (<150µm), which is a desirable feature to prevent snorting. In addition, all of the formulations exhibited good gelling tendency in water with minimal extraction of drug in the aqueous medium. Moreover, Benecel™ K15M in combination with PolyOx™ WSR301 could be utilized to produce pellets with TR potential. HME has been demonstrated to be a viable technique with a potential to develop novel abuse-deterrent formulations. PMID:24433429

  13. A field test of the directed deterrence hypothesis in two species of wild chili.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Cipollini, Martin L; Carlo, Tomás A

    2006-11-01

    The directed deterrence hypothesis posits that secondary metabolites in ripe fruit function to deter fruit consumption by vertebrates that do not disperse seeds, while not impacting consumption by those that do. We tested this hypothesis in two species of wild chilies (Capsicum spp.). Both produce fruits that contain capsaicinoids, the compounds responsible for the pungency of chilies. Previous work suggests seed-dispersing birds but not seed-destroying rodents consume chili fruits, presumably because rodents are deterred by capsaicin. However, fruit removal from chili plants by rodents and other mammals has not been previously explored. Because laboratory rodents can develop a preference for capsaicin, it is quite possible that wild rodents are natural consumers of chili fruits. We monitored the fate of 125 marked fruits of Capsicum chacoense and 291 fruits of Capsicum annuum. For both species, essentially all fruit removal occurred during the day, when rodents are inactive. Video monitoring revealed fruit removal only by birds, mostly by species known to disperse chili seeds in viable condition. Furthermore, these species are from taxonomic groups that tend to specialize on lipid-rich fruits. Both species of chili produce fruits that are unusually high in lipids (35% in C. chacoense, 24% in C. annuum). These results support the directed deterrence hypothesis and suggest that fruiting plants distinguish between seed predators and seed dispersers by producing fruits that repel the former and attract the latter.

  14. A Biomimetic Ultrasonic Whistle for Use as a Bat Deterrent on Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievert, Paul; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Carlson, Daniel; Dowling, Zara; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    As wind energy continues to gain worldwide prominence, more and more turbines are detrimentally influencing bat colonies. In 2012 alone, an estimated 600,000 bats were killed by wind turbines in the United States. Bats show a tendency to fly towards turbines. The objective of this work is to deter bats from the proximity of the swept area of operational wind turbine blades. Established field studies have shown that bats avoid broadband ultrasonic noise on the same frequency spectrum as their echolocation chirps. A biomimetic ultrasonic pulse generator for use as a bat deterrent on wind turbines is designed and studied experimentally. This device, which works based on the fundamentals of flow-induced oscillations of a flexible sheet is a whistle-like device inspired by a bat larynx, mechanically powered via air flow on a wind turbine blade. Current device prototypes have proven robust at producing ultrasound across the 20 - 70 kHz range for flow inlet velocities of 4 - 14 m/s. Ultimately, a deterrent as described here could provide a reliable, cost-effective means of alerting bats to the presence of moving turbine blades, reducing bat mortality at wind facilities, and reducing regulatory uncertainty for wind facility developers. The financial support provided by the US Department of Energy, and the Massachusetts Clean Energy center is acknowledged.

  15. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed.

  16. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  17. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  18. Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R

    2009-04-01

    Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg.

  19. Acoustic deterrence of bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) to a broadband sound stimulus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Murchy, Kelsie A.; Cupp, Aaron R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of acoustic deterrents against invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). This study examined the phonotaxic response of the bighead carp (H. nobilis) to pure tones (500-2000 Hz) and playbacks of broadband sound from an underwater recording of a 100 hp outboard motor (0.06-10 kHz) in an outdoor concrete pond (10 × 5 × 1.2 m) at the U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center in La Crosse, WI. The number of consecutive times the fish reacted to sound from alternating locations at each end of the pond was assessed. Bighead carp were relatively indifferent to the pure tones with median consecutive responses ranging from 0 to 2 reactions away from the sound source. However, fish consistently exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) greater negative phonotaxis to the broadband sound (outboard motor recording) with an overall median response of 20 consecutive reactions during the 10 min trials. In over 50% of broadband sound tests, carp were still reacting to the stimulus at the end of the trial, implying that fish were not habituating to the sound. This study suggests that broadband sound may be an effective deterrent to bighead carp and provides a basis for conducting studies with wild fish.

  20. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  1. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  2. Nuclear Terrorism - Dimensions, Options, and Perspectives in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseashta, Ashok; Susmann, P.; Braman, Eric W.; Enaki, Nicolae A.

    Securing nuclear materials, controlling contraband and preventing proliferation is an international priority to resolve using technology, diplomacy, strategic alliances, and if necessary, targeted military exercises. Nuclear security consists of complementary programs involving international legal and regulatory structure, intelligence and law enforcement agencies, border and customs forces, point and stand-off radiation detectors, personal protection equipment, preparedness for emergency and disaster, and consequence management teams. The strategic goal of UNSCR 1540 and the GICNT is to prevent nuclear materials from finding their way into the hands of our adversaries. This multi-jurisdictional and multi-agency effort demands tremendous coordination, technology assessment, policy development and guidance from several sectors. The overall goal envisions creating a secured environment that controls and protects nuclear materials while maintaining the free flow of commerce and individual liberty on international basis. Integral to such efforts are technologies to sense/detect nuclear material, provide advance information of nuclear smuggling routes, and other advanced means to control nuclear contraband and prevent proliferation. We provide an overview of GICNT and several initiatives supporting such efforts. An overview is provided of technological advances in support of point and stand-off detection and receiving advance information of nuclear material movement from perspectives of the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-28

    Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...conduct a test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear deterrent force. Absent such a test...Tass, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov “confirmed Russia’s unchanging support for the treaty as one of the key elements of the nuclear non

  4. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  5. Callicarpenal and Intermedeol: Two Natural Arthropod Feeding Deterrent and Repellent Compounds Identified from the Southern Folk Remedy Plant, Callicarpa americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies on the American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), it was demonstrated that callicarpenal and intermedeol were responsible for the arthropod repellent and feeding deterrent activity of this folk remedy. Both compounds showed significant bite-deterring activity against Aedes aeg...

  6. 78 FR 2676 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abuse-Deterrent Opioids-Evaluation and Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...-deterrent properties of opioid analgesic products should be studied and evaluated, and what claims regarding....'' Prescription opioid analgesics are an important component of modern pain management, but abuse and misuse of... abuse and misuse is the development of opioid analgesics specially formulated to deter abuse....

  7. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kempster, Ryan M; Egeberg, Channing A; Hart, Nathan S; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Collin, Shaun P

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  8. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathan S.; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C.; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  9. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  10. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  11. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    PubMed

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  12. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  13. On Deterrence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    application of the theory and any prinaiples derived from it. Clausewitz distinguished between theory as a guide to self-instruction and as a guide to action ... Theory educates the mind, he wrote, but should not accompany the military leader "to the field of battle." 21 It is imperative to honor this

  14. Oviposition deterrence associated with larval frass of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Anbutsu, H; Togashi, K

    2002-04-01

    To determine the effect of larval frass of Monochamus alternatus on oviposition preference of the female adults, three tests were performed in the laboratory. Individual females were provided with a frass-coated, Pinus densiflora bolt and an untreated bolt simultaneously and were allowed to oviposit for 24 h. They deposited a significantly smaller number of eggs on frass-coated bolts. The females supplied with frass-coated bolts deposited no eggs on them, indicating that the larval frass deterred the females from oviposition. When individual females were provided simultaneously with a pine bolt applied with a methanol extract of larval frass and another bolt applied with methanol alone, they deposited a significantly smaller number of eggs on frass extract-applied bolts for 24 h. These results suggest the presence of a putative oviposition deterrent in larval frass of M. alternatus. Each test was replicated 19-20 times using different females.

  15. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-04-15

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents.

  16. A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Devon D.; Potterat, John J.; Muth, Stephen Q.; Roberts, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially. PMID:17183691

  17. Strategic nuclear forces of Britain and France

    SciTech Connect

    Prados, J.; Wit, J.S.; Zagurek, M.J. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Weapon inventories of the US and the USSR account for about 97% of the nuclear warheads in the world today; Britain and France have most of the remainder. Yet even the comparatively modest claims the two Western European nations can make in this regard represent an awesome military capability that the USSR (and, to a lesser extent, the US) cannot afford to ignore. Indeed, the recent proposals both superpowers have made to dismantle all their European-based intermediate-range missiles differ sharply in particulars but raise the same fundamental question: What role will the other nuclear forces in Europe have in the future military balance. The Europeans are unlikely to place their limited strategic forces on the bargaining table along with those of the USSR and the US unless the superpowers impose severe constraints on their own strategic-weapon programs, and in particular on their strategic-defense programs. The deployment of such defense systems poses a worrisome dilemma for the Europeans: while in the near term a Soviet anti-ballistic-missile (ABM) system might have only marginal military impact, over the longer term a novel, exotic defense could conceivably nullify the dependent deterrent Britain and France have so arduously sought. At the same time and American system such as the Strategic Defense Initiative could, by decoupling the defense of Europe from that of the US, increase the need for precisely such an independent deterrent in the minds of the British and the French.

  18. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Karin; DeGeorge, Elise

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the relative priority of each of

  19. Fern-synthesized silver nanocrystals: Towards a new class of mosquito oviposition deterrents?

    PubMed

    Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Jayashanthini, Sudalaimani; Aziz, Al Thbiani; Roni, Mathath; Suresh, Udaiyan; Trivedi, Subrata; Rehman, Hasibur; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. Eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. We proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and particle size analysis. In mosquitocidal assays, the LC50 of D. linearis extract against Aedes aegypti ranged from 165.213 (larva I) to 255.055ppm (pupa). LC50 of D. linearis-synthesized AgNP ranged from 18.905 (larva I) to 29.328ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of D. linearis extract and AgNP (10×LC50) led to 100% larval reduction after 72h. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against A. aegypti adults showed that D. linearis leaf-, stem- and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (58%, 47%, 34%, and 48% respectively). In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 25ppm of AgNP and 300ppm of D. linearis extract. Interestingly, oviposition deterrent assays highlighted that 100ppm of fern extract reduced oviposition rates of more than 65%, while 10ppm of fern-fabricated AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti (OAI were -0.52 and -0.55, respectively). Overall, our results highlighted that D. linearis-synthesized AgNP could be useful candidates to develop nano-formulated oviposition deterrents effective against dengue vectors.

  20. Systemic deterrence of aphid probing and feeding by novel β-damascone analogues.

    PubMed

    Gabryś, Beata; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Gliszczyńska, Anna; Kordan, Bożena; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    β-Damascone appeared a weak attractant close to not active to Myzus persicae, but modifications of its structure caused the avoidance of treated leaves by aphids during settling and reluctance to probe in simple choice- and no-choice experiments in previous studies. Here, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, which allows monitoring of aphid probing within plant tissues, was applied to explore the biological background and localisation in plant tissues of the deterrent activities of β-damascone and its analogues. Activity of β-damascone and β-damascone-derived compounds depended on their substituents, which was manifested in the variation in the potency of the behavioural effect and differences in aphid probing phases that were affected. β-Damascone appeared a behaviourally inactive compound. The moderately active β-damascone ester affected aphid activities only during the phloem phase. The highly active deterrents-dihydro-β-damascol, β-damascone acetate, δ-bromo-γ-lactone, and unsaturated γ-lactone-affected pre-phloem and phloem aphid probing activities. The most effective structural modification that evoked the strongest negative response from M. persicae was the transformation of β-damascone into δ-bromo-γ-lactone. The behavioural effect of this transformation was demonstrated in frequent interruption of probing in peripheral tissues, which caused repeated failures in finding sieve elements, and reduction in the ingestion time during the phloem phase in favour of watery salivation. The inhibition of aphid probing at both the pre-phloem and phloem levels reveals the passage of the compounds studied through the plant surface and their distribution within plant tissues in a systemic way, which may reduce the risk of the transmission of non-persistent and persistent viruses.

  1. Peace and war: a study of morality and US strategic nuclear policies. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ginder, D.B.; Hicks, I.

    1983-05-01

    The paper examines the quesitons of peace and war and the morality of nuclear deterrence. These vital and enduring questions have been again become a focus of societal debate, especially in the light of the Catholic Bishop's pastoral letter. The nuclear debate is all encompassing, raising philosophical, political, social, strategic an religious questions. These issues present problems that each informed citizen will have to discern both morally and politically. The purpose of the paper is not to evaluate the morality of the defense and deterrent policies/strategies of the United States, but to provide the reader with the information to allow him to formulate judgment on this important question and be able to reconcile personal moral values with national policy and strategy.

  2. Nuclear threats from small states

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, J.H.

    1994-06-13

    What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

  3. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  4. The Politics of Modernizing Short-Range Nuclear Forces in West Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    peace movement, mass demonstrations, and the Soviet campaign to prevent Euromissile deployment have faded , the divisive debates of the early 1980s...traditionally pronuclear Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU) were evenly split in hvor and spinet the civilian use of nuclear powe...a balanced deterrent-elements so characteristic of Helmut Schmidt’s thinking- have rapidly faded with the departure of the former chancellor. Under

  5. The Dreadnought Paradox: An Argument for an Expanded Submarine-Based Conventional Deterrent to Counter A2/AD in the Pacific Theater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-17

    Paradox: An Argument for an Expanded Submarine-Based Conventional Deterrent to Counter A2/ AD in the Pacific Theater” argues that new approaches are...counterforce strikes against A2/ AD – and prepare the way for the carrier and amphibious task forces. 15. SUBJECT TERMS United States, Japan, China, deterrence...A2/ AD , submarine warfare, TLAM, Russia, Crimea 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  6. The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    aggressively and violently when they achieve a deindividuated state further, the analysis found when accountability was reduced through anonymity ...NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE RING OF GYGES: ANONYMITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE‘S EFFECT ON THE DETERRENCE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035 5a

  7. Security or armageddon: Israel's nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book closely examines Israel's strategic choices and the probable impact of those choices on American and Soviet foreign policy. The contributors of this debate both Israeli and American, represent a very distinguished group of scholars, all well-known specialists on international security affairs. The author addresses such critical issues as Israel's dilemma of either continuing with its ''bomb in the basement'' policy or disclosing its nuclear capabilities; the long-term prospects for security through conventional deterrence; the probability of nuclear and other highly destructive forms of terrorism; the creation of a regional non-proliferation treaty for the Middle East; the role of international law; the effect of superpower relations on regional stability; the relevance of Jewish history; and the problem of regional proliferation.

  8. Off the street and into “the cut”: Deterrence and displacement in NYC's quality of life marijuana policing

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the accounts of NYC marijuana smokers about the information and values underlying decisions about where to smoke. We do so to assess the deterrent value of NYC's “quality of life” policing of marijuana in public view. Participants indicated a general awareness of escalated marijuana policing and its attendant risks and almost universally spoke of avoiding public use in high-traffic locations and in the city's cultural and commercial centres. Beyond that, however, the deterrent value of aggressive marijuana policing appears limited. Individuals without access to private space reported outdoor marijuana use as a normalized peer group activity that has increasingly been displaced to marginal and interstitial public spaces that were collectively referred to by participants as “the cut.” PMID:22001856

  9. Predator-elicited foot shakes in wall lizards (Podarcis muralis): evidence for a pursuit-deterrent function.

    PubMed

    Font, Enrique; Carazo, Pau; Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Kramer, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Under certain circumstances, prey may inform potential predators of their unprofitability by means of pursuit-deterrent signals. The evidence for pursuit-deterrent signaling in reptiles is scant and taxonomically biased. Wall lizards, Podarcis muralis (Squamata: Lacertidae) produce several distinct types of stereotyped foot shake displays, of which one, performed in antipredator contexts, is a likely candidate for a pursuit-deterrent function. We investigated this possibility by recording the responses of lizards in the field to a slowly approaching human acting as a surrogate predator. In addition to starting and flight initiation distances, we measured the presence of foot shakes, the leg that was shaken, and the distance from the observer at which the display was performed (display distance). Of a total of 484 approaches, 109 (22.5%) elicited foot shake displays. Roughly half the lizards displayed from the location where they were first sighted, while the other half moved a short distance, then displayed. There was no left-right preference in the leg used to display, but most lizards displayed with the leg closer to the approaching predator. Juveniles and subadults had smaller flight initiation distances than adult lizards. There were no sex-related differences in starting or flight initiation distances, but females, for a given distance, were more likely to display than males. Foot shake display frequency declined abruptly at 1 m. If lizards waited until the surrogate predator was this close, they mostly fled without displaying. Our results show that antipredator foot shaking in P. muralis is consistent with expectations from pursuit-deterrent theory.

  10. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  11. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  12. Nuclear Naval Propulsion: A Feasible Proliferation Pathway?

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L.

    2014-01-31

    There is no better time than now to close the loophole in Article IV of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) that excludes military uses of fissile material from nuclear safeguards. Several countries have declared their intention to pursue and develop naval reactor technology, including Argentina, Brazil, Iran, and Pakistan, while other countries such as China, India, Russia, and the United States are expanding their capabilities. With only a minority of countries using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in their naval reactors, it is possible that a state could produce highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the guise of a nuclear navy while actually stockpiling the material for a nuclear weapon program. This paper examines the likelihood that non-nuclear weapon states exploit the loophole to break out from the NPT and also the regional ramifications of deterrence and regional stability of expanding naval forces. Possible solutions to close the loophole are discussed, including expanding the scope of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, employing LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in naval reactors, amending the NPT, creating an export control regime for naval nuclear reactors, and forming individual naval reactor safeguards agreements.

  13. International perceptions of US nuclear policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Elizabeth A. (Georgetown Universtiy, Washington, DC)

    2006-02-01

    The report presents a summary of international perceptions and beliefs about US nuclear policy, focusing on four countries--China, Iran, Pakistan and Germany--chosen because they span the spectrum of states with which the United States has relationships. A paradox is pointed out: that although the goal of US nuclear policy is to make the United States and its allies safer through a policy of deterrence, international perceptions of US nuclear policy may actually be making the US less safe by eroding its soft power and global leadership position. Broadly held perceptions include a pattern of US hypocrisy and double standards--one set for the US and its allies, and another set for all others. Importantly, the US nuclear posture is not seen in a vacuum, but as one piece of the United States behavior on the world stage. Because of this, the potential direct side effects of any negative international perceptions of US nuclear policy can be somewhat mitigated, dependent on other US policies and actions. The more indirect and long term relation of US nuclear policy to US international reputation and soft power, however, matters immensely to successful multilateral and proactive engagement on other pressing global issues.

  14. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  15. Institutional Strain and Precarious Values in Meeting Future Nuclear Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Matthews; Todd R. LaPorte

    1998-11-01

    This paper explores the implications of moderately expanding plutonium "pit" production capability within the strongly R&D culture of Los Alamos National Laboratory, especially in terms of the lab's current capacity or "fitness for the future" in which institutional stewardship of the nation's nuclear deterrent capability becomes a primary objective. The institutional properties needed to assure "future fitness" includes the organizational requisites highly reliable operations and sustained institutional constancy in a manner that evokes deep public trust and confidence. Estimates are made of the degree to which the key Division and most relevant Program office in this evolution already exhibits them.

  16. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Background and Current Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...administration that may have to conduct a test of an element of an aging, unmodernized stockpile in order to assure the reliability of the nuclear deterrent...State Ellen Tauscher described elements of the Administration’s strategy to win Senate approval of the treaty. “This administration will not attempt

  17. Copepod behavior in thin layers of attractive and deterrent chemical cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, M.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the oceanographic distribution of mobile zooplankton can be attributed, at least in part, to foraging and aggregative behaviors. A laboratory system was developed to test the cues that induce these behaviors. The system mimics thin layer structure in the ocean, and the research has focused on calanoid copepods, specifically Temora longicornis and Acartia tonsa. Responses are directly observed as copepod cultures are subjected to different attractive and deterrent chemical cues, such as phytoplankton (food) and harmful algal bloom metabolites. Behaviors are quantified using three behavioral markers: proportional residence time in the thin layer, swimming speed, and turn frequency. These three markers are measured using video-based observation, which quantifies path kinematics and swimming behavior. Previous experiments have shown that attractive chemical exudates elicite behaviors such as increased swimming speed and excited area-restricted search behavior. Thus, understanding how zooplankton behave in response to chemicals from toxic species will extend our understanding of zooplankton interaction with thin layers and the potential consequences for population dynamics, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity in coastal and pelagic ecosystems.

  18. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.

  19. Nucleophile sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 underlies light-induced feeding deterrence.

    PubMed

    Du, Eun Jo; Ahn, Tae Jung; Wen, Xianlan; Seo, Dae-Won; Na, Duk L; Kwon, Jae Young; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Cho, Hana; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-09-22

    Solar irradiation including ultraviolet (UV) light causes tissue damage by generating reactive free radicals that can be electrophilic or nucleophilic due to unpaired electrons. Little is known about how free radicals induced by natural sunlight are rapidly detected and avoided by animals. We discover that Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), previously known only as an electrophile receptor, sensitively detects photochemically active sunlight through nucleophile sensitivity. Rapid light-dependent feeding deterrence in Drosophila was mediated only by the TRPA1(A) isoform, despite the TRPA1(A) and TRPA1(B) isoforms having similar electrophile sensitivities. Such isoform dependence re-emerges in the detection of structurally varied nucleophilic compounds and nucleophilicity-accompanying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, these isoform-dependent mechanisms require a common set of TRPA1(A)-specific residues dispensable for electrophile detection. Collectively, TRPA1(A) rapidly responds to natural sunlight intensities through its nucleophile sensitivity as a receptor of photochemically generated radicals, leading to an acute light-induced behavioral shift in Drosophila.

  20. Racial disparity and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system: exploring consequences for deterrence.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Byrne, James M; Pattavina, April

    2005-11-01

    Minority (over) representation in the criminal justice system remains a puzzle, both from a policy and an intervention perspective. Cross-sectional reviews of the policies and practices of the criminal justice system often find differential rates of involvement in the criminal justice system that are associated with the nature of the criminal charge/act or characteristics of the offender; however, longitudinal reviews of the race effect often show it to be confounded by procedural and extralegal variables. This review focuses on how the cumulative policies and practices of the criminal justice system contribute to churning, or the recycling of individuals through the system. In conducting our review, we describe how the same criminal justice processes and practices adversely affect select communities. The consequences of policies and procedures that contribute to churning may affect the legitimacy of the criminal justice system as a deterrent to criminal behavior. A research agenda on issues related to legitimacy of the criminal justice system aimed at a better understanding of how this affects individual and community behavior is presented.

  1. Current status and evolving role of abuse-deterrent opioids in managing patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn; St Marie, Barbara; McCarberg, Bill; Passik, Steven D; Panchal, Sunil J; Voth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Opioids are widely used for the treatment of patients with chronic pain; yet, the increase in their abuse, misuse, and diversion is an ongoing focus of regulatory, governmental, and legal scrutiny. As a consequence, clinicians are faced with numerous challenges in an effort to use opioids in appropriate patients with pain while minimizing the potential for opioid abuse, misuse, and diversion. Policies and programs such as state prescription monitoring programs, which have been in existence for decades, are but one attempt to address some of the issues regarding the prescribing of opioids. Another is a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for opioids under consideration by the US Food and Drug Administration. At the clinical level, a universal precautions and risk management package that includes risk assessment and patient monitoring is a recommended approach. This approach can also include the use of abuse-deterrent and abuse-resistant formulations designed to reduce the nonmedical use of opioids. Several of these opioid formulations have been approved or should soon be on the market for use in the United States; however, their role and other questions regarding their use remain unanswered. The authors offer their clinical perspective on several of these key questions.

  2. Specific deterrence, community context, and drunk driving: an event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Bae; Teske, Raymond H C

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies about recidivism of offenders have focused primarily on the nature of the sanctions and factors specific to the individual offender. This study addressed both individual and community factors, using a cohort of felony-level, driving while intoxicated (DWI) probationers (N = 370) charged in Harris County, Texas. The study investigated specific deterrent effects of sanctions on success or failure of probationers while controlling for the community contexts to observe how informal social control processes contextualize individual-level predictors. Results of a series of event history analyses tracking probationers for a period of 8 years indicated that severity of punishment, swiftness of punishment, criminal history, and completion of DWI education programs significantly affected the probationer's survival time, whereas no significant influence of community contexts on survival time or success was observed. Reducing the felony charge to a misdemeanor, a shorter period of probation, and past criminal history, combined with an almost immediate guilty plea, were significantly associated with short-term failure on probation.

  3. Nucleophile sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 underlies light-induced feeding deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Eun Jo; Ahn, Tae Jung; Wen, Xianlan; Seo, Dae-Won; Na, Duk L; Kwon, Jae Young; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Cho, Hana; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-01-01

    Solar irradiation including ultraviolet (UV) light causes tissue damage by generating reactive free radicals that can be electrophilic or nucleophilic due to unpaired electrons. Little is known about how free radicals induced by natural sunlight are rapidly detected and avoided by animals. We discover that Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), previously known only as an electrophile receptor, sensitively detects photochemically active sunlight through nucleophile sensitivity. Rapid light-dependent feeding deterrence in Drosophila was mediated only by the TRPA1(A) isoform, despite the TRPA1(A) and TRPA1(B) isoforms having similar electrophile sensitivities. Such isoform dependence re-emerges in the detection of structurally varied nucleophilic compounds and nucleophilicity-accompanying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, these isoform-dependent mechanisms require a common set of TRPA1(A)-specific residues dispensable for electrophile detection. Collectively, TRPA1(A) rapidly responds to natural sunlight intensities through its nucleophile sensitivity as a receptor of photochemically generated radicals, leading to an acute light-induced behavioral shift in Drosophila. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18425.001 PMID:27656903

  4. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  5. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  6. Embracing the Bomb: Ethics, Morality, and Nuclear Deterrence in the U.S. Air Force, 1945-1955

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. constitution, a personal and professional devotion to strategic bombing, and an ardent belief lThe United States Strategic Bombing Survey...largely wait until after hostilities ceased, so it naturally focused on, and was severely complicated by, the closing epic event of the war: the...activities, from machines to morals, from physics to philosophy, from politics to poetry ,൪ yet the popular feeling was that humans could properly and

  7. Assessing the Influence of the United States’ Nuclear Deterrent on the China-Japan Security Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    August when, despite pleas from both Beijing and Seoul, Koizumi followed through on a campaign promise to visit Yasukuni Shrine.184 F. SUMMARY AND...rough start. In April 2001, shortly after he took office, Prime Minister Koizumi Junichiro followed through on his campaign promise to visit Yasukuni

  8. Hunting a Black Swan: Policy Options for America’s Police in Preventing Radiological/Nuclear Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    professionals and some true lifelong friendships were developed. Special thanks are due to Chris Bellavita, my advisor, for helping me navigate through the...strategy that increases the probability of detection and causes a deterrent effect forcing a potential adversary to reconsider if such an attack is...and defense. Agencies are strongly encouraged to educate their personnel on the reality of radiological and nuclear threats, locate and liaise with

  9. The effects of initial participation motivations on learning engagement in transition training for future general practitioners in rural China: perceived deterrents as mediator

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guan-yu; Yao, Mei-lin; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yan-kui; Li, Hui-min; Yao, Xiu-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background For the shortage of high-quality general practitioners (GPs) in China's rural areas, Chinese government has taken steps to encourage rural specialists to participate in transition training for future GPs. Specialists’ initial participation motivations and their perceived deterrents during training may play important roles for their learning engagement in the transition training. This study aimed at revealing the relationships among the variables of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents in training, and learning engagement. Methods A questionnaire survey was used in this study. A total of 156 rural specialists who participated in transition training for future GPs filled out the questionnaire, which consisted of the measurements of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents, and learning engagement in training. The data about specialists’ demographic variables were collected at the same time. Results The variance of initial escape/stimulations motivation significantly predicted the variance of learning engagement through the full mediating role of perceived deterrents in training. In addition, initial educational preparation motivations predicted the variance of learning engagement directly. Conclusions Specialists’ initial participation motivations and perceived deterrents in training played important roles for learning engagement in the transition training. PMID:27340086

  10. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  11. Taking the sting out of the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Ravenal, E.C.

    1983-10-01

    A policy of incentives to discourage the first use of nuclear weapons can help to reduce the threat of nuclear war, but the author takes issue with the logic of those who propose requiring a conventional buildup in Europe as a condition for a no-first-use policy because it would be costly and could still lead to an escalation to nuclear war. Inherent questions about deterrence and alliance reflect the cost of pursuing invulnerability and maintaining crisis stability. Since unnecessary and tempting targets encourage first use, the author feels that the US should design a foreign policy of war avoidance and self-reliance that accommodates both short-run utilitarian action and long-term ethical principles, both of which are necessary to relieve tensions. (DCK)

  12. Low-dose naloxone provides an abuse-deterrent effect to buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R; Smith, Michael D; Unal, Cemal; Finn, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In developmental research, plasma buprenorphine concentrations comparable to a 2 mg buprenorphine–naloxone (BN) sublingual tablet have been achieved with a 0.75 mg dose of BN buccal film, a small, bioerodible polymer film for application to mucosal membranes. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-period crossover study in opioid-dependent subjects with chronic pain receiving >100 mg oral morphine equivalents daily who experienced withdrawal following a naloxone challenge dose. The objective of the study was to determine if intravenous (IV) naloxone doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mg would produce a withdrawal response when coadministered with a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. Fifteen subjects receiving 90–1,260 mg oral morphine equivalents per day enrolled and completed the study. Precipitated withdrawal occurred in 13% (2/15) of placebo-treated subjects and 47% (7/15) of buprenorphine-treated subjects. When combined with the 0.75 mg dose of buprenorphine, a 0.1 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence of precipitated withdrawal to 60%, and a 0.2 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence to 73%. By 15 minutes postdose, the mean change in Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score from predose was 3.0 for placebo, 6.9 for buprenorphine, 9.8 for BN 0.1 mg, and 12.4 for BN 0.2 mg. The mean COWS score with each active treatment was significantly greater than placebo (P<0.001), and the mean COWS score for each of the naloxone-containing treatments was significantly greater than for buprenorphine alone (P<0.001). Naloxone doses as low as 0.1 mg added an abuse-deterrent effect to a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. PMID:26604818

  13. Honeybees and nectar nicotine: deterrence and reduced survival versus potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2012-02-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by plants for herbivore defence are often found in floral nectar, but their effect on the foraging behaviour and physiological performance of pollinators is largely unknown. Nicotine is highly toxic to most herbivores, and nicotine-based insecticides may contribute to current pollinator declines. We examined the effects of nectar nicotine on honeybee foraging choices and worker longevity. Free-flying honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) workers from six colonies were given a choice between multiple nicotine concentrations (0-1000 μM) in artificial nectar (0.15-0.63 M sucrose). The dose-dependent deterrent effect of nicotine was stronger in lower sugar concentrations, but even the highest nicotine concentrations did not completely repel honeybees, i.e., bees did not stop feeding on these diets. Nicotine in nectar acts as a partial repellent, which may keep pollinators moving between plants and enhance cross-pollination. In the second part of the study, newly emerged workers from 12 colonies were caged and fed one of four nicotine concentrations (0-300 μM) in 0.63 M sucrose for 21 days. Moderate (≤30 μM) nicotine concentrations had no significant detrimental effect, but high nicotine concentrations reduced the survival of caged workers and their nectar storage in the honey comb. In contrast, worker groups that survived poorly on sugar-only diets demonstrated increased survival on all nicotine diets. In the absence of alternative nectar sources, honeybees tolerate naturally occurring nectar nicotine concentrations; and low concentrations can even be beneficial to honeybees. However, high nicotine concentrations may have a detrimental effect on colony fitness.

  14. An Ethylene-Protected Achilles’ Heel of Etiolated Seedlings for Arthropod Deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290) accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1), as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine PI. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings, maximum Kunitz-PI;1 promoter activity was detected in the apical hook region and apical parts of the hypocotyls. Immunolocalization confirmed Kunitz-PI;1 expression in these organs and tissues. No transmitting tract (NTT) and HECATE 1 (HEC1), two transcription factors previously implicated in the formation of the female reproductive tract in flowers of Arabidopsis, were identified to regulate Kunitz-PI;1 expression in the dark and during greening, with NTT acting negatively and HEC1 acting positively. Laboratory feeding experiments with isopod crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug) pinpointed the apical hook as ethylene-protected Achilles’ heel of etiolated seedlings. Because exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and mechanical stress (wounding) strongly up-regulated HEC1-dependent Kunitz-PI;1 gene expression, our results identify a new circuit controlling herbivore deterrence of etiolated plants in which Kunitz-PI;1 is involved. PMID:27625656

  15. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  16. (E)-Caryophyllene and α-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patrícia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)—mass spectrometry, with α-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and β-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and α-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological

  17. (E)-Caryophyllene and α-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patrícia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with α-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and β-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and α-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods

  18. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus.

    PubMed

    Swathi, S; Murugananthan, G; Ghosh, S K

    2010-10-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).

  19. Toxicity and Feeding Deterrent Effect of 2-Methylanthraquinone from the Wood Extractives of Tectona grandis on the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus

    PubMed Central

    Ismayati, Maya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    No-choice feeding tests using ethanol, chloroform, and acetone extractives of teak (Tectona grandis) heartwood clearly showed feeding deterrent activity and toxicity to the subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. The amount of 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) in teak wood extractives was not related to the feeding deterrents or toxicity, as shown by the no-choice feeding tests conducted using crude extractives containing various amounts of MAQ, MAQ alone, and fractions of crude extractives. As a native pest, the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus was more tolerant to the fractions of crude extractives than Reticulitermes speratus, and the mortality observed in C. formosanus was not due to the presence of MAQ. PMID:27834795

  20. History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Doctrine and a Path Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    During the Cold War, the United States considered a number of approaches for living in a world with nuclear weapons, including disarmament, preventive war, the incorporation of nuclear weapons into military strategy, passive and active defense, and deterrence. With the failure of early approaches to disarmament, and the rejection of preventive war against the Soviet Union (and later, China), deterrence became central to key nuclear relationships, though arms control continued to play an important role. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty made preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons another central component of U.S. policy. The Bush Administration has tried to devise a new policy for the post-Cold War period. Their approach has three salient pillars. First, it is characterized by an overall skepticism toward multilateral agreements, on the grounds that bad actors will not obey them, that agreements can lead to a false sense of security, and that such agreements are too often a way for the Lilliputians of the world to tie down Gulliver. The March 2005 U.S. National Defense Strategy declared that U.S. strength ``will continue to be challenged by those who employ a strategy of the weak, using international fora, judicial processes and terrorism.'' Second, the Bush Administration declared its intention to maintain a military dominance so great that other states simply would not try to catch up. The 2002 National Security Strategy states that ``Our forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military build-up in hopes of surpassing, or equaling, the power of the United States.'' Third, the 2002 National Security Strategy (reaffirmed by the 2006 National Security Strategy) moved preventive war (which the strategies called ``preemptive war'') to a central position, rather than deterrence and nonproliferation. In part this was because of the claim that certain ``rogue'' states, and terrorist groups, were not deterrable. This talk

  1. Illicit trafficking of radiological & nuclear materials : modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks.

    SciTech Connect

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  2. Blunt impact as deterrent: human approach-avoidance behaviors and other stress responses studied within a paintball gaming context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Kenneth R.; Bergen, Michael T.; DeMarco, Robert M.; Chua, Florence B.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Blunt impact munitions are often used by civilian law enforcement and in military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) missions to dissuade individuals and groups from approaching valued assets. The use of blunt munitions (rubber-ball or sponge) is predicated on their effectiveness as aversive stimuli; the effectiveness is weighed against the risk of serious injury or death. However, little empirical evidence supports effectiveness. Here, we use a paintball gaming context to study the effects of blunt impact on performance and approach behaviors. Volunteers individually traversed a course in which targets offer the opportunity to gain for accuracy. While completing the targeting task, subjects were bombarded with paintballs, which progressively became more numerous and the impact more intense as the subjects neared goal locations. Initial data suggest that over 30 blunt impacts by paintballs delivered at 280 ft/sec over 30 to 100 ft are insufficient to overcome intrinsic and extrinsic approach motivations or impair targeting or advance performance in an overwhelming majority of subjects. Our apparent ceiling effect was surprising. A sub-comparison of the few subjects who stopped the game before the end with those who did not suggests that personality factors influence the effectiveness of blunt impact as a deterrent. While paintballs differ from traditional blunt impact munitions on a number of physical characteristics, impact that was sufficient to repeatedly bruise volunteers was not an effective deterrent.

  3. Web-based child pornography: The global impact of deterrence efforts and its consumption on mobile platforms.

    PubMed

    Steel, Chad M S

    2015-06-01

    Our study is the first to look at mobile device use for child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) consumption, and at the global impact of deterrence efforts by search providers. We used data from Google, Bing, and Yandex to assess how web searches for CSEM are being conducted, both at present and historically. Our findings show that the blocking efforts by Google and Microsoft have resulted in a 67% drop in the past year in web-based searches for CSEM. Additionally, our findings show that mobile devices are a substantial platform for web-based consumption of CSEM, with tablets and smartphones representing 32% of all queries associated with CSEM conducted on Bing. Further, our findings show that a major search engine not located in the United States, Yandex, did not undertake blocking efforts similar to those implemented by Google and Microsoft and has seen no commensurate drop in CSEM searches and continues to profit from ad revenue on these queries. While the efforts by Google and Microsoft have had a deterrence effect in the United States, searchers from Russia and other locations where child pornography possession is not criminalized have continued to use these services. Additionally, the same lax enforcement environment has allowed searchers from the United States to utilize Yandex with little fear of detection or referral to United States law enforcement from the Russian authorities.

  4. Chinese tactical nuclear weapons. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The United States, Russia and Great Britain have retired all nonstrategic nuclear weapons. Surprisingly, China has not, China seems to value highly tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs). Most studies of China`s nuclear arsenal focus on strategic nuclear weapons. This focus could mislead those trying to understand PRC TNW strategy. The purpose of this thesis is to explain China`s TNW development. China`s nuclear arsenal evolution can be described in three phases. In the first phase, China developed a limited strategic nuclear deterrent. China`s arsenal was driven by threat. Technology supplanted threat as the dominant driver during the next phase. While conducting research to miniaturize strategic warheads, were developed. During the third phase, a reduced threat caused political leaders to restrain the nuclear program. The nuclear program reverted to its primary objective - building strategic weapons, causing TNW production to level off. This study explains the last two phases of TNW development. The research goals are twofold: to compare threat and technology, the primary motivations driving TNW production; and to examine the relationship between doctrine and development, describing how one influences the other. The conclusion offers U.S. foreign policy recommendations.

  5. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  6. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  7. Cyclopaldic acid, seiridin, and sphaeropsidin A as fungal phytotoxins, and larvicidal and biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Avolio, Fabiana; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. From a preliminary screening of fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid (1), seiridin (2), sphaeropsidin A (4), and papyracillic acid (5) were evaluated for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti L. Because compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activities and 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities, further structureactivity relationship studies were initiated on these toxins. In biting-deterrence bioassays, 1, 2, 4, and 5, 3,8-didansylhydrazone of cyclopaldic acid, 1F, 5-azidopentanoate of cyclopaldic acid A, 1G, the reduced derivative of cyclopaldic acid, 1 H, isoseiridin (3), 2'-O-acetylseiridin (2A), 2'-oxoseiridin (2C), 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (4A), 8,14-methylensphaeropsidin A methyl ester (4B), and sphaeropsidin B (4C) showed activities higher than the solvent control. Sphaeropsidin B (4C) was the most active compound followed by 2A, while the other compounds were less active. Biting-deterrence activity of compound 4C was statistically similar to DEET. In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities. Based on LD50 values, compound 4 (LD50 36.8 ppm) was significantly more active than compound 1 (LD50 58.2 ppm). However, the activity of these compounds was significantly lower than permethrin.

  8. The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.

    1992-12-31

    The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

  9. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer’s Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Zeale, Matt R. K.; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E.; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer’s bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation. PMID:26771548

  10. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored

  11. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  12. Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

    2006-10-01

    We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium.

  13. The Future of the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Linton F.

    2007-03-01

    This paper will examine our plans for the future of the U.S. nuclear weapons program including efforts to ``transform'' the stockpile and supporting infrastructure. We proceed from the premise that the United States will need a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent for the foreseeable future. Moreover, the Stockpile Stewardship Program is working. Today's stockpile---comprised of legacy warheads left over from the Cold War---is safe and reliable. That said, we see increased risk, absent nuclear testing, in assuring the long-term safety and reliability of our current stockpile. Nor is today's nuclear weapons complex sufficiently ``responsive'' to fixing technical problems in the stockpile, or to potential adverse geopolitical change. Our task is to work to ensure that the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise, including the stockpile and supporting infrastructure, meets long-term national security needs. Our approach is to develop and field replacement warheads for the legacy stockpile---so-called Reliable Replacement Warheads (RRW)---as a means to transform both the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure.

  14. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin.

  15. Harnessing Light: Laser/Satellite Relay Mirror Systems and Deterrence in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    satellites. 49 Shutter Controls – Shutter controls on a satellite would enable the electronics and optical sensors to be protected, either as a...from a high-energy laser beam, but it would be a prudent precaution, especially if the shutters were constructed out of one of the advanced materials...October 2009). Fusion Energy Foundation. Beam Defense: An Alternative to Nuclear Destruction. Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1983

  16. Conventional Expeditionary Forces: A 21st Century Triad for Strategic Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    deployment force (RDF). In March 1998, a brigade task force deployed into Honduras as part of Operation Golden Pheasant on a no-notice deployment...Roosevelt Champion of Freedom. New York: Public Affairs, 2003, 544. 108 Global Secuirty.org maintained by John Pike. Operation Golden Pheasant . April 27...escalation in conflicts, such as Operation Golden Pheasant and Restore Democracy, rather than the stated threat of nuclear or conventional options

  17. NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture After the Chicago Summit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    in space, of which about 1,000 are active satellites; and the rest is debris, from spent rocket bodies to ballpoint pens . China’s development of...Chatham House Rule, comments are not attributed to specific individuals. NUCLEAR, CONVENTIONAL, AND MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITIES A French...credibility in assurance, he said, is the “ specificity ” of commitments in alliance relations. This is particularly the case in U.S. alliance

  18. Chinese attitudes toward nuclear weapons: China and the United States during the Korean War

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental Chinese attitudes related to nuclear disarmament and proliferation, civil defense against nuclear attack, and the likely repercussions of nuclear war were set during the Korean War. Chinese viewpoints were heavily influenced by Western writings on nuclear matters from 1945-1950 and were characterized by an integrated military, political, and psychological realism. Previous studies, failing to make use of relevant Chinese-language materials, have neglected this crucial formative period. Both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations considered using nuclear weapons in Korea and China and attempted to shape the political settlement of the war through nuclear threats. The Chinese reaction was notable for its efforts to counteract the effects of fear among its population. They acknowledged the unprecedented destructiveness, not the military decisiveness, of the weapons, but they adamantly denied that nuclear threats would cow them. Chinese propaganda stressed the Soviet deterrent and skillfully appealed to worldwide opposition to nuclear weapons, often utilizing Western spokesmen and playing upon the theme of US misuse of science. The Chinese considered a nuclear attack relatively unlikely but were prepared to absorb an attack and fight a war of long duration. In Korea both the terrain and the extensive tunneling by Chinese troops afforded significant protection from nuclear weapons.

  19. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  20. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  1. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  2. Deterrence and National Security in the Face of an Amorphous Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Werne, R

    2001-01-05

    The National Security threats that we face today and, in turn, the National Security . requirements, are more diverse and complex than they were during the Cold-War from 1945-1990. During that period, and bolstered by the experiences of World Wars I and II, US National Security policy was focused on the stabilization of post WW II country boundaries and containment of the Soviet block and China. The result was the bipolar world in which the nuclear and conventional forces of the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies ensured a measure of political stability through a military stalemate of world wide proportions. The practical result was that large scale changes in national borders were unlikely, but internal conflict within countries, and local conflicts between neighboring countries could still occur, albeit with participation from one or both of the Superpower camps. US National Security Policy was designed primarily for stabilization of the bipolar world on the military front and for competition with the Soviet Union and China on economic and political fronts. The collapse of the Soviet Union changed the global picture. The bipolar world and its military stalemate appear to be gone for the moment and the threat which was the foundation for US National Security policy has changed significantly. Some will argue that China has intentions of replacing the Soviet Union as a military superpower and thus recreate the bipolar world. Furthermore, Russia still has significant nuclear forces and has recently talked of lowering the nuclear threshold in an apparent attempt to make up for its weakened conventional forces. Clearly the threat of large scale nuclear war is much reduced, but not gone entirely. Having acknowledged the Chinese and Russian threats, what does the global picture look like today? The boundaries of most countries are secure but there are significant frictions, that have, or could lead, to armed conflict. Most of these are today

  3. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. Repellent and Deterrent Effects of SS220, Picaridin, and Deet Suppress Human Blood Feeding by Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    females andÞve26Ð63-yr-old male Caucasian volunteers to feeding mosquitoes and sand ßies. Each bioassay used a minimum of three individuals and at least...Cand80%RHwith cottonpadmoistened with 10% aqueous sucrose solution.Mated nulliparous Ae. aegypti andAn. stephensi females (5Ð15dold)were tested. An...BEHAVIOR, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Repellent and Deterrent Effects of SS220, Picaridin, and Deet Suppress Human Blood Feeding by Aedes aegypti , Anopheles

  6. Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-08-01

    Malaria and filariases are prevalent in Sudan and their control depends largely on preventive measures against mosquito vectors. The present work aimed to investigate the larvicidal, adults emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. against the mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as a biological control means. The larval mortality was observed after 24 hours. The LC50 values calculated were 403.65, 445.66 and 498.88 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 1091.44, 1364.58 and 1445.44 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. 50% of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) were 374.97 and 1180.32 ppm against 3rd instar larvae of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extract showed oviposition deterrent effect against both species. Results reveal that the crude extract of R. communis possesses remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent properties against both the tested species and can be used as biological control means.

  7. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Siriporn, P; Mayura, S

    2012-03-01

    The effect of oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal of seven essential oils were evaluated towards three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values of six essential oils namely Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Syzygium aromaticum indicated that there were more deterrent than the control whereas Citrus sinensis oil acted as oviposition attractant. At higher concentration (10%) of Ca. odorata (ylang ylang flowers) showed high percent effective repellency (ER) against oviposition at 99.4% to Ae. aegypti, 97.1% to An. dirus and 100% to Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results showed that mean numbers of eggs were lower in treated than in untreated water. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between essential oil concentrations and ovicidal activity. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1%, 5% and up to 10% conc., the hatching rate decreased. The essential oil of Ca. odorata at 10% conc. gave minimum egg hatch of 10.4% (for Ae. aegypti), 0.8% (for An. dirus) and 1.1% (for Cx. quinquefasciatus) respectively. These results clearly revealed that the essential oil of Ca. odorata served as a potential oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  8. The effect of an abuse‐deterrent opioid formulation (OxyContin) on opioid abuse‐related outcomes in the postmarketing setting

    PubMed Central

    Chilcoat, HD; Butler, SF; Sellers, EM; Kadakia, A; Harikrishnan, V; Haddox, JD; Dart, RC

    2016-01-01

    An extended‐release opioid analgesic (OxyContin, OC) was reformulated with abuse‐deterrent properties to deter abuse. This report examines changes in abuse through oral and nonoral routes, doctor‐shopping, and fatalities in 10 studies 3.5 years after reformulation. Changes in OC abuse from 1 year before to 3 years after OC reformulation were calculated, adjusted for prescription changes. Abuse of OC decreased 48% in national poison center surveillance systems, decreased 32% in a national drug treatment system, and decreased 27% among individuals prescribed OC in claims databases. Doctor‐shopping for OC decreased 50%. Overdose fatalities reported to the manufacturer decreased 65%. Abuse of other opioids without abuse‐deterrent properties decreased 2 years later than OC and with less magnitude, suggesting OC decreases were not due to broader opioid interventions. Consistent with the formulation, decreases were larger for nonoral than oral abuse. Abuse‐deterrent opioids may mitigate abuse and overdose risks among chronic pain patients. PMID:27170195

  9. The effect of an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation (OxyContin) on opioid abuse-related outcomes in the postmarketing setting.

    PubMed

    Coplan, P M; Chilcoat, H D; Butler, S F; Sellers, E M; Kadakia, A; Harikrishnan, V; Haddox, J D; Dart, R C

    2016-09-01

    An extended-release opioid analgesic (OxyContin, OC) was reformulated with abuse-deterrent properties to deter abuse. This report examines changes in abuse through oral and nonoral routes, doctor-shopping, and fatalities in 10 studies 3.5 years after reformulation. Changes in OC abuse from 1 year before to 3 years after OC reformulation were calculated, adjusted for prescription changes. Abuse of OC decreased 48% in national poison center surveillance systems, decreased 32% in a national drug treatment system, and decreased 27% among individuals prescribed OC in claims databases. Doctor-shopping for OC decreased 50%. Overdose fatalities reported to the manufacturer decreased 65%. Abuse of other opioids without abuse-deterrent properties decreased 2 years later than OC and with less magnitude, suggesting OC decreases were not due to broader opioid interventions. Consistent with the formulation, decreases were larger for nonoral than oral abuse. Abuse-deterrent opioids may mitigate abuse and overdose risks among chronic pain patients.

  10. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  11. Nuclear weapons. The balance of terror, the quest for peace

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a study from first principles of nuclear strategy and the balance of terror. This book addresses the most fundamental issues of our time - what is the balance of terror. How did it come to be. Is it necessary. How has it affected world politics. Will it keep the world at peace. Is it stable in an intrinsic and a dynamic sense. How real a threat is a first strike advantage. What can arms control agreements contribute. What should the objectives of such agreements be. How might a nuclear conflict begin. What would be the chance of containing such a conflict once begun. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the balance of terror. Are there any alternatives to a balance of terror, such as general or nuclear disarmament, which would be both attainable and preferable. If not, what can be done to make a better balance of terror. What are the main threats to stability. What should the West's policies be. What role is there for the independent nuclear deterrents of smaller countries. And how have recent developments such as the American 'star-wars' programme and the 'nuclear winter' hypothesis affected the answers to all these questions.

  12. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive

  13. Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.

    1992-03-12

    The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation: the first is the five states with declared weapons and doctrine-the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China; the second includes a less visible group that developed a covert capability, without testing weapons or declaring a doctrine of deterrence-for example, Israel, India, and probably Pakistan; and, a third wave of would-be proliferators includes radical states like Iraq, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. Spector's political approach is based on the common interest of wave one and two states to prevent further proliferation. Political-economic incentives have already worked in the cases of Brazil, Argentina, Taiwan, and South Africa-states which appear to have abandoned their nuclear weapons programs. Spector does not rule out the option of military force. Force, especially under international sanctions, can be a powerful tool to back diplomatic efforts. Use of force, however, remains a last resort.

  14. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  15. Strategic command and control: Redefining the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    To many defense analysts, C/sup 3/I (command, control, communications and intelligence) is the most vulnerable component of our nuclear deterrent. Bruce Blair, who once served in the Strategic Air Command as a Minuteman launch control officer and is a current Defense Department official, has written an important and valuable analysis of the physical and organizational arrangements which exist to control U.S. strategic forces, tracing their evolution over 25 years. His recommendations call for (a) near-term improvements to assure that the system will not collapse under a Soviet first strike and will provide for prompt retaliation and (b) a long-term goal of delaying a retaliatory strike by at least 24 hours so as to maximize chances for survival.

  16. [Changes of oviposition preference of diamondback moth after experiencing a neem-based repellent/deterrent BIOACT-T].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-hong; Liu, Shu-sheng

    2007-02-01

    For the adults of phytophagous insects, their experience of non-host plant-originated repellent/deterrent may produce habituation or induced preference to it. In this study, the experience-induced changes in oviposition responses of diamondback moth Plutelle xylostella L. to a neem-based repellent BIOACT-T EC508 were examined in laboratory. 2-6 days old female moths were offered with 2--6 times or 2-6 days experience of the repellent, and their ovipostion preference to untreated and BIOACT-treated Chinese cabbages were evaluated. The results showed that BIOACT had a strong repellent effect to all of the naive 2-6 days old females, that only laid approximately 10% of their eggs on BIOACT-treated plants. As for the 2, 4 and 6 days old females who experienced 2 times or 2 days, 4 times or 4 days, and 6 times or 6 days of BIOACT, their mean oviposition rate on BIOACT-treated plants increased to 17% , 21%--24% , and 29% , respectively, demonstrating that this experience of the females induced their habituation or preference to BIOACT, and consequently, the repellent effect of BIOACT decreased. However, there were substantial variations in the experience-induced changes of oviposition preference among the individuals of the moth.

  17. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  19. The impact of state laws protecting abortion clinics and reproductive rights on crimes against abortion providers: deterrence, backlash, or neither?

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Freilich, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Since Roe v. Wade, most states have passed laws either restricting or further protecting reproductive rights. During a wave of anti-abortion violence in the early 1990s, several states also enacted legislation protecting abortion clinics, staff, and patients. One hypothesis drawn from the theoretical literature predicts that these laws provide a deterrent effect and thus fewer anti-abortion crimes in states that protect clinics and reproductive rights. An alternative hypothesis drawn from the literature expects a backlash effect from radical members of the movement and thus more crimes in states with protective legislation. We tested these competing hypotheses by taking advantage of unique data sets that gauge the strength of laws protecting clinics and reproductive rights and that provide self-report victimization data from clinics. Employing logistic regression and controlling for several potential covariates, we found null effects and thus no support for either hypothesis. The null findings were consistent across a number of different types of victimization. Our discussion contextualizes these results in terms of previous research on crimes against abortion providers, discusses alternative explanations for the null findings, and considers the implications for future policy development and research.

  20. Prenuptial perfume: Alloanointing in the social rituals of the crested auklet ( Aethia cristatella) and the transfer of arthropod deterrents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Hector D.

    2008-01-01

    Alloanointing, the transfer of chemicals between conspecifics, is known among mammals, but hitherto, the behavior has not been documented for birds. The crested auklet ( Aethia cristatella), a colonial seabird of Alaskan and Siberian waters, alloanoints during courtship with fragrant aldehydes that are released from specialized wick-like feathers located in the interscapular region. Crested auklets solicit anointment at the colony, and prospective mates rub bill, breast, head, and neck over wick feathers of their partners. This distributes aldehydes over the head, neck, and face where the birds cannot self-preen. The resulting chemical concentrations are sufficient to deter ectoparasites. Auklets that emit more odorant can transfer more defensive chemicals to mates and are thus more sexually attractive. Behavioral studies showed that crested auklets are attracted to their scent. Wild birds searched for dispensers that emitted their scent and rubbed their bills on the dispensers and engaged in vigorous anointment behaviors. In captive experiments, naïve crested auklets responded more strongly to synthetic auklet scent than controls, and the greatest behavioral response occurred during early courtship. This study extends scientific knowledge regarding functions of alloanointing. Alloanointing had previously been attributed to scent marking and individual recognition in vertebrates. Alloanointing is described here in the context of an adaptive social cue — the transfer of arthropod deterrents between prospective mates.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  2. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  3. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  4. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  5. Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.

    1991-03-20

    This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)

  6. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: American production reactors, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Although the history of commercial-power nuclear reactors is well known, the story of the government reactors that produce weapons-grade plutonium and tritium has been shrouded in secrecy. In the first detailed look at the origin and development of these production reactors, the authors describe a fifty-year government effort no less complex, expensive, and technologically demanding than the Polaris or Apollo programs--yet one about which most Americans know virtually nothing. The book describes the evolution of the early reactors, the atomic weapons establishment that surrounded them, and the sometimes bitter struggles between business and political constituencies for their share of 'nuclear pork.' They show how, since the 1980s, aging production reactors have increased the risk of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and water table. And they describe how the Department of Energy mounted a massive effort to find the right design for a new generation of reactors, only to abandon that effort with the end of the Cold War. Today, all American production reactors remain closed. Due to short half-life, the nation's supply of tritium, crucial to modern weapons, is rapidly dwindling. As countries like Iraq and North Korea threaten to join the nuclear club, the authors contend, the United States needs to revitalize tritium production capacity in order to maintain a viable nuclear deterrent. Meanwhile, as slowly decaying artifacts of the Cold War, the closed production reactors at Hanford, Washington, and Savannah River, South Carolina, loom ominously over the landscape.

  7. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  8. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  9. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  10. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  11. Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-12-01

    With a greater awareness of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic organic insecticides, there has been an urgent need to explore suitable alternative products for pest control. Musca domestica is ubiquitous insect that has the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. They are mechanical carriers of more than hundred human and animal intestinal diseases and are responsible for protozoan, bacterial, helminthic, and viral infections. The present work aimed to investigate the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Manilkara zapota against M. domestica. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 421 nm and scanning electron microscopy confirm the biosynthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. The FTIR analysis of the purified nanoparticles showed the presence of bands 1,079, 1,383, 1,627, 2,353, and 2,648 cm(-1), which were complete synthesis of AgNPs; the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ values of 38.06°, 44.37°, 64.51°, and 77.31° sets of lattice planes were observed (111), (200), (220), and (311) facts of silver, respectively. Adult flies were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of synthesized Ag NPs, 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution and aqueous extract of M. zapota for 1, 2, and 3 h; however, AgNPs showed 72% mortality in 1 h, 89% mortality was found in 2 h, and 100% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/mL and the leaf aqueous extract showed 32% mortality in 1 h, 48% mortality was found in 2 h, and 83% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at concentration of 50 mg/mL. The most efficient activity was observed in synthesized Ag NPs against M. domestica (LD(50) = 3.64 mg/mL; LD(90) = 7.74 mg/mL), the moderate activity reported in the aqueous extract of M. zapota (LD(50) = 28.35 mg/mL; LD(90) = 89.19 mg/mL) and nil

  12. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    SciTech Connect

    Immele, John D; Wagner, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the

  13. Insect deterrent and nematicidal screening of microfungi from Mexico and anti-aphid compounds from Gliomastix masseei.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, Ana L; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés-Yeves, Mari Fe; Ruiz-Sánchez, Esaú; Heredia, Gabriela; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R; Medina-Baizabal, Irma L; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Gamboa-Angulo, Marcela

    Fungal metabolites are promising alternatives for the development of biorational pesticides. In this sense, microfungi from tropical regions are valuable sources of natural compounds for pest management. With the aim of broadening the search for new eco-friendly products to manage plant pests, this study was carried out to evaluate the biological activity of 23 tropical fungal extracts on three species of phytophagous insects and a plant parasitic nematode. In addition, the active principles of the most effective extract were identified. The insect deterrent activity of fungal extracts was evaluated on the settling of aphids Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi, and on the feeding of lepidoptera larva Spodoptera littoralis; the nematostatic activity was evaluated on the mobility of Meloidogyne javanica. Active metabolites from Gliomastix masseei were identified by GC-MS techniques and by comparison with commercial standards. Results showed seven extracts with strong effect on the settling of M. persicae and R. padi (settling inhibition >80%). The calculated median of effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 8 to 38μg/cm(2) for the extracts of Clonostachys rosea and G. masseei, respectively. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethyl acetate extract of G. masseei revealed the presence of fatty acids and their derivatives, where methyl 9-octadecenoate was the most active compound with EC50 values of 16μg and 35μg/cm(2) for M. persicae and R. padi, respectively. Extracts of C. rosea and G. masseei could be a promising option in the control of pest aphids in agriculture.

  14. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile’s Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents’ statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables ‘years of formal education’ and ‘years of driving experience’ have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable ‘having children’ were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile’s context. Data were taken from the “Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety” survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile’s Metropolitan Region road users' population. PMID:22105406

  15. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  16. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  17. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  18. After Action Report - CUP-2 Comparative Sample Analysis Meeting - Kazakhstan September 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, Ruth; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Oujo, Kaitlin; Geist, William

    2016-09-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) visited the Kazakhstan Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) to discuss the results and conclusions of a joint sample analysis (CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate) between LLNL, INP and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) (Fig. 1). The U.S. delegation also met with the newly-appointed Director-General of the INP (S. Sakhiyev) who expressed his continued support for this collaboration. On the last day of the visit, the delegation toured the new medical isotope production facilities (which is expected to begin operation in a few months), as well as INP’s Nuclear Security Training Center (co-funded by DOE, the Defense Threat Reduction Initiative (DTRA) and the Kazakhstan government). Construction of the Nuclear Security Training Center is expected to be completed by the end of 2016.

  19. Dancing the Two-Step in Ontario’s Long-term Care Sector: More Deterrence-oriented Regulation = Ownership and Management Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores shifts in public and private delivery over time through an analysis of Ontario’s approach to LTC funding and regulation in relation to other jurisdictions in Canada and abroad. The case of Ontario’s long-term care (LTC) policy evolution – from the 1940s until early 2013 -- shows how moving from compliance to deterrence oriented regulation can support consolidation of commercial providers’ ownership and increase the likelihood of non-profit and public providers outsourcing their management. PMID:27777495

  20. Towards green oviposition deterrents? Effectiveness of Syzygium lanceolatum (Myrtaceae) essential oil against six mosquito vectors and impact on four aquatic biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Rajeswary, Mohan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2016-12-05

    Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. Most of researches in this field focused on EOs as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of EOs as oviposition deterrents. In the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of Syzygium lanceolatum leaf EO was evaluated against six mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, An. subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the S. lanceolatum EO was analyzed by GC-MS analysis, showing the presence of phenyl propanal, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide as major constituents. S. lanceolatum EO showed high acute toxicity on An. stephensi (LC50 = 51.20 μg/ml), Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 55.11 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 60.01 μg/ml), An. subpictus (LC50 = 61.34 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 66.71 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 72.24 μg/ml) larvae. Furthermore, the EO was effective as oviposition deterrent against the six tested mosquito species, with OAI on An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus reaching -0.83, -0.81, -0.84, -0.83, -0.84, and -0.86, respectively. The toxicity of S. lanceolatum EO against several biological control agents of mosquitoes, including water bugs (Anisops bouvieri and Diplonychus indicus) and fishes (Gambusia affinis and Poecilia reticulata), was extremely low, with LC50 ranging between 4148 and 15,762 μg/ml. Overall, our results pointed out the promising potential of the S. lanceolatum leaf EO as a source of environmental-friendly oviposition deterrents and larvicides effective against a wide number of mosquito species of importance for parasitology.

  1. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  2. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  4. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  5. Biting Deterrence and Insecticidal Activity of Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Their Corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles Against Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4- oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti Nurhayat Tabanca,a∗ Abbas Ali,a Ulrich R Bernier,b Ikhlas A Khan,a,c,d Bedia...biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti for the first time. RESULTS: The compound 3-acetyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(dimethylamino...phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole (17) produced the highest biting deterrent activity (BDI = 1.025) against Ae. Aegypti , followed by 4

  6. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  7. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  8. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  9. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  10. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  11. Ultralight Aircraft Smuggling Prevention Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2011-08-02

    08/02/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5260) (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3801, which became Public Law 112-93 on 2/10/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Ultralight Aircraft Smuggling Prevention Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2011-12-08

    12/12/2011 Held at the desk. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3801, which became Public Law 112-93 on 2/10/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  14. Redefining the U.S. Agenda for Nuclear Disarmament, Analysis and Reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Lewis A.

    2016-10-01

    With Lewis Dunn’s paper on nuclear disarmament diplomacy, we are inaugurating a new monograph series under the auspices of the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The series will explore complex emerging challenges in the emerging security environment as they bear on issues of deterrence, assurance, and strategic stability. Our goal is to explore these issues deeply enough to provide significant new understanding that is technically informed and policy relevant. Our premise is that thoughtful students of international security affairs continue to value such in-depth analysis as a way to help make sense of the large flow of data and opinion that reaches all of us on a daily basis. Our ambition is to generate four to six such papers per year on especially salient topics. The views expressed in these papers are those of the author and should not be attributed to the Center, the Laboratory, or the U.S. government. This inaugural paper addresses one of the key questions facing national leadership seven to eight years after President Obama’s April 2009 remarks in Prague and his commitment to take practical steps towards the long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons. In the interim, some important steps have been taken. But there have also been many disappointments. The new presidential administration will face a security landscape quite different from that of eight years ago and must reassess U.S. priorities and approaches. As Lewis Dunn argues, some will be tempted to walk away entirely from the disarmament agenda, while others will advocate even more forcefully for unilateral U.S. steps to further reduce the role and number of nuclear weapons in its posture. Dr. Dunn sets out his own vision of how to adapt and carry forward the disarmament agenda, in a manner informed by developments in the security environment that point to a continuing role for nuclear deterrence. The result is both fresh and compelling.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  16. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  17. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  18. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  19. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    SciTech Connect

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  20. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  1. Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 30, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents testimonies from a hearing discussing the drug threat in the nations schools and the issue of whether drug testing is an effective deterrent. The subcommittee conducted the hearing as part of an effort to fully understand the nations drug crisis, how it impacts different parts of our nation, and what effective drug control…

  2. Biting deterrence and insecticidal activity of hydrazide–hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Hydrazones are important compounds for drug design and they have also good insecticidal activity. In this study, A series of hydrazide–hydrazones (1-10) and 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (11-20) were investigated for their biting deterrent and insecticidal act...

  3. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  5. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  6. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  8. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  9. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  10. Radioactive Import Deterrence Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Gordon, Bart [D-TN-6

    2009-01-14

    12/03/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Deterrence in Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-13

    Insurgency, and Peacekeeping, (New York: Stackpole, 1971). 38 in Malaysia , or at least it provides a readily available conduit to communication...malicious code has the potential to disrupt portions of the nation’s power grid. 45 Gay Porter...Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, 201-235. Edited by John Arquilla, & David Ronfeldt. Santa Monica: RAND, 2001. DeNileon, Gay Porter. “Critical

  12. Deterrent to Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores security issues that schools should consider before deciding to reduce campus lighting in order to control energy costs. Highlights factors to consider before creating a lighting reduction action plan. (GR)

  13. Acquisition as Deterrent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    technologically advanced, you provided our enemies, the Minotaur -Squids of the Indigo Zone, with an example they could follow, and which they did...indeed follow. “Following your example, the Minotaur -Squids built several new 16th generation starfi ghters in a matter of weeks. Thus emboldened by

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  15. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  17. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  18. Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1991-04-01

    In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

  19. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  20. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  1. Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Aytac, Zeki; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B.Yildiz et Z.Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of E. lamondiana were δ-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), α-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-δ-3-carene, (R)-(-)-α-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and α-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than δ-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.

  2. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  3. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  4. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  6. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  7. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect.

  8. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  9. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  10. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  11. A Practical Solution to Used Nuclear Fuel Treatment to Enable Sustained Nuclear Energy and Recovery of Vital Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; DelCul, Guillermo D; Rushton, James E; Williams, Kent Alan

    2010-01-01

    A systems analysis, based on previous in-depth studies, was made to develop an advanced used fuel recycling approach in which over 90% of the fuel components and cladding material are recovered and reused. This can minimize the waste requiring disposition to a geologic repository while enabling sustained nuclear energy and recovery of vital materials. The analysis assumed that: (1) continuing delays will occur in locating a site and licensing a geologic repository in the United States; (2) continued storage of used fuel at reactor sites or central storage locations is not a permanent solution; and (3) public perception is that the unresolved used fuel disposal problem is a deterrent to the continuation and expansion of the use of nuclear energy. The practical solution recommended is to move forward with a parallel approach to (1) deployment of industrialized recycling of used fuels which is a multi-decade process, and (2) focused R&D to recover the re-usable components and minimize residual waste. This approach would use concepts for proliferation resistant recycle facilities, processing oldest fuels first, and incorporating more-complete recycling of used fuel components. In addition to uranium and transuranic actinide recycle, the R&D would be focused on recovery and re-use of valuable components such as noble metals, lighter lanthanide elements, xenon gas, and zirconium from cladding. While the eventual need for a geologic repository will remain, the methods recommended can delay the need, minimize the capacity required, and significantly reduce the hazard of the wastes disposed. With no decision, the path forward for nuclear waste (used fuels) disposal remains uncertain, with many diverse technologies being considered. However, a decision to take advantage of proliferation resistant facility design, processing aged fuels, and incorporation of the concepts of nearcomplete recycling will provide the focus and path forward to a practical solution to the problem of

  12. Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaffe, Michael David

    On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of

  13. A Delayed Neutron Counting System for the Analysis of Special Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Madison Theresa

    Nuclear forensic analysis is a modem science that uses numerous analytical techniques to identify and attribute nuclear materials in the event of a nuclear explosion, radiological terrorist attack or the interception of illicit nuclear material smuggling. The Canadian Department of National Defence has participated in recent international exercises that have highlighted the Nation's requirement to develop nuclear forensics expertise, protocol and capabilities, specifically pertaining to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM). A delayed neutron counting (DNC) system has been designed and established at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to enhance the Government's SNM analysis capabilities. This analytical technique complements those already at RMC by providing a rapid and non-destructive method for the analysis of the fissile isotopes of both uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). The SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at RMC produces a predominately thermal neutron flux. These neutrons induce fission in the SNM isotopes 233U, 235U and 239Pu releasing prompt fast neutrons, energy and radioactive fission fragments. Some of these fission fragments undergo beta - decay and subsequently emit neutrons, which can be recorded by an array of sensitive 3He detectors. The significant time period between the fission process and the release of these neutrons results in their identification as 'delayed neutrons'. The recorded neutron spectrum varies with time and the count rate curve is unique to each fissile isotope. In-house software, developed by this project, can analyze this delayed neutron curve and provides the fissile mass in the sample. Extensive characterization of the DNC system has been performed with natural U samples with 235 U content ranging from 2--7 microg. The system efficiency and dead time behaviour determined by the natural uranium sample analyses were validated by depleted uranium samples with similar quantities of 235 U resulting in a typical relative error of

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  18. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  19. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  20. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.