Nuclear spin circular dichroism
Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia
2014-04-07
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.
Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.
Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka
2013-03-14
Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation. PMID:23514495
Protein carbon-13 spin systems by a single two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiment
Oh, B.H.; Westler, W.M.; Darba, P.; Markley, J.L.
1988-05-13
By applying a two-dimensional double-quantum carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance experiment to a protein uniformly enriched to 26% carbon-13, networks of directly bonded carbon atoms were identified by virtue of their one-bond spin-spin couplings and were classified by amino acid type according to their particular single- and double-quantum chemical shift patterns. Spin systems of 75 of the 98 amino acid residues in a protein, oxidized Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin (molecular weight 11,000), were identified by this approach, which represents a key step in an improved methodology for assigning protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Missing spin systems corresponded primarily to residues located adjacent to the paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster. 25 references, 2 figures.
Decoupling a hole spin qubit from the nuclear spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prechtel, Jonathan H.; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Ludwig, Arne; Valentin, Sascha R.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Warburton, Richard J.
2016-09-01
A huge effort is underway to develop semiconductor nanostructures as low-noise hosts for qubits. The main source of dephasing of an electron spin qubit in a GaAs-based system is the nuclear spin bath. A hole spin may circumvent the nuclear spin noise. In principle, the nuclear spins can be switched off for a pure heavy-hole spin. In practice, it is unknown to what extent this ideal limit can be achieved. A major hindrance is that p-type devices are often far too noisy. We investigate here a single hole spin in an InGaAs quantum dot embedded in a new generation of low-noise p-type device. We measure the hole Zeeman energy in a transverse magnetic field with 10 neV resolution by dark-state spectroscopy as we create a large transverse nuclear spin polarization. The hole hyperfine interaction is highly anisotropic: the transverse coupling is <1% of the longitudinal coupling. For unpolarized, randomly fluctuating nuclei, the ideal heavy-hole limit is achieved down to nanoelectronvolt energies; equivalently dephasing times up to a microsecond. The combination of large and strong optical dipole makes the single hole spin in a GaAs-based device an attractive quantum platform.
Nuclear spin noise in NMR revisited
Ferrand, Guillaume; Luong, Michel
2015-09-07
The theoretical shapes of nuclear spin-noise spectra in NMR are derived by considering a receiver circuit with finite preamplifier input impedance and a transmission line between the preamplifier and the probe. Using this model, it becomes possible to reproduce all observed experimental features: variation of the NMR resonance linewidth as a function of the transmission line phase, nuclear spin-noise signals appearing as a “bump” or as a “dip” superimposed on the average electronic noise level even for a spin system and probe at the same temperature, pure in-phase Lorentzian spin-noise signals exhibiting non-vanishing frequency shifts. Extensive comparisons to experimental measurements validate the model predictions, and define the conditions for obtaining pure in-phase Lorentzian-shape nuclear spin noise with a vanishing frequency shift, in other words, the conditions for simultaneously obtaining the spin-noise and frequency-shift tuning optima.
Generation and transfer of coherence in electron-nuclear spin systems by non-ideal microwave pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeschke, Gunnar
A quantum mechanical treatment based on a suitably truncated Hamiltonian is developed for the evolution during microwave (MW) irradiation of an S = 1/2, I = 1/2 electron-nuclear spin system with anisotropic hyperfine coupling. It is shown that there is a close analogy between this problem and the well understood phenomena in heteronuclear spin systems with resolved J couplings during double irradiation (L. Muller and R. R. Ernst, 1979, Molec. Phys., 38, 963). A general expression is derived for the MW field strength necessary to establish the modified Hartmann-Hahn condition where electron and nuclear spin states mix completely and maximum nuclear coherence can be generated. The theory is then applied to the discussion of hyperfine decoupling and coherence generation from Boltzmann equilibrium by a MW pulse of arbitrary field strength and duration. It is demonstrated that the build-up of nuclear coherence during such a pulse is slow and oscillatory, and that maximum nuclear coherence is achieved at nominal flip angles considerably larger than 2 pi. The creation of both nuclear coherence and coherence on forbidden electron transitions is found to be optimum at the modified Hartmann-Hahn condition, and not to be limited by the modulation depth parameter known from electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) theory. The theoretical results are used to interpret a number of recent experimental observations that could not be understood by existing theories, and to propose an alternative explanation for nuclear modulations observed in experiments on bacterial photosystems. Effects in systems with a nuclear spin I = 1 are discussed taking into account nuclear quadrupole interactions. It is demonstrated both by numerical simulations and experiments that the well established two-pulse ESEEM experiment can be optimized by using pulses with matched microwave field strength and nominal flip angles larger than 2 pi.
Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Högele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac
2013-01-01
The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104-106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of many-body spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantum-dot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electron-nuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantum-dot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electron-spin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantum-dot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.
Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Three-spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-07-01
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have developed a non-perturbative theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole couplings, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we implement the general dipolar EMOR theory for a macromolecule-bound three-spin system, where one, two, or all three spins exchange with the bulk solution phase. In contrast to the previously studied two-spin system with a single dipole coupling, there are now three dipole couplings, so relaxation is affected by distinct correlations as well as by self-correlations. Moreover, relaxation can now couple the magnetizations with three-spin modes and, in the presence of a static dipole coupling, with two-spin modes. As a result of this complexity, three secondary dispersion steps with different physical origins can appear in the longitudinal relaxation dispersion profile, in addition to the primary dispersion step at the Larmor frequency matching the exchange rate. Furthermore, and in contrast to the two-spin system, longitudinal relaxation can be significantly affected by chemical shifts and by the odd-valued ("imaginary") part of the spectral density function. We anticipate that the detailed studies of two-spin and three-spin systems that have now been completed will provide the foundation for developing an approximate multi-spin dipolar EMOR theory sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to allow quantitative molecular-level interpretation of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation data from biophysical model systems and soft biological tissue.
Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Three-spin systems.
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-07-21
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have developed a non-perturbative theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole couplings, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we implement the general dipolar EMOR theory for a macromolecule-bound three-spin system, where one, two, or all three spins exchange with the bulk solution phase. In contrast to the previously studied two-spin system with a single dipole coupling, there are now three dipole couplings, so relaxation is affected by distinct correlations as well as by self-correlations. Moreover, relaxation can now couple the magnetizations with three-spin modes and, in the presence of a static dipole coupling, with two-spin modes. As a result of this complexity, three secondary dispersion steps with different physical origins can appear in the longitudinal relaxation dispersion profile, in addition to the primary dispersion step at the Larmor frequency matching the exchange rate. Furthermore, and in contrast to the two-spin system, longitudinal relaxation can be significantly affected by chemical shifts and by the odd-valued ("imaginary") part of the spectral density function. We anticipate that the detailed studies of two-spin and three-spin systems that have now been completed will provide the foundation for developing an approximate multi-spin dipolar EMOR theory sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to allow quantitative molecular-level interpretation of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation data from biophysical model systems and soft biological tissue. PMID:27448879
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Charpentier, Thibault
2015-04-01
In this paper we present a theoretical perturbative approach for describing the NMR spectrum of strongly dipolar-coupled spin systems under fast magic-angle spinning. Our treatment is based on two approaches: the Floquet approach and the Floquet-Magnus expansion. The Floquet approach is well known in the NMR community as a perturbative approach to get analytical approximations. Numerical procedures are based on step-by-step numerical integration of the corresponding differential equations. The Floquet-Magnus expansion is a perturbative approach of the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we address the " γ -encoding" effect using the Floquet-Magnus expansion approach. We show that the average over " γ " angle can be performed for any Hamiltonian with γ symmetry.
29Si nuclear spins as a resource for donor spin qubits in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfowicz, Gary; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Guichard, Roland; Simmons, Stephanie; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Morton, John J. L.
2016-02-01
Nuclear spin registers in the vicinity of electron spins in solid state systems offer a powerful resource to address the challenge of scalability in quantum architectures. We investigate here the properties of 29Si nuclear spins surrounding donor atoms in silicon, and consider the use of such spins, combined with the donor nuclear spin, as a quantum register coupled to the donor electron spin. We find the coherence of the nearby 29Si nuclear spins is effectively protected by the presence of the donor electron spin, leading to coherence times in the second timescale—over two orders of magnitude greater than the coherence times in bulk silicon. We theoretically investigate the use of such a register for quantum error correction (QEC), including methods to protect nuclear spins from the ionisation/neutralisation of the donor, which is necessary for the re-initialisation of the ancillae qubits. This provides a route for multi-round QEC using donors in silicon.
Nuclear-driven electron spin rotations in a coupled silicon quantum dot and single donor system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Rudolph, Martin; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel; Carroll, Malcolm S.
Single donors in silicon are very good qubits. However, a central challenge is to couple them to one another. To achieve this, many proposals rely on using a nearby quantum dot (QD) to mediate an interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent coupling of electron spins between a single 31P donor and an enriched 28Si metal-oxide-semiconductor few-electron QD. We show that the electron-nuclear spin interaction can drive coherent rotations between singlet and triplet electron spin states. Moreover, we are able to tune electrically the exchange interaction between the QD and donor electrons. The combination of single-nucleus-driven rotations and voltage-tunable exchange provides all elements for future all-electrical control of a spin qubit, and requires only a single dot and no additional magnetic field gradients. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Locking electron spins into resonance by electron-nuclear feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowack, Katja
2009-03-01
All basic building blocks for spin-based quantum information processing using electron spins in GaAs quantum dots have recently been realized. Recent experiments have shown single-shot read-out of an individual spin [1], the implementation of the SWAP gate [2] and (magnetically induced) coherent single electron spin rotations [3]. However, the main drawback of using electron spins in a GaAs environment is the short spin coherence time, which is measured to be in the nanosecond range [2,4]. The source of this fast decoherence is the hyperfine interaction of the localized electron spin with the randomly fluctuating nuclear spins of the host lattice. The fluctuations of the nuclear spins have to be reduced to extend the electron spin coherence time. We therefore study the electron-nuclear spin interaction and use magnetically driven spin resonance to control the electron spin and indirectly manipulate the nuclear spins. We apply continuous microwave excitation to the electron spin and observe strong electron-nuclear feedback. One experimental signature of this feedback is the locking of the electron spin system into resonance with the microwaves. Once the electron spin is locked into resonance, this resonance condition remains fullfilled even when the external magnetic field or the microwave frequency is changed. This is due to dynamically build up nuclear polarizations (up to 500 mT) which generally counteract the external magnetic field. Locking of the electron spin system into resonance might indicate that the nuclear polarization exhibits stable configurations where fluctuations of the nuclear distribution are reduced [5]. [4pt] References [0pt] [1] J. M. Elzerman et al. , Nature 430, 431 (2004) [0pt] [2]. J. R. Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005). [0pt] [3] F. H. L. Koppens et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006). [0pt] [4] F. H. L. Koppens et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 236802 (2008). [0pt] [5] J. Danon and Yu. V. Nazarov, private communication.
Measurements of nuclear spin dynamics by spin-noise spectroscopy
Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Cronenberger, S.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.
2015-06-15
We exploit the potential of the spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) for studies of nuclear spin dynamics in n-GaAs. The SNS experiments were performed on bulk n-type GaAs layers embedded into a high-finesse microcavity at negative detuning. In our experiments, nuclear spin polarisation initially prepared by optical pumping is monitored in real time via a shift of the peak position in the electron spin noise spectrum. We demonstrate that this shift is a direct measure of the Overhauser field acting on the electron spin. The dynamics of nuclear spin is shown to be strongly dependent on the electron concentration.
Optical manipulation of a multilevel nuclear spin in ZnO: Master equation and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buß, J. H.; Rudolph, J.; Wassner, T. A.; Eickhoff, M.; Hägele, D.
2016-04-01
We demonstrate the dynamics and optical control of a large quantum mechanical solid state spin system consisting of a donor electron spin strongly coupled to the 9/2 nuclear spin of 115In in the semiconductor ZnO. Comparison of electron spin dynamics observed by time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with density matrix theory reveals nuclear spin pumping via optically oriented electron spins, coherent spin-spin interaction, and quantization effects of the ten nuclear spin levels. Modulation of the optical electron spin orientation at frequencies above 1 MHz gives evidence for fast optical manipulation of the nuclear spin state.
High-spin nuclear spectroscopy
Diamond, R.M.
1986-07-01
High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given. (DWL)
Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence.
Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J L; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-01-01
Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a (29)Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits.
Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.
Delgado, F; Fernández-Rossier, J
2011-08-12
Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayabe, Kazuki; Sato, Kazunobu; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nishida, Shinsuke; Sugisaki, Kenji; Ise, Tomoaki; Morita, Yasushi; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Okada, Keiji; Takui, Takeji
2013-10-01
Weakly exchange-coupled biradicals have attracted much attention in terms of their dynamic nuclear polarisation application in NMR spectroscopy for biological systems or the use of synthetic electron-spin qubits in quantum information processing/quantum-computing technology. Analogues multi-partite molecular systems are important in entering a new phase of the relevant fields. Many stable organic biradicals known so far have nitrogen nuclei at their electron spin sites, where singly occupied molecular orbitals are dominating and large hyperfine couplings occur. A salient feature of such weakly exchange-coupled molecular systems in terms of electronic spin structures is underlain by small zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters comparable with nuclear hyperfine and/or exchange interactions. Pulse-based electron spin nutation (ESN) spectroscopy of weakly exchange-coupled biradicals, applicable to oriented or non-oriented media, has proven to be a useful and facile approach to the determination of ZFS parameters, which reflect relatively short distances between unpaired electron spins. In the present study, we first treat two-dimensional single-crystal ESN spectroscopy (Q-band) of a 15N-labelled weakly exchange-coupled biradical, showing the nuclear hyperfine effects on the ESN phenomena from both the experimental and theoretical side. ESN spectroscopy is transition moment spectroscopy, in which the nutation frequency as a function of the microwave irradiation strength ω1 (angular frequency) for any cases of weakly exchange-coupled systems can be treated. The results provide a testing ground for the simplified but general approach to the ESN analysis. In this study, we have invoked single-crystal electron-electron double resonance measurements on a typical biradical well incorporated in a diamagnetic host lattice and checked the accuracy of our ESN analysis for the spin dipolar tensor and exchange interaction. Next, we extend the general approach to analogues multi
Analysis of the transient response of nuclear spins in GaAs with/without nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasly, Mahmoud; Lin, Zhichao; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya
2016-05-01
As an alternative to studying the steady-state responses of nuclear spins in solid state systems, working within a transient-state framework can reveal interesting phenomena. The response of nuclear spins in GaAs to a changing magnetic field was analyzed based on the time evolution of nuclear spin temperature. Simulation results well reproduced our experimental results for the transient oblique Hanle signals observed in an all-electrical spin injection device. The analysis showed that the so called dynamic nuclear polarization can be treated as a cooling tool for the nuclear spins: It works as a provider to exchange spin angular momentum between polarized electron spins and nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, leading to an increase in the nuclear polarization. In addition, a time-delay of the nuclear spin temperature with a fast sweep of the external magnetic field produces a possible transient state for the nuclear spin polarization. On the other hand, the nuclear magnetic resonance acts as a heating tool for a nuclear spin system. This causes the nuclear spin temperature to jump to infinity: i.e., the average nuclear spins along with the nuclear field vanish at resonant fields of 75As, 69Ga and 71Ga, showing an interesting step-dip structure in the oblique Hanle signals. These analyses provide a quantitative understanding of nuclear spin dynamics in semiconductors for application in future computation processing.
Dressed qubits in nuclear spin baths
Wu Lianao
2010-04-15
We present a method to encode a dressed qubit into the product state of an electron spin localized in a quantum dot and its surrounding nuclear spins via a dressing transformation. In this scheme, the hyperfine coupling and a portion of a nuclear dipole-dipole interaction become logic gates, while they are the sources of decoherence in electron-spin qubit proposals. We discuss errors and corrections for the dressed qubits. Interestingly, the effective Hamiltonian of nuclear spins is equivalent to a pairing Hamiltonian, which provides the microscopic mechanism to protect dressed qubits against decoherence.
Liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledbetter, Micah; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry; Romalis, Michael; Blanchard, John; Pines, Alexander
2012-06-01
We discuss liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers based on mixtures of mutually miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, thermally polarized ^1H and ^19F nuclear spins in a mixture of pentane and hexafluorobenzene are monitored in 1 mG fields using alkali-vapor magnetometers. In a second version, ^1H and ^129Xe spins in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon are monitored with a superconducting quantum interference device. In the former case, we show that magnetic field fluctuations can be suppressed by a factor of about 3400 and that frequency resolution of about 5x10-11 Hz may be realized in roughly one day of integration. We discuss the application of liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers to precision measurements such as a search for spin-gravity coupling or a permanent electric dipole moment, as well as to sensitive gyroscopes.
Preparation of nuclear spin singlet states using spin-lock induced crossing.
DeVience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S
2013-10-25
We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet-singlet polarization transfer and singlet-state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D(2)O and by using SLIC to measure the J couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet-singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same time scale as spin-lattice relaxation.
Optical nuclear spin polarization in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei
2016-10-01
Hyperfine interaction between electron spin and randomly oriented nuclear spins is a key issue of electron coherence for quantum information/computation. We propose an efficient way to establish high polarization of nuclear spins and reduce the intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations. Here, we polarize the nuclear spins in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) by the coherent population trapping (CPT) and the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) induced by optical fields and ac electric fields. By tuning the optical fields, we can obtain a powerful cooling background based on CPT for nuclear spin polarization. The EDSR can enhance the spin flip-flop rate which may increase the cooling efficiency. With the help of CPT and EDSR, an enhancement of 1300 times of the electron coherence time can be obtained after a 10-ns preparation time. Project partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 11374039 and 11174042) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922204 and 2013CB632805).
Decoupling a hole spin qubit from the nuclear spins.
Prechtel, Jonathan H; Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Houel, Julien; Ludwig, Arne; Valentin, Sascha R; Wieck, Andreas D; Warburton, Richard J
2016-09-01
A huge effort is underway to develop semiconductor nanostructures as low-noise hosts for qubits. The main source of dephasing of an electron spin qubit in a GaAs-based system is the nuclear spin bath. A hole spin may circumvent the nuclear spin noise. In principle, the nuclear spins can be switched off for a pure heavy-hole spin. In practice, it is unknown to what extent this ideal limit can be achieved. A major hindrance is that p-type devices are often far too noisy. We investigate here a single hole spin in an InGaAs quantum dot embedded in a new generation of low-noise p-type device. We measure the hole Zeeman energy in a transverse magnetic field with 10 neV resolution by dark-state spectroscopy as we create a large transverse nuclear spin polarization. The hole hyperfine interaction is highly anisotropic: the transverse coupling is <1% of the longitudinal coupling. For unpolarized, randomly fluctuating nuclei, the ideal heavy-hole limit is achieved down to nanoelectronvolt energies; equivalently dephasing times up to a microsecond. The combination of large and strong optical dipole makes the single hole spin in a GaAs-based device an attractive quantum platform. PMID:27454044
Polarization of nuclear spins by a cold nanoscale resonator
Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.
2011-12-15
A cold nanoscale resonator coupled to a system of nuclear spins can induce spin relaxation. In the low-temperature limit where spin-lattice interactions are ''frozen out,'' spontaneous emission by nuclear spins into a resonant mechanical mode can become the dominant mechanism for cooling the spins to thermal equilibrium with their environment. We provide a theoretical framework for the study of resonator-induced cooling of nuclear spins in this low-temperature regime. Relaxation equations are derived from first principles, in the limit where energy donated by the spins to the resonator is quickly dissipated into the cold bath that damps it. A physical interpretation of the processes contributing to spin polarization is given. For a system of spins that have identical couplings to the resonator, the interaction Hamiltonian conserves spin angular momentum, and the resonator cannot relax the spins to thermal equilibrium unless this symmetry is broken by the spin Hamiltonian. The mechanism by which such a spin system becomes ''trapped'' away from thermal equilibrium can be visualized using a semiclassical model, which shows how an indirect spin-spin interaction arises from the coupling of multiple spins to one resonator. The internal spin Hamiltonian can affect the polarization process in two ways: (1) By modifying the structure of the spin-spin correlations in the energy eigenstates, and (2) by splitting the degeneracy within a manifold of energy eigenstates, so that zero-frequency off-diagonal terms in the density matrix are converted to oscillating coherences. Shifting the frequencies of these coherences sufficiently far from zero suppresses the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold during polarization from a totally disordered state. Modification of the spin-spin correlations by means of either mechanism affects the strength of the fluctuating spin dipole that drives the resonator. In the case where product states can be chosen as energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashida, H.; Oku, T.; Kira, H.; Sakai, K.; Hiroi, K.; Ino, T.; Shinohara, T.; Imagawa, T.; Ohkawara, M.; Ohoyama, K.; Kakurai, K.; Takeda, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Oikawa, K.; Harada, M.; Miyata, N.; Akutsu, K.; Mizusawa, M.; Parker, J. D.; Matsumoto, Y.; Zhang, S.; Suzuki, J.; Soyama, K.; Aizawa, K.; Arai, M.
2016-04-01
We have been developing a 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) using the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) technique. The 3He NSF provides a high-energy polarized neutron beam with large beam size. Moreover the 3He NSF can work as a π-flipper for a polarized neutron beam by flipping the 3He nuclear spin using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. For NMR with the in-situ SEOP technique, the polarization of the laser must be reversed simultaneously because a non-reversed laser reduces the polarization of the spin-flipped 3He. To change the polarity of the laser, a half-wavelength plate was installed. The rotation angle of the half-wavelength plate was optimized, and a polarization of 97% was obtained for the circularly polarized laser. The 3He polarization reached 70% and was stable over one week. A demonstration of the 3He nuclear spin flip system was performed at the polarized neutron reflectometer SHARAKU (BL17) and NOBORU (BL10) at J-PARC. Off-specular measurement from a magnetic Fe/Cr thin film and magnetic imaging of a magnetic steel sheet were performed at BL17 and BL10, respectively.
SPINning parallel systems software.
Matlin, O.S.; Lusk, E.; McCune, W.
2002-03-15
We describe our experiences in using Spin to verify parts of the Multi Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of processes connected by Unix network sockets. MPD is dynamic processes and connections among them are created and destroyed as MPD is initialized, runs user processes, recovers from faults, and terminates. This dynamic nature is easily expressible in the Spin/Promela framework but poses performance and scalability challenges. We present here the results of expressing some of the parallel algorithms of MPD and executing both simulation and verification runs with Spin.
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-02-28
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters
Liquid-State Nuclear Spin Comagnetometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledbetter, M. P.; Pustelny, S.; Budker, D.; Romalis, M. V.; Blanchard, J. W.; Pines, A.
2012-06-01
We discuss nuclear spin comagnetometers based on ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance in mixtures of miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, Larmor precession of protons and F19 nuclei in a mixture of thermally polarized pentane and hexafluorobenzene is monitored via a sensitive alkali-vapor magnetometer. We realize transverse relaxation times in excess of 20 s and suppression of magnetic field fluctuations by a factor of 3400. We estimate it should be possible to achieve single-shot sensitivity of about 5×10-9Hz, or about 5×10-11Hz in ≈1 day of integration. In a second version, spin precession of protons and Xe129 nuclei in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon is monitored using superconducting quantum interference devices. Application to spin-gravity experiments, electric dipole moment experiments, and sensitive gyroscopes is discussed.
Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe
Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.
2015-10-26
We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.
Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe
Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.
2015-10-26
We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonancemore » can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.« less
Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding
Götz, Andreas W.; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas
2014-03-14
We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between {sup 199}Hg and {sup 13}C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules.
Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding.
Götz, Andreas W; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas
2014-03-14
We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between (199)Hg and (13)C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules.
Artificial frustrated spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.
2015-09-01
Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.
The spin-temperature theory of dynamic nuclear polarization and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byvik, C. E.; Wollan, D. S.
1974-01-01
A detailed derivation of the equations governing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and nuclear spin lattice relaxation by use of the spin temperature theory has been carried to second order in a perturbation expansion of the density matrix. Nuclear spin diffusion in the rapid diffusion limit and the effects of the coupling of the electron dipole-dipole reservoir (EDDR) with the nuclear spins are incorporated. The complete expression for the dynamic nuclear polarization has been derived and then examined in detail for the limit of well resolved solid effect transitions. Exactly at the solid effect transition peaks, the conventional solid-effect DNP results are obtained, but with EDDR effects on the nuclear relaxation and DNP leakage factor included. Explicit EDDR contributions to DNP are discussed, and a new DNP effect is predicted.
Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin
Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.
2012-09-28
We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.
Optically controlled electron-nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Edwin; Economou, Sophia
2011-03-01
In recent years, a large number of experiments involving coherent and incoherent control of electron spins in quantum dots have revealed the important role of the nuclear spins of the host material. Experiments with optical controls, both pulsed and continuous wave, have shown that the feedback of the nuclear spins on the electron spin strongly affects the electron spin response. However, a microscopic theory of this mechanism is not available at present. We introduce a formalism that allows us to investigate this system without invoking any phenomenological spin-flip rates for the nuclei. We derive the electron-nuclear dynamics under the influence of external periodic pulsed control to second order in the electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling. Our formalism should have wide applications in both coherently and incoherently driven electron spins interacting with a nuclear spin bath, including self-assembled and gated quantum dots. Work (EB) supported by LPS-CMTC and CNAM.
Nuclear moment of inertia and spin distribution of nuclear levels
Alhassid, Y.; Fang, L.; Liu, S.; Bertsch, G.F.
2005-12-15
We introduce a simple model to calculate the nuclear moment of inertia at finite temperature. This moment of inertia describes the spin distribution of nuclear levels in the framework of the spin-cutoff model. Our model is based on a deformed single-particle Hamiltonian with pairing interaction and takes into account fluctuations in the pairing gap. We derive a formula for the moment of inertia at finite temperature that generalizes the Belyaev formula for zero temperature. We show that a number-parity projection explains the strong odd-even effects observed in shell model Monte Carlo studies of the nuclear moment of inertia in the iron region.
Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo
Zobov, V. E.
2014-11-15
The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization β{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization β{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at β{sub S} ≈ β{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.
Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.
Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva
2015-09-01
Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This
Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.
Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva
2015-09-01
Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This
Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks
Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun
2007-08-15
We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.
Manipulation of the nuclear spin ensemble in a quantum dot with chirped magnetic resonance pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munsch, Mathieu; Wüst, Gunter; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Xue, Fei; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Poggio, Martino; Warburton, Richard J.
2014-09-01
The nuclear spins in nanostructured semiconductors play a central role in quantum applications. The nuclear spins represent a useful resource for generating local magnetic fields but nuclear spin noise represents a major source of dephasing for spin qubits. Controlling the nuclear spins enhances the resource while suppressing the noise. NMR techniques are challenging: the group III and V isotopes have large spins with widely different gyromagnetic ratios; in strained material there are large atom-dependent quadrupole shifts; and nanoscale NMR is hard to detect. We report NMR on 100,000 nuclear spins of a quantum dot using chirped radiofrequency pulses. Following polarization, we demonstrate a reversal of the nuclear spin. We can flip the nuclear spin back and forth a hundred times. We demonstrate that chirped NMR is a powerful way of determining the chemical composition, the initial nuclear spin temperatures and quadrupole frequency distributions for all the main isotopes. The key observation is a plateau in the NMR signal as a function of sweep rate: we achieve inversion at the first quantum transition for all isotopes simultaneously. These experiments represent a generic technique for manipulating nanoscale inhomogeneous nuclear spin ensembles and open the way to probe the coherence of such mesoscopic systems.
Spin Waves in Quasiequilibrium Spin Systems
Bedell, Kevin S.; Dahal, Hari P.
2006-07-28
Using the Landau Fermi liquid theory we discovered a new propagating transverse spin wave in a paramagnetic system which is driven slightly out of equilibrium without applying an external magnetic field. We find a gapless mode which describes the uniform precession of the magnetization in the absence of a magnetic field. We also find a gapped mode associated with the precession of the spin current around the internal field. The gapless mode has a quadratic dispersion leading to a T{sup 3/2} contribution to the specific heat. These modes significantly contribute to the dynamic structure function.
Feedback control of nuclear spin bath for a single hole spin in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Hongliang; Gong, Zhirui; Yao, Wang
2014-03-01
In a semiconductor quantum dot, the nuclear spin bath plays an important role as the ultimate environment of an electron or hole spin at low temperature. Through dynamic nuclear spin polarization driven by an oscillating electric field, we show that feedback controls can be implemented on the nuclear spin bath of a single hole spin. The feedback controls utilize the anisotropic hyperfine interaction between the hole spin and the nuclear spins. The negative feedback can suppress the statistical fluctuations of the nuclear hyperfine field and lead to longer coherence time of the hole spin. Positive feedback can possibly lead to cat like state of nuclear spin bath. The efficiency of the controls schemes is investigated under different parameters and control strategies. The work is supported by the Croucher Foundation under the Croucher Innovation Award, and the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU706309P, HKU8/CRF/11G).
Dynamical decoupling design for identifying weakly coupled nuclear spins in a bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Nan; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-09-01
Identifying weakly coupled nuclear spins around single electron spins is a key step toward implementing quantum information processing using coupled electron-nuclei spin systems or sensing like single-spin nuclear magnetic resonance detection using diamond defect spins. Dynamical decoupling control of the center electron spin with periodic pulse sequences [e.g., the Carre-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence] has been successfully used to identify single nuclear spins and to resolve structure of nuclear spin clusters. Here, we design a type of pulse sequence by replacing the repetition unit (a single π pulse) of the CPMG sequence with a group of nonuniformly spaced π pulses. Using the nitrogen-vacancy center system in diamond, we theoretically demonstrate that the designed pulse sequence improves the resolution of nuclear spin noise spectroscopy, and more information about the surrounding nuclear spins is extracted. The principle of dynamical decoupling design proposed in this paper is useful in many systems (e.g., defect spin qubit in solids, trapped ion, and superconducting qubit) for high-resolution noise spectroscopy.
Storing entanglement of nuclear spins via Uhrig dynamical decoupling
Roy, Soumya Singha; Mahesh, T. S.; Agarwal, G. S.
2011-06-15
Stroboscopic spin flips have already been shown to prolong the coherence times of quantum systems under noisy environments. Uhrig's dynamical decoupling scheme provides an optimal sequence for a quantum system interacting with a dephasing bath. Several experimental demonstrations have already verified the efficiency of such dynamical decoupling schemes in preserving single-qubit coherences. In this work we describe the experimental study of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling in preserving two-qubit entangled states using an ensemble of spin-1/2 nuclear pairs in solution state. We find that the performance of odd-order Uhrig sequences in preserving entanglement is superior to both even-order Uhrig sequences and periodic spin-flip sequences. We also find that there exists an optimal order of the Uhrig sequence in which a singlet state can be stored at high correlation for about 30 seconds.
Investigation of the Possibility of Using Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dent, William V., Jr.
1998-01-01
The goal of the program to investigate a "Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration" is to develop a fusion propulsion system for a manned mission to the planet mars. A study using Deuterium and Tritium atoms are currently in progress. When these atoms under-go fusion, the resulting neutrons and alpha particles are emitted in random directions (isotropically). The probable direction of emission is equal for all directions, thus resulting in wasted energy, massive shielding and cooling requirements, and serious problems with the physics of achieving fusion. If the nuclear magnetic spin moments of the deuterium and tritium nuclei could be precisely aligned at the moment of fusion, the stream of emitted neutrons could be directed out the rear of the spacecraft for thrust and the alpha particles directed forward into an electromagnet ot produce electricity to continue operating the fusion engine. The following supporting topics are discussed: nuclear magnetic moments and spin precession in magnetic field, nuclear spin quantum mechanics, kinematics of nuclear reactions, and angular distribution of particles.
Dynamic nuclear polarization from current-induced electron spin polarization in n-InGaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trowbridge, Christopher; Norman, Benjamin; Kato, Yuichiro; Awschalom, David; Sih, Vanessa
2014-03-01
Control of the nuclear spin system could prove useful for applications in spintronics or spin-based quantum computation for intermediate term data storage and for the suppression of electron spin dephasing resulting from hyperfine coupling. We investigate the role of nuclear spins in materials with electrically generated spin polarization. The electron spin polarization generated by electrical current in a non-magnetic semiconductor is transferred via dynamic nuclear polarization to the nuclei. The resulting nuclear field is interrogated using Larmor magnetometry. We measure the nuclear field as a function of applied magnetic field, current magnitude and direction, and temperature. An unexpected spatial asymmetry in saturated nuclear field is found. The direction of the nuclear polarization is determined by the directions of the electron spin alignment and external magnetic field, allowing electronic control over the sign of the nuclear alignment direction. Careful study of the nuclear field also enables characterization of the current-induced electron spin polarization in situations that are otherwise experimentally inaccessible. Work supported by AFOSR, NSF and ONR.
Antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix and topological superconductivity in 13C nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2015-12-01
We investigate the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction arising from the hyperfine coupling between localized nuclear spins and conduction electrons in interacting 13C carbon nanotubes. Using the Luttinger liquid formalism, we show that the RKKY interaction is sublattice dependent, consistent with the spin susceptibility calculation in noninteracting carbon nanotubes, and it leads to an antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix in finite-size systems. The transition temperature reaches up to tens of mK, due to a strong boost by a positive feedback through the Overhauser field from ordered nuclear spins. Similar to GaAs nanowires, the formation of the helical nuclear spin order gaps out half of the conduction electrons, and is therefore observable as a reduction of conductance by a factor of 2 in a transport experiment. The nuclear spin helix leads to a density wave combining spin and charge degrees of freedom in the electron subsystem, resulting in synthetic spin-orbit interaction, which induces nontrivial topological phases. As a result, topological superconductivity with Majorana fermion bound states can be realized in the system in the presence of proximity-induced superconductivity without the need of fine tuning the chemical potential. We present the phase diagram as a function of system parameters, including the pairing gaps, the gap due to the nuclear spin helix, and the Zeeman field perpendicular to the helical plane.
Nuclear Spin Locking and Extended Two-Electron Spin Decoherence Time in an InAs Quantum Dot Molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Colin; Ross, Aaron; Steel, Duncan; Sham, L. J.; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel
2015-03-01
The spin eigenstates for two electrons confined in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) consist of the spin singlet state, S, with J = 0 and the triplet states T-, T0 and T+, with J = 1. When a transverse magnetic field (Voigt geometry) is applied, the two-electron system can be initialized to the different states with appropriate laser excitation. Under the excitation of a weak probe laser, non-Lorentzian lineshapes are obtained when the system is initialized to either T- or T+, where T- results in a ``resonance locking'' lineshape while T+ gives a ``resonance avoiding '' lineshape: two different manifestations of hysteresis showing the importance of memory in the system. These observations signify dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNSP) arising from a feedback mechanism involving hyperfine interaction between lattice nuclei and delocalized electron spins, and Overhauser shift due to nuclear spin polarization. Using pump configurations that generate coherent population trapping, the isolation of the electron spin from the optical excitation shows the stabilization of the nuclear spin ensemble. The dark-state lineshape measures the lengthened electron spin decoherence time, from 1 ns to 1 μs. Our detailed spectra highlight the potential of QDM for realizing a two-qubit gate. This work is supported by NSF, ARO, AFOSR, DARPA, and ONR.
Visualization of an entangled channel spin-1 system
Sirsi, Swarnamala; Adiga, Veena
2010-08-15
Covariance matrix formalism gives powerful entanglement criteria for continuous as well as finite dimensional systems. We use this formalism to study a mixed channel spin-1 system which is well known in nuclear reactions. A spin-j state can be visualized as being made up of 2j spinors which are represented by a constellation of 2j points on a Bloch sphere using Majorana construction. We extend this formalism to visualize an entangled mixed spin-1 system.
Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank
1998-01-01
Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.
All-electrical control of a singlet-triplet qubit coupled to a single nuclear spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Baczewski, Andrew; Gamble, John; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard; Carroll, Malcolm
Donor nuclear spins in isotopically purified silicon have very long coherence times, suggesting that they may form high-quality quantum memories. We propose that coupling these nuclear spins to few-electron quantum dots could enable nuclear spin readout and two-qubit operations of the joint quantum dot and nuclear spin system without the need for electron spin resonance. As a step towards this goal, our group recently demonstrated coherent singlet/triplet electron spin rotations induced by the hyperfine interaction between electronic spin degrees of freedom and a single nuclear spin in isotopically purified silicon. In this talk, I will discuss the feasibility of universal all-electrical control of such a singlet/triplet electron spin qubit and explore the decoherence mechanisms that we expect to dominate. Finally, I will examine the relative merits of AC and pulsed DC gating schemes. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04- 94AL85000.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta
2004-01-01
Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.
Mamone, Salvatore Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.
2014-05-21
The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.
Spin Modes in Nuclei and Nuclear Forces
Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu
2011-05-06
Spin modes in stable and unstable exotic nuclei are studied and important roles of tensor and three-body forces on nuclear structure are discussed. New shell model Hamiltonians, which have proper tensor components, are shown to explain shell evolutions toward drip-lines and spin properties of both stable and exotic nuclei, for example, Gamow-Teller transitions in {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C and an anomalous M1 transition in {sup 17}C. The importance and the necessity of the repulsive monopole corrections in isospin T = 1 channel to the microscopic two-body interactions are pointed out. The corrections are shown to lead to the proper shell evolutions in neutron-rich isotopes. The three-body force, in particular the Fujita-Miyazawa force induced by {Delta} excitations, is pointed out to be responsible for the repulsive corrections among the valence neutrons. The important roles of the three-body force on the energies and transitions in exotic oxygen and calcium isotopes are demonstrated.
Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.
Toward understanding of H3+ isotopic and nuclear spin fractionations in cold space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hugo, E.; Asvany, O.; Harju, J.; Schlemmer, S.
2007-12-01
Two levels of statistical theories describing the H3+ plus H2 system and its isotopic variants at temperatures of astronomical interest (~ 10 K) are presented. The canonical approach accounting for the nuclear spins describes the system in a simple and convenient way. The microcanonical approach based on total energy, total angular momentum and total nuclear spin conservations yields state-to-state details. Non-thermal effects and astronomical implications are discussed.
Quantum Control of Nuclear Spins Coupled to Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangtawesin, Sorawis
This dissertation presents experiments on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. The NV center is an optically active color center formed by one substitutional nitrogen atom and an adjacent vacancy in the diamond lattice. Its ground state spin triplet transitions are accessible in the microwave regime and their corresponding excited state transitions exhibit spin-dependent fluorescence that allows for optical spin state readout. We present methods for the deterministic placement and the fine tuning of the NV center population in bulk diamond via ion implantation. We demonstrate quantum control of the nuclear spin in diamond through manipulation of the NV center electronic spin. By utilizing the hyperfine coupling between the electronic and nuclear spins, fast phase gates on the intrinsic nitrogen nuclear spin can be achieved within half a microsecond, a speed that far exceeds that of the gates performed with conventional nuclear magnetic resonance pulses. The hyperfine coupling also results in an enhancement of the effective nuclear gyromagnetic ratio. We demonstrate the tunability of this enhancement by changing the magnetic field. Finally, we discuss preliminary experiments aimed towards coupling a single NV center to higher nuclear spin systems.
Room temperature hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in bulk
Tateishi, Kenichiro; Negoro, Makoto; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kagawa, Akinori; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro
2014-01-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a means of transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei, can enhance the nuclear spin polarization (hence the NMR sensitivity) in bulk materials at most 660 times for 1H spins, using electron spins in thermal equilibrium as polarizing agents. By using electron spins in photo-excited triplet states instead, DNP can overcome the above limit. We demonstrate a 1H spin polarization of 34%, which gives an enhancement factor of 250,000 in 0.40 T, while maintaining a bulk sample (∼0.6 mg, ∼0.7 × 0.7 × 1 mm3) containing >1019 1H spins at room temperature. Room temperature hyperpolarization achieved with DNP using photo-excited triplet electrons has potentials to be applied to a wide range of fields, including NMR spectroscopy and MRI as well as fundamental physics. PMID:24821773
J-GFT NMR for precise measurement of mutually correlated nuclear spin-spin couplings.
Atreya, Hanudatta S; Garcia, Erwin; Shen, Yang; Szyperski, Thomas
2007-01-24
G-matrix Fourier transform (GFT) NMR spectroscopy is presented for accurate and precise measurement of chemical shifts and nuclear spin-spin couplings correlated according to spin system. The new approach, named "J-GFT NMR", is based on a largely extended GFT NMR formalism and promises to have a broad impact on projection NMR spectroscopy. Specifically, constant-time J-GFT (6,2)D (HA-CA-CO)-N-HN was implemented for simultaneous measurement of five mutually correlated NMR parameters, that is, 15N backbone chemical shifts and the four one-bond spin-spin couplings 13Calpha-1Halpha, 13Calpha-13C', 15N-13C', and 15N-1HNu. The experiment was applied for measuring residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in an 8 kDa protein Z-domain aligned with Pf1 phages. Comparison with RDC values extracted from conventional NMR experiments reveals that RDCs are measured with high precision and accuracy, which is attributable to the facts that (i) the use of constant time evolution ensures that signals do not broaden whenever multiple RDCs are jointly measured in a single dimension and (ii) RDCs are multiply encoded in the multiplets arising from the joint sampling. This corresponds to measuring the couplings multiple times in a statistically independent manner. A key feature of J-GFT NMR, i.e., the correlation of couplings according to spin systems without reference to sequential resonance assignments, promises to be particularly valuable for rapid identification of backbone conformation and classification of protein fold families on the basis of statistical analysis of dipolar couplings.
Revision of Spin Echoes in Pure Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meriles, C. A.
2001-04-01
Goldman's spin-1/2 formalism has been used for describing the response of an I=3/2 spin system to a two-pulse sequence in a pure nuclear quadrupole resonance experiment. A detailed analysis of the polarization evolution and quadrupolar echo generation is carried out through the use of explicit expressions for secular homo- and heteronuclear dipolar interactions. In striking contrast with previous studies, it is predicted that Van Vleck's second moments governing a classical solid-echo or Hahn sequence differ from those obtained by equivalent means in magnetic resonance. In fact, it is shown that, although measured moments still complement each other, the combined use of standard sequences does not allow the separate determination of homo- and heteronuclear dipolar contributions to the linewidth, not even in an indirect manner. In this context, the importance and potential usefulness of a crossed coil probe are also briefly discussed.
Feng, Yesu; Davis, Ryan M.; Warren, Warren S.
2013-01-01
Long-lived nuclear spin states could greatly enhance the applicability of hyperpolarized nuclear magnetic resonance. Using singlet states between inequivalent spin pairs has been shown to extend the signal lifetime by more than an order of magnitude compared to the spin lattice relaxation time (T1), but they have to be prevented from evolving into other states. In the most interesting case the singlet is between chemically equivalent spins, as it can then be inherently an eigenstate. However this presents major challenges in the conversion from bulk magnetization to singlet. In the only case demonstrated so far, a reversible chemical reaction to break symmetry was required. Here we present a pulse sequence technique that interconverts between singlet spin order and bulk magnetization without breaking the symmetry of the spin system. This technique is independent of field strength and is applicable to a broad range of molecules. PMID:23505397
SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.
Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu
2010-11-01
A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.
SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu
2010-11-01
A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.
Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.
Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.
2016-09-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.
Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve
Forsberg, C.W.
2005-01-20
Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal
Spin Hall Conductivity and Spin Chern Number for Dirac Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunt, Elif; Dayi, Omer Faruk
A semiclassical differential form formalism of the spin Hall effect for Dirac systems is presented. In this formalism, space coordinates and momenta are usual dynamical variables, whereas spin is not a dynamical degree of freedom. Spin depicts itself in the matrix-valuedness of equations of motion. We demonstrate that the main contribution to the spin Hall conductivity is given by the spin Chern number whether the spin is conserved or not at the quantum level. We illustrated the formulation within the Kane-Mele model of graphene in the absence and in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling term. Kane-Mele Model of graphene, which incorporates intrinsic spin-orbit interaction, constitutes the first example of a two dimensional topological insulator. We established the anomalous Hall conductivity as well as the spin Hall conductivity from the term linear in the electric field and the Berry curvature in the the anamolous velocity term. In a basis where the component of spin under consideration is diagonal this term is diagonal. We argue that this semiclassical procedure of calculating the spin Hall conductivity can be generalized to any dimension.
Sensitivity of nuclear-quadrupole double-resonance detection of half-integer spin nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.
2008-10-01
The sensitivity of the Slusher and Hahn's nuclear quadrupole double resonance technique is calculated in general for an arbitrary nuclear spin S of the quadrupole nuclei and for an arbitrary asymmetry parameter η of the electric field gradient tensor. The nuclear spin S = 5/2 ( 17O, 25Mg, …) is treated in details. The influence of the cross-relaxation rate between the quadrupole nuclei and the abundant spin system on the sensitivity of double resonance is discussed. The results of the theoretical analysis are applied in the analysis of the 1H- 17O nuclear quadrupole double resonance spectra in p-toluenesulfonamide and 2-nitrobenzoic acid. The 17O nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies from a sulfonamide group are determined for the first time. The proton-oxygen cross-relaxation rates and the proton local frequency in zero external magnetic field are experimentally determined from the nuclear quadrupole double resonance spectra.
Knight shift and nuclear spin relaxation in Fe/n -GaAs heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christie, K. D.; Geppert, C. C.; Patel, S. J.; Hu, Q. O.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Crowell, P. A.
2015-10-01
We investigate the dynamically polarized nuclear spin system in Fe/n -GaAs heterostructures using the response of the electron-spin system to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in lateral spin-valve devices. The hyperfine interaction is known to act more strongly on donor-bound electron states than on those in the conduction band. We provide a quantitative model of the temperature dependence of the occupation of donor sites. With this model we calculate the ratios of the hyperfine and quadrupolar nuclear relaxation rates of each isotope. For all temperatures measured, quadrupolar relaxation limits the spatial extent of nuclear spin polarization to within a Bohr radius of the donor sites and is directly responsible for the isotope dependence of the measured NMR signal amplitude. The hyperfine interaction is also responsible for the 2 kHz Knight shift of the nuclear resonance frequency that is measured as a function of the electron-spin accumulation. The Knight shift is shown to provide a measurement of the electron-spin polarization that agrees qualitatively with standard spin transport measurements.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity.
Müller, C; Kong, X; Cai, J-M; Melentijević, K; Stacey, A; Markham, M; Twitchen, D; Isoya, J; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Du, J F; Plenio, M B; Naydenov, B; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F
2014-08-22
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen-vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four (29)Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds.
Role of the electron spin in determining the coherence of the nuclear spins in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wüst, Gunter; Munsch, Mathieu; Maier, Franziska; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Loss, Daniel; Poggio, Martino; Warburton, Richard J.
2016-10-01
A huge effort is underway to develop semiconductor nanostructures as low-noise qubits. A key source of dephasing for an electron spin qubit in GaAs and in naturally occurring Si is the nuclear spin bath. The electron spin is coupled to each nuclear spin by the hyperfine interaction. The same interaction also couples two remote nuclear spins via a common coupling to the delocalized electron. It has been suggested that this interaction limits both electron and nuclear spin coherence, but experimental proof is lacking. We show that the nuclear spin decoherence time decreases by two orders of magnitude on occupying an empty quantum dot with a single electron, recovering to its original value for two electrons. In the case of one electron, agreement with a model calculation verifies the hypothesis of an electron-mediated nuclear spin–nuclear spin coupling. The results establish a framework to understand the main features of this complex interaction in semiconductor nanostructures.
Robust dynamical decoupling sequences for individual-nuclear-spin addressing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Haase, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2015-10-01
We propose the use of non-equally-spaced decoupling pulses for high-resolution selective addressing of nuclear spins by a quantum sensor. The analytical model of the basic operating principle is supplemented by detailed numerical studies that demonstrate the high degree of selectivity and the robustness against static and dynamic control-field errors of this scheme. We exemplify our protocol with a nitrogen-vacancy-center-based sensor to demonstrate that it enables the identification of individual nuclear spins that form part of a large spin ensemble.
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment
Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin–photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
International conference on spin observables of nuclear probes: Summary talk
Garvey, G.T.
1988-01-01
A selected summary of the presentation and discussions at the 4th Telluride Conference is presented. The summary deals mainly with the effects of nuclear spin and isospin on the interaction between nucleons and their consequences in nuclear structure. 11 figs.
Optical hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.
2015-11-01
Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-09-01
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
Probing the Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time at the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagenaar, J. J. T.; den Haan, A. M. J.; de Voogd, J. M.; Bossoni, L.; de Jong, T. A.; de Wit, M.; Bastiaans, K. M.; Thoen, D. J.; Endo, A.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Zaanen, J.; Oosterkamp, T. H.
2016-07-01
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are measured on copper using magnetic-resonance force microscopy performed at temperatures down to 42 mK. The low temperature is verified by comparison with the Korringa relation. Measuring spin-lattice relaxation times locally at very low temperatures opens up the possibility to measure the magnetic properties of inhomogeneous electron systems realized in oxide interfaces, topological insulators, and other strongly correlated electron systems such as high-Tc superconductors.
Classical nature of nuclear spin noise near clock transitions of Bi donors in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J. L.; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-10-01
Whether a quantum bath can be approximated as classical Gaussian noise is a fundamental issue in central spin decoherence and also of practical importance in designing noise-resilient quantum control. Spin qubits based on bismuth donors in silicon have tunable interactions with nuclear spin baths and are first-order insensitive to magnetic noise at so-called clock transitions (CTs). This system is therefore ideal for studying the quantum/classical Gaussian nature of nuclear spin baths since the qubit-bath interaction strength determines the back-action on the baths and hence the adequacy of a Gaussian noise model. We develop a Gaussian noise model with noise correlations determined by quantum calculations and compare the classical noise approximation to the full quantum bath theory. We experimentally test our model through a dynamical decoupling sequence of up to 128 pulses, finding good agreement with simulations and measuring electron spin coherence times approaching 1 s—notably using natural silicon. Our theoretical and experimental study demonstrates that the noise from a nuclear spin bath is analogous to classical Gaussian noise if the back-action of the qubit on the bath is small compared to the internal bath dynamics, as is the case close to CTs. However, far from the CTs, the back-action of the central spin on the bath is such that the quantum model is required to accurately model spin decoherence.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-28
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-01
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-28
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants. PMID:22938251
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2012-01-01
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants. PMID:22938251
Amaha, S.; Hatano, T.; Tarucha, S.; Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G.
2015-04-27
We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adelnia, Fatemeh; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Borsa, Ferdinando
2015-05-01
We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac)3NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac)3NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr8 closed ring and in Cr7Cd and Cr8Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.
Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio Borsa, Ferdinando
2015-05-07
We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.
Nuclear magnetic resonance in Kondo lattice systems.
Curro, Nicholas J
2016-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a vital tool to explore the fundamental physics of Kondo lattice systems. Because nuclear spins experience two different hyperfine couplings to the itinerant conduction electrons and to the local f moments, the Knight shift can probe multiple types of spin correlations that are not accessible via other techniques. The Knight shift provides direct information about the onset of heavy electron coherence and the emergence of the heavy electron fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flatté, Michael E.
Transport of carriers through disordered electronic energy landscapes occurs via hopping or tunneling through various sites, and can enhance the effects of carrier spin dynamics on the transport. When incoherent hopping preserves the spin orientation of carriers, the magnetic-field-dependent correlations between pairs of spins influence the charge conductivity of the material. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in hopping transport in organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots, as well as tunneling through oxide barriers in complex oxide devices, among other materials. The resulting room-temperature magnetic field effects on the conductivity or electroluminescence require external fields of only a few milliTesla. These magnetic field effects can be dramatically modified by changes in the local spin environment. Recent theoretical and experimental work has identified a regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere1. The regime is studied experimentally by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins, through the addition of a stable free radical (galvinoxyl) to a material (MEH-PPV) that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance (20 initially suppressed by the doping, as the localized electronic spin mixes one of the two spins whose correlation controls the transport. At intermediate doping, when one spin is fully decohered but the other is not, there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensitive to the doping level. For much greater doping concentrations the magnetoresistance is fully suppressed as both spins that control the charge conductivity of the material are mixed. The behavior is described within a theoretical model describing the effect of carrier spin dynamics on the current. Generalizations to amorphous and other disordered crystalline semiconductors will also be described. This work was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luenser, Arne; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2016-09-01
We present a (sub)linear-scaling algorithm to determine indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants at the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional levels of theory. Employing efficient integral algorithms and sparse algebra routines, an overall (sub)linear scaling behavior can be obtained for systems with a non-vanishing HOMO-LUMO gap. Calculations on systems with over 1000 atoms and 20 000 basis functions illustrate the performance and accuracy of our reference implementation. Specifically, we demonstrate that linear algebra dominates the runtime of conventional algorithms for 10 000 basis functions and above. Attainable speedups of our method exceed 6 × in total runtime and 10 × in the linear algebra steps for the tested systems. Furthermore, a convergence study of spin-spin couplings of an aminopyrazole peptide upon inclusion of the water environment is presented: using the new method it is shown that large solvent spheres are necessary to converge spin-spin coupling values.
Spin selectivity effect in achiral molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ai-Min; Pan, Ting-Rui; Fang, Tie-Feng; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-Feng
2016-10-01
Recently, chiral-induced spin selectivity has been attracting intense interest. Here, we report a theoretical study of spin-dependent electron transport in achiral nanotubes contacted by nonmagnetic leads. Our results reveal that by properly connecting to the leads, the achiral nanotubes can present a pronounced spin filtering phenomenon even if the spin-orbit coupling is very weak. In addition, the spin selectivity effect holds for various achiral nanotubes with different radii and is still significant in the presence of strong disorder and dephasing. These findings open new opportunities of using achiral molecules in spintronic applications and could motivate further studies on spin transport along achiral systems.
Coherent manipulation of an ensemble of nuclear spins in diamond for high precision rotation sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Saha, Kasturi; Ajoy, Ashok; Cappellaro, Paola
2016-05-01
Gyroscopes find wide applications in everyday life from navigation and inertial sensing to rotation sensors in hand-held devices and automobiles. Current devices, based on either atomic or solid-state systems, impose a choice between long-time stability and high sensitivity in a miniaturized system. We are building a solid-state spin gyroscope associated with the Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond take advantage of the efficient optical initialization and measurement offered by the NV electronic spin and the stability and long coherence time of the nuclear spin, which is preserved even at high defect density. In addition, we also investigate electro-magnetic noise monitoring and feedback schemes based on the coupling between the NV electronic and nuclear spin to achieve higher stability.
Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.
2016-08-01
We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.
Structure determination of individual electron-nuclear spin complexes in a solid-state matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laraoui, Abdelghani; Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos
2015-03-01
A spin-based quantum computer will store and process information via ``spin complexes'' formed by a small number of interacting electronic and nuclear spins within a solid-state host. Unlike present electronic circuits, differences in the atomic composition and local geometry make each of these spin clusters distinct from the rest. Integration of these units into a working network thus builds on our ability to determine the cluster atomic structure, a problem we tackle herein with the aid of a magnetic resonance protocol. Using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a model system, we show analytically and numerically that the spatial coordinates of weakly coupled 13C spins can be determined by selectively transferring and retrieving spin polarization. The technique's spatial resolution can reach up to 0.1 nm, limited by the NV spin coherence lifetime. No external magnetic field gradient is required, which makes this imaging scheme applicable to NV-13C complexes buried deep inside the crystal host. Further, this approach can be adapted to nuclear spins other than 13C, and thus applied to the characterization of individual molecules anchored to the diamond surface.
Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in Silicon Carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, Abram L.; Klimov, Paul V.; Ivády, Viktor; Szász, Krisztián; Christle, David J.; Koehl, William F.; Gali, Ádám; Awschalom, David D.
2015-06-01
We demonstrate optically pumped dynamic nuclear polarization of 29Si nuclear spins that are strongly coupled to paramagnetic color centers in 4 H - and 6 H -SiC. The 9 9 % ±1 % degree of polarization that we observe at room temperature corresponds to an effective nuclear temperature of 5 μ K . By combining ab initio theory with the experimental identification of the color centers' optically excited states, we quantitatively model how the polarization derives from hyperfine-mediated level anticrossings. These results lay a foundation for SiC-based quantum memories, nuclear gyroscopes, and hyperpolarized probes for magnetic resonance imaging.
A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.
Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y
2014-01-29
Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications.
Separation and conversion dynamics of nuclear-spin isomers of gaseous methanol
Sun, Zhen-Dong; Ge, Meihua; Zheng, Yujun
2015-01-01
All symmetrical molecules with non-zero nuclear spin exist in nature as nuclear-spin isomers (NSIs). However, owing to the lack of experimental information, knowledge is rare about interconversions of NSIs of gaseous molecules with torsional symmetry. Here we report our separation and conversion observations on NSI-torsion-specific transition systems of gaseous methanol from a light-induced drift experiment involving partially spatial separation of the ortho and para isomers. We find that vibrationally excited molecules of the methanol spin isomer have a smaller collision cross-section than their ground-state counterparts. Interconversion of the enriched ortho isomer with the para isomer, which is generally considered improbable, has been quantitatively studied by sensitive detections of the spectral intensities. Rather counterintuitively, this reveals that the interconversion is inhibited with increasing pressure. Our results suggest that the spin conversion mechanism in methanol is via a quantum relaxation process with the quantum Zeno effect induced by molecular collisions. PMID:25880882
High-spin nuclear structure data on the Internet
Singh, B. |
1997-12-31
The study of nuclear structure at fast nuclear rotations, using fusion-evaporation reactions, started in the early sixties but since the experimental observation of superdeformation about a decade ago it has become one of the most pursued research topics in nuclear physics. Large gamma-ray detector arrays GAMMASPHERE, EUROGAM, and GASP were developed during the last few years and these continue to produce a wealth of new, information about the properties of nuclei at high spins, including superdeformation. It is considered vital to compile, evaluate and systematize published data on many thousands of levels and gamma rays and associated nuclear bands obtained in such studies and make these available to the research community in conveniently retrievable and modern formats. This talk will describe the numerical, bibliographic and other high-spin related databases that are already accessible via INTERNET. Present limitations and ways to improve the current status and display of such databases will also be discussed.
Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer
Kornack, T.W.; Ghosh, R.K.; Romalis, M.V.
2005-12-02
We describe a nuclear spin gyroscope based on an alkali-metal-noble-gas comagnetometer. Optically pumped alkali-metal vapor is used to polarize the noble-gas atoms and detect their gyroscopic precession. Spin precession due to magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients can be cancelled in this arrangement. The sensitivity is enhanced by using a high-density alkali-metal vapor in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. With a K-{sup 3}He comagnetometer we demonstrate rotation sensitivity of 5x10{sup -7} rad s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2}, equivalent to a magnetic field sensitivity of 2.5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The rotation signal can be increased by a factor of 10 using {sup 21}Ne with a smaller magnetic moment. The comagnetometer is also a promising tool in searches for anomalous spin couplings beyond the standard model.
Probing the C₆₀ triplet state coupling to nuclear spins inside and out.
Filidou, Vasileia; Mamone, Salvatore; Simmons, Stephanie; Karlen, Steven D; Anderson, Harry L; Kay, Christopher W M; Bagno, Alessandro; Rastrelli, Federico; Murata, Yasujiro; Komatsu, Koichi; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, Nicholas J; Levitt, Malcolm H; Morton, John J L
2013-09-13
The photoexcitation of functionalized fullerenes to their paramagnetic triplet electronic state can be studied by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, whereas the interactions of this state with the surrounding nuclear spins can be observed by a related technique: electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). In this study, we present EPR and ENDOR studies on a functionalized exohedral fullerene system, dimethyl[9-hydro (C60-Ih)[5,6]fulleren-1(9H)-yl]phosphonate (DMHFP), where the triplet electron spin has been used to hyperpolarize, couple and measure two nuclear spins. We go on to discuss the extension of these methods to study a new class of endohedral fullerenes filled with small molecules, such as H₂@C₆₀, and we relate the results to density functional calculations. PMID:23918718
Nuclear tetrahedral configurations at spin zero
Zberecki, Krzysztof; Magierski, Piotr; Heenen, Paul-Henri
2009-01-15
The possibility of the existence of stable tetrahedral deformations at spin zero is investigated using the Skyrme-HFBCS approach and the generator coordinate method (GCM). The study is limited to nuclei in which the tetrahedral mode has been predicted to be favored on the basis of non-self-consistent models. Our results indicate that a clear identification of tetrahedral deformations is unlikely because they are strongly mixed with the axial octupole mode. However, the excitation energies related to the tetrahedral mode are systematically lower than those of the axial octupole mode in all the nuclei included in this study.
Kramers-degenerated NV+113C spin systems in diamond: analytical description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nizovtsev, Alexander P.; Kilin, Sergei Y.; Pushkarchuk, Alexander L.; Kuten, Semen A.
2013-02-01
Spin systems consisted of single electronic spin S=1 of the NV center and nearby nuclear spins I=1/2 of 13C atoms disposed in diamond lattice near the center can be used as a small register of a quantum computer or as a sensor of a magnetic field. At odd number of nuclear spins eigenvalues of the spin systems at zero external magnetic field are at least twofold degenerated (Kramers degeneration) due to time reversal invariance of the spin Hamiltonian. This degeneracy is lifted only by external magnetic field regardless of the presence of any electric (crystal) field which can also lift the degeneracy thus hindering measurement of the magnetic field. Therefore, the Kramers-degenerated spin systems can be very perspective for measurement of a local magnetic field by the NV-based single-spin quantum magnetometer. Here, we are considering analytically the simplest Kramers-degenerated spin system NV+113C consisting of a single electron spin S=1 of the NV сenter coupled by hyperfine interaction with a single nuclear spin I=1/2 of 13C atom disposed in arbitrary site of diamond lattice. Simple approximate analytical expressions are obtained for eigenvalues and eigenstates of the spin system.
Dynamic nuclear polarization assisted spin diffusion for the solid effect case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon
2011-02-01
The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process in solids depends on the magnitudes of hyperfine interactions between unpaired electrons and their neighboring (core) nuclei, and on the dipole-dipole interactions between all nuclei in the sample. The polarization enhancement of the bulk nuclei has been typically described in terms of a hyperfine-assisted polarization of a core nucleus by microwave irradiation followed by a dipolar-assisted spin diffusion process in the core-bulk nuclear system. This work presents a theoretical approach for the study of this combined process using a density matrix formalism. In particular, solid effect DNP on a single electron coupled to a nuclear spin system is considered, taking into account the interactions between the spins as well as the main relaxation mechanisms introduced via the electron, nuclear, and cross-relaxation rates. The basic principles of the DNP-assisted spin diffusion mechanism, polarizing the bulk nuclei, are presented, and it is shown that the polarization of the core nuclei and the spin diffusion process should not be treated separately. To emphasize this observation the coherent mechanism driving the pure spin diffusion process is also discussed. In order to demonstrate the effects of the interactions and relaxation mechanisms on the enhancement of the nuclear polarization, model systems of up to ten spins are considered and polarization buildup curves are simulated. A linear chain of spins consisting of a single electron coupled to a core nucleus, which in turn is dipolar coupled to a chain of bulk nuclei, is considered. The interaction and relaxation parameters of this model system were chosen in a way to enable a critical analysis of the polarization enhancement of all nuclei, and are not far from the values of 13C nuclei in frozen (glassy) organic solutions containing radicals, typically used in DNP at high fields. Results from the simulations are shown, demonstrating the complex dependences of the DNP
Spin-Spin Coupling in the Solar System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro
2015-09-01
The richness of dynamical behavior exhibited by the rotational states of various solar system objects has driven significant advances in the theoretical understanding of their evolutionary histories. An important factor that determines whether a given object is prone to exhibiting non-trivial rotational evolution is the extent to which such an object can maintain a permanent aspheroidal shape, meaning that exotic behavior is far more common among the small body populations of the solar system. Gravitationally bound binary objects constitute a substantial fraction of asteroidal and TNO populations, comprising systems of triaxial satellites that orbit permanently deformed central bodies. In this work, we explore the rotational evolution of such systems with specific emphasis on quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, and show that for closely orbiting, highly deformed objects, both prograde and retrograde spin-spin resonances naturally arise. Subsequently, we derive capture probabilities for leading order commensurabilities and apply our results to the illustrative examples of (87) Sylvia and (216) Kleopatra asteroid systems. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spin-spin coupling may be consequential for highly elongated, tightly orbiting binary objects.
Search for an Atomic EDM with Optical-Coupling Nuclear Spin Oscillator
Asahi, K.; Uchida, M.; Inoue, T.; Hatakeyama, N.; Yoshimi, A.
2007-06-13
We have constructed a nuclear spin oscillator of a new type, that employs a feedback scheme based on an optical spin detection and suceeding spin control by a transverse field application. This spin oscillator parallels the conventional spin maser in many points, but exhibits advantages and requirements that are different from those with the spin maser. By means of the optical-coupling nuclear spin oscillator, an experimental setup to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in a spin 1/2 diamagnetic atom 129Xe is being developed.
Coherent Population Trapping of a Single Nuclear Spin Under Ambient Conditions.
Jamonneau, P; Hétet, G; Dréau, A; Roch, J-F; Jacques, V
2016-01-29
We demonstrate coherent population trapping of a single nuclear spin in a room-temperature solid. To this end, we exploit a three-level system with a Λ configuration in the microwave domain, which consists of nuclear spin states addressed through their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. Moreover, the Λ-scheme relaxation is externally controlled through incoherent optical pumping and separated in time from consecutive coherent microwave excitations. Such a scheme allows us (i) to monitor the sequential accumulation of population into the dark state and (ii) to reach a novel regime of coherent population trapping dynamics for which periodic arrays of dark resonances can be observed, owing to multiple constructive interferences. This Letter offers new prospects for quantum state preparation, information storage in hybrid quantum systems, and metrology. PMID:26871331
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Colin M.; Ross, Aaron M.; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, Duncan G.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations.
Dréau, A; Jamonneau, P; Gazzano, O; Kosen, S; Roch, J-F; Maze, J R; Jacques, V
2014-09-26
Using fast electron spin resonance spectroscopy of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, we demonstrate real-time readout of the Overhauser field produced by its nuclear spin environment under ambient conditions. These measurements enable narrowing the Overhauser field distribution by postselection, corresponding to a conditional preparation of the nuclear spin bath. Correlations of the Overhauser field fluctuations are quantitatively inferred by analyzing the Allan deviation over consecutive measurements. This method allows us to extract the dynamics of weakly coupled nuclear spins of the reservoir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dréau, A.; Jamonneau, P.; Gazzano, O.; Kosen, S.; Roch, J.-F.; Maze, J. R.; Jacques, V.
2014-09-01
Using fast electron spin resonance spectroscopy of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, we demonstrate real-time readout of the Overhauser field produced by its nuclear spin environment under ambient conditions. These measurements enable narrowing the Overhauser field distribution by postselection, corresponding to a conditional preparation of the nuclear spin bath. Correlations of the Overhauser field fluctuations are quantitatively inferred by analyzing the Allan deviation over consecutive measurements. This method allows us to extract the dynamics of weakly coupled nuclear spins of the reservoir.
Chow, Colin M; Ross, Aaron M; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S; Sham, L J; Steel, Duncan G
2016-08-12
We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:27563998
Coherent transfer of nuclear spin polarization in field-cycling NMR experiments
Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin
2013-12-28
Coherent polarization transfer effects in a coupled spin network have been studied over a wide field range. The transfer mechanism is based on exciting zero-quantum coherences between the nuclear spin states by means of non-adiabatic field jump from high to low magnetic field. Subsequent evolution of these coherences enables conversion of spin order in the system, which is monitored after field jump back to high field. Such processes are most efficient when the spin system passes through an avoided level crossing during the field variation. The polarization transfer effects have been demonstrated for N-acetyl histidine, which has five scalar coupled protons; the initial spin order has been prepared by applying RF-pulses at high magnetic field. The observed oscillatory transfer kinetics is taken as a clear indication of a coherent mechanism; level crossing effects have also been demonstrated. The experimental data are in very good agreement with the theoretical model of coherent polarization transfer. The method suggested is also valid for other types of initial polarization in the spin system, most notably, for spin hyperpolarization.
Coherent transfer of nuclear spin polarization in field-cycling NMR experiments.
Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L
2013-12-28
Coherent polarization transfer effects in a coupled spin network have been studied over a wide field range. The transfer mechanism is based on exciting zero-quantum coherences between the nuclear spin states by means of non-adiabatic field jump from high to low magnetic field. Subsequent evolution of these coherences enables conversion of spin order in the system, which is monitored after field jump back to high field. Such processes are most efficient when the spin system passes through an avoided level crossing during the field variation. The polarization transfer effects have been demonstrated for N-acetyl histidine, which has five scalar coupled protons; the initial spin order has been prepared by applying RF-pulses at high magnetic field. The observed oscillatory transfer kinetics is taken as a clear indication of a coherent mechanism; level crossing effects have also been demonstrated. The experimental data are in very good agreement with the theoretical model of coherent polarization transfer. The method suggested is also valid for other types of initial polarization in the spin system, most notably, for spin hyperpolarization. PMID:24387362
Álvarez, Gonzalo A; Suter, Dieter; Kaiser, Robin
2015-08-21
Nonequilibrium dynamics of many-body systems are important in many scientific fields. Here, we report the experimental observation of a phase transition of the quantum coherent dynamics of a three-dimensional many-spin system with dipolar interactions. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on a solid-state system of spins at room-temperature, we quench the interaction Hamiltonian to drive the evolution of the system. Depending on the quench strength, we then observe either localized or extended dynamics of the system coherence. We extract the critical exponents for the localized cluster size of correlated spins and diffusion coefficient around the phase transition separating the localized from the delocalized dynamical regime. These results show that NMR techniques are well suited to studying the nonequilibrium dynamics of complex many-body systems. PMID:26293957
A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer
Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.
2015-01-01
Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusakova, I. L.; Rusakov, Yu Yu; Krivdin, L. B.
2016-04-01
The theoretical grounds of the modern relativistic methods for quantum chemical calculation of spin-spin coupling constants in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are considered. Examples and prospects of application of relativistic calculations of these constants in the structural studies of organic and heteroorganic compounds are discussed. Practical recommendations on relativistic calculations of spin-spin coupling constants using the available software are given. The bibliography includes 622 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morawetz, K.
2015-12-01
The coupled kinetic equation for density and spin Wigner functions is derived including spin-orbit coupling, electric and magnetic fields, and self-consistent Hartree mean fields suited for SU(2) transport. The interactions are assumed to be with scalar and magnetic impurities as well as scalar and spin-flip potentials among the particles. The spin-orbit interaction is used in a form suitable for solid state physics with Rashba or Dresselhaus coupling, graphene, extrinsic spin-orbit coupling, and effective nuclear matter coupling. The deficiencies of the two-fluid model are worked out consisting of the appearance of an effective in-medium spin precession. The stationary solution of all these systems shows a band splitting controlled by an effective medium-dependent Zeeman field. The self-consistent precession direction is discussed and a cancellation of linear spin-orbit coupling at zero temperature is reported. The precession of spin around this effective direction caused by spin-orbit coupling leads to anomalous charge and spin currents in an electric field. Anomalous Hall conductivity is shown to consist of the known results obtained from the Kubo formula or Berry phases and a symmetric part interpreted as an inverse Hall effect. Analogously the spin-Hall and inverse spin-Hall effects of spin currents are discussed which are present even without magnetic fields showing a spin accumulation triggered by currents. The analytical dynamical expressions for zero temperature are derived and discussed in dependence on the magnetic field and effective magnetizations. The anomalous Hall and spin-Hall effect changes sign at higher than a critical frequency dependent on the relaxation time.
Nuclear spin-spin relaxation in 3He-Ne films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, Neil S.; Stachiowak, Piotr; Parks, Charles
2003-05-01
NMR measurements of the nuclear spin-spin relaxation times are reported for commensurate monolayers of 3He and 3He-Ne films on boron nitride for temperatures 0.1
NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM
Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.
1959-11-01
A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.
Experimental demonstration of stimulated polarization wave in a chain of nuclear spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jae-Seung; Adams, Travis; Khitrin, Anatoly
2007-03-01
A one-dimensional Ising chain irradiated by weak resonant transverse field is the simplest model of quantum amplifier [Phys. Rev. A 71, 062338 (2005)]. The quantum state of the chain is stationary when all the qubits (spins) are in the same state. However, when the first qubit is flipped, it triggers a stimulated wave of flipped qubits, propagating through the chain. Such ``quantum domino" dynamics induces huge change in the total polarization, a macroscopic observable. Here we present the experimental demonstration of this quantum amplification process on a four-qubit system by using nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The physical system is a linear chain of four ^13C nuclear spins in a molecule of fully ^ 13C-labeled sodium butyrate dissolved in D2O. The pseudopure ground state (with all spins up) is prepared by multi-frequency partial saturation. The wave of flipped spins has been clearly observed when the first spin of the chain is flipped. We define a coefficient of amplification as the relative enhancement of the total polarization change. In our experimental system, the measured coefficient of amplification is about 3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chi Y.; Ryley, Matthew S.; Peach, Michael J. G.; Tozer, David J.; Helgaker, Trygve; Teale, Andrew M.
2015-07-01
The Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) can be applied to the computation of excitation energies using time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) and time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT). In addition to simplifying the resulting response equations, the TDA has been shown to significantly improve the calculation of triplet excitation energies in these theories, largely overcoming issues associated with triplet instabilities of the underlying reference wave functions. Here, we examine the application of the TDA to the calculation of another response property involving triplet perturbations, namely the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constant. Particular attention is paid to the accuracy of the triplet spin-dipole and Fermi-contact components. The application of the TDA in HF calculations leads to vastly improved results. For DFT calculations, the TDA delivers improved stability with respect to geometrical variations but does not deliver higher accuracy close to equilibrium geometries. These observations are rationalised in terms of the ground- and excited-state potential energy surfaces and, in particular, the severity of the triplet instabilities associated with each method. A notable feature of the DFT results within the TDA is their similarity across a wide range of different functionals. The uniformity of the TDA results suggests that some conventional evaluations may exploit error cancellations between approximations in the functional forms and those arising from triplet instabilities. The importance of an accurate treatment of correlation for evaluating spin-spin coupling constants is highlighted by this comparison.
Quantum data bus in dipolar coupled nuclear spin qubits
Zhang Jingfu; Ditty, Michael; Ryan, Colm A.; Laforest, Martin; Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Burgarth, Daniel; Chandrashekar, C. M.; Laflamme, Raymond
2009-07-15
We implement an iterative quantum state transfer exploiting the natural dipolar couplings in a spin chain of a liquid-crystal NMR system. During each iteration, a finite part of the amplitude of the state is transferred and, by applying an external operation on only the last two spins, the transferred state is made to accumulate on the spin at the end point. The transfer fidelity reaches one asymptotically through increasing the number of iterations. We also implement the inverted version of the scheme which can transfer an arbitrary state from the end point to any other position of the chain and entangle any pair of spins in the chain, acting as a full quantum data bus.
Nuclear spin-spin coupling anisotropy in the van der Waals-bonded 129Xe dimer.
Jokisaari, Jukka; Vaara, Juha
2013-07-21
The spin-spin coupling constant, J, in the van der Waals-bonded (129)Xe-(129)Xe dimer cannot be determined experimentally because of the magnetic equivalence of the two nuclei. In contrast, the anisotropy of the coupling tensor, ΔJ, can be obtained from the so called effective dipole-dipole coupling determined in a solid state inclusion compound whose cages accommodate two xenon atoms. For the determination of the experimental ΔJ((129)Xe, (129)Xe) we exploited the data reported earlier in this journal. [D. H. Brouwer et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, 9, 1093.] The experimental value and the value obtained from relativistic first-principles computation are in perfect agreement. To the best of our knowledge this is the first investigation of spin-spin coupling anisotropy in a van der Waals-bonded system. PMID:23743998
Nuclear spin-spin coupling anisotropy in the van der Waals-bonded 129Xe dimer.
Jokisaari, Jukka; Vaara, Juha
2013-07-21
The spin-spin coupling constant, J, in the van der Waals-bonded (129)Xe-(129)Xe dimer cannot be determined experimentally because of the magnetic equivalence of the two nuclei. In contrast, the anisotropy of the coupling tensor, ΔJ, can be obtained from the so called effective dipole-dipole coupling determined in a solid state inclusion compound whose cages accommodate two xenon atoms. For the determination of the experimental ΔJ((129)Xe, (129)Xe) we exploited the data reported earlier in this journal. [D. H. Brouwer et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, 9, 1093.] The experimental value and the value obtained from relativistic first-principles computation are in perfect agreement. To the best of our knowledge this is the first investigation of spin-spin coupling anisotropy in a van der Waals-bonded system.
Spin Noise Detection of Nuclear Hyperpolarization at 1.2 K.
Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bornet, Aurélien; Bechmann, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami; Müller, Norbert
2015-12-21
We report proton spin noise spectra of a hyperpolarized solid sample of commonly used "DNP (dynamic nuclear polarization) juice" containing TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) and irradiated by a microwave field at a temperature of 1.2 K in a magnetic field of 6.7 T. The line shapes of the spin noise power spectra are sensitive to the variation of the microwave irradiation frequency and change from dip to bump, when the electron Larmor frequency is crossed, which is shown to be in good accordance with theory by simulations. Small but significant deviations from these predictions are observed, which can be related to spin noise and radiation damping phenomena that have been reported in thermally polarized systems. The non-linear dependence of the spin noise integral on nuclear polarization provides a means to monitor hyperpolarization semi-quantitatively without any perturbation of the spin system by radio frequency irradiation. PMID:26477605
Spin Noise Detection of Nuclear Hyperpolarization at 1.2 K
Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bornet, Aurélien; Bechmann, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami; Müller, Norbert
2015-01-01
We report proton spin noise spectra of a hyperpolarized solid sample of commonly used “DNP (dynamic nuclear polarization) juice” containing TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) and irradiated by a microwave field at a temperature of 1.2 K in a magnetic field of 6.7 T. The line shapes of the spin noise power spectra are sensitive to the variation of the microwave irradiation frequency and change from dip to bump, when the electron Larmor frequency is crossed, which is shown to be in good accordance with theory by simulations. Small but significant deviations from these predictions are observed, which can be related to spin noise and radiation damping phenomena that have been reported in thermally polarized systems. The non-linear dependence of the spin noise integral on nuclear polarization provides a means to monitor hyperpolarization semi-quantitatively without any perturbation of the spin system by radio frequency irradiation. PMID:26477605
Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.
2012-08-01
For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ω _0 ^{ - 2} field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ɛ = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect.
Coherent control of a single ²⁹Si nuclear spin qubit.
Pla, Jarryd J; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2014-12-12
Magnetic fluctuations caused by the nuclear spins of a host crystal are often the leading source of decoherence for many types of solid-state spin qubit. In group-IV semiconductor materials, the spin-bearing nuclei are sufficiently rare that it is possible to identify and control individual host nuclear spins. This Letter presents the first experimental detection and manipulation of a single ²⁹Si nuclear spin. The quantum nondemolition single-shot readout of the spin is demonstrated, and a Hahn echo measurement reveals a coherence time of T₂=6.3(7) ms—in excellent agreement with bulk experiments. Atomistic modeling combined with extracted experimental parameters provides possible lattice sites for the ²⁹Si atom under investigation. These results demonstrate that single ²⁹Si nuclear spins could serve as a valuable resource in a silicon spin-based quantum computer.
Voltage-induced conversion of helical to uniform nuclear spin polarization in a quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornich, Viktoriia; Stano, Peter; Zyuzin, Alexander A.; Loss, Daniel
2015-05-01
We study the effect of bias voltage on the nuclear spin polarization of a ballistic wire, which contains electrons and nuclei interacting via hyperfine interaction. In equilibrium, the localized nuclear spins are helically polarized due to the electron-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. Focusing here on nonequilibrium, we find that an applied bias voltage induces a uniform polarization, from both helically polarized and unpolarized spins available for spin flips. Once a macroscopic uniform polarization in the nuclei is established, the nuclear spin helix rotates with frequency proportional to the uniform polarization. The uniform nuclear spin polarization monotonically increases as a function of both voltage and temperature, reflecting a thermal activation behavior. Our predictions offer specific ways to test experimentally the presence of a nuclear spin helix polarization in semiconducting quantum wires.
Nuclear Spin Maser at Highly Stabilized Low Magnetic Field and Search for Atomic EDM
Yoshimi, A.; Asahi, K.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, M.; Hatakeyama, N.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kagami, S.
2009-08-04
A nuclear spin maser is operated at a low static field through an active feedback scheme based on an optical nuclear spin detection and succeeding spin control by a transverse field application. The frequency stability of this optical-coupling spin maser is improved by installation of a low-noise current source for a solenoid magnet producing a static magnetic field in the maser operation. Experimental devices for application of the maser to EDM experiment are being developed.
Exact SU(2) symmetry and persistent spin helix in a spin-orbit coupled system.
Bernevig, B Andrei; Orenstein, J; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2006-12-01
Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constants, and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions and is generated by operators whose wave vector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wave vector, giving rise to a persistent spin helix. We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away from, the symmetry point and suggest experiments to observe the persistent spin helix.
Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems
Yoshida, Beni
2013-11-15
Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.
Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I
2015-02-23
Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chekhovich, E. A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.
2015-02-01
Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging.
Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I
2015-01-01
Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639
Designer spin systems via inverse statistical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Marcotte, Étienne; Car, Roberto; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-10-01
In this work, we extend recent inverse statistical-mechanical methods developed for many-particle systems to the case of spin systems. For simplicity, we focus in this initial study on the two-state Ising model with radial spin-spin interactions of finite range (i.e., extending beyond nearest-neighbor sites) on the square lattice under periodic boundary conditions. Our interest herein is to find the optimal set of shortest-range pair interactions within this family of Hamiltonians, whose corresponding ground state is a targeted spin configuration such that the difference in energies between the energetically closest competitor and the target is maximized. For an exhaustive list of competitors, this optimization problem is solved exactly using linear programming. The possible outcomes for a given target configuration can be organized into the following three solution classes: unique (nondegenerate) ground state (class I), degenerate ground states (class II), and solutions not contained in the previous two classes (class III). We have chosen to study a general family of striped-phase spin configurations comprised of alternating parallel bands of up and down spins of varying thicknesses and a general family of rectangular block checkerboard spin configurations with variable block size, which is a generalization of the classic antiferromagnetic Ising model. Our findings demonstrate that the structurally anisotropic striped phases, in which the thicknesses of up- and down-spin bands are equal, are unique ground states for isotropic short-ranged interactions. By contrast, virtually all of the block checkerboard targets are either degenerate or fall within class III solutions. The degenerate class II spin configurations are identified up to a certain block size. We also consider other target spin configurations with different degrees of global symmetries and order. Our investigation reveals that the solution class to which a target belongs depends sensitively on the
Hyperfine-enhanced gyromagnetic ratio of a nuclear spin in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangtawesin, S.; McLellan, C. A.; Myers, B. A.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.; Awschalom, D. D.; Petta, J. R.
2016-08-01
The nuclear spin gyromagnetic ratio can be enhanced by hyperfine coupling to the electronic spin. Here we show wide tunability of this enhancement on a 15N nuclear spin intrinsic to a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We perform control of the nuclear spin near the ground state level anti-crossing (GSLAC), where the enhancement of the gyromagnetic ratio from the ground state hyperfine coupling is maximized. We demonstrate a two order of magnitude enhancement of the effective nuclear gyromagnetic ratio compared to the value obtained at 500 G, a typical operating field that is suitable for nuclear spin polarization. Finally, we show that with strong enhancements, the nuclear spin ultimately suffers dephasing from the inhomogeneous broadening of the NMR transition frequency at the GSLAC.
Atomic-scale nuclear spin imaging using quantum-assisted sensors in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajoy, Ashok; Bissbort, Ulf; Liu, Yixiang; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola
2015-05-01
Recent developments in materials fabrication and coherent control have brought quantum magnetometers based on electronic spin defects in diamond close to single nuclear spin sensitivity. These quantum sensors have the potential to be a revolutionary tool in proteomics, thus helping drug discovery: They can overcome some of the challenges plaguing other experimental techniques (x-ray and NMR) and allow single protein reconstruction in their natural conditions. While the sensitivity of diamond-based magnetometers approaches the single nuclear spin level, the outstanding challenge is to resolve contributions arising from distinct nuclear spins in a dense sample and use the acquired signal to reconstruct their positions. This talk describes a strategy to boost the spatial resolution of NV-based magnetic resonance imaging, by combining the use of a quantum memory intrinsic to the NV system with Hamiltonian engineering by coherent quantum control. The proposed strategy promises to make diamond-based quantum sensors an invaluable technology for bioimaging, as they could achieve the reconstruction of biomolecules local structure without the need to crystallize them, to synthesize large ensembles or to alter their natural environment.
Nuclear spin relaxation in ordered bimetallic chain compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Shoji
2000-01-01
A theoretical interpretation is given to recent proton spin relaxation-time ( T1) measurements on NiCu(C 7H 6N 2O 6)(H 2O) 3·2H 2O, which is an ideal one-dimensional ferrimagnetic Heisenberg model system of alternating spins 1 and {1}/{2}. The relaxation rate T1-1 is formulated in terms of the spin-wave theory and is evaluated by the use of a quantum Monte Carlo method. Calculations of the temperature and applied-field ( H) dependences of T1-1 are in total agreement with the experimental findings. T1 behaves as T1-1∝ H-1/2, which turns out an indirect observation of the quadratic dispersion relations dominating the low-energy physics of quantum ferrimagnets.
Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz
2015-04-01
We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.
Mundus, C; Müller-Warmuth, W
1995-10-01
27Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance satellite transition spectroscopy at 78 MHz has been applied to determine (true) chemical shift and quadrupole coupling parameters of glasses in the system K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 with 60-80 mol% SiO2 and K2O concentrations between 0 and 24 mol%. The powdered crystalline aluminosilicates andalusite and sillimanite have also been examined. In the glasses, all Al appears to be tetrahedrally bound in the aluminosilicate network unless x = mol% K2O:mol% Al2O3 becomes extremely small. Upon decreasing x the distortion of the tetrahedral Al(OSi)4 units increases in steps, and possible explanations are discussed. Six-coordinated aluminum observed for x < 0.2 is connected with the occurrence of interstitial Al3+ ions which charge-compensate the AlO4 units in addition to K+. PMID:8748646
Self-Polarization and Dynamical Cooling of Nuclear Spins in Double Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudner, M. S.; Levitov, L. S.
2007-07-01
The spin-blockade regime of double quantum dots features coupled dynamics of electron and nuclear spins resulting from the hyperfine interaction. We explain observed nuclear self-polarization via a mechanism based on feedback of the Overhauser shift on electron energy levels, and propose to use the instability toward self-polarization as a vehicle for controlling the nuclear spin distribution. In the dynamics induced by a properly chosen time-dependent magnetic field, nuclear spin fluctuations can be suppressed significantly below the thermal level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorte, Eric G.
This work presents the results of various investigations using various techniques of hyperpolarizing the nuclei of atoms. Hyperpolarization implies magnetic order in excess of the thermal order obtained naturally as described by Curie's law. The main portion of this work presents the results of a detailed experimental exploration of predictions arising from a new model of transverse nuclear spin relaxation in quantum systems, based on possible manifestations of microscopic chaos in quantum systems. Experiments have been carried out on a number of hyperpolarized xenon samples, each differing in its relative percentage of xenon isotopes in order to vary the homonuclear and heteronuclear dipole couplings in the spin system. The experiments were performed under a variety of conditions in an attempt to observe the behaviors predicted by the model. Additionally, much more extensive measurements were made on a number of samples of solid CaF2 in both single crystal and powder forms. These samples, although thermally polarized, were observed with superior signal to noise ratios than even the hyperpolarized xenon solids, allowing for more precise measurements for comparison to the theory. This work thus contains the first experimental evidence for the majority of the model's predictions. Additionally, this work contains the first precise measurements of the frequency-shift enhancement parameters for 129Xe and krypton in the presence of spin-polarized Rb. The determination of these important numbers will be useful to many groups who utilize spin-exchange optical pumping in their labs. This work built on the prior knowledge of a precise number for the frequency-shift enhancement parameter of 3He in Rb vapor. Finally, I detail work using NMR to detect nuclear-spin polarization enhancement in silicon phosphorus by a novel, photo-induced hyperpolarization technique developed by the Boehme research group at the University of Utah. Significant nuclear polarization enhancements were
Systems chemistry: All in a spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Lucy; Lightfoot, Philip
2016-05-01
A fundamental challenge in systems chemistry is to engineer the emergence of complex behaviour. The collective structures of metal cyanide chains have now been interpreted in the same manner as the myriad of magnetic phases displayed by frustrated spin systems, highlighting a symbiotic approach between systems chemistry and magnetism.
Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimov, Paul Victor
Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.
Order From disorder in Frustrated Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman, Piers
This talk will review the phemomenon of ''Order from disorder'': the mechanism by which fluctuations remove a degeneracy within a frustrated spin system. An important consequence of order-from-disorder, is the ability of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems to overcome the Mermin-Wagner theorem, developing new forms of discrete order, even when the spins themselves remain disordered with a finite correlation length. The most well-known example, is the two-dimensional frustrated J1 -J2 Heisenberg model, which undergoes a finite temperature Ising phase transition into a stripy or ''nematic'' state, even though the spins do not order until absolute zero. Nematic ordering of this kind is believed to occur in the iron-based superconductors, such as BaFe2 As2 . More recently, it has been possible to theoretically study the triangular-honeycomb versions of the J1 -J2 model, called a windmill model, in which order-from disorder drives the development of six-state clock order. Remarkably, in this case, order-from-disorder leads to an intermediate power-law spin phase, despite the underlying Heisenerg spins. This research was supported by DOE Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-FG02-99ER45790.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, K. Rama Koteswara; Suter, Dieter
2016-08-01
The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attractive properties for a number of quantum technologies that rely on the spin angular momentum of the electron and the nuclei adjacent to the center. The nucleus with the strongest interaction is the 13C nuclear spin of the first shell. Using this degree of freedom effectively hinges on precise data on the hyperfine interaction between the electronic and the nuclear spin. Here, we present detailed experimental data on this interaction, together with an analysis that yields all parameters of the hyperfine tensor, as well as its orientation with respect to the atomic structure of the center.
Bowers, C.R.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Vitkalov, S.A.
1998-12-01
A new method for measuring the spin of the electrically charged ground state excitations m the Q$j~j quantum Hall effect ia proposed and demonstmted for the tirst time in GaAs/AIGaAs nndtiquantum wells. The method is &sed on the nuclear spin orientation dependence of" the 2D dc conductivity y in the quantum Hall regime due to the nuclear hyperfine interaction. As a demonstration of this method the spin of the electrically charged excitations of the ground state is determined at filling factor v = 1.
Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Paul, Subhradip; Lee, Daniel; Feintuch, Akiva; Hediger, Sabine; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël
2015-09-14
Over the last two decades solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has witnessed a breakthrough in increasing the nuclear polarization, and thus experimental sensitivity, with the advent of Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP). To enhance the nuclear polarization of protons, exogenous nitroxide biradicals such as TOTAPOL or AMUPOL are routinely used. Their efficiency is usually assessed as the ratio between the NMR signal intensity in the presence and the absence of microwave irradiation εon/off. While TOTAPOL delivers an enhancement εon/off of about 60 on a model sample, the more recent AMUPOL is more efficient: >200 at 100 K. Such a comparison is valid as long as the signal measured in the absence of microwaves is merely the Boltzmann polarization and is not affected by the spinning of the sample. However, recent MAS-DNP studies at 25 K by Thurber and Tycko (2014) have demonstrated that the presence of nitroxide biradicals combined with sample spinning can lead to a depolarized nuclear state, below the Boltzmann polarization. In this work we demonstrate that TOTAPOL and AMUPOL both lead to observable depolarization at ≈110 K, and that the magnitude of this depolarization is radical dependent. Compared to the static sample, TOTAPOL and AMUPOL lead, respectively, to nuclear polarization losses of up to 20% and 60% at a 10 kHz MAS frequency, while Trityl OX63 does not depolarize at all. This experimental work is analyzed using a theoretical model that explains how the depolarization process works under MAS and gives new insights into the DNP mechanism and into the spin parameters, which are relevant for the efficiency of a biradical. In light of these results, the outstanding performance of AMUPOL must be revised and we propose a new method to assess the polarization gain for future radicals.
Kagawa, Akinori; Murokawa, Yu; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Masahiro
2009-03-01
In dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using photo-excited triplet electron spins, known as Microwave-Induced Optical Nuclear Polarization (MIONP), the attainable (1)H polarization is determined by the ratio of the buildup rate and the spin-lattice relaxation rate, in turn depend on the (1)H spin density. It is shown that the final (1)H polarization can be enhanced by diluting the (1)H spins with partial deuteration. The DNP experiments are demonstrated in 0.05 mol% pentacene-doped p-terphenyl for various (1)H abundances. It is also shown that the (1)H spin diffusion coefficient can be determined by examining the initial buildup rate of (1)H polarization for various repetition rates of the DNP sequence.
Selectable towline spin chute system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vairo, Daniel M. (Inventor); Whipple, Raymond D. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An emergency spin recovery parachute is presented that is housed within a centrally mounted housing on the aft end of an aircraft and connected to a ring fitting within the housing. Two selectively latching shackles connected to separate towlines are openly disposed adjacent the ring fitting. The towlines extend in opposite directions from the housing along the aircraft wing to attachment points adjacent the wing-tips where the other end of each towline is secured. Upon pilot command, one of the open shackles latches to the ring fitting to attach the towline connected thereto, and a second command signal deploys the parachute. Suitable break-away straps secure the towlines to the aircraft surface until the parachute is deployed and the resulting force on the towline attached to the parachute overcomes the straps and permits the towline to extend to the point of attachment to exert sufficient drag on the spinning aircraft to permit the pilot to regain control of the aircraft. To employ the parachute as a drag chute to reduce landing speeds, both shackles and their respective towlines are latched to the ring fitting.
Relation between the spin Hall conductivity and the spin Chern number for Dirac-like systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dayi, Ömer F.; Yunt, Elif
2016-10-01
A semiclassical formulation of the spin Hall effect for physical systems satisfying Dirac-like equation is introduced. We demonstrate that the main contribution to the spin Hall conductivity is given by the spin Chern number whether the spin is conserved or not at the quantum level. We illustrated the formulation within the Kane-Mele model of graphene in the absence and in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling term.
An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix in a Spin-Orbit Coupled System
Bernevig, Andrei
2010-02-10
Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.
Nuclear propulsion systems engineering
Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.
1992-01-01
The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.
Nuclear propulsion systems engineering
Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.
1992-12-31
The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.
Diffusion-mediated nuclear spin phase decoherence in cylindrically porous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knight, Michael J.; Kauppinen, Risto A.
2016-08-01
In NMR or MRI of complex materials, including biological tissues and porous materials, magnetic susceptibility differences within the material result in local magnetic field inhomogeneities, even if the applied magnetic field is homogeneous. Mobile nuclear spins move though the inhomogeneous field, by translational diffusion and other mechanisms, resulting in decoherence of nuclear spin phase more rapidly than transverse relaxation alone. The objective of this paper is to simulate this diffusion-mediated decoherence and demonstrate that it may substantially reduce coherence lifetimes of nuclear spin phase, in an anisotropic fashion. We do so using a model of cylindrical pores within an otherwise homogeneous material, and calculate the resulting magnetic field inhomogeneities. Our simulations show that diffusion-mediated decoherence in a system of parallel cylindrical pores is anisotropic, with coherence lifetime minimised when the array of cylindrical pores is perpendicular to B0. We also show that this anisotropy of coherence lifetime is reduced if the orientations of cylindrical pores are disordered within the system. In addition we characterise the dependence on B0, the magnetic susceptibility of the cylindrical pores relative to the surroundings, the diffusion coefficient and cylinder wall thickness. Our findings may aid in the interpretation of NMR and MRI relaxation data.
Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; Rat, Sylvain; Mathieu, Fabrice; Saya, Daisuke; Séguy, Isabelle; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine
2016-08-01
Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] (H2B(pz)2 = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δfr = -0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spin transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.
Experimental demonstration of a stimulated polarization wave in a chain of nuclear spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jae-Seung; Adams, Travis; Khitrin, A. K.
2007-04-01
A stimulated wave of polarization, which implements a simple mechanism of quantum amplification, is experimentally demonstrated in a chain of four J-coupled nuclear spins, irradiated by a weak radio-frequency transverse field. The 'quantum domino' dynamics, a wave of flipped spins triggered by a flip of the first spin, has been observed in fully 13C-labelled sodium butyrate.
Toward higher nuclearity: tetranuclear cobalt(II) metallogrid exhibiting spin crossover.
Wu, Shu-Qi; Wang, Yi-Tong; Cui, Ai-Li; Kou, Hui-Zhong
2014-03-01
Supramolecular strategy was employed to achieve the highest nuclearity Co(II) cluster exhibiting spin-crossover (SCO) behavior. Magnetic susceptibility characterization of the Co4(II) complex shows that two different spin-transition processes occur. The SCO behavior is directed by the partially deprotonated polydentate ligand, which favors the structural distortion required by the spin transition. PMID:24555696
Spin Hall Current Induced Edge-Spin Accumulation in Two-Dimensional Electron and Hole Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Kentaro; Sinova, Jairo; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Joerg; Kaetsner, Bernd; MacDonald, Allan
2006-03-01
In spintronic devices, spin densities have traditionally been generated by external magnetic fields, circularly polarized light sources, or by spin injection from ferromagnets. Recently there has been considerable interest in a new strategy in which edge spin densities are generated electrically via the spin Hall effect. We have performed numerical studies on spin transport in two-dimensional systems with various spin-orbit interactions including both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. We find that the spin Hall current strongly depends on the character of the spin-orbit interactions. We address the relation between bulk spin currents and edge spin accumulations, and compare our results with recent experimental observations. K. Nomura, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 72 165316 (2005). K. Nomura, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, B. Kaetsner, A. H. MacDonald, T. Jungwirth, to appear in Phys. Rev. B 72. J. Wunderlich, B. Kaetsner, J. Sinova, T. Jungwirth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204 (2005).
Robust Quantum-Network Memory Using Decoherence-Protected Subspaces of Nuclear Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiserer, Andreas; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel S.; van Bemmelen, Koen J. M.; Taminiau, Tim H.; Hanson, Ronald; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Markham, Matthew
2016-04-01
The realization of a network of quantum registers is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and technology. We experimentally investigate a network node that consists of a single nitrogen-vacancy center electronic spin hyperfine coupled to nearby nuclear spins. We demonstrate individual control and readout of five nuclear spin qubits within one node. We then characterize the storage of quantum superpositions in individual nuclear spins under repeated application of a probabilistic optical internode entangling protocol. We find that the storage fidelity is limited by dephasing during the electronic spin reset after failed attempts. By encoding quantum states into a decoherence-protected subspace of two nuclear spins, we show that quantum coherence can be maintained for over 1000 repetitions of the remote entangling protocol. These results and insights pave the way towards remote entanglement purification and the realization of a quantum repeater using nitrogen-vacancy center quantum-network nodes.
Nonuniversality of artificial frustrated spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Grimm, A.; Fruchart, O.; Wagner, E.; Hehn, M.; Lacour, D.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.
2014-08-01
Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization are investigated using magnetic force microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental and theoretical results are compared to those found for the artificial kagome spin ice in which the nanomagnets have in-plane magnetization. In contrast with what has been recently reported, we demonstrate that long-range (i.e., beyond nearest-neighbor) dipolar interactions between the nanomagnets cannot be neglected when describing the magnetic configurations observed after demagnetizing the arrays using a field protocol. As a consequence, there are clear limits to any universality in the behavior of these two artificial frustrated spin systems. We provide arguments to explain why these two systems show striking similarities at first sight in the development of pairwise spin correlations.
Flight Guidance System Validation Using SPIN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naydich, Dimitri; Nowakowski, John
1998-01-01
To verify the requirements for the mode control logic of a Flight Guidance System (FGS) we applied SPIN, a widely used software package that supports the formal verification of distributed systems. These requirements, collectively called the FGS specification, were developed at Rockwell Avionics & Communications and expressed in terms of the Consortium Requirements Engineering (CoRE) method. The properties to be verified are the invariants formulated in the FGS specification, along with the standard properties of consistency and completeness. The project had two stages. First, the FGS specification and the properties to be verified were reformulated in PROMELA, the input language of SPIN. This involved a semantics issue, as some constructs of the FGS specification do not have well-defined semantics in CoRE. Then we attempted to verify the requirements' properties using the automatic model checking facilities of SPIN. Due to the large size of the state space of the FGS specification an exhaustive state space analysis with SPIN turned out to be impossible. So we used the supertrace model checking procedure of SPIN that provides for a partial analysis of the state space. During this process, we found some subtle errors in the FGS specification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, J. W.; Sjolander, T. F.; King, J. P.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Levine, E. H.; Bajaj, V. S.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.
2015-12-01
Zero- to ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ZULF NMR) provides a new regime for the measurement of nuclear spin-spin interactions free from the effects of large magnetic fields, such as truncation of terms that do not commute with the Zeeman Hamiltonian. One such interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling, is a valuable source of spatial information in NMR, though many terms are unobservable in high-field NMR, and the coupling averages to zero under isotropic molecular tumbling. Under partial alignment, this information is retained in the form of so-called residual dipolar couplings. We report zero- to ultralow-field NMR measurements of residual dipolar couplings in acetonitrile-2-13C aligned in stretched polyvinyl acetate gels. This permits the investigation of dipolar couplings as a perturbation on the indirect spin-spin J coupling in the absence of an applied magnetic field. As a consequence of working at zero magnetic field, we observe terms of the dipole-dipole coupling Hamiltonian that are invisible in conventional high-field NMR. This technique expands the capabilities of zero- to ultralow-field NMR and has potential applications in precision measurement of subtle physical interactions, chemical analysis, and characterization of local mesoscale structure in materials.
Nuclear medicine imaging system
Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.
1983-03-11
It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.
Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.
2006-05-01
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.
Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.
Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D
2012-12-28
We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.
Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross
2016-01-01
The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.
Thermalization and many-body localization in systems under dynamic nuclear polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, Andrea; Rodríguez-Arias, Inés; Müller, Markus; Rosso, Alberto
2016-07-01
We study the role of dipolar interactions in the standard protocol used to achieve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). We point out that a critical strength of interactions is required to obtain significant nuclear hyperpolarization. Otherwise, the electron spins do not thermalize among each other, due to the incipient many-body localization transition in the electron spin system. Only when the interactions are sufficiently strong, in the so-called spin-temperature regime, they establish an effective thermodynamic behavior in the out-of-equilibrium stationary state. The highest polarization is reached at a point where the spin temperature is just not able to establish itself anymore. We provide numerical predictions for the level of nuclear hyperpolarization and present an analytical technique to estimate the spin temperature as a function of interaction strength and quenched disorder. We show that, at sufficiently strong coupling, nuclear spins perfectly equilibrate to the spin temperature that establishes among the spins of radicals.
Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajoy, A.; Bissbort, U.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. L.; Cappellaro, P.
2015-01-01
Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination under ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.
Nuclear-spin-induced cotton-mouton effect in a strong external magnetic field.
Fu, Li-Juan; Vaara, Juha
2014-08-01
Novel, high-sensitivity and high-resolution spectroscopic methods can provide site-specific nuclear information by exploiting nuclear magneto-optic properties. We present a first-principles electronic structure formulation of the recently proposed nuclear-spin-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in a strong external magnetic field (NSCM-B). In NSCM-B, ellipticity is induced in a linearly polarized light beam, which can be attributed to both the dependence of the symmetric dynamic polarizability on the external magnetic field and the nuclear magnetic moment, as well as the temperature-dependent partial alignment of the molecules due to the magnetic fields. Quantum-chemical calculations of NSCM-B were conducted for a series of molecular liquids. The overall order of magnitude of the induced ellipticities is predicted to be 10(-11) -10(-6) rad T(-1) M(-1) cm(-1) for fully spin-polarized nuclei. In particular, liquid-state heavy-atom systems should be promising for experiments in the Voigt setup.
Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields
Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob D.; Meriles, Carlos A.
2014-12-15
We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave, and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.
Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.
2013-01-01
High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 deg C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.
Turro, Nicholas J.
1983-01-01
The course of chemical reactions involving radical pairs may depend on occurrence and orientation of nuclear spins in the pairs. The influence of nuclear spins is maximized when the radical pairs are confined to a space that serves as a cage that allows a certain degree of independent diffusional and rotational motion of the partners of the pair but that also encourages reencounters of the partners within a period which allows the nuclear spins to operate on the odd electron spins of the pair. Under the proper conditions, the nuclear spins can induce intersystem crossing between triplet and singlet states of radical pairs. It is shown that this dependence of intersystem crossing on nuclear spin leads to a magnetic isotope effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of separating isotopes on the basis of nuclear spins rather than nuclear masses and also leads to a magnetic field effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of influencing the course of polymerization by the application of weak magnetic fields. PMID:16593273
Autschbach, Jochen
2009-09-14
A spherical Gaussian nuclear charge distribution model has been implemented for spin-free (scalar) and two-component (spin-orbit) relativistic density functional calculations of indirect NMR nuclear spin-spin coupling (J-coupling) constants. The finite nuclear volume effects on the hyperfine integrals are quite pronounced and as a consequence they noticeably alter coupling constants involving heavy NMR nuclei such as W, Pt, Hg, Tl, and Pb. Typically, the isotropic J-couplings are reduced in magnitude by about 10 to 15 % for couplings between one of the heaviest NMR nuclei and a light atomic ligand, and even more so for couplings between two heavy atoms. For a subset of the systems studied, viz. the Hg atom, Hg(2) (2+), and Tl--X where X=Br, I, the basis set convergence of the hyperfine integrals and the coupling constants was monitored. For the Hg atom, numerical and basis set calculations of the electron density and the 1s and 6s orbital hyperfine integrals are directly compared. The coupling anisotropies of TlBr and TlI increase by about 2 % due to finite-nucleus effects.
Geometry of Discrete-Time Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier
2016-10-01
Classical Hamiltonian spin systems are continuous dynamical systems on the symplectic phase space (S^2)^n. In this paper, we investigate the underlying geometry of a time discretization scheme for classical Hamiltonian spin systems called the spherical midpoint method. As it turns out, this method displays a range of interesting geometrical features that yield insights and sets out general strategies for geometric time discretizations of Hamiltonian systems on non-canonical symplectic manifolds. In particular, our study provides two new, completely geometric proofs that the discrete-time spin systems obtained by the spherical midpoint method preserve symplecticity. The study follows two paths. First, we introduce an extended version of the Hopf fibration to show that the spherical midpoint method can be seen as originating from the classical midpoint method on T^*{R}^{2n} for a collective Hamiltonian. Symplecticity is then a direct, geometric consequence. Second, we propose a new discretization scheme on Riemannian manifolds called the Riemannian midpoint method. We determine its properties with respect to isometries and Riemannian submersions, and, as a special case, we show that the spherical midpoint method is of this type for a non-Euclidean metric. In combination with Kähler geometry, this provides another geometric proof of symplecticity.
Nuclear core positioning system
Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.
1979-01-01
A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.
Exact NMR simulation of protein-size spin systems using tensor train formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savostyanov, D. V.; Dolgov, S. V.; Werner, J. M.; Kuprov, Ilya
2014-08-01
We introduce a new method, based on alternating optimization, for compact representation of spin Hamiltonians and solution of linear systems of algebraic equations in the tensor train format. We demonstrate the method's utility by simulating, without approximations, a N15 NMR spectrum of ubiquitin—a protein containing several hundred interacting nuclear spins. Existing simulation algorithms for the spin system and the NMR experiment in question either require significant approximations or scale exponentially with the spin system size. We compare the proposed method to the Spinach package that uses heuristic restricted state space techniques to achieve polynomial complexity scaling. When the spin system topology is close to a linear chain (e.g., for the backbone of a protein), the tensor train representation is more compact and can be computed faster than the sparse representation using restricted state spaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nisson, D. M.; Curro, N. J.
2016-07-01
In recent years there has been increasing interest in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Nuclear magnetic resonance is a valuable microscopic probe of such systems because of the hyperfine interactions between the nuclear spins and the electron degrees of freedom. In materials with weak SOC the NMR Knight shift contains two contributions: one from the electron orbital susceptibility and the other from the electron spin susceptibility. These contributions can be separated by plotting the Knight shift versus the bulk susceptibility and extracting the slope and intercept. Here we examine the case where the SOC is non-negligible, in which case the slope and intercept are no longer simply related to these two contributions. These results have important implications for NMR studies of heavy fermions, as well as 4d and 5d systems.
Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Qian
2005-03-01
We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.
Nuclear Spin Relaxation Times for Methane-Helium ``Slush'' at 4 MHz using Pulsed NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamida, J. A.; Sullivan, N. S.
2006-09-01
We report measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and spin-spin relaxation times (T2) for small grains of methane suspended in liquid helium (methane-helium "slush") for temperatures 2 K
King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander
2015-12-07
Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.
King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander
2015-12-07
Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal ofmore » the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.« less
Boundary between the thermal and statistical polarization regimes in a nuclear spin ensemble
Herzog, B. E.; Cadeddu, D.; Xue, F.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.
2014-07-28
As the number of spins in an ensemble is reduced, the statistical fluctuations in its polarization eventually exceed the mean thermal polarization. This transition has now been surpassed in a number of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, which achieve nanometer-scale detection volumes. Here, we measure nanometer-scale ensembles of nuclear spins in a KPF{sub 6} sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy. In particular, we investigate the transition between regimes dominated by thermal and statistical nuclear polarization. The ratio between the two types of polarization provides a measure of the number of spins in the detected ensemble.
Voltage control of electron-nuclear spin correlation time in a single quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nilsson, J.; Bouet, L.; Bennett, A. J.; Amand, T.; Stevenson, R. M.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kunz, S.; Marie, X.; Shields, A. J.; Urbaszek, B.
2013-08-01
We demonstrate bias control of the efficiency of the hyperfine coupling between a single electron in an InAs quantum dot and the surrounding nuclear spins monitored through the positively charged exciton X+ emission. In applied longitudinal magnetic fields, we vary simultaneously the correlation time of the hyperfine interaction and the nuclear spin relaxation time and thereby the amplitude of the achieved dynamic nuclear polarization under optical pumping conditions. In applied transverse magnetic fields, a change in the applied bias allows a switch from the anomalous Hanle effect to the standard electron spin depolarization curves.
Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying
2016-08-01
We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.
Optical quantum memory made from single nuclear spin in nitrogen vacancy in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Tran, Thai Hien; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Stoehr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Joerg
2015-03-01
Quantum repeater is one of the key elements to realize long distance quantum communication. In the heart of a quantum repeater is quantum memory. There are a few requirements for this memory: it needs to couple to flying qubits: photon; it needs to have long coherence time, so quantum error correction algorithm can be performed in the quantum repeater nods; it needs to be stable under optical illuminations. Nitrogen nuclear spin is available for every nitrogen vacancy center(NV) in diamond. Besides it can be a robust quantum memory for spin qubit operations, nitrogen nuclear spin can couple to photon by taking advantage of optically resonant excitation of spin-selective transitions in low temperature. Here we demonstrate the coherent storage of quantum information from photon into nuclear spin. We show this quantum memory fulfils requirements as quantum memory for quantum repeater. Coherent time beyond 5 seconds is measured in 13 C natural abundant sample. Under resonant laser excitations, the excited state quadruple and hyperfine interaction could lead to decoherence of nuclear spin. We show those interactions are low and nuclear spin can keep its coherence over 1000 times resonant laser excitation of electron spin.
Edge Magnon Excitation in Spin Dimer Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masashige
2016-10-01
Magnetic excitation in a spin dimer system on a bilayer honeycomb lattice is investigated in the presence of a zigzag edge, where disordered and ordered phases can be controlled by a quantum phase transition. In analogy with the case of graphene with a zigzag edge, a flat edge magnon mode appears in the disordered phase. In an ordered phase, a finite magnetic moment generates a mean-field potential to the magnon. Since the potential is nonuniform on the edge and bulk sites, it affects the excitation, and the dispersion of the edge mode deviates from the flat shape. We investigate how the edge magnon mode evolves when the phase changes through the quantum phase transition and discuss the similarities to ordered spin systems on a monolayer honeycomb lattice.
Current Driven Magnetic Damping in Dipolar-Coupled Spin System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sung Chul; Pi, Ung Hwan; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Kwang Seok; Shin, Jaikwang; -in Chung, U.
2012-07-01
Magnetic damping of the spin, the decay rate from the initial spin state to the final state, can be controlled by the spin transfer torque. Such an active control of damping has given birth to novel phenomena like the current-driven magnetization reversal and the steady spin precession. The spintronic devices based on such phenomena generally consist of two separate spin layers, i.e., free and pinned layers. Here we report that the dipolar coupling between the two layers, which has been considered to give only marginal effects on the current driven spin dynamics, actually has a serious impact on it. The damping of the coupled spin system was greatly enhanced at a specific field, which could not be understood if the spin dynamics in each layer was considered separately. Our results give a way to control the magnetic damping of the dipolar coupled spin system through the external magnetic field.
Instrumentation for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization with magic angle spinning NMR.
Rosay, Melanie; Blank, Monica; Engelke, Frank
2016-03-01
Advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation and methodology have been key factors in the recent growth of solid-state DNP NMR applications. We review the current state of the art of solid-state DNP NMR instrumentation primarily based on available commercial platforms. We start with a general system overview, including options for microwave sources and DNP NMR probes, and then focus on specific developments for DNP at 100K with magic angle spinning (MAS). Gyrotron microwave sources, passive components to transmit microwaves, the DNP MAS probe, a cooling device for low-temperature MAS, and sample preparation procedures including radicals for DNP are considered. PMID:26920834
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houts, Michael G.
2012-01-01
Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.
Cross-correlation spin noise spectroscopy of heterogeneous interacting spin systems
Roy, Dibyendu; Yang, Luyi; Crooker, Scott A.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.
2015-04-30
Interacting multi-component spin systems are ubiquitous in nature and in the laboratory. As such, investigations of inter-species spin interactions are of vital importance. Traditionally, they are studied by experimental methods that are necessarily perturbative: e.g., by intentionally polarizing or depolarizing one spin species while detecting the response of the other(s). Here, we describe and demonstrate an alternative approach based on multi-probe spin noise spectroscopy, which can reveal inter-species spin interactions - under conditions of strict thermal equilibrium - by detecting and cross-correlating the stochastic fluctuation signals exhibited by each of the constituent spin species. Specifically, we consider a two-component spin ensemble that interacts via exchange coupling, and we determine cross-correlations between their intrinsic spin fluctuations. The model is experimentally confirmed using “two-color” optical spin noise spectroscopy on a mixture of interacting Rb and Cs vapors. Noise correlations directly reveal the presence of inter-species spin exchange, without ever perturbing the system away from thermal equilibrium. These non-invasive and noise-based techniques should be generally applicable to any heterogeneous spin system in which the fluctuations of the constituent components are detectable.
Positioning nuclear spins in interacting clusters for quantum technologies and bioimaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen-Yu; Haase, Jan F.; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-05-01
We propose a method to measure the hyperfine vectors between a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and an environment of interacting nuclear spins. Our protocol enables the generation of tunable electron-nuclear coupling Hamiltonians while suppressing unwanted internuclear interactions. In this manner, each nucleus can be addressed and controlled individually, thereby permitting the reconstruction of the individual hyperfine vectors. With this ability the three-dimensional (3D) structure of spin ensembles and spins in biomolecules can be identified without the necessity of varying the direction of applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate examples including the complete reconstruction of an interacting spin cluster in diamond and 3D imaging of all the nuclear spins in a biomolecule.
Decoupling a spin qubit from high-frequency Larmor dynamics of a GaAs nuclear spin bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinowski, Filip K.; Martins, Frederico; Nissen, Peter D.; Rudner, Mark S.; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Manfra, Michael J.
We present a technique of decoupling a spin qubit in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure from low- and high-frequency noise arising from hyperfine interaction of electrons with nuclear spins. We use Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences in which we synchronize the repetition rate of π pulses to difference Larmor frequencies of 69Ga, 71Ga and 75As nuclei. This decouples the qubit both from low-frequency noise due to diffusion of nuclear spins and from noise at selected high frequencies, allowing us to apply more than a thousand π pulses in a sequence. We demonstrate a coherence time of a singlet-triplet qubit of 0.87 ms, i.e. five orders of magnitude longer than the inhomogeneous dephasing time intrinsic to GaAs. Support through IARPA-MQCO, Army Research Office, LPS-MPO-CMTC, the Villum Foundation and the Danish National Research Foundation is acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Zaiser, Sebastian; Favaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Denisenko, Andrej; Isoya, Junichi; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Joerg
Recently nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of nanoscale samples at ambient conditions has been achieved with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. So far the spectral resolution in the NV NMR experiments was limited by the sensor's coherence time, which in turn prohibited revealing the chemical composition and dynamics of the system under investigation. By entangling the NV electron spin sensor with a long-lived memory spin qubit we increase the spectral resolution of NMR measurement sequences for the detection of external nuclear spins. Applying the latter sensor-memory-couple it is particularly easy to track diffusion processes, to identify the molecules under study and to deduce the actual NV center depth inside the diamond. We performed nanoscale NMR on several liquid and solid samples exhibiting unique NMR response. Our method paves the way for nanoscale identification of molecule and protein structures and dynamics of conformational changes.
Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.
1995-04-01
1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.
Multi-scales nuclear spin relaxation of liquids in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korb, Jean-Pierre
2010-03-01
The magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(ω) is a rich source of dynamical information for characterizing the molecular dynamics of liquids in confined environments. Varying the magnetic field changes the Larmor frequency ω, and thus the fluctuations to which the nuclear spin relaxation is sensitive. Moreover, this method permits a more complete characterization of the dynamics than the usual measurements as a function of temperature at fixed magnetic field strength, because many common solvent liquids have phase transitions that may alter significantly the character of the dynamics over the temperature range usually studied. Further, the magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T(ω), provides a good test of the theories that relate the measurement to the microdynamical behavior of the liquid. This is especially true in spatially confined systems where the effects of reduced dimensionality may force more frequent reencounters of the studied proton spin-bearing molecules with paramagnetic impurities at the pore surfaces that may alter the correlation functions that enter the relaxation equations in a fundamental way. We show by low field NMR relaxation that changing the amount of surface paramagnetic impurities leads to striking different pore-size dependences of the relaxation times T and T of liquids in pores. Here, we focus mainly on high surface area porous materials including calibrated porous silica glasses, granular packings, heterogeneous catalytic materials, cement-based materials and natural porous materials such as clay minerals and rocks. Recent highlights NMR relaxation works are reviewed for these porous materials, like continuous characterization of the evolving microstructure of various cementitious materials and measurement of wettability in reservoir carbonate rocks. Although, the recent applications of 2-dimensional T-T and T-z-store-T correlation experiments for characterization of
The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation
Stuhrmann, H.B.; Nierhaus, K.H.
1994-12-31
Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.
Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.
2016-06-14
A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.
Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romalis, Michael; Komack, Tom; Ghost, Rajat
2008-01-01
An experimental nuclear-spin gyroscope is based on an alkali-metal/noblegas co-magnetometer, which automatically cancels the effects of magnetic fields. Whereas the performances of prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes are limited by sensitivity to magnetic fields, this gyroscope is insensitive to magnetic fields and to other external perturbations. In addition, relative to prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes, this one exhibits greater sensitivity to rotation. There is commercial interest in development of small, highly sensitive gyroscopes. The present experimental device could be a prototype for development of nuclear spin gyroscopes suitable for navigation. In comparison with fiber-optic gyroscopes, these gyroscopes would draw less power and would be smaller, lighter, more sensitive, and less costly.
Infrared spectroscopy of chloromethyl radical in solid parahydrogen and its nuclear spin conversion.
Miyamoto, Yuki; Tsubouchi, Masaaki; Momose, Takamasa
2013-10-01
We present high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of chloromethyl radical produced by in situ UV photolysis of chloroiodomethane isolated in solid parahydrogen. The radicals were stable over a few days in solid parahydrogen kept at 3.6 K. Analysis of the rotation-vibration spectra revealed that the radical exhibited quantized one-dimensional rotational motion about the C-Cl bond, while the ortho and para nuclear spin species were still clearly distinguishable in the spectra. Temporal change of the spectra indicated that the nuclear spin conversion between the ortho and para nuclear spin species of the radical in solid parahydrogen occurred in a time scale of a few hours at 3.6 K. It was also found that the nuclear spin conversion became significantly slower in a higher concentration of chloroiodomethane.
Extrinsic spin Nernst effect in two-dimensional electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akera, Hiroshi; Suzuura, Hidekatsu
2013-02-01
The spin accumulation due to the spin current induced by the perpendicular temperature gradient (the spin Nernst effect) is studied in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with spin-orbit interaction by employing the Boltzmann equation. The considered 2DES is confined within a symmetric quantum well with δ doping at the center of the well. A symmetry consideration leads to the spin-orbit interaction which is diagonal in the spin component perpendicular to the 2DES. As origins of the spin current, the skew scattering and the side jump are considered at each impurity on the center plane of the well. It is shown that, for repulsive impurity potentials, the spin-Nernst coefficient changes its sign at the impurity density where contributions from the skew scattering and the side jump cancel each other out. This is in contrast to the spin Hall effect in which the sign change of the coefficient occurs for attractive impurity potentials.
Spinach - A software library for simulation of spin dynamics in large spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogben, H. J.; Krzystyniak, M.; Charnock, G. T. P.; Hore, P. J.; Kuprov, Ilya
2011-02-01
We introduce a software library incorporating our recent research into efficient simulation algorithms for large spin systems. Liouville space simulations (including symmetry, relaxation and chemical kinetics) of most liquid-state NMR experiments on 40+ spin systems can now be performed without effort on a desktop workstation. Much progress has also been made with improving the efficiency of ESR, solid state NMR and Spin Chemistry simulations. Spinach is available for download at http://spindynamics.org.
Cross-correlation spin noise spectroscopy of heterogeneous interacting spin systems
Roy, Dibyendu; Yang, Luyi; Crooker, Scott A.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.
2015-04-30
Interacting multi-component spin systems are ubiquitous in nature and in the laboratory. As such, investigations of inter-species spin interactions are of vital importance. Traditionally, they are studied by experimental methods that are necessarily perturbative: e.g., by intentionally polarizing or depolarizing one spin species while detecting the response of the other(s). Here, we describe and demonstrate an alternative approach based on multi-probe spin noise spectroscopy, which can reveal inter-species spin interactions - under conditions of strict thermal equilibrium - by detecting and cross-correlating the stochastic fluctuation signals exhibited by each of the constituent spin species. Specifically, we consider a two-component spinmore » ensemble that interacts via exchange coupling, and we determine cross-correlations between their intrinsic spin fluctuations. The model is experimentally confirmed using “two-color” optical spin noise spectroscopy on a mixture of interacting Rb and Cs vapors. Noise correlations directly reveal the presence of inter-species spin exchange, without ever perturbing the system away from thermal equilibrium. These non-invasive and noise-based techniques should be generally applicable to any heterogeneous spin system in which the fluctuations of the constituent components are detectable.« less
Natural reference for nuclear high-spin states
Rowley, Neil; Ollier, James; Simpson, John
2009-08-15
We suggest two new representations of the data on rotational nuclei. The first is reference-free and the second arises from a natural reference related to the variable moment of inertia model parameters of the ground-state band of the system. As such, neither representation contains any free parameters. By defining a 'configuration spin' we show how a new ground-state band reference can be applied. Its use allows a complete description of the changes associated with the first, and higher, band crossings. We apply these new representations to discuss the nature of the first band crossing along even-even isotopic chains in the erbium and osmium isotopes and to odd-even nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 158}Er.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, N. P.; Dzuba, S. A.
2011-09-01
The pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) technique was employed to study nitroxide spin probes of three different sizes dissolved in glassy o-terphenyl. A microwave pulse applied to the central hyperfine structure (hfs) component of the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum was followed by two echo-detecting pulses of different microwave frequency to probe the magnetization transfer (MT) to the low-field hfs component. The MT between hfs components is readily related to flips in the nitrogen nuclear spin, which in turn are induced by molecular motion. The MT on the time scale of tens of microseconds was observed over a wide temperature range, including temperatures near and well below the glass transition. For a bulky nitroxide, it was found that MT rates approach dielectric α (primary) relaxation frequencies reported for o-terphenyl in the literature. For small nitroxides, MT rates were found to match the frequencies of dielectric β (secondary) Johari-Goldstein relaxation. The most probable motional mechanism inducing the nitrogen nuclear spin flips is large-angle angular jumps, between some orientations of unequal occupation probabilities. The pulsed ELDOR of nitroxide spin probes may provide additional insight into the nature of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in glassy media and may serve as a tool for studying this relaxation in substances consisting of non-rigid molecules (such as branched polymers) and in heterogeneous and non-polar systems (such as a core of biological membranes).
Nuclear criticality information system
Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.
1981-11-30
The nuclear criticality safety program at LLNL began in the 1950's with a critical measurements program which produced benchmark data until the late 1960's. This same time period saw the rapid development of computer technology useful for both computer modeling of fissile systems and for computer-aided management and display of the computational benchmark data. Database management grew in importance as the amount of information increased and as experimental programs were terminated. Within the criticality safety program at LLNL we began at that time to develop a computer library of benchmark data for validation of computer codes and cross sections. As part of this effort, we prepared a computer-based bibliography of criticality measurements on relatively simple systems. However, it is only now that some of these computer-based resources can be made available to the nuclear criticality safety community at large. This technology transfer is being accomplished by the DOE Technology Information System (TIS), a dedicated, advanced information system. The NCIS database is described.
Controlling Thermal Entanglement in a Three-qubit Spin System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianping
2016-09-01
In this paper, thermal entanglement in three-qubit spin system has been addressed. The results show that spin-spin exchange interaction, the effective external magnetic field, next-nearest-neighbouring interaction have notable effects on the time evolution of the state and thermal entanglement So we can control thermal entanglement by changing the above parameters.
New method to study spin conversion of a nuclear-spin rotor with low tunnel splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandemaele, Greta; Coppens, Paul; van Gerven, Lieven
1986-03-01
A new method is developed to measure the spin conversion time τcon in low-tunnel-frequency systems. The experiment uses field cycling and consists of three steps: saturation of the tunnel reservoir by Zeeman-tunnel resonance; waiting, away from resonance, during a variable time interval tw; and measurement of the decreased tunnel temperature TT, by use of a saturated Zeeman reservoir. A plot of TT vs tw yields τcon. τcon of CH3 rotors in copper acetate is measured at 15, 12.5, and 6 K and turns out to be extremely long, at least 20T1. This discrepancy is discussed and compared with the one found in lithium acetate.
Description of ^{158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin in Nuclear Density Functional Theory
Afanasjev, A. V.; Nazarewicz, Witold
2012-01-01
Rotational bands in 158Er at ultrahigh spin have been studied in the framework of relativistic and nonrelativistic nuclear density-functional theories. Consistent results are obtained across the theoretical models used but some puzzles remain when confronted with experiment. Namely, the many-body configurations which provide good description of experimental transition quadrupole moments and dynamic moments of inertia require substantial increase of the spins of observed bands as compared with experimental estimates, which are still subject to large uncertainties. If, however, the theoretical spin assignments turned out to be correct, experimental band 1 in 158Er would be the highest spin structure ever observed.
Nuclear-spin relaxation of ²º⁷Pb in ferroelectric powders
Bouchard, Louis S.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry; Ford, Joe; Lipton, Andrew S.
2008-02-05
The ²º⁷Pb nuclear system (nuclear spin I = 1/2; magnetic Moment μ ≈0.58 μN; isotopic abundance ≈ 22%) in ferroelectric solids has been proposed for a search for a Schiff moment associated with simultaneous violation of parity (P) and time-reversal invariance (T) in fundamental interactions [1] (see also a discussion of the sensitivity of such search in Ref. [2]). The idea is that, due to the Schiff moment, a ferroelectric sample would acquire a P,T-odd magnetic polarization along the direction of its electric polarization. In conclusion, we have presented the first experimental study of relaxation properties of ²º⁷Pb in PT and PZT below room temperature. We find that above T≈ 50 K, longitudinal relaxation rate follows the T² dependence characteristic of the two-phonon Raman process. On the other hand, as the temperature is decreased below T≈ 50 K, the longitudinal relaxation rates drop slower than ∝T2 (as opposed to ∝T7 expected for the Raman process), and the relaxation is probably due to a direct process associated with paramagnetic impurities and nuclear-spin diffusion. While the longitudinal relaxation times T₁ vary between several seconds and over an hour in the temperature range between 290 and 10 K, the transverse relaxation time T₂ is found to be ≈1.5 ms for all temperatures and all powder samples studied. D: we never discuss the origin of T₂ relaxation. Maybe we should. 1.5 ms is only a bit shorter from what would be expected from nuclear spin-spin interactions. Any comments? At some point Sasha asked Oleg to calculate T₂ exactly for PT and PZT, but I forgot what was the result. If such calculation exists, it would be great to compare with the expt. result. The obtained results provide an important input in the design of the experiments to search for P,T-violating effects in solid ferroelectrics
Nuclear reactor sealing system
McEdwards, James A.
1983-01-01
A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.
Asteroid spin-up fission systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pravec, P.
2014-07-01
Among asteroids smaller than about 15 km in diameter, there is a population of binary and multiple asteroid systems that show characteristics strongly suggesting their formation by spin-up fission. I will review the current observational data we have on the systems and compare them with predictions from theories of formation of asteroid systems. I will show that the best explanation of their observed properties is provided by the theory of fission of cohesionless (rubble-pile) asteroids spun up to the critical spin frequency by the YORP effect. Observed asteroid systems are of two kinds: bound and unbound. Bound asteroid systems typically consist of a larger primary and one or two smaller satellites. Unbound systems consist of two asteroids orbiting the Sun on highly similar orbits, again with one being typically larger (primary) and the other being smaller (secondary). These two groups are not exclusive; there exist systems with one or two bound and an unbound secondary. Our current sample consists of 133 bound asteroid systems (binaries or triples) with primary sizes between 0.12 and 13 km and of 178 asteroid pairs with similar primary sizes. Bound systems have been observed in heliocentric orbits from near the Earth to the outer main belt, while asteroid pairs are recognizable only in the main belt where their orbits are only slowly dispersed so the pairs can be identified for up to 2 Myr after formation. The leading observational techniques for discovery and characterization of asteroid systems are radar imagery (for near-Earth asteroid systems) and lightcurve photometry (for main-belt ones). The observed characteristics of asteroid systems suggesting their formation by rotational fission of parent rubble-pile asteroids after being spun up by the YORP effect are as follows. The angular momentum content of binary asteroids is close to critical. The orientations of satellite orbits are non-random; the orbital poles concentrate near the obliquities of 0 and 180
Bases for Spin Systems and Qudits
Kibler, Maurice R.
2009-05-22
There is a growing interest these days for the field of quantum information and quantum computation (for which classical bits are replaced by qubits in dimension 2 and qudits in dimension d). This field is at the crossing of mathematics, informatics and quantum physics. In this work, bases of relevance for spin systems with cyclic symmetry as well as for quantum information and quantum computation are discussed from the theory of angular momentum and group-theoretical methods. This approach is connected to the use of generalized Pauli matrices (in dimension d) arising from a polar decomposition of the group SU{sub 2}. Examples are given for d = 2, 3 and 4.
Electric field controlled spin interference in a system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion
2016-05-01
There have been intense research efforts over the last years focused on understanding the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect from the perspective of possible spintronics applications. An important component of this line of research is aimed at control and manipulation of electron's spin degrees of freedom in semiconductor quantum dot devices. A promising way to achieve this goal is to make use of the tunable Rashba effect that relies on the spin-orbit interaction in a two-dimensional electron system embedded in a host semiconducting material that lacks inversion-symmetry. This way, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect may potentially lead to fabrication of a new generation of spintronic devices where control of spin, thus magnetic properties, is achieved via an electric field and not a magnetic field. In this work we investigate theoretically the electron's spin interference and accumulation process in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled system consisting of a pair of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots connected to each other via two conducting semi-circular channels. The strength of the confinement energy on the quantum dots is tuned by gate potentials that allow "leakage" of electrons from one dot to another. While going through the conducting channels, the electrons are spin-orbit coupled to a microscopically generated electric field applied perpendicular to the two-dimensional system. We show that interference of spin wave functions of electrons travelling through the two channels gives rise to interference/conductance patterns that lead to the observation of the geometric Berry's phase. Achieving a predictable and measurable observation of Berry's phase allows one to control the spin dynamics of the electrons. It is demonstrated that this system allows use of a microscopically generated electric field to control Berry's phase, thus, enables one to tune the spin-dependent interference pattern and spintronic properties with no need for injection of spin
Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.
2008-07-15
Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.
Dynamic Stabilization of a Quantum Many-Body Spin System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, T. M.; Gerving, C. S.; Land, B. J.; Anquez, M.; Hamley, C. D.; Chapman, M. S.
2013-08-01
We demonstrate dynamic stabilization of a strongly interacting quantum spin system realized in a spin-1 atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is initialized to an unstable fixed point of the spin-nematic phase space, where subsequent free evolution gives rise to squeezing and quantum spin mixing. To stabilize the system, periodic microwave pulses are applied that rotate the spin-nematic many-body fluctuations and limit their growth. The stability diagram for the range of pulse periods and phase shifts that stabilize the dynamics is measured and compares well with a stability analysis.
Dynamic stabilization of a quantum many-body spin system.
Hoang, T M; Gerving, C S; Land, B J; Anquez, M; Hamley, C D; Chapman, M S
2013-08-30
We demonstrate dynamic stabilization of a strongly interacting quantum spin system realized in a spin-1 atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is initialized to an unstable fixed point of the spin-nematic phase space, where subsequent free evolution gives rise to squeezing and quantum spin mixing. To stabilize the system, periodic microwave pulses are applied that rotate the spin-nematic many-body fluctuations and limit their growth. The stability diagram for the range of pulse periods and phase shifts that stabilize the dynamics is measured and compares well with a stability analysis. PMID:24033006
Fast all-optical nuclear spin echo technique based on EIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walther, Andreas; Nilsson, Adam N.; Li, Qian; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan
2016-08-01
We demonstrate an all-optical Raman spin echo technique, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to create the pulses required for a spin echo sequence: initialization, pi-rotation, and readout. The first pulse of the sequence induces coherence directly from a mixed state, and the technique is used to measure the nuclear spin coherence of an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of rare-earth ions (Pr3 +) in a crystal. The rephasing pi-rotation is shown to offer an advantage of combining the rephasing action with the operation of a phase gate, particularly useful in e.g. dynamic decoupling sequences. In contrast to many previous experiments the sequence does not require any preparatory hole burning, which greatly shortens the total duration of the sequence. The effect of the different pulses is characterized by quantum state tomography and compared with simulations. We demonstrate two applications of the technique: compensating the magnetic field across our sample by monitoring T2 reductions from stray magnetic fields, and measuring coherence times at temperatures up to 11 K, where standard preparation techniques are difficult to implement. We explore the potential of the technique, in particular for systems with much shorter T2, and other possible applications.
Fast all-optical nuclear spin echo technique based on EIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walther, Andreas; Nilsson, Adam N.; Li, Qian; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan
2016-08-01
We demonstrate an all-optical Raman spin echo technique, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to create the pulses required for a spin echo sequence: initialization, pi-rotation, and readout. The first pulse of the sequence induces coherence directly from a mixed state, and the technique is used to measure the nuclear spin coherence of an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of rare-earth ions (Pr3 +) in a crystal. The rephasing pi-rotation is shown to offer an advantage of combining the rephasing action with the operation of a phase gate, particularly useful in e.g. dynamic decoupling sequences. In contrast to many previous experiments the sequence does not require any preparatory hole burning, which greatly shortens the total duration of the sequence. The effect of the different pulses is characterized by quantum state tomography and compared with simulations. We demonstrate two applications of the technique: compensating the magnetic field across our sample by monitoring T 2 reductions from stray magnetic fields, and measuring coherence times at temperatures up to 11 K, where standard preparation techniques are difficult to implement. We explore the potential of the technique, in particular for systems with much shorter T 2, and other possible applications.
Strongly polarizing weakly coupled 13C nuclear spins with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center
Wang, Ping; Liu, Bao; Yang, Wen
2015-01-01
Enhancing the polarization of nuclear spins surrounding the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently attracted widespread attention due to its various applications. Here we present an analytical formula that not only provides a clear physical picture for the recently observed polarization reversal of strongly coupled13C nuclei over a narrow range of magnetic field [H. J. Wang et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1940 (2013)], but also demonstrates the possibility to strongly polarize weakly coupled13C nuclei. This allows sensitive magnetic field control of the 13C nuclear spin polarization for NMR applications and significant suppression of the 13C nuclear spin noise to prolong the NV spin coherence time. PMID:26521962
Helgaker, Trygve; Jaszuński, Michał
2007-01-01
Density-functional theory (DFT) and coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles (CCSD) theory are applied to compute the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding and indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of o-benzyne, whose biradical nature makes it difficult to study both experimentally and theoretically. Because of near-equilibrium triplet instabilities that follow from its biradical character, the calculated DFT NMR properties of o-benzyne are unusually sensitive to details of the exchange-correlation functional. However, this sensitivity is greatly reduced if these properties are calculated at the equilibrium of the chosen functional. A strong correlation is demonstrated between the quality of the calculated indirect spin-spin coupling constants and the quality of the calculated lowest triplet excitation energy in o-benzyne. Orbital-unrelaxed coupled-cluster theory should be less affected by such instabilities, and the CCSD NMR properties were only calculated at the experimental equilibrium geometry. For the shielding constants, the results in best agreement with experimental results are obtained with CCSD theory and with the Keal-Tozer KT1 and KT2 functionals. For the triply bonded carbon atoms, these models yield an isotropic shielding of 1.3, -3.3, and -1.2 ppm, respectively, compared with the experimentally observed shielding of 3.7 ppm for incarcerated o-benzyne. For the indirect spin-spin coupling constants, the CCSD model and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional both yield reliable results; for the most interesting spin-spin coupling constant, (1)J (C⋮C), we obtain 210 and 209 Hz with these two models, respectively, somewhat above the recently reported experimental value of 177.9 ± 0.7 Hz for o-benzyne inside a molecular container, suggesting large incarceration effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-01
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-21
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules. PMID:27544099
Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan
2016-08-21
In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.
Chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems
Subrahmanyam, V. )
1994-09-01
The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a twofold Kramers degeneracy. A nonzero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators.
Quadrupolar effects on nuclear spins of neutral arsenic donors in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, David P.; Pflüger, Moritz P. D.; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Itoh, Kohei M.; Brandt, Martin S.
2016-04-01
We present electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance measurements of the nuclear spins of ionized and neutral arsenic donors in strained silicon. In addition to a reduction of the hyperfine coupling, we find significant quadrupole interactions of the nuclear spin of the neutral donors of the order of 10 kHz. By comparing these to the quadrupole shifts due to crystal fields measured for the ionized donors, we identify the effect of the additional electron on the electric field gradient at the nucleus. This extra component is expected to be caused by the coupling to electric field gradients created due to changes in the electron wave function under strain.
Hierarchical spin-orbital polarization of a giant Rashba system.
Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathan M; Kim, Choong H; Sankar, Raman; Monkman, Eric J; Shai, Daniel E; Wei, Haofei I; Lochocki, Edward B; Wells, Justin W; Meevasana, Worawat; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Fennie, Craig J; Shen, Kyle M; Chou, Fangcheng; King, Phil D C
2015-09-01
The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two "spin-split" branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector. PMID:26601268
Hierarchical spin-orbital polarization of a giant Rashba system
Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathan M.; Kim, Choong H.; Sankar, Raman; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Wei, Haofei I.; Lochocki, Edward B.; Wells, Justin W.; Meevasana, Worawat; Kim, Timur K.; Hoesch, Moritz; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Fennie, Craig J.; Shen, Kyle M.; Chou, Fangcheng; King, Phil D. C.
2015-01-01
The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two “spin-split” branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector. PMID:26601268
Spin systems and Political Districting Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping
2007-03-01
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Samuel; Soykal, Oney; Economou, Sophia; Glaser, Evan
2015-03-01
The silicon vacancy in silicon carbide is currently being considered for applications in quantum information and sensing, with several studies showing room temperature spin polarization and manipulation. We perform room temperature optically-detected magnetic resonance and spin echo measurements on an ensemble of silicon vacancies to better characterize the nature of this system and determine the spin coherence properties. The spin coherence time is shown to be dependent on magnetic field, varying from a few μs at low fields to longer than 30 μs at 50 mT. Strong spin echo modulation that varies with magnetic field is also observed. The modulation is attributed to the interaction with nearby nuclear spins and is well-described by a theoretical model.
Nuclear reactor shutdown system
Bhate, Suresh K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Riffe, Delmar R.; Kinney, Calvin L.
1981-01-01
An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.
Spin-orbit interaction in relativistic nuclear structure models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebran, J.-P.; Mutschler, A.; Khan, E.; Vretenar, D.
2016-08-01
Relativistic self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) models naturally account for the coupling of the nucleon spin to its orbital motion, whereas nonrelativistic SCMF methods necessitate a phenomenological ansatz for the effective spin-orbit potential. Recent experimental studies aim to explore the isospin properties of the effective spin-orbit interaction in nuclei. SCMF models are very useful in the interpretation of the corresponding data; however, standard relativistic mean-field and nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock models use effective spin-orbit potentials with different isovector properties, mainly because exchange contributions are not treated explicitly in the former. The impact of exchange terms on the effective spin-orbit potential in relativistic mean-field models is analyzed, and it is shown that it leads to an isovector structure similar to the one used in standard nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock models. Data on the isospin dependence of spin-orbit splittings in spherical nuclei could be used to constrain the isovector-scalar channel of relativistic mean-field models. The reproduction of the empirical kink in the isotope shifts of even Pb nuclei by relativistic effective interactions points to the occurrence of pseudospin symmetry in the single-neutron spectra in these nuclei.
Spin-Dependent Electron Transport Through a Three-Terminal Mesoscopic Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhonghui; Xiao, Xianbo; Chen, Yuguang
2013-03-01
We studied theoretically the spin-dependent electron transport properties of a three-terminal nanostructure proposed by Xiao and Chen [J. Appl. Phys.1, 108 (2010)]. The spin-resolved recursive Green's function method is used to calculate the three-terminal spin-polarization. We focus on the influence both of the structural parameters and Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength in the investigated system. It is shown that the spin-polarization is still a reasonable value for being observable in experiment with small Rashba SOC strength and longer length of the wide region in the investigated system. The underlying physics is revealed to originate from the effect of SOC-induced effective magnetic field at the structure-induced Fano resonance. This length of the middle wide region in three-terminal nanostructure can be more easily fabricated experimentally.
Nuclear medicine imaging system
Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George
1986-01-07
A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.
Nuclear medicine imaging system
Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George
1986-01-01
A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.
Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-06-01
We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.
Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system
Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-06-15
We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.
Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Gast, Peter; Huber, Martina; Ivanov, Konstantin L.
2015-06-21
We develop a theoretical description of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) in solids under Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) to describe the magnetic field dependence of the DNP effect. The treatment is based on an efficient scheme for numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation, which explicitly takes into account the variation of magnetic interactions during the sample spinning. The dependence of the cross-effect MAS-DNP on various parameters, such as the hyperfine interaction, electron-electron dipolar interaction, microwave field strength, and electron spin relaxation rates, is analyzed. Electron spin relaxation rates are determined by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, and calculations are compared to experimental data. Our results suggest that the observed nuclear magnetic resonance signal enhancements provided by MAS-DNP can be explained by discriminating between “bulk” and “core” nuclei and by taking into account the slow DNP build-up rate for the bulk nuclei.
Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Peat, David; Owers‐Bradley, John
2016-01-01
Abstract At ultralow temperatures, longitudinal nuclear magnetic relaxation times become exceedingly long and spectral lines are very broad. These facts pose particular challenges for the measurement of NMR spectra and spin relaxation phenomena. Nuclear spin noise spectroscopy is used to monitor proton spin polarization buildup to thermal equilibrium of a mixture of glycerol, water, and copper oxide nanoparticles at 17.5 mK in a static magnetic field of 2.5 T. Relaxation times determined in such a way are essentially free from perturbations caused by excitation radiofrequency pulses, radiation damping, and insufficient excitation bandwidth. The experimental spin‐lattice relaxation times determined on resonance by saturation recovery with spin noise detection are consistently longer than those determined by using pulse excitation. These longer values are in better accordance with the expected field dependence trend than those obtained by on‐resonance experiments with pulsed excitation. PMID:27305629
19F nuclear spin relaxation and spin diffusion effects in the single-ion magnet LiYF4:Ho3+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkin, B. Z.; Vanyunin, M. V.; Graf, M. J.; Lago, J.; Borsa, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Tkachuk, A. M.; Barbara, B.
2008-11-01
Temperature and magnetic field dependences of the 19F nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in a single crystal of LiYF4 doped with holmium are described by an approach based on a detailed consideration of the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between nuclei and impurity paramagnetic ions and nuclear spin diffusion processes. The observed non-exponential long time recovery of the nuclear magnetization after saturation at intermediate temperatures is in agreement with predictions of the spin-diffusion theory in a case of the diffusion limited relaxation. At avoided level crossings in the spectrum of electron-nuclear states of Ho3 + ions, rates of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation increase due to quasi-resonant energy exchange between nuclei and paramagnetic ions in contrast to the predominant role played by electronic cross-relaxation processes in the low-frequency ac-susceptibility.
Lutnaes, Ola B; Ruden, Torgeir A; Helgaker, Trygve
2004-10-01
Density functional theory, in particular, with the Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid functional, has been shown to be a promising method for the calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. However, no systematic investigation has so far been undertaken to evaluate the capability of B3LYP to calculate these coupling constants accurately, taking properly into account the vibrational contributions. In this work, vibrationally corrected indirect spin-spin coupling constants were calculated using the B3LYP functional for 10 rigid unsubstituted and substituted hydrocarbons: ethyne, ethene, allene, cyclopropene, cyclopropane, cyclobutene, pyrrole, furan, thiophene and benzene. The resulting spin-spin constants were compared with the available experimental values. The basis sets in these calculations give indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of ethyne that are almost converged to the basis-set limit, making the intrinsic error of the computational method and the error in equilibrium geometry the main sources of error. On average, the B3LYP functional overestimates the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrocarbons by 10%.
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2014-01-01
We report solid state 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, 1H and cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations. PMID:24832263
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2014-05-14
We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations. PMID:24832263
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert
2014-05-01
We report solid state 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, 1H and cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2014-05-14
We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.
Thurber, Kent R. Tycko, Robert
2014-05-14
We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.
Spontaneous Spin Textures in Multiorbital Mott Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuneš, J.; Geffroy, D.
2016-06-01
Spin textures in k -space arising from spin-orbit coupling in noncentrosymmetric crystals find numerous applications in spintronics. We present a mechanism that leads to the appearance of k -space spin texture due to spontaneous symmetry breaking driven by electronic correlations. Using dynamical mean-field theory we show that doping a spin-triplet excitonic insulator provides a means of creating new thermodynamic phases with unique properties. The numerical results are interpreted using analytic calculations within a generalized double-exchange framework.
Spontaneous Spin Textures in Multiorbital Mott Systems.
Kuneš, J; Geffroy, D
2016-06-24
Spin textures in k-space arising from spin-orbit coupling in noncentrosymmetric crystals find numerous applications in spintronics. We present a mechanism that leads to the appearance of k-space spin texture due to spontaneous symmetry breaking driven by electronic correlations. Using dynamical mean-field theory we show that doping a spin-triplet excitonic insulator provides a means of creating new thermodynamic phases with unique properties. The numerical results are interpreted using analytic calculations within a generalized double-exchange framework. PMID:27391736
High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2016-08-01
Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (˜98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron-nuclear spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.
High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2016-08-01
Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (∼98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron–nuclear spin state of a nitrogen–vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.
Interaction of Strain and Nuclear Spins in Silicon: Quadrupolar Effects on Ionized Donors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Künzl, Markus; Becker, Hans-Werner; Itoh, Kohei M.; Stutzmann, Martin; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.
2015-07-01
The nuclear spins of ionized donors in silicon have become an interesting quantum resource due to their very long coherence times. Their perfect isolation, however, comes at a price, since the absence of the donor electron makes the nuclear spin difficult to control. We demonstrate that the quadrupolar interaction allows us to effectively tune the nuclear magnetic resonance of ionized arsenic donors in silicon via strain and determine the two nonzero elements of the S tensor linking strain and electric field gradients in this material to S11=1.5 ×1022 V /m2 and S44=6 ×1022 V /m2 . We find a stronger benefit of dynamical decoupling on the coherence properties of transitions subject to first-order quadrupole shifts than on those subject to only second-order shifts and discuss applications of quadrupole physics including mechanical driving of magnetic resonance, cooling of mechanical resonators, and strain-mediated spin coupling.
Effect of electron spin dynamics on solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization performance.
Siaw, Ting Ann; Fehr, Matthias; Lund, Alicia; Latimer, Allegra; Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Han, Song-I
2014-09-21
For the broadest dissemination of solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (ssDNP) enhanced NMR as a material characterization tool, the ability to employ generic mono-nitroxide radicals as spin probes is critical. A better understanding of the factors contributing to ssDNP efficiency is needed to rationally optimize the experimental condition for the practically accessible spin probes at hand. This study seeks to advance the mechanistic understanding of ssDNP by examining the effect of electron spin dynamics on ssDNP performance at liquid helium temperatures (4-40 K). The key observation is that bi-radicals and mono-radicals can generate comparable nuclear spin polarization at 4 K and 7 T, which is in contrast to the observation for ssDNP at liquid nitrogen temperatures (80-150 K) that finds bi-radicals to clearly outperform mono-radicals. To rationalize this observation, we analyze the change in the DNP-induced nuclear spin polarization (Pn) and the characteristic ssDNP signal buildup time as a function of electron spin relaxation rates that are modulated by the mono- and bi-radical spin concentration. Changes in Pn are consistent with a systematic variation in the product of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time and the electron spin flip-flop rate that constitutes an integral saturation factor of an inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectrum. We show that the comparable Pn achieved with both radical species can be reconciled with a comparable integral EPR saturation factor. Surprisingly, the largest Pn is observed at an intermediate spin concentration for both mono- and bi-radicals. At the highest radical concentration, the stronger inter-electron spin dipolar coupling favors ssDNP, while oversaturation diminishes Pn, as experimentally verified by the observation of a maximum Pn at an intermediate, not the maximum, microwave (μw) power. At the maximum μw power, oversaturation reduces the electron spin population differential that must be upheld between
Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doherty, Michael P.
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.
Spin-exchange narrowing in a nuclear magnetic transverse oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Bulatowicz, Michael; Walker, Thad
2015-05-01
We demonstrate spin exchange narrowing in synchronously pumped Xe NMR. The Xe NMR is driven by spin exchange with Rb atoms whose polarization is square-wave modulated at the Xe NMR frequency. On resonance, the nuclei precess in phase with the Rb polarization. Off resonance, however, the spin-exchange fields from the Rb cause the Xe to develop a static orthogonal spin component. This induces broadening in the NMR line while also dramatically suppressing the phase shift between the precessing Rb and Xe polarizations. We can compensate for this effect by adding an oscillating magnetic field oriented along the optical pumping axis and 180 degrees out of phase with the Rb polarization. This narrows the NMR line width to approximately the T1 limit, and nearly restores the usual relationship between detuning and phase shift. These results suggest the possibility of using the alkali field with appropriate magnetic field feedback along the bias field direction to narrow the NMR linewidth below the usual T1 limit. Support by the NSF and Northrop Grumman Co.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward H.; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle
2016-08-01
We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond-nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center under weak transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV hyperfine level anticrossing (LAC) occurring at bias fields of tens of gauss—two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported LACs at ˜500 and ˜1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how the NV ground-state Hamiltonian can be manipulated in this regime to tailor the NV's sensitivity to environmental factors and to map into the nuclear spin state.
Nuclear spin imaging with hyperpolarized nuclei created by brute force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kunimatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kohri, Hideki; Ohta, Takeshi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Yosoi, Masaru; Ono, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kohji; Takamatsu, Kunihiko; Ueda, Kunihiro; Didelez, Jean-P.; Prossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette
2011-05-01
We have been developing a polarized HD target for particle physics at the SPring-8 under the leadership of the RCNP, Osaka University for the past 5 years. Nuclear polarizaton is created by means of the brute force method which uses a high magnetic field (~17 T) and a low temperature (~ 10 mK). As one of the promising applications of the brute force method to life sciences we started a new project, "NSI" (Nuclear Spin Imaging), where hyperpolarized nuclei are used for the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The candidate nuclei with spin ½hslash are 3He, 13C, 15N, 19F, 29Si, and 31P, which are important elements for the composition of the biomolecules. Since the NMR signals from these isotopes are enhanced by orders of magnitudes, the spacial resolution in the imaging would be much more improved compared to the practical MRI used so far. Another advantage of hyperpolarized MRI is that the MRI is basically free from the radiation, while the problems of radiation exposure caused by the X-ray CT or PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cannot be neglected. In fact, the risk of cancer for Japanese due to the radiation exposure through these diagnoses is exceptionally high among the advanced countries. As the first step of the NSI project, we are developing a system to produce hyperpolarized 3He gas for the diagnosis of serious lung diseases, for example, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The system employs the same 3He/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting solenoidal coil as those used for the polarized HD target with some modification allowing the 3He Pomeranchuk cooling and the following rapid melting of the polarized solid 3He to avoid the depolarization. In this report, the present and future steps of our project will be outlined with some latest experimental results.
Dynamic spin susceptibility of interacting electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyuzin, Vladimir; Maslov, Dmitrii
2015-03-01
We study the dynamic spin susceptibility of interacting electrons in spatial dimensions from one to three. In all cases, backscattering processes result in non-zero imaginary part of the spin susceptibility above the particle-hole continuum of non-interacting electrons. In one dimension, we employ the renormalization group to go beyond the second order and obtain a general expression for the spin susceptibility. In higher dimensions, we show that the imaginary part of the spin susceptibility arises from the same mechanism as non-analytic corrections to the Fermi-liquid theory. We relate the obtained results to the lifetime of collective spin modes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation via Grant NSF DMR-1308972.
Selective coherence transfers in homonuclear dipolar coupled spin systems
Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Sinha, Suddhasattwa; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.; Baugh, Jonathan
2005-02-01
Controlling the dynamics of a dipolar coupled spin system is critical to the development of solid-state spin-based quantum information processors. Such control remains challenging, as every spin is coupled to a large number of surrounding spins. Here we demonstrate that in an ensemble of spin pairs it is possible to decouple the weaker interactions (weak coupling {omega}{sub D}{sup w}) between different pairs and extend the coherence lifetimes within the two-spin system from 19 {mu}s to 11.1 ms, a factor of 580. This is achieved without decoupling the stronger interaction (strong coupling {omega}{sub D}{sup S}) between the two spins within a pair. An amplitude modulated rf field is applied on resonance with the Larmor frequency of the spins, with amplitude {omega}{sub 1}, and frequency of the modulation matched to the strong coupling. The spin pairs appear isolated from each other in the regime where the rf power satisfies {omega}{sub D}{sup w}<<{omega}{sub 1}<<{omega}{sub D}{sup S}.
Spin transport in helical biological systems
Díaz, Elena; Gutierrez, Rafael
2014-08-20
Motivated by the recent experimental demonstration of spin selective effects in monolayers of double-stranded DNA oligomers, our work presents a minimal model to describe electron transmission through helical fields. Our model highlight that the lack of inversion symmetry due to the chirality of the potential is a key factor which will lead to a high spin-polarization (SP). We also study the stability of the SP against fluctuations of the electronic structure induced by static disorder affecting the on-site energies. In the energy regions where the spin-filtering occurs, our results remain stable against moderate disorders although the SP is slightly reduced.
Sorting signals from protein NMR spectra: SPI, a Bayesian protocol for uncovering spin systems.
Grishaev, Alexander; Llinás, Miguel
2002-11-01
Grouping of spectral peaks into J-connected spin systems is essential in the analysis of macromolecular NMR data as it provides the basis for disentangling chemical shift degeneracies. It is a mandatory step before resonance and NOESY cross-peak identities can be established. We have developed SPI, a computational protocol that scrutinizes peak lists from homo- and hetero-nuclear multidimensional NMR spectra and progressively assembles sets of resonances into consensus J- and/or NOE-connected spin systems. SPI estimates the likelihood of nuclear spin resonances appearing at defined frequencies given sets of cross-peaks measured from multi-dimensional experiments. It quantifies spin system matching probabilities via Bayesian inference. The protocol takes advantage of redundancies in the number of connectivities revealed by suites of diverse NMR experiments, systematically tracking the adequacy of each grouping hypothesis. SPI was tested on 2D homonuclear and 2D/3D(15)N-edited data recorded from two protein modules, the col 2 domain of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the kringle 2 domain of plasminogen, of 60 and 83 amino acid residues, respectively. For these protein domains SPI identifies approximately 95% unambiguous resonance frequencies, a relatively good performance vis-à-vis the reported 'manual' (interactive) analyses. Abbreviations and Acronyms: SPI, SPin Identification; BMRB, BioMagResBank (Madison, WI).
Spin and Isospin Dependent Interactions in Classical Molecular Simulations of Dense Nuclear Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amason, Charlee; Caplan, Matt; Horowitz, Cj
2015-10-01
A neutron star is the hot, incredibly dense remnant of a massive star gone supernova. Extreme conditions on neutron stars allow for the formation of exotically shaped nuclear matter, known colloquially as ``nuclear pasta.'' Competition between the strong nuclear force and the repulsive Coulomb force results in frustration of the neutron star crust, ultimately resulting in these pasta shapes. Previous work at Indiana University has used classical molecular dynamic simulations to model the formation of this pasta. For this project, we introduce a similar model with a new spin dependent interaction. Using this model, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter with 400 particles. The energies found are similar to those in chiral effective field theory calculations. When we include Coulomb interactions, the model produces pasta shapes. Future work will incorporate this spin potential into larger pasta simulations. Supported by the National Science Foundation REU at Indiana University.
NMR Investigation of Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paravastu, Anant; Hayes, Sophia; Schwickert, Birgit; Reimer, Jeffrey; Dinh, Long; Balooch, Mehdi
2003-03-01
Light-induced nuclear spin alignments have been measured in GaAs as a function of photon energy, irradiation time, and sample temperature using NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 Tesla and 10 to 50 K. Significant optical enhancements were observed at a range of photon energies, starting just below the band gap and persisting through 100 meV above the gap. Irradiation above the band gap resulted in thermally activated NMR signal enhancements while sub band gap irradiation did not. Short and long irradiation time dependencies revealed insights into the nature of cross relaxation between electronic nuclear spins, contradicting mechanisms based on either localized electron-nuclear contact at defect sites or cross relaxation between nuclei and free electrons. We propose that the presence of a mobile or delocalized enabling electronic species characterized by a long electron-nuclear correlation time, such as an exciton, is necessary in any mechanism which explains the data.
Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time.
Zhong, Manjin; Hedges, Morgan P; Ahlefeldt, Rose L; Bartholomew, John G; Beavan, Sarah E; Wittig, Sven M; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J
2015-01-01
Space-like separation of entangled quantum states is a central concept in fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics and in quantum communication applications. Optical approaches are ubiquitous in the distribution of entanglement because entangled photons are easy to generate and transmit. However, extending this direct distribution beyond a range of a few hundred kilometres to a worldwide network is prohibited by losses associated with scattering, diffraction and absorption during transmission. A proposal to overcome this range limitation is the quantum repeater protocol, which involves the distribution of entangled pairs of optical modes among many quantum memories stationed along the transmission channel. To be effective, the memories must store the quantum information encoded on the optical modes for times that are long compared to the direct optical transmission time of the channel. Here we measure a decoherence rate of 8 × 10(-5) per second over 100 milliseconds, which is the time required for light transmission on a global scale. The measurements were performed on a ground-state hyperfine transition of europium ion dopants in yttrium orthosilicate ((151)Eu(3+):Y2SiO5) using optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The observed decoherence rate is at least an order of magnitude lower than that of any other system suitable for an optical quantum memory. Furthermore, by employing dynamic decoupling, a coherence time of 370 ± 60 minutes was achieved at 2 kelvin. It has been almost universally assumed that light is the best long-distance carrier for quantum information. However, the coherence time observed here is long enough that nuclear spins travelling at 9 kilometres per hour in a crystal would have a lower decoherence with distance than light in an optical fibre. This enables some very early approaches to entanglement distribution to be revisited, in particular those in which the spins are transported rather than the light
Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time.
Zhong, Manjin; Hedges, Morgan P; Ahlefeldt, Rose L; Bartholomew, John G; Beavan, Sarah E; Wittig, Sven M; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J
2015-01-01
Space-like separation of entangled quantum states is a central concept in fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics and in quantum communication applications. Optical approaches are ubiquitous in the distribution of entanglement because entangled photons are easy to generate and transmit. However, extending this direct distribution beyond a range of a few hundred kilometres to a worldwide network is prohibited by losses associated with scattering, diffraction and absorption during transmission. A proposal to overcome this range limitation is the quantum repeater protocol, which involves the distribution of entangled pairs of optical modes among many quantum memories stationed along the transmission channel. To be effective, the memories must store the quantum information encoded on the optical modes for times that are long compared to the direct optical transmission time of the channel. Here we measure a decoherence rate of 8 × 10(-5) per second over 100 milliseconds, which is the time required for light transmission on a global scale. The measurements were performed on a ground-state hyperfine transition of europium ion dopants in yttrium orthosilicate ((151)Eu(3+):Y2SiO5) using optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The observed decoherence rate is at least an order of magnitude lower than that of any other system suitable for an optical quantum memory. Furthermore, by employing dynamic decoupling, a coherence time of 370 ± 60 minutes was achieved at 2 kelvin. It has been almost universally assumed that light is the best long-distance carrier for quantum information. However, the coherence time observed here is long enough that nuclear spins travelling at 9 kilometres per hour in a crystal would have a lower decoherence with distance than light in an optical fibre. This enables some very early approaches to entanglement distribution to be revisited, in particular those in which the spins are transported rather than the light.
Coupled nuclear spin relaxation and internal rotations in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Utton, D. B.; Tsang, T.
1972-01-01
Both proton and fluorine nuclear spin-lattice relaxations have been studied by the 180- to 90-deg pulse method in magnesium fluosilicate hexahydrate at 25 and 13 MHz over the temperature range from 170 to 350 K. Observed nonexponential behavior of the nuclear magnetic relaxation is explained by internal rotations of the doubly charged negative fluosilicate ions and doubly charged positive magnesium hexahydrate ions.
A Study of the Nuclear Structure at High Energy and Low Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rekstad, J.; Henriquez, A.; Ingebretsen, F.; Midttun, G.; Skaali, B.; Øyan, R.; Wikne, J.; Engeland, T.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Hammaren, E.; Liukkonen, E.
1983-01-01
A novel method to study nuclear structure at low spin as a function of temperature is developed and used on 146,148Sm, 154,156Gd and 160,162Dy, by means of the (3He, α) reaction. The nuclear level density for a wide energy range is also studied. The γ-multiplicities and the first generation γ-ray spectra indicate a structure change in deformed nuclei at about 6 MeV.
Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.
Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A
2015-11-01
Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c".
Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.
Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A
2015-11-01
Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c". PMID:26414291
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James; Fu, Changbo; Yan, Haiyang; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike; Walker, Thad
2012-06-01
NMR measurements using polarized noble gases can constrain possible exotic spin-dependent interactions involving nucleons. A differential measurement insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations can be performed using a mixture of two polarized species with different ratios of nucleon spin to magnetic moment. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (developed to evaluate dual species xenon vapor cells for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope) to search for NMR frequency shifts of xenon-129 and xenon-131 when a non-magnetic zirconia rod is modulated near the NMR cell. We simultaneously excited both Xe isotopes and detected free-induction-decay transients. In combination with theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum, the measurements put a new upper bound on possible monopole-dipole interactions of the neutron for ranges around 1mm. This work is supported by the NGC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) funding, the Department of Energy, and the NSF.
Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems
Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A
2010-01-01
We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.
Numerical Researches on Dynamical Systems with Relativistic Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, W. B.
2010-04-01
It is well known that spinning compact binaries are one of the most important research objects in the universe. Especially, EMRIs (extreme mass ratio inspirals) involving stellar compact objects which orbit massive black holes, are considered to be primary sources of gravitational radiation (GW) which could be detected by the space-based interferometer LISA. GW signals from EMRIs can be used to test general relativity, measure the masses and spins of central black holes and study essential physics near horizons. Compared with the situation without spin, the complexity of extreme objects, most of which rotate very fast, is much higher. So the dynamics of EMRI systems are numerically and analytically studied. We focus on how the spin effects on the dynamics of these systems and the produced GW radiations. Firstly, an ideal model of spinning test particles around Kerr black hole is considered. For equatorial orbits, we present the correct expression of effective potential and analyze the stability of circular orbits. Especially, the gravitational binding energy and frame-dragging effect of extreme Kerr black hole are much bigger than those without spin. For general orbits, spin can monotonically enlarge orbital inclination and destroy the symmetry of orbits about equatorial plane. It is the most important that extreme spin can produce orbital chaos. By carefully investigating the relations between chaos and orbital parameters, we point out that chaos usually appears for orbits with small pericenter, big eccentricity and orbital inclination. It is emphasized that Poincaré section method is invalid to detect the chaos of spinning particles, and the way of systems toward chaos is the period-doubling bifurcation. Furthermore, we study how spins effect on GW radiations from spinning test particles orbiting Kerr black holes. It is found that spins can increase orbit eccentricity and then make h+ component be detected more easily. But for h× component, because spins change
SivaRanjan, Uppala; Ramachandran, Ramesh
2014-02-01
A quantum-mechanical model integrating the concepts of reduced density matrix and effective Hamiltonians is proposed to explain the multi-spin effects observed in rotational resonance (R(2)) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Employing this approach, the spin system of interest is described in a reduced subspace inclusive of its coupling to the surroundings. Through suitable model systems, the utility of our theory is demonstrated and verified with simulations emerging from both analytic and numerical methods. The analytic results presented in this article provide an accurate description/interpretation of R(2) experimental results and could serve as a test-bed for distinguishing coherent/incoherent effects in solid-state NMR.
SivaRanjan, Uppala; Ramachandran, Ramesh
2014-02-07
A quantum-mechanical model integrating the concepts of reduced density matrix and effective Hamiltonians is proposed to explain the multi-spin effects observed in rotational resonance (R{sup 2}) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Employing this approach, the spin system of interest is described in a reduced subspace inclusive of its coupling to the surroundings. Through suitable model systems, the utility of our theory is demonstrated and verified with simulations emerging from both analytic and numerical methods. The analytic results presented in this article provide an accurate description/interpretation of R{sup 2} experimental results and could serve as a test-bed for distinguishing coherent/incoherent effects in solid-state NMR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena
2016-07-01
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ -meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes 68-78Ni . A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data.
Reanalysis of nuclear spin matrix elements for dark matter spin-dependent scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannoni, M.
2013-04-01
We show how to include in the existing calculations for nuclei other than Xe129 and Xe131 the corrections to the isovector coupling arising in chiral effective field theory recently found in Menendez et al. [Phys. Rev. D 86, 103511 (2012)PRVDAQ1550-7998]. The dominant, momentum-independent, two-body current effect can be taken into account by formally redefining the static spin matrix elements ⟨Sp,n⟩. By further using the normalized form factor at q≠0 built with the one-body level structure functions, we show that the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus cross section and the upper limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross sections coincide with the ones derived by using the exact functions at the two-body level. We explicitly show it in the case of XENON100 limits on the WIMP-neutron cross section, and we recalculate the limits on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section set by COUPP. We also give practical formulas to obtain ⟨Sp,n⟩ given the structure functions in the various formalisms and notations existing in the literature. We argue that the standard treatment of the spin-dependent cross section in terms of three independent isospin functions, S00(q), S11(q), and S01(q), is redundant in the sense that the interference function S01(q) is the double product |S01(q)|=2S00(q)S11(q) even when including the new effective field theory corrections.
Nuclear orientation of radon isotopes by spin-exchange optical pumping
Kitano, M.; Calaprice, F.P.; Pitt, M.L.; Clayhold, J.; Happer, W.; Kadar-Kallen, M.; Musolf, M.; Ulm, G.; Wendt, K.; Chupp, T.
1988-05-23
This paper reports the first demonstration of nuclear orientation of radon atoms. The method employed was spin exchange with potassium atoms polarized by optical pumping. The radon isotopes were produced at the ISOLDE isotope separator of CERN. The nuclear alignment of /sup 209/Rn and /sup 223/Rn has been measured by observation of ..gamma..-ray anisotropies and the magnetic dipole moment for /sup 209/Rn has been measured by the nuclear-magnetic-resonance method to be chemically bond..mu..chemically bond = 0.838 81(39)..mu../sub N/.
Spin-controlled mechanics in nanoelectromechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radić, D.
2015-03-01
We consider a dc-electronic tunneling transport through a carbon nanotube suspended between normal-metal source and arbitrarily spin-polarized drain lead in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between electrical current through the nanotube and its mechanical vibrations may lead to an electromechanical instability and give an onset of self-excited mechanical vibrations depending on spin polarization of the drain lead and frequency of vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlation between the occupancy of quantized Zeeman-split electronic states in the nanotube and the direction of velocity of its mechanical motion. It is an effective gating effect by the presence of electron in the spin state which, through the Coulomb blockade, permits tunneling of electron to the drain predominantly only during a particular phase of mechanical vibration thus coherently changing mechanical momentum and leading into instability if mechanical damping is overcome.
Entanglement dynamics of spin systems in pure states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furman, G. B.; Meerovich, V. M.; Sokolovsky, V. L.
2009-09-01
We investigate numerically the appearance and evolution of entanglement in spin systems prepared initially in a pure state. We consider the dipolar coupling spin systems of different molecular structures: benzene C6H6 , cyclopentane C5H10 , sodium butyrate CH3(CH2)2CO2Na , and calcium hydroxyapatite Ca5(OH)(PO4)3 . Numerical simulations show that the close relationship exists between the intensity of second order (2Q) coherences and concurrences of nearest spins in a cyclopentane molecule.
SPIN POLARIZED PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AS A PROBE OF MAGNETIC SYSTEMS.
JOHNSON, P.D.; GUNTHERODT, G.
2006-11-01
Spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this chapter, we examine the methodology of the technique and its recent application to a number of different problems. We first examine the photoemission process itself followed by a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements. We review studies of spin polarized surface states, interface states and quantum well states followed by studies of the technologically important oxide systems including half-metallic transition metal oxides, ferromagnet/oxide interfaces and the antiferromagnetic cuprates that exhibit high Tc Superconductivity. We also discuss the application of high-resolution photoemission with spin resolving capabilities to the study of spin dependent self energy effects.
Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Baltisberger, J.H.
1993-06-01
This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.
McCarney, Evan R; Armstrong, Brandon D; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi
2008-09-16
We present a unique analysis tool for the selective detection of local water inside soft molecular assemblies (hydrophobic cores, vesicular bilayers, and micellar structures) suspended in bulk water. Through the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the (1)H NMR signal of water is amplified, as it interacts with stable radicals that possess approximately 658 times higher spin polarization. We utilized stable nitroxide radicals covalently attached along the hydrophobic tail of stearic acid molecules that incorporate themselves into surfactant-based micelle or vesicle structures. Here, we present a study of local water content and fluid viscosity inside oleate micelles and vesicles and Triton X-100 micelles to serve as model systems for soft molecular assemblies. This approach is unique because the amplification of the NMR signal is performed in bulk solution and under ambient conditions with site-specific spin labels that only detect the water that is directly interacting with the localized spin labels. Continuous wave (cw) electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis provides rotational dynamics of the spin-labeled molecular chain segments and local polarity parameters that can be related to hydration properties, whereas we show that DNP-enhanced (1)H NMR analysis of fluid samples directly provides translational water dynamics and permeability of the local environment probed by the spin label. Our technique therefore has the potential to become a powerful analysis tool, complementary to cw ESR, to study hydration characteristics of surfactant assemblies, lipid bilayers, or protein aggregates, where water dynamics is a key parameter of their structure and function. In this study, we find that there is significant penetration of water inside the oleate micelles with a higher average local water viscosity (approximately 1.8 cP) than in bulk water, and Triton X-100 micelles and oleate vesicle bilayers mostly exclude water while allowing for considerable surfactant chain
Electron spin echo study of doxyl spin probes in micellar systems of ammonium perfluorooctanoate
Romanelli, M.; Ristori, S.; Martini, G. ); Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. )
1994-02-24
The two-phase and three-pulse electron spin echo techniques were applied to investigate the behavior of doxyl stearic acid spin probes in micellar aqueous solutions of ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Three doxyl stearic acids with the nitroxide group in different positions on the alkyl chain were used as spin probes, and deuteriated water was used to study the deuterium modulation of the echo signals. The experimental patterns were interpreted by best-fit spectra calculated by taking into account both the echo decay and the nuclear modulation. The analysis determines the number of deuterium nuclei in the surroundings of the NO groups and the time constant for the electron spin reorientation causing spectral diffusion and echo decay. From these data we conclude that water molecules belonging to the NO solvation sphere were maintained in the micelles and that the long-chain nitroxide probes were tilted in the micelle core in order to occupy regions with relatively easy water accessibility which was slightly higher for 12-DXSA than for 5- and 16-DXSA. The modulation of the hyperfine couplings of the methyl protons due to their rotational motion was the main mechanism contributing to the echo decay. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-03-01
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.
Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Interactions of a Novel Triazolium-Based Ionic Liquid
Allen, Jesse J; Schneider, Yanika; Kail, Brian W; Luebke, David R; Nulwala, Hunaid; Damodaran, Krishnan
2013-04-11
Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.
Spin-orbit coupling rule in bound fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Mutschler, A.; Vretenar, D.
2016-08-01
Spin-orbit coupling characterizes quantum systems such as atoms, nuclei, hypernuclei, quarkonia, etc, and is essential for understanding their spectroscopic properties. Depending on the system, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on shell structure is large in nuclei, small in quarkonia and perturbative in atoms. In the standard non-relativistic reduction of the single-particle Dirac equation, we derive a universal rule for the relative magnitude of the spin-orbit effect that applies to very different quantum systems, regardless of whether the spin-orbit coupling originates from the strong or electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in nuclei the near equality of the mass of the nucleon and the difference between the large repulsive and attractive potentials explain the fact that spin-orbit splittings are comparable to the energy spacing between major shells. For a specific ratio between the particle mass and the effective potential whose gradient determines the spin-orbit force, we predict the occurrence of giant spin-orbit energy splittings that dominate the single-particle excitation spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao
2016-08-01
Single-molecule sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and angstrom resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the highest challenges in magnetic microscopy. Recent development in dynamical-decoupling- (DD) enhanced diamond quantum sensing has enabled single-nucleus NMR and nanoscale NMR. Similar to conventional NMR and MRI, current DD-based quantum sensing utilizes the "frequency fingerprints" of target nuclear spins. The frequency fingerprints by their nature cannot resolve different nuclear spins that have the same noise frequency or differentiate different types of correlations in nuclear-spin clusters, which limit the resolution of single-molecule MRI. Here we show that this limitation can be overcome by using "wave-function fingerprints" of target nuclear spins, which is much more sensitive than the frequency fingerprints to the weak hyperfine interaction between the targets and a sensor under resonant DD control. We demonstrate a scheme of angstrom-resolution MRI that is capable of counting and individually localizing single nuclear spins of the same frequency and characterizing the correlations in nuclear-spin clusters. A nitrogen-vacancy-center spin sensor near a diamond surface, provided that the coherence time is improved by surface engineering in the near future, may be employed to determine with angstrom resolution the positions and conformation of single molecules that are isotope labeled. The scheme in this work offers an approach to breaking the resolution limit set by the "frequency gradients" in conventional MRI and to reaching the angstrom-scale resolution.
Nuclear Safety for Space Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Offiong, Etim
2010-09-01
It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.
Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR (Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance)
Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.
1989-03-01
Our Laboratory is presently engaged in developing a method to model sulfur-containing compounds in whole coal. It has been established that most of the organic sulfur in coal exists in the form of aromatic groups known as thiophenes. Sulfur-containing aromatic compounds such as thiophene, tetraphenylthiophene and thianthrene were adsorbed onto silica-alumina catalyst surfaces were used as models to emulate coal's anisotropic nature and abundance of unpaired electron spin density. The spectroscopic techniques used were Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR). EPR spectroscopy is a well established method to characterize g-matrix anisotropy in transition metal compounds. With increased resolution, EPR has become very useful for characterizing the small but still detectable g-matrix anisotropy in organic systems such as coal and the model systems for coal. ENDOR spectroscopy involves the inducement of NMR transitions of the nearby protons while detecting them with an EPR detection scheme which is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than using a NMR detection scheme. Analysis of the ENDOR spectra produced hyperfine information which is characteristic of these sulfur-containing systems. This information will be needed to resolve anisotropic hyperfine spectral features attributable to sulfur content in the analysis of coal macerals. 2 refs., 3 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waeber, A. M.; Hopkinson, M.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Nilsson, J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Bennett, A. J.; Shields, A. J.; Burkard, G.; Tartakovskii, A. I.; Skolnick, M. S.; Chekhovich, E. A.
2016-07-01
One of the key challenges in spectroscopy is the inhomogeneous broadening that masks the homogeneous spectral lineshape and the underlying coherent dynamics. Techniques such as four-wave mixing and spectral hole-burning are used in optical spectroscopy, and spin-echo in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the high-power pulses used in spin-echo and other sequences often create spurious dynamics obscuring the subtle spin correlations important for quantum technologies. Here we develop NMR techniques to probe the correlation times of the fluctuations in a nuclear spin bath of individual quantum dots, using frequency-comb excitation, allowing for the homogeneous NMR lineshapes to be measured without high-power pulses. We find nuclear spin correlation times exceeding one second in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots--four orders of magnitude longer than in strain-free III-V semiconductors. This observed freezing of the nuclear spin fluctuations suggests ways of designing quantum dot spin qubits with a well-understood, highly stable nuclear spin bath.
Simulation of spin dynamics: a tool in MRI system development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stöcker, Tony; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Shah, N. Jon
2011-05-01
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a routine diagnostic tool in the clinics and the method of choice in soft-tissue contrast medical imaging. It is an important tool in neuroscience to investigate structure and function of the living brain on a systemic level. The latter is one of the driving forces to further develop MRI technology, as neuroscience especially demands higher spatiotemporal resolution which is to be achieved through increasing the static main magnetic field, B0. Although standard MRI is a mature technology, ultra high field (UHF) systems, at B0 >= 7 T, offer space for new technical inventions as the physical conditions dramatically change. This work shows that the development strongly benefits from computer simulations of the measurement process on the basis of a semi-classical, nuclear spin-1/2 treatment given by the Bloch equations. Possible applications of such simulations are outlined, suggesting new solutions to the UHF-specific inhomogeneity problems of the static main field as well as the high-frequency transmit field.
NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM
Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.
1961-06-27
A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.
High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi
2011-10-01
A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg 2SiO 4) reacted with supercritical CO 2 and H 2O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.
High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.
Hoyt, David W; Turcu, Romulus V F; Sears, Jesse A; Rosso, Kevin M; Burton, Sarah D; Felmy, Andrew R; Hu, Jian Zhi
2011-10-01
A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ(13)C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) reacted with supercritical CO(2) and H(2)O at 150 bar and 50°C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. PMID:21862372
High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi
2011-10-01
A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. Finally, as an application example, in situ^{13}C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg_{2}SiO_{4}) reacted with supercritical CO_{2} and H_{2}O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Richard G. S.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.
2000-01-01
A fundamental problem in Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy is the calculation of observed resonance amplitudes for a repetitively pulsed sample, as first analyzed by Ernst and Anderson in 1966. Applications include determination of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) by progressive saturation and correction for partial saturation in order to determine the concentrations of the chemical constituents of a spectrum. Accordingly, the Ernst and Anderson formalism has been used in innumerable studies of chemical and, more recently, physiological systems. However, that formalism implicitly assumes that no chemical exchange occurs. Here, we present an analysis of N sites in an arbitrary chemical exchange network, explicitly focusing on the intermediate exchange rate regime in which the spin-lattice relaxation rates and the chemical exchange rates are comparable in magnitude. As a special case of particular importance, detailed results are provided for a system with three sites undergoing mutual exchange. Specific properties of the N-site network are then detailed. We find that (i) the Ernst and Anderson analysis describing the response of a system to repetitive pulsing is inapplicable to systems with chemical exchange and can result in large errors in T1 and concentration measurements; (ii) T1's for systems with arbitrary exchange networks may still be correctly determined from a one-pulse experiment using the Ernst formula, provided that a short interpulse delay time and a large flip angle are used; (iii) chemical concentrations for exchanging systems may be correctly determined from a one-pulse experiment either by using a short interpulse delay time with a large flip angle, as for measuring T1's, and correcting for partial saturation by use of the Ernst formula, or directly by using a long interpulse delay time to avoid saturation; (iv) there is a significant signal-to-noise penalty for performing one-pulse experiments under conditions which permit accurate
Classical models of the spin 1/2 system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.
We proposed a Quaternionic mechanical system motivated by the Foucault pendulum as a classical model for the dynamics of the spin ½ system. We showed that this mechanical system contains the dynamics of the spin state of the electron under a uniform magnetic field as it is given by the Schrodinger-Pauli-Equation (SPE). We closed with a characterization of the dynamics of this generalized classical system by showing that it is equivalent with the dynamics of the Schrodinger Pauli Equation as long as the solutions to the generalized classical system are roots of the Lagrangian, that is the condition
Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei
2015-03-15
We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot. - Highlights: • The effective nuclear-spin magnetic field gives rise to the off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix of single QD. • The off-diagonal elements of reduced density matrix of the QD have a significant impact on the high-order current cumulants. • The high-order current cumulants are sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field. • The FCS can be used to detect the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single QD.
New formulation of Magnetization Equation for Flowing Nuclear Spin under NMR/MRI Excitation(I)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de, Dilip; Emetere, Moses; Omotosho, Victor
2015-03-01
We have obtained for the first time from the Bloch NMR equations the correct dependence of the single component of magnetization, My and Mz at resonance (NMR/MRI) on relaxation times, rf B1 field (pulsed or continuous), blood(nuclear spin) flow velocity, etc. in the rotating frame of reference. The equations are applicable for both CW and pulsed NMR experiments with or without flow of spins. Our approaches can be extended easily to include gradient fields and diffusion of spins, if needed in NMR/MRI experiments. We also discuss the application of our equations to a specific case of MR excitation scheme: Free induction decay. The first time new equations of single component of MR magnetization and further equations that can be derived with the methodologies used here, can be applied towards accurate simulation of MR images/signals and extraction of parameters of clinical importance through comparison of the measured and the simulated images/signals.
Cryogenic sample exchange NMR probe for magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization
Barnes, Alexander B.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Matsuki, Yoh; Bajaj, Vikram S.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; DeRocher, Ronald; Bryant, Jeffrey; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Lugtenburg, Johan; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.
2009-01-01
We describe a cryogenic sample exchange system that dramatically improves the efficiency of magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments by reducing the time required to change samples and by improving long-term instrument stability. Changing samples in conventional cryogenic MAS DNP/NMR experiments involves warming the probe to room temperature, detaching all cryogenic, RF, and microwave connections, removing the probe from the magnet, replacing the sample, and reversing all the previous steps, with the entire cycle requiring a few hours. The sample exchange system described here — which relies on an eject pipe attached to the front of the MAS stator and a vacuum jacketed dewar with a bellowed hole — circumvents these procedures. To demonstrate the excellent sensitivity, resolution, and stability achieved with this quadruple resonance sample exchange probe, we have performed high precision distance measurements on the active site of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. We also include a spectrum of the tripeptide N-f-MLF-OH at 100 K which shows 30 Hz linewidths. PMID:19356957
Materials challenges for nuclear systems
Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David
2010-11-26
The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.
Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies
Den Durpel, Luc Van
2004-06-17
DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims at performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.
Tate, Shin-Ichi
2008-01-01
Determining the relative orientation of domains within a protein is an important problem in structural biology, which has been difficult to address by either X-ray crystallography or NMR. The structure of a multidomain protein in a crystal lattice can be altered by crystal packing forces, resulting in different domain arrangements from those in solution. On the other hand, conventional NMR primarily provides short-range structural information, including proton-proton distances derived from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) and torsion angles through vicinal spin couplings. Thus, NMR cannot always determine the precise interdomain arrangements due to the sparsely observed spin interactions between domains. However, the weak alignment of proteins in solution has enabled a new NMR technique to determine the domain arrangement based on the different structural information, which defines the orientation of a structural unit in protein against the magnetic field. This technique relies on the anisotropic nuclear spin interactions that only occur for a molecule in a weakly aligned state. In this review, the basics of the new NMR approach are described with focusing on its application to domain orientation analysis. We also describe our recently established NMR approach using the same spin interactions, which expands the domain arrangement analysis to higher-molecular weight proteins over 100 kDa.
1H nuclear spin relaxation of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations.
Calero, C; Martí, J; Guàrdia, E
2015-02-01
We have investigated the nuclear spin relaxation properties of (1)H in liquid water with the help of molecular dynamics simulations. We have computed the (1)H nuclear spin relaxation times T1 and T2 and determined the contribution of the different interactions to the relaxation at different temperatures and for different classical water models (SPC/E, TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005). Among the water models considered, the TIP4P/2005 model exhibits the best agreement with the experiment. The same analysis was performed with Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of bulk water at T = 330 K, which provided results close to the experimental values at room temperature. To complete the study, we have successfully accounted for the temperature-dependence of T1 and T2 in terms of a simplified model, which considers the reorientation in finite angle jumps and the diffusive translation of water molecules.
Ho, Cong Son Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2014-05-14
The generation of spin current and spin polarization in a two-dimensional electron gas structure is studied in the presence of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOC), the strength of the latter being modulated in time by an ac gate voltage. By means of the non-Abelian gauge field approach, we established the relation between the Lorentz spin force and the spin current in the SOC system, and showed that the longitudinal component of the spin force induces a transverse spin current. For a constant (time-invariant) Rashba system, we recover the universal spin Hall conductivity of e/(8π) , derived previously via the Berry phase and semi-classical methods. In the case of a time-dependent SOC system, the spin current is sustained even under strong impurity scattering. We evaluated the ac spin current generated by a time-modulated Rashba SOC in the absence of any dc electric field. The magnitude of the spin current reaches a maximum when the modulation frequency matches the Larmor frequency of the electrons.
Obaid, Rana; Kinzel, Daniel; Oppel, Markus González, Leticia
2014-10-28
Despite the concept of nuclear spin isomers (NSIs) exists since the early days of quantum mechanics, only few approaches have been suggested to separate different NSIs. Here, a method is proposed to discriminate different NSIs of a quinodimethane derivative using its electronic excited state dynamics. After electronic excitation by a laser field with femtosecond time duration, a difference in the behavior of several quantum mechanical operators can be observed. A pump-probe experimental approach for separating these different NSIs is then proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian
2014-10-01
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian
2014-10-28
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Large N matrices from a nonlocal spin system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Huijse, Liza; Martin, Victoria L.
2015-10-01
Large N matrices underpin the best understood models of emergent spacetime. We suggest that large N matrices can themselves be emergent from simple quantum mechanical spin models with finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. We exhibit the emergence of large N matrices in a nonlocal statistical physics model of order N2 Ising spins. The spin partition function is shown to admit a large N saddle described by a matrix integral, which we solve. The matrix saddle is dominant at high temperatures, metastable at intermediate temperatures and ceases to exist below a critical order one temperature. The matrix saddle is disordered in a sense we make precise and competes with ordered low energy states. We verify our analytic results by Monte Carlo simulation of the spin system.
Spin correlations and impurities in one-dimensional gapped spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Guangyong
2000-05-01
Magnetic excitations and impurity effects in the quasi- one-dimensional spin systems Y2BaNiO5 and Cu(NO3)2 . 2.5D2O have been studied by neutron scattering. Both materials exhibit an energy gap between their ground state and first excited state. Unlike most crystalline and weakly disordered three dimensional magnets, no long-ranged magnetic order exists in these 1-D antiferromagnetic systems and new magnetic phenomena occur. With Ni2+ ions carrying spins S = 1, and coupled antiferromagnetically along the chain, Y2BaNiO 5 is one of the best experimental realizations of a Haldane spin chain. Using neutron scattering, we studied in detail low energy excitations in pure Y2BaNiO5 over the temperature range 0 < T ~ Δ/kB. In addition, effects of doping by chemical substitution in this spin liquid were also examined. Our results from Mg doped Y2BaNiO5 confirmed the theoretical prediction of chain end spin-1/2 degrees of freedom in spin-1 AFM chains. Doping with Ca into Y2BaNiO5 leads to novel excited states that fill the Haldane gap. Our data provide evidence of antiferromagnetic spin-polarization clouds around impurity sites and suggest an alternative interpretation of similar data in over-doped 2-D superconducting cuprates. Cu(NO3)2 . 2.5D2), is a strongly dimerized alternating chain compound. We have performed the first detailed mapping of the full single-particle spectrum of the material for 0.06 < kBT/J1, < 1.5. At low T there is a coherent, dispersive mode which is well-described by the Single Mode Approximation with exchange constants J 1 = 0.442(2) meV and J2 = 0.106(2) meV for the strong and weak nearest-neighbor couplings along the chain. With increasing temperature, the overall spectral weight decreases in the same way as for an ensemble of independent spin pairs. The relaxation rate is thermally activated, and wave-vector dependent.
Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2015-11-01
The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.
Application of spin traps to biological systems.
Rosen, G M; Cohen, M S; Britigan, B E; Pou, S
1990-01-01
Since 1971, when nitroxides were first reported to be bioreduced, several cellular enzymes, in addition to ascorbic acid, have been found to catalyze the reduction of nitroxides to their corresponding hydroxylamines. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cellular bioreduction of nitroxides are both dependent upon the structure of the nitroxide and cell type. For example, pyrrolidinyloxyls are considerably more resistant to bioreduction than their corresponding piperidinyloxyls. In addition, cellular levels of reductases present in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes are considerably greater than concentrations found in freshly isolated rat enterocytes. Thus, through the proper selection of a cell type and an appropriate nitroxide, one can study cellular-mediated free radical processes. With the discovery that alpha-hydrogen-containing nitroxides, including 2,2-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-1-pyrrolidinyloxyl (DMPO-OH) decompose rapidly in the presence of superoxide and thiols, the ability to determine if hydroxyl radical is generated during stimulation of human neutrophils, is in doubt. To explore the limits of spin trapping in this context, we have studied the effect of varying the rates of superoxide production, in the presence and absence of thiols, on the decomposition of DMPO-OH. In parallel studies, we have found that t-butyl alpha-methyl-4-pyridinyl-N-oxide nitroxide (4-POBN-CH3) will not degrade in the presence of superoxide and a thiol. From these studies, we have determined that if hydroxyl radicals were generated as an isolated event in the presence of a continual flow of superoxide, spin trapping might not be able to detect its formation. Otherwise, spin trapping should be able to measure hydroxyl radicals, if continually generated, during activation of human neutrophils. PMID:2167256
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Shoji
2000-01-01
In response to recent proton spin-relaxation time measurements on NiCu(pba)(H2O)3.2H2O with pba=1,3-propylenebis(oxamato), which is an excellent one-dimensional ferrimagnetic Heisenberg model system of spin (1,12), we study the Raman relaxation process in spin-(S,s) quantum ferrimagnets on the assumption of predominantly dipolar hyperfine interactions between protons and magnetic ions. The relaxation time T1 is formulated within the spin-wave theory and is estimated as a function of temperature and an applied field H by a quantum Monte Carlo method. The low-temperature behavior of the relaxation rate T-11 qualitatively varies with (S,s), while T-11 is almost proportional to H-1/2 due to the characteristic dispersion relations.
Experimental Investigation of Nuclear Spin Conversion in Interstellar Pre-Cometary Ices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadhurst, C. L.; Mumma, M. J.
1992-07-01
, and Saturn values (0.5-3.6 x 10^-5). The cometary range is comparable to D/H for Earth (16 x 10^-5) as well as Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, indicating that these bodies acquired their hydrogen in the form of ices as opposed to nebular H2. Similarly, the D/H range for carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites is high (8-105 x 10^-5), and is thought to reflect incorporation of insterstellar material into meteorites (Zinner, 1988). We have developed a novel experimental apparatus to study nuclear spin conversion during formation and processing of thin mantles of water-based ices. Vapor is condensed in a specially designed cryogenic spectroscopy cell that has no paramagnetic surfaces. The cell is attached to the cold head of a closed-cycle He refrigerator, and the entire refrigerator shroud is placed inside an evacuable FTIR spectrometer. Ice samples are held at ~10 degrees K, and irradiated with VUV, thus simulating conditions in the intermediate density regions of interstellar clouds. The ice is then rapidly heated to the sublimation point; temperature during warm up and cool down is controllable to within 1 degree K. The resultant vapor is captured in the cell and the infrared spectrum collected with the FTS. First results from the experimental program will be presented. References: Eberhardt P. et al. (1987) Astron. Astrophys. 187, 481-184. Larson H.P. et al. (1989) Ap. J. 338, 1106-1114. Mumma et al. (1988) Proc. STScI Conference on Origins and Evolution of Planetary Systems. Zinner E. (1988) in Meteorites in the Early Solar System (eds. J.F. Kerridge and M.S. Matthews) pp. 956-983. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. AZ.
Anatomy of a Spin: The Information-Theoretic Structure of Classical Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, Ryan; Vijayaraghavan, Vikram; Crutchfield, James
Collective organization in matter plays a significant role in its expressed physical properties. Typically, it is detected via an order parameter, appropriately defined for a given system's observed emergent patterns. Recent developments in information theory suggest how to quantify collective organization in a system- and phenomenon-agnostic way: decompose the system's thermodynamic entropy density into a localized entropy, that solely contained in the dynamics at a single location, and a bound entropy, that stored in space as domains, clusters, excitations, or other emergent structures. We compute this decomposition and related quantities explicitly for the nearest-neighbor Ising model on the 1D chain, the Bethe lattice with coordination number k = 3, and the 2D square lattice, illustrating its generality and the functional insights it gives near and away from phase transitions. In particular, we consider the roles that different spin motifs play (cluster bulk, cluster edges, and the like) and how these affect the dependencies between spins.
A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA
Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.
2009-01-01
High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.
Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.
Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi
2013-08-01
A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample.
Absence of Spin Liquid in Nonfrustrated Correlated Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, S. R.; Sénéchal, David
2013-03-01
The question of the existence of a spin liquid state in the half-filled Hubbard model on the honeycomb (also known as graphene) lattice is revisited. The variational cluster approximation, the cluster dynamical mean field theory, and the cluster dynamical impurity approximation are applied to various cluster systems. Assuming that the spin liquid phase coincides with the Mott insulating phase in this nonfrustrated system, we find that the Mott transition is preempted by a magnetic transition occurring at a lower value of the interaction U, and therefore the spin liquid phase does not occur. This conclusion is obtained using clusters with two bath orbitals connected to each boundary cluster site. We argue that using a single bath orbital per boundary site is insufficient and leads to the erroneous conclusion that the system is gapped for all nonzero values of U.
Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert
2016-03-01
We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.
Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert
2016-03-01
We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states. PMID:26920835
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert
2016-03-01
We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25 K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30 K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states.
Study of an Active Control System for a Spinning Body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, J. J.
1961-01-01
The mission requirements for some satellites require that they spin continuously and at the same time maintain a precise direction of the spin axis. An analog-computer study has been made of an attitude control system which is suitable for such a satellite. The control system provides the necessary attitude control through the use of a spinning wheel, which will provide precession torques, commanded by an automatic closed-loop servomechanism system. The sensors used in the control loop are rate gyroscopes for damping of any wobble motion and a sun seeker for attitude control. The results of the study show that the controller can eliminate the wobble motion of the satellite resulting from a rectangular pulse moment disturbance and then return the spin axis to the reference space axis. The motion is damped to half amplitude in less than one cycle of the wobble motion. The controller can also reduce the motion resulting from a step change in product of inertia both by causing the new principal axis to be steadily alined with the spin vector and by reducing the cone angle generated by the reference body axis. These methods will reduce the motion whether the satellite is a disk, sphere, or rod configuration.
Materials challenges for nuclear systems
Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David
2010-11-26
The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novotny, M. A.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-09-01
We study the case of a small quantum spin system S with a non-degenerate groundstate coupled to a small quantum spin bath. Finite temperature measures for both quantum decoherence and thermalization are studied. The computational results, obtained from exact diagonalization, compare well with a recent perturbation theory prediction, even when the system and bath are of comparable sizes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Takeshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Nanao, Tsubasa; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Hayashi, Hironori; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hatakeyama, Naoto; Kagami, Sota; Uchida, Makoto; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro
2016-06-01
A 129Xe nuclear spin oscillator with an artificial feedback was constructed, and detailed studies were conducted on its performance, focusing on the frequency stability. As a result, the major sources of drift of the precession frequency in the present spin oscillator setup were identified to be drifts of a solenoid current and an environmental magnetic field. By introducing stabilization systems for the current and the environmental field, which yielded improvements by one order of magnitude on the solenoid current and by a factor of three on the environmental field, a frequency precision of 7.9 nHz was obtained for a one-shot measurement of 3 × 104 s duration. We found, however, that the Allan deviation leveled off at around 30 μHz, indicating a strong need for the precision monitor of the experimental conditions represented by magnetometry. The frequency stability of the spin oscillator is discussed in relation to an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the 129Xe atom.
[Nuclear spin catalysis in nanoreactors of living cells].
Kol'tover, V K
2013-01-01
There is a great variety of chemical elements with magnetic and nonmagnetic isotopes in living cells. The question arises as to whether living cells can perceive the difference between magnetic and non-magnetic isotopes of chemical elements. It has been shown that bacteria Escherichia coli, which were previously enriched with the magnetic isotope of magnesium, 25Mg, essentially faster adapt to the new growth media in comparison with the cells, which were enriched with the nonmagnetic isotopes, 24Mg or 26Mg. In the experiments with another commonly accepted cell model, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been shown that the magnetic 25Mg, in comparison with the nonmagnetic 24Mg, essentially better stimulates recovery of the cells after short wave UV irradiation. Thus, for the first time, the magnetic isotope effects in vivo have been discovered. These findings reveal the novel, based on the stable magnetic isotopes, ways of control over efficiency and reliability of biological systems.
Wu, Gang
2016-08-01
The nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation process of half-integer spins in liquid samples is known to exhibit multi-exponential behaviors. Within the framework of Redfield's relaxation theory, exact analytical expressions for describing such a process exist only for spin-3/2 nuclei. As a result, analyses of nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation data for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei with spin >3/2 must rely on numerical diagonalization of the Redfield relaxation matrix over the entire motional range. In this work we propose an approximate analytical expression that can be used to analyze nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation data of any half-integer spin in liquids over the entire motional range. The proposed equation yields results that are in excellent agreement with the exact numerical calculations. PMID:27343483
Miéville, Pascal; Vitzthum, Veronika; Caporini, Marc A; Jannin, Sami; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2011-11-01
As previously demonstrated by Thurber and Tycko, the peak position of (79)Br in potassium bromide (KBr) allows one to determine the temperature of a spinning sample. We propose to adapt the original design by using a compact KBr tablet placed at the bottom of the magic angle spinning rotor, separated from the sample under investigation by a thin disk made of polytetrafluoroethylene (or 'Teflon'®). This design allows spinning the sample up to at least 16 kHz. The KBr tablet can remain in the rotor when changing the sample under investigation. Calibration in the range of 98 < T < 320 K has been carried out in a static rotor by inserting a platinum thermometer. The accuracy is better than ± 0.9 K, even in the presence of microwave irradiation. Irradiation with 5 W microwaves at 263 GHz leads to a small temperature increase of 3.6 ± 1.4 K in either static or spinning samples. The dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement decreases with increasing temperature, in particular when a frozen glassy sample undergoes a glass transition.
Sensing of single nuclear spins in random thermal motion with proximate nitrogen-vacancy centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruderer, M.; Fernández-Acebal, P.; Aurich, R.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-03-01
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have emerged as valuable tools for sensing and polarizing spins. Motivated by potential applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine, we show that NV-based sensors are capable of detecting single spin targets even if they undergo diffusive motion in an ambient thermal environment. Focusing on experimentally relevant diffusion regimes, we derive an effective model for the NV-target interaction, where parameters entering the model are obtained from numerical simulations of the target motion. The practicality of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing two realistic experimental scenarios: (i) time-resolved sensing of a fluorine nuclear spin bound to an N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium (NHC-Ru) catalyst that is immobilized on the diamond surface and (ii) detection of an electron spin label by an NV center in a nanodiamond, both attached to a vibrating chemokine receptor in thermal motion. We find in particular that the detachment of a fluorine target from the NHC-Ru carrier molecule can be monitored with a time resolution of a few seconds.
Quantum revivals and magnetization tunneling in effective spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krizanac, M.; Altwein, D.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.
2016-03-01
Quantum mechanical objects or nano-objects have been proposed as bits for information storage. While time-averaged properties of magnetic, quantum-mechanical particles have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically, experimental investigations of the real time evolution of magnetization in the quantum regime were not possible until recent developments in pump-probe techniques. Here we investigate the quantum dynamics of effective spin systems by means of analytical and numerical treatments. Particular attention is paid to the quantum revival time and its relation to the magnetization tunneling. The quantum revival time has been initially defined as the recurrence time of a total wave-function. Here we show that the quantum revivals of wave-functions and expectation values in spin systems may be quite different which gives rise to a more sophisticated definition of the quantum revival within the realm of experimental research. Particularly, the revival times for integer spins coincide which is not the case for half-integer spins. Furthermore, the quantum revival is found to be shortest for integer ratios between the on-site anisotropy and an external magnetic field paving the way to novel methods of anisotropy measurements. We show that the quantum tunneling of magnetization at avoided level crossing is coherent to the quantum revival time of expectation values, leading to a connection between these two fundamental properties of quantum mechanical spins.
Computational studies of quantum spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ling
Quantum spin models are important for studying the magnetic behavior of strongly correlated electronic insulators. Specifically, the 2D S = 1/2 Heisenberg model closely captures the antiferromagnetic state of CuO2 layers of the high-Tc superconductor parent compounds at half band filling. Introducing competing interactions or disorder can drive quantum phase transitions to other new states. I use the stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method and finite-size scaling to study the quantum critical points of two Heisenberg bilayers, each with intra- and inter-plane couplings J and J⊥. Tuning the inter- to intra-layer coupling constant ratio g = J⊥ /J drives a quantum phase transition between the Neel ordered state and a quantum disordered state. I discuss the ground-state finite-size scaling properties of three different quantities and extract the critical value of the coupling ratio gc. The results improve gc by more than an order of magnitude over the previous best estimates. Upon doping with static non-magnetic impurities, (e.g., substituting Cu with Zn), the cuprate layer is driven through a percolation phase transition. While the static properties are described by 2D classical percolation, the dynamical properties are quantum mechanical. I use exact diagonalization to calculate the lowest excitation gap Delta and use SSE to study an upper bound for Delta obtained from sum rules. Scaling the gap distribution with the cluster length L, a dynamic exponent z ≈ 2Df is obtained, where Df is the fractal dimensionality of the percolating cluster. I present several arguments showing that the low-energy excitations are due to weakly coupled effective moments formed owing to local imbalance in sublattice occupation. Many interesting quantum spin models lead to negative signs in the importance weight used in QMC sampling, and thus this method cannot be used. Matrix product states (MPSs) and tensor product states (TPSs) have recently been
Theory of spin relaxation by translational diffusion in two-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korb, J.-P.; Winterhalter, M.; McConnell, H. M.
1984-02-01
Spin relaxation rates T-11 and T-12 are calculated for nuclear (or electron) spins diffusing on finite two-dimensional, planar, or spherical surfaces. The spin relaxation is assumed to be due to modulation of the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. It is shown that the mathematical divergences encountered in a number of previous theoretical treatments of this problem for infinite planar surfaces have no physical significance; these divergences are avoided by limiting the calculations to two-dimensional systems that are finite, but that are otherwise of arbitrarily large size. The theoretical relaxation rates T-11 and T-12 for finite, planar two-dimensional systems are found to have a number of unique properties that should facilitate the interpretation of magnetic resonance spectra of molecules physically adsorbed on solid surfaces. For example, the reduction in dimensionality of rapid diffusive motion yields relaxation rates typical of slow motion in three-dimensional systems. Under certain conditions the relaxation rate T-11 is strongly dependent on the size of the two-dimensional surface on which atoms or molecules diffuse. Moreover the shape of the surface (planar or spherical), which is of particular importance in the description of the two-dimensional dynamics, can profoundly alter the frequency and temperature dependences of the spin-relaxation rates. The theory appears to be directly applicable to recent experiments by J. Tabony [Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 14, 1 (1980)].
Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Accardi, Alberto; Melnitchouk, Wally
2014-02-01
We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.
Nuclear shell model calculations of the spin-dependent neutralino- nucleus cross sections
Ressell, M.T.; Aufderheide, M.B.; Bloom, S.D.; Mathews, G.J.; Resler, D.A. ); Griest, K. . Dept. of Physics)
1992-11-01
We describe nuclear shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic cross sections of supersymmetric particles on several nuclei, including [sup 73]Ge and [sup 29]Si, which are being used in the construction of dark matter detectors. To check the accuracy of the wave functions we have calculated excited state energy spectra, magnetic moments, and spectroscopic factors for each of the nuclei. Our results differ significantly from previous estimates based upon the independent single particle shell model and the odd group model. These differences are especially evident if the naive quark model estimates of the quark contribution to nucleon spin are correct. We also discuss the modifications that occur when finite momentum transfer between the neutralino and nucleus is included.
Herlitschke, Marcus; Disch, Sabrina; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, Kai; Wetterskog, Erik; Bergstrom, Lennart; Hermann, Raphael P.
2016-01-01
The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization to 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.
Magic radio-frequency dressing of nuclear spins in high-accuracy optical clocks.
Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Arimondo, Ennio
2012-11-30
A Zeeman-insensitive optical clock atomic transition is engineered when nuclear spins are dressed by a nonresonant radio-frequency field. For fermionic species as (87)Sr, (171)Yb, and (199)Hg, particular ratios between the radio-frequency driving amplitude and frequency lead to "magic" magnetic values where a net cancelation of the Zeeman clock shift and a complete reduction of first-order magnetic variations are produced within a relative uncertainty below the 10(-18) level. An Autler-Townes continued fraction describing a semiclassical radio-frequency dressed spin is numerically computed and compared to an analytical quantum description including higher-order magnetic field corrections to the dressed energies.
Sukstanskii, A.L.; Ackerman, J.J.H.; Yablonskiy, D.A.
2007-01-01
The spatial distribution of the transverse nuclear spin magnetization, appearing in a single compartment with impermeable boundaries in a Stejskal-Tanner gradient pulse MR experiment, is analyzed in detail. At short diffusion times the presence of diffusion-restrictive barriers (membranes) reduces effective diffusivity near the membranes and leads to an inhomogeneous spin magnetization distribution (the edge-enhancement effect). In this case, the signal reveals a quasi-two-compartment behavior and can be empirically modeled remarkably well by a biexponential function. The current results provide a framework for interpreting experimental MR data on various phenoma, including water diffusion in giant axons, metabolite diffusion in the brain, and hyperpolarized gas diffusion in lung airways. PMID:14523959
Magic radio-frequency dressing of nuclear spins in high-accuracy optical clocks.
Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Arimondo, Ennio
2012-11-30
A Zeeman-insensitive optical clock atomic transition is engineered when nuclear spins are dressed by a nonresonant radio-frequency field. For fermionic species as (87)Sr, (171)Yb, and (199)Hg, particular ratios between the radio-frequency driving amplitude and frequency lead to "magic" magnetic values where a net cancelation of the Zeeman clock shift and a complete reduction of first-order magnetic variations are produced within a relative uncertainty below the 10(-18) level. An Autler-Townes continued fraction describing a semiclassical radio-frequency dressed spin is numerically computed and compared to an analytical quantum description including higher-order magnetic field corrections to the dressed energies. PMID:23368116
Self-consistent collective coordinate method in nuclear rotation and wobbling motion at high spin
Kaneko, K. )
1994-06-01
We propose a method, using the self-consistent collective coordinate method based on the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov theory, to describe nuclear rotation and wobbling motion in triaxially deformed nuclei beyond the random-phase approximation to higher orders. In this perturbation method, the zero modes can be eliminated by imposing constraints to determine the intrinsic frame: a spin-orientation frame or a principal axis frame. The basic equations on the collective submanifold are derived as canonical conditions and equations of collective submanifold. These equations are solved by an iterative method expanded with collective variables. In lowest order, the basic equations in both the principal-axis frame and the spin-orientation frame lead to the same result as that derived by Marshalek.
Nuclear Spin relaxation mediated by Fermi-edge electrons in n-type GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Kavokin, K. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Namozov, B. R.; Pak, P. E.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.
2014-03-01
A method based on the optical orientation technique was developed to measure the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation time T 1 in semiconductors. It was applied to bulk n-type GaAs, where T 1 was measured after switching off the optical excitation in magnetic fields from 400 to 1200 G at low (< 30 K) temperatures. The spin-lattice relaxation of nuclei in the studied sample with n D = 9 × 1016 cm-3 was found to be determined by hyperfine scattering of itinerant electrons (Korringa mechanism) which predicts invariability of T 1 with the change in magnetic field and linear dependence of the relaxation rate on temperature. This result extends the experimentally verified applicability of the Korringa relaxation law in degenerate semiconductors, previously studied in strong magnetic fields (several Tesla), to the moderate field range.
Herlitschke, Marcus; Disch, Sabrina; Sergueev, I.; Schlage, Kai; Wetterskog, Erik; Bergstrom, Lennart; Hermann, Raphael P.
2016-01-01
The manuscript reports the investigation of spin disorder in maghemite nanoparticles of different shape by a combination of polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANSPOL) and nuclear forward scattering (NFS) techniques. Both methods are sensitive to magnetization on the nanoscale. SANSPOL allows for investigation of the particle morphology and spatial magnetization distribution and NFS extends this nanoscale information to the atomic scale, namely the orientation of the hyperfine field experienced by the iron nuclei. The studied nanospheres and nanocubes with diameters of 7.4nm and 10.6 nm, respectively, exhibit a significant spin disorder. This effect leads to a reduction of the magnetization tomore » 44% and 58% of the theoretical maghemite bulk value, observed consistently by both techniques.« less
Tsuchimochi, Takashi
2015-10-14
Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems
Wang, Shuanhu
1997-09-17
This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.
Correlation inequalities for quantum spin systems with quenched centered disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contucci, Pierluigi; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2010-02-01
It is shown that random quantum spin systems with centered disorder satisfy correlation inequalities previously proved [P. Contucci and J. Lebowitz, Ann. Henri Poincare 8, 1461 (2007)] in the classical case. Consequences include monotone approach of pressure and ground state energy to the thermodynamic limit. Signs and bounds on the surface pressures for different boundary conditions are also derived for finite range potentials.
Resonance-inclined optical nuclear spin polarization of liquids in diamond structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-02-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of molecules in a solution at room temperature has the potential to revolutionize nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The prevalent methods for achieving DNP in solutions are typically most effective in the regime of small interaction correlation times between the electron and nuclear spins, limiting the size of accessible molecules. To solve this limitation, we design a mechanism for DNP in the liquid phase that is applicable for large interaction correlation times. Importantly, while this mechanism makes use of a resonance condition similar to solid-state DNP, the polarization transfer is robust to a relatively large detuning from the resonance due to molecular motion. We combine this scheme with optically polarized nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in nanodiamonds to design a setup that employs optical pumping and is therefore not limited by room temperature electron thermal polarization. We illustrate numerically the effectiveness of the model in a flow cell containing nanodiamonds immobilized in a hydrogel, polarizing flowing water molecules 4700-fold above thermal polarization in a magnetic field of 0.35 T, in volumes detectable by current NMR scanners.
The Spin Glass-Kondo Competition in Disordered Cerium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhaes, S. G.; Zimmer, F.; Coqblin, B.
2013-10-01
We discuss the competition between the Kondo effect, the spin glass state and a magnetic order observed in disordered Cerium systems. We present firstly the experimental situation of disordered alloys such as CeNi1 - xCux and then the different theoretical approaches based on the Kondo lattice model, with different descriptions of the intersite exchange interaction for the spin glass. After the gaussian approach of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, we discuss the Mattis and the van Hemmen models. Then, we present simple cluster calculations in order to describe the percolative evolution of the clusters from the cluster spin glass to the inhomogeneous ferromagnetic order recently observed in CeNi1 - xCux disordered alloys and finally we discuss the effect of random and transverse magnetic field.
NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)
Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.
1983-07-01
A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information.
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M.
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H{sup 12}C–{sup 12}CH–DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.
Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory.
Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M
2015-09-14
The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H(12)C-(12)CH-DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated. PMID:26374014
Peat, David T; Horsewill, Anthony J; Köckenberger, Walter; Perez Linde, Angel J; Gadian, David G; Owers-Bradley, John R
2013-05-28
Many approaches are now available for achieving high levels of nuclear spin polarization. One of these methods is based on the notion that as the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium nuclear polarization will increase, according to the Boltzmann distribution. The main problem with this approach is the length of time it may take to approach thermal equilibrium at low temperatures, since nuclear relaxation times (characterized by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1) can become very long. Here, we show, by means of relaxation time measurements of frozen solutions, that selected lanthanide ions, in the form of their chelates with DTPA, can act as effective relaxation agents at low temperatures. Differential effects are seen with the different lanthanides that were tested, holmium and dysprosium showing highest relaxivity, while gadolinium is ineffective at temperatures of 20 K and below. These observations are consistent with the known electron-spin relaxation time characteristics of these lanthanides. The maximum relaxivity occurs at around 10 K for Ho-DTPA and 20 K for Dy-DTPA. Moreover, these two agents show only modest relaxivity at room temperature, and can thus be regarded as relaxation switches. We conclude that these agents can speed up solid state NMR experiments by reducing the T1 values of the relevant nuclei, and hence increasing the rate at which data can be acquired. They could also be of value in the context of a simple low-cost method of achieving several-hundred-fold improvements in polarization for experiments in which samples are pre-polarized at low temperatures, then rewarmed and dissolved immediately prior to analysis.
Torque engineering in trilayer spin-hall system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau
2016-02-01
A trilayer system with perpendicularly magnetized metallic (FMM) free-layer, heavy metal (HM) with strong spin-hall effect and ferromagnetic insulating (FMI) substrate has been proposed to significantly enhance the torque acting on FMM. Its magnitude can be engineered by configuring the magnetization of the FMI. The analytical solution has been developed for four stable magnetization states (non-magnetic and magnetization along three Cartesian axes) of FMI to comprehensively appraise the anti-damping torque on FMM and the Gain factor. It is shown that the proposed system has much larger gain and torque compared to a bilayer system (or a trilayer system with non-magnetic substrate). The performance improvement may be extremely large for system with a thin HM. Device optimization is shown to be non-trivial and various constraints have been explained. These results would enable design of more efficient spin-orbit torque memories and logic with faster switching at yet lower current.
What Do Nuclear Spin Temperatures Tell Us About The Origin Of Comets? A Multi-molecule Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villanueva, Geronimo; Mumma, M. J.; Bonev, B. P.; DiSanti, M. A.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E. L.; Paganini, L.; Radeva, Y. L.
2012-10-01
Comets are true remnants of our primordial Solar System, and provide unique clues to its formation and evolution, including the delivery of organics and water to our planet. A key indicator stored in the molecular structure of the nuclear ices is the spin temperature (Tspin), derived from spin-isomeric ratios (Rspin, e.g. ortho/para). At the time when cometary ices formed, the prevailing temperature defined the relative abundance of the different spin-isomeric species, and herewith Rspin and Tspin are normally treated as “remnant thermometers” probing the formation environments. Most of our knowledge of this indicator comes from measurements of ortho-para ratios in water and NH2, suggesting a common Tspin near 30K. This information is based on a restricted sample of comets, and the measurements are particularly sensitive to the molecular modeling technique and adopted spectral database. Here, we present new methodologies for extracting spin temperatures from ethane (C2H6), methane (CH4), and methanol (CH3OH), and describe advanced new models for ortho/para water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Our H2O analysis is based on the most complete fluorescence radiative transfer model to date, which incorporates 1,200 million transitions including those originating from high-energy levels that are activated in comets via non-resonance cascade. In a similar fashion, we developed non-resonance fluorescence models for NH3 and HCN, and quantum band models for the ν7 band of C2H6 and ν3 band of CH3OH. All models respect spin symmetry non-conversion radiative rules, and make use of a realistic Solar spectrum for the computation of fluorescence pumps. We applied these new methods to derive spin-isomeric ratios for H2O, CH4, C2H6, CH3OH and NH3 from three high-quality cometary datasets: 1) C/2007 W1 (Boattini), 2) C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and 3) 8P/Tuttle. We compare our results with the measured organic compositions for these comets, and present possible formation and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iuga, Adriana; Iuga, Dinu; Cross, Albert R.; Gerken, Michael; Hazendonk, Paul
2007-02-01
A method is introduced to select the signal from a spin-1/2 nucleus I specifically bound to another spin-1/2 nucleus S for solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy via correlation through the heteronuclear J coupling. This experiment is analogous to the bilinear rotation decoupling (BIRD) sequence in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy which selects for signals from H1 directly bound to C13. The spin dynamics of this modified BIRD experiment is described using the product-operator formalism, where experimental considerations such as rotor synchronization and the effect of large chemical shielding anisotropies on I and S are discussed. Two experiments are proposed that accommodate large chemical shielding anisotropies on S: (1) by stepping the inversion pulse frequency through the entire S spectral range or (2) by adiabatically inverting the S spins. Both these experiments are shown to successfully select the signal of F19 bound to Xe129 in XeF+ salts, removing the contributions from isotopomers containing non-spin-1/2 Xe isotopes. The feasibility in obtaining isotope-selective F19 spectra of inorganic fluoride compounds is discussed, and further modifications are proposed to expand the application to other chemical systems.
Bohler, C.L.; Schearer, L.D.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.J.; Zachorowski, L.; Milner, R.G.; McKeown, R.D.; Woodward, C.E.
1988-04-15
Several Nd:YAP lasers were constructed which could be broadly tuned in the 1083-nm region which includes the helium 2/sup 3/S-2/sup 3/P transition, using a Lyot filter and thin, uncoated etalons within the laser cavity. 1 W of power could be extracted at 1083 nm through a 1% transmitting output coupler. This laser beam was used to optically pump metastable /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He 2/sup 3/S helium atoms in a weak discharge cell, spin polarizing the metastable ensemble. In a /sup 3/He cell the polarization is transferred to the nuclear spin system. A /sup 3/He target cell at 0.3 Torr was polarized to 52% in a few minutes. We describe the application of this system to the design of polarized targets for experiments in nuclear physics.
Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter
Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Burger, A.; Gorgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.
2014-09-03
Here, the proton spectrum from the ^{57}Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.
Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter
Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Burger, A.; Gorgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.
2014-09-03
Here, the proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.
SPIN-TORQUE IN SYSTEMS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS MAGETIZATION
Zangwill, Andrew
2013-04-23
The work performed during the grant period focused on the phenomenon of spin-transfer torque. This is a quantum mechanical effect whereby the angular momentum of conduction electrons is transferred to the magnetization of ferromagnetic structures. Our work on this subject began with phenomenological drift-diffusion and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations to demonstrate unambiguously that unpolarized current flow from a nonmagnet into a ferromagnet can produce a precession-type instability of the magnetization. We then used Boltzmann calculations appropriate to spin-valve type magnetic heterostructures composed of a non-magnetic thin film sandwiched between two thin film layers with uniform magnetization. Perhaps our most important paper dealt with quantum and semi-classical calculations of spin-transfer torque in systems with domain walls and other inhomogeneous distributions of magnetization. The latter work caused us to suggest that the Landau-Lifshitz approach to magnetic damping provided a clearer picture of the physics than the more popular (but formally equivalent) Gilbert approach to damping. Finally, we returned to our Boltzmann calculations and made a serious effort to analyze experimental data on current-induced magnetization in switching in magnetic spin-valve structures. Our work was part of a world-wide effort to study and harness the transport of the electron's spin and was one of the first sustained theoretical efforts in this direction in the United States. The payoff is just now being seen. In November of 2012, the Everspin Corporation announced the release of the first commercial spin-torque magnetoresistive random access memory.
Design of energy generation system by using spinning bikes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flórez, J.; Núñes, C.; Osma, G.; Ordóñez, G.
2014-06-01
This paper presents the design of a system that generates energy by using the work done by a crew on a spinning bike. The builded system is configured by two subsystems: connection and injection of real-time power to the grid connection and power isolation for specific loads. The first subsystem will have twelve (12) units and the second will have six (6) units.
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian
2014-10-28
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Controlling nuclear spin exchange via optical Feshbach resonances in Y171b
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichenbach, Iris; Julienne, Paul S.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2009-08-01
Nuclear spin exchange occurs in ultracold collisions of fermionic alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms due to a difference between s - and p -wave phase shifts. We study the use of an optical Feshbach resonance, excited on the S10→P31 intercombination line of Y171b , to affect a large modification of the s -wave scattering phase shift and thereby optically mediate nuclear exchange forces. We perform a full multichannel calculation of the photoassociation resonances and wave functions and from these calculate the real and imaginary parts of the scattering length. As a figure of merit of this interaction, we estimate the fidelity to implement a SWAP entangling quantum logic gate for two atoms trapped in the same well of an optical lattice. For moderate parameters one can achieve a gate fidelity of ˜95% in a time of ˜50μs .
Ong, A.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.
2010-07-15
In this paper we consider the contribution of the anomalous magnetic moments of protons and neutrons to the nuclear charge density. We show that the spin-orbit contribution to the mean-square charge radius, which has been neglected in recent nuclear calculations, can be important in light halonuclei. We estimate the size of the effect in helium, lithium, and beryllium nuclei. It is found that the spin-orbit contribution represents a approx2% correction to the charge density at the center of the {sup 7}Be nucleus. We derive a simple expression for the correction to the mean-square charge radius due to the spin-orbit term and find that in light halonuclei it may be larger than the Darwin-Foldy term and comparable to finite size corrections. A comparison of experimental and theoretical mean-square radii including the spin-orbit contribution is presented.
Turro, Nicholas J; Chen, Judy Y-C; Sartori, Elena; Ruzzi, Marco; Marti, Angel; Lawler, Ronald; Jockusch, Steffen; López-Gejo, Juan; Komatsu, Koichi; Murata, Yasujiro
2010-02-16
One of the early triumphs of quantum mechanics was Heisenberg's prediction, based on the Pauli principle and wave function symmetry arguments, that the simplest molecule, H(2), should exist as two distinct species-allotropes of elemental hydrogen. One allotrope, termed para-H(2) (pH(2)), was predicted to be a lower energy species that could be visualized as rotating like a sphere and possessing antiparallel ( upward arrow downward arrow) nuclear spins; the other allotrope, termed ortho-H(2) (oH(2)), was predicted to be a higher energy state that could be visualized as rotating like a cartwheel and possessing parallel ( upward arrow upward arrow) nuclear spins. This remarkable prediction was confirmed by the early 1930s, and pH(2) and oH(2) were not only separated and characterized but were also found to be stable almost indefinitely in the absence of paramagnetic "spin catalysts", such as molecular oxygen, or traces of paramagnetic impurities, such as metal ions. The two allotropes of elemental hydrogen, pH(2) and oH(2), may be quantitatively incarcerated in C(60) to form endofullerene guest@host complexes, symbolized as pH(2)@C(60) and oH(2)@C(60), respectively. How does the subtle difference in nuclear spin manifest itself when hydrogen allotropes are incarcerated in a buckyball? Can the incarcerated "guests" communicate with the outside world and vice versa? Can a paramagnetic spin catalyst in the outside world cause the interconversion of the allotropes and thereby effect a chemical transformation inside a buckyball? How close are the measurable properties of H(2)@C(60) to those computed for the "quantum particle in a spherical box"? Are there any potential practical applications of this fascinating marriage of the simplest molecule, H(2), with one of the most beautiful of all molecules, C(60)? How can one address such questions theoretically and experimentally? A goal of our studies is to produce an understanding of how the H(2) guest molecules incarcerated in
Persistence of entanglement in thermal states of spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadiek, Gehad; Kais, Sabre
2013-12-01
We study and compare the persistence of bipartite entanglement (BE) and multipartite entanglement (ME) in one-dimensional and two-dimensional spin XY models in an external transverse magnetic field under the effect of thermal excitations. We compare the threshold temperature at which the entanglement vanishes in both types of entanglement. We use the entanglement of formation as a measure of the BE and the geometric measure to evaluate the ME of the system. We have found that in both dimensions in the anisotropic and partially anisotropic spin systems at zero temperatures, all types of entanglement decay as the magnetic field increases but are sustained with very small magnitudes at high field values. Also we found that for the same systems, the threshold temperatures of the nearest neighbour (nn) BEs are higher than both of the next-to-nearest neighbour BEs and MEs and the three of them increase monotonically with the magnetic field strength. Thus, as the temperature increases, the ME and the far parts BE of the system become more fragile to thermal excitations compared to the nn BE. For the isotropic system, all types of entanglement and threshold temperatures vanish at the same exact small value of the magnetic field. We emphasise the major role played by both the properties of the ground state of the system and the energy gap in controlling the characteristics of the entanglement and threshold temperatures. In addition, we have shown how an inserted magnetic impurity can be used to preserve all types of entanglement and enhance their threshold temperatures. Furthermore, we found that the quantum effects in the spin systems can be maintained at high temperatures, as the different types of entanglements in the spin lattices are sustained at high temperatures by applying sufficiently high magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusakova, I. L.; Rusakov, Yu Yu; Krivdin, L. B.
2016-04-01
The theoretical grounds of the modern relativistic methods for quantum chemical calculation of spin–spin coupling constants in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are considered. Examples and prospects of application of relativistic calculations of these constants in the structural studies of organic and heteroorganic compounds are discussed. Practical recommendations on relativistic calculations of spin–spin coupling constants using the available software are given. The bibliography includes 622 references.
Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies
2004-06-17
DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims atmore » performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.« less
Critical properties of dissipative quantum spin systems in finite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, Kabuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi
2016-10-01
We study the critical properties of finite-dimensional dissipative quantum spin systems with uniform ferromagnetic interactions. Starting from the transverse field Ising model coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators with Ohmic spectral density, we generalize its classical representation to classical spin systems with O(n) symmetry and then take the large-n limit to reduce the system to a spherical model. The exact solution to the resulting spherical model with long-range interactions along the imaginary time axis shows a phase transition with static critical exponents coinciding with those of the conventional short-range spherical model in d+2 dimensions, where d is the spatial dimensionality of the original quantum system. This implies that the dynamical exponent is z = 2. These conclusions are consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and renormalization group calculations for dissipative transverse field Ising and O(n) models in one and two dimensions. The present approach therefore serves as a useful tool for analytically investigating the properties of quantum phase transitions of the dissipative transverse field Ising and other related models. Our method may also offer a platform to study more complex phase transitions in dissipative finite-dimensional quantum spin systems, which have recently received renewed interest in the context of quantum annealing in a noisy environment.
Black holes in stellar-mass binary systems: expiating original spin?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris
2016-10-01
We investigate systematically whether accreting black hole systems are likely to reach global alignment of the black hole spin and its accretion disc with the binary plane. In low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), there is only a modest tendency to reach such global alignment, and it is difficult to achieve fully: except for special initial conditions, we expect misalignment of the spin and orbital planes by ˜1 rad for most of the LMXB lifetime. The same is expected in high-mass X-ray binaries. A fairly close approach to global alignment is likely in most stellar-mass ultraluminous X-ray binary systems (ULXs) where the companion star fills its Roche lobe and transfers mass on a thermal or nuclear time-scale to a black hole of lower mass. These systems are unlikely to show orbital eclipses, as their emission cones are close to the hole's spin axis. This offers a potential observational test, as models for ULXs invoking intermediate-mass black holes do predict eclipses for ensembles of ≳ 10 systems. Recent observational work shows that eclipses are either absent or extremely rare in ULXs, supporting the picture that most ULXs are stellar-mass binaries with companion stars more massive than the accretor.
Nonequilibrium quantum dissipation in spin-fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segal, Dvira; Reichman, David R.; Millis, Andrew J.
2007-11-01
Dissipative processes in nonequilibrium many-body systems are fundamentally different than their equilibrium counterparts. Such processes are of great importance for the understanding of relaxation in single-molecule devices. As a detailed case study, we investigate here a generic spin-fermion model, where a two-level system couples to two metallic leads with different chemical potentials. We present results for the spin relaxation rate in the nonadiabatic limit for an arbitrary coupling to the leads using both analytical and exact numerical methods. The nonequilibrium dynamics is reflected by an exponential relaxation at long times and via complex phase shifts, leading in some cases to an “antiorthogonality” effect. In the limit of strong system-lead coupling at zero temperature we demonstrate the onset of a Marcus-like Gaussian decay with voltage difference activation. This is analogous to the equilibrium spin-boson model, where at strong coupling and high temperatures, the spin excitation rate manifests temperature activated Gaussian behavior. We find that there is no simple linear relationship between the role of the temperature in the bosonic system and a voltage drop in a nonequilibrium electronic case. The two models also differ by the orthogonality-catastrophe factor existing in a fermionic system, which modifies the resulting line shapes. Implications for current characteristics are discussed. We demonstrate the violation of pairwise Coulomb gas behavior for strong coupling to the leads. The results presented in this paper form the basis of an exact, nonperturbative description of steady-state quantum dissipative systems.
WURST-QCPMG sequence and "spin-lock" in 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž
2013-08-01
14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a promising method for the analysis of pharmaceuticals or for the detection of nitrogen based illicit compounds, but so far, the technique is still not widely used, mostly due to the very low sensitivity. This problem is already acute in the preliminary NQR stage, when a compound is being examined for the first time and the NQR frequencies are being searched for, by scanning a wide frequency range step-by-step. In the present work, we experimentally show how to increase the efficiency of this initial stage by using a combination of a wideband excitation achieved with frequency swept pulses (WURST) and a "spin-lock" state obtained with a quadrupolar-CPMG (QCPMG) sequence. In the first part we show that WURST pulses provide a much larger excitation bandwidth compared to common rectangular pulses. This increased bandwidth allows to increase the frequency step and reduces the total number of steps in a scanning stage. In the second part we show that the "spin-lock" decay time T2eff obtained with the WURST-QCPMG combination is practically identical with the T2eff obtained with the most common "spin-lock" sequence, the SLSE, despite a very different nature and length of excitation pulses. This allows for a substantial S/N increase through echo averaging in every individual step and really allows to exploit all the advantages of the wider excitation in the NQR frequency scanning stage. Our experimental results were obtained on a sample of trinitrotoluene, but identical behavior is expected for all compounds where a "spin-lock" state can be created.
Spin-Controlled Photoluminescence in Hybrid Nanoparticles Purple Membrane System
2016-01-01
Spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) has been explored in the hybrid system of CdSe NP purple membrane, wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (bR) thin film on a ferromagnetic (Ni-alloy) substrate. A significant change in the PL intensity from the CdSe NPs has been observed when spin-specific charge transfer occurs between the retinal and the magnetic substrate. This feature completely disappears in a bR apo membrane (wild-type bacteriorhodopsin in which the retinal protein covalent bond was cleaved), a bacteriorhodopsin mutant (D96N), and a bacteriorhodopsin bearing a locked retinal chromophore (isomerization of the crucial C13=C14 retinal double bond was prevented by inserting a ring spanning this bond). The extent of spin-dependent PL quenching of the CdSe NPs depends on the absorption of the retinal, embedded in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. Our result suggests that spin-dependent charge transfer between the retinal and the substrate controls the PL intensity from the NPs. PMID:27018195
Dynamical magnetic anisotropy in spin--1 molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Tijerina, David; Cornaglia, Pablo; Balseiro, Carlos; Ulloa, Sergio
2012-02-01
We study electronic transport through a deformable spin-1 molecular system in a break junction setup, under the influence of a local vibrational mode. Our study shows that the magnetic anisotropy, which arises due to stretching along the transport axis[Science 328 1370 (2010)], is renormalized by the interactions with vibrations. The coupling induces additional spin--asymmetric hybridizations that contribute to the net molecular anisotropy. We show that the low temperature physics of such device can be described by an anisotropic Kondo model (J> J), with a magnetic anisotropy term, ANetSz^2, negative at zero stretching. A quantum phase transition (QPT) is explored by stretching the molecule, driving ANet into positive values, and changing the character of the device from a non--Fermi--liquid (NFL) to a Fermi liquid (FL) ground state. This transition can be directly observed through the zero--bias conductance, which we find to be finite for negative anisotropy, zero for positive anisotropy, and to reach the unitary limit at ANet 0. At that point, an underscreened spin-1 Kondo ground state appears due to the restitution of the spin-1 triplet degeneracy.
Discrete-valued-pulse optimal control algorithms: Application to spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dridi, G.; Lapert, M.; Salomon, J.; Glaser, S. J.; Sugny, D.
2015-10-01
This article is aimed at extending the framework of optimal control techniques to the situation where the control field values are restricted to a finite set. We propose generalizations of the standard GRAPE algorithm suited to this constraint. We test the validity and the efficiency of this approach for the inversion of an inhomogeneous ensemble of spin systems with different offset frequencies. It is shown that a remarkable efficiency can be achieved even for a very limited number of discrete values. Some applications in nuclear magnetic resonance are discussed.
Single spin magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit
2016-08-01
Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.
Single spin magnetic resonance.
Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit
2016-08-01
Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.
Long-Range Spin-Triplet Helix in Proximity Induced Superconductivity in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Systems.
Liu, Xin; Jain, J K; Liu, Chao-Xing
2014-11-28
We study proximity induced triplet superconductivity in a spin-orbit-coupled system, and show that the d vector of the induced triplet superconductivity undergoes precession that can be controlled by varying the relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, a long-range spin-triplet helix is predicted when these two spin-orbit couplings have equal strengths. We also study the Josephson junction geometry and show that a transition between 0 and π junctions can be induced by controlling the spin-orbit coupling with a gate voltage. An experimental setup is proposed to verify these effects. Conversely, the observation of these effects can serve as a direct confirmation of triplet superconductivity.
Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of 89,90Y
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.
2015-09-01
The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in 89,90Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of 90Y compared to 89Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus 89Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.
Inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.
2012-12-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of a certain type of space-inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices. We are particularly interested in the case where the space scale of the inhomogeneities stays macroscopic, but very small as compared to the side-length of the box containing fermions or spins. The present study is however not restricted to "macroscopic inhomogeneities" and also includes the (periodic) microscopic and mesoscopic cases. We prove that - as in the homogeneous case - the pressure is, up to a minus sign, the conservative value of a two-person zero-sum game, named here thermodynamic game. Because of the absence of space symmetries in such inhomogeneous systems, it is not clear from the beginning what kind of object equilibrium states should be in the thermodynamic limit. However, we give rigorous statements on correlations functions for large boxes.
Study of spin-polaron formation in 1D systems
Arredondo, Y.; Navarro, O.; Vallejo, E.
2014-05-15
We study numerically the formation of spin-polarons in low-dimensional systems. We consider a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model with Hund coupling J{sub H} and localized spins interacting antiferromagnetically with coupling constant J. We investigate the ground state phase diagram as a function of the exchange couplings J{sub H} and J and as a function of the band filling, since it has been observed that doping either on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic regime lead to formation of magnetic domains [1]. We explore the quasi-particle formation and phase separation using the density-matrix renormalization group method, which is a highly efficient method to investigate quasi-one-dimensional strongly correlated systems.
Dynamics and stability of spinning flexible space tether systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyc, George
This dissertation focuses on a detailed dynamical investigation of a previously unexplored tether configuration that involves a spinning two-body tethered system with flexible appendages on each end-body where the spin axis is nominally aligned along the tether. The original motivation for this work came after the flight of the first Canadian sub-orbital tether mission OEDIPUS-A in 1989 which employed this spinning tethered configuration. To everyone's surprise, one of the end-bodies was observed to exhibit a rapid divergence of its nutation angle. It was clear after this flight that there were some fundamental mechanisms associated with the interaction between the tether and the end-body that were not fully understood at that time. Hence, a Tether Dynamics Experiment (TDE) was formed and became a formal part of the scientific agenda for the follow-on mission OEDIPUS-C which flew in 1995. This dissertation describes the work that was conducted as part of the TDE and involves: theoretical investigations into the dynamics of this spinning tethered flexible body system; ground testing to validate the models and establish the tether properties; application of the models to develop a stabilization approach for OEDIPUS-C, and comparisons between theory and flight data from both OEDIPUS-A and OEDIPUS-C. Nonlinear equations of motion are developed for a spinning tethered system where the tether could be either spinning with the end-bodies or attached to small de-spun platforms on the end-bodies. Since the tether used for the OEDIPUS missions is not a string, as is often assumed, but rather a wire that has some bending stiffness, albeit small, the tether bending was also taken into account in the formulation. Two sets of ground tests are described that were used to validate the stability conditions and gain confidence in the mathematical models. One set involved hanging a body by a tether and spinning at different speeds to investigate the end-body stability. The other set
Křístková, Anežka; Malkin, Vladimir G.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkina, Olga L.
2015-03-21
In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a new scheme for efficient calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in the framework of four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham approach termed matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham restricted magnetic balance resolution of identity for J and K, which takes advantage of the previous restricted magnetic balance formalism and the density fitting approach for the rapid evaluation of density functional theory exchange-correlation response kernels. The new approach is aimed to speedup the bottleneck in the solution of the coupled perturbed equations: evaluation of the matrix elements of the kernel of the exchange-correlation potential. The performance of the new scheme has been tested on a representative set of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding results of the reference method with traditional evaluation of the exchange-correlation kernel, i.e., without employing the fitted electron densities. Overall good agreement between both methods was observed, though the new approach tends to give values by about 4%-5% higher than the reference method. On the average, the solution of the coupled perturbed equations with the new scheme is about 8.5 times faster compared to the reference method.
Quenched Disorder in Magnetic Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minchau, Brian James
In quenched systems, the disorder is frozen on the time scale of the thermodynamic variables. The replica trick is a method which is used to overcome some of the mathematical difficulties of quenched disorder by allowing one to average out the degrees of freedom associated with the quenched disorder before tracing over the thermodynamic variables. Although the replica trick uses a mathematically illegal interchange of limits, in all known situations it gives the same results as a nonreplica method. The replica method, in conjunction with the Mermin -Wagner-Hohenberg inequality is first applied to the random field Ising model (RFIM). Domain wall models for the RFIM of Pytte, Imry and Mukamel and of Grinstein and Ma are presented. Our inequality places a lower bound on the width of domain walls in the RFIM. This then gives three as the lower critical dimension (the dimension below which ferromagnetism is absent) in agreement with some, but not all, of the earlier results. A dynamical method of Martin Siggia and Rose, to calculate quenched averages without the use of replicas is presented. However the method is as yet unsuccessful when applied to the XY model with a quenched random field. Finally, the replica trick, in conjunction with the renormalization group is applied to study the low temperature region of the two-dimensional XY model in the presence of a uniaxial random field, which points in the plus or minus x direction with equal probability. Kosterlitz style recursion valid for weak fields are generated and we find that the system develops a phase that has long-range order with Ising symmetry for nonzero temperature and small values of the random field.
Spin pumping in electrodynamically coupled magnon-photon systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Lihui
The electronics industry is quickly approaching the limitation of Moore's Law due to Joule heating in high density-integrated devices. To achieve new higher-speed devices and reduce energy consumption, researchers are turning to spintronics where the intrinsic spin, rather than the charge of electrons, is used to carry information in devices. Advances in spintronics have led to the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin transfer torque etc. Another subject, cavity electrodynamics, promises a completely new quantum algorithm by studying the properties of a single electron interacting with photons inside of a cavity. By merging both spintronics and cavity electrodynamics, a new cutting edge field called Cavity Spintronics is forming, which draws on the advantages of both subjects to develop new spintronics devices utilizing light-matter interaction. In this work, we use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling in a microwave cavity at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling. Co-authored with M. Harder, C.-M. Hu from University of Manitoba, Y. P. Chen, J. Q. Xiao from University of Delaware, and X. Fan from Univeristy of Denver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villanueva, G.; Mumma, M.; Bonev, B.; DiSanti, M.; Paganini, L.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E.
2014-07-01
Comets are true remnants of our primordial Solar System, and provide unique clues to its formation and evolution, including the delivery of organics and water to our planet. A key indicator stored in the molecular structure of the nuclear ices is the spin temperature (T_{spin}), derived from spin-isomeric ratios (R_{spin}, e.g., ortho/para). At the time when cometary ices formed, the prevailing temperature defined the relative abundance of the different spin-isomeric species, and herewith R_{spin} and T_{spin} are normally treated as ''remnant thermometers'' probing the formation environments of cometary molecules. Radiative and collisional transitions between the ortho and para states are strongly forbidden and herewith this indicator is preserved over time. Most of our knowledge of this indicator comes from the measurements of the ortho-para ratios in water and NH_2 (a proxy for ammonia), suggesting a common T_{spin} near 30 K. This information is based on a restricted sample of comets, and the measurements are particularly sensitive to the molecular modeling technique and adopted spectral database. Here, we present new methodologies for extracting spin temperatures from ethane (C_2H_6), methane (CH_4), and methanol (CH_3OH), and advanced new models for ortho/para water (H_2O) and ammonia (NH_3). Our H_2O analysis is based on the most complete fluorescence radiative-transfer model to date, which incorporates 1,200 million transitions including those originating from high-energy levels that are activated in comets via a non-resonant cascade. In a similar fashion, we developed non-resonant fluorescence models for NH_3 and HCN, and quantum-band models for the ν_7 band of C_2H_6 and ν_3 band of CH_3OH. All models respect spin-symmetry non-conversion radiative rules, and make use of a realistic solar spectrum for the computation of fluorescence pumps. We applied these new methods to derive spin-isomeric ratios for H_2O, CH_4, C_2H_6, CH_3OH, and NH_3 from three high
Magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems: Spin and orbital contributions
Secchi, A.; Lichtenstein, A.I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2015-09-15
We present a technique to map an electronic model with local interactions (a generalized multi-orbital Hubbard model) onto an effective model of interacting classical spins, by requiring that the thermodynamic potentials associated to spin rotations in the two systems are equivalent up to second order in the rotation angles, when the electronic system is in a symmetry-broken phase. This allows to determine the parameters of relativistic and non-relativistic magnetic interactions in the effective spin model in terms of equilibrium Green’s functions of the electronic model. The Hamiltonian of the electronic system includes, in addition to the non-relativistic part, relativistic single-particle terms such as the Zeeman coupling to an external magnetic field, spin–orbit coupling, and arbitrary magnetic anisotropies; the orbital degrees of freedom of the electrons are explicitly taken into account. We determine the complete relativistic exchange tensors, accounting for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions, as well as additional non-diagonal symmetric terms (which may include dipole–dipole interaction). The expressions of all these magnetic interactions are determined in a unified framework, including previously disregarded features such as the vertices of two-particle Green’s functions and non-local self-energies. We do not assume any smallness in spin–orbit coupling, so our treatment is in this sense exact. Finally, we show how to distinguish and address separately the spin, orbital and spin–orbital contributions to magnetism, providing expressions that can be computed within a tight-binding Dynamical Mean Field Theory.
The Spin-Orbit Resonances of the Solar System: A Mathematical Treatment Matching Physical Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antognini, Francesco; Biasco, Luca; Chierchia, Luigi
2014-06-01
In the mathematical framework of a restricted, slightly dissipative spin-orbit model, we prove the existence of periodic orbits for astronomical parameter values corresponding to all satellites of the Solar System observed in exact spin-orbit resonance.
Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2013-01-01
We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. PMID:23238592
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, Kent R.; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2013-01-01
We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier [1], but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized 13C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional 13C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly 13C-labeled L-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly 13C-labeled amino acids.
Thurber, Kent R.; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2012-01-01
We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20–25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier (Thurber et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2008) [1], but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized 13C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional 13C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly 13C-labeled L-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly 13C-labeled amino acids. PMID:23238592
NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.
2009-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.
Quantum Hall States in Rotating Spin-1 Bose Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, Nicholas
2003-03-01
It has been pointed out that when cold atoms in a trap are rotated rapidly, the system can be mapped onto the quantum Hall effect situation of charged particles in a magnetic field, by passing to the rotating frame. For spinless bosons, as the rotation rate increases, the Bose condensate first develops a vortex lattice, then at high rotation rate this is replaced by a sequence of quantum liquids, which are quantum Hall states of bosons. Numerical work [1] has indicated that there is a sequence of these that are well-described by the parafermion states of Read-Rezayi [2]. For spin-1 bosons, we describe here two sequences of spin-singlet quantum Hall states, with applications to the ground states of a standard model Hamiltonian for this system [3]. We also describe the states at low rotation rates, where various spin textures occur. [1] N.R. Cooper, N.K. Wilkin, and J.M.F. Gunn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001). [2] N. Read and E. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 59, 8084 (1999). [3] J.W. Reijnders, F.J.M. Lankvelt, K. Schoutens, and N. Read, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 120401 (2002).
Number-theoretic nature of communication in quantum spin systems.
Godsil, Chris; Kirkland, Stephen; Severini, Simone; Smith, Jamie
2012-08-01
The last decade has witnessed substantial interest in protocols for transferring information on networks of quantum mechanical objects. A variety of control methods and network topologies have been proposed, on the basis that transfer with perfect fidelity-i.e., deterministic and without information loss-is impossible through unmodulated spin chains with more than a few particles. Solving the original problem formulated by Bose [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207901 (2003)], we determine the exact number of qubits in unmodulated chains (with an XY Hamiltonian) that permit transfer with a fidelity arbitrarily close to 1, a phenomenon called pretty good state transfer. We prove that this happens if and only if the number of nodes is n = p - 1, 2p - 1, where p is a prime, or n = 2(m) - 1. The result highlights the potential of quantum spin system dynamics for reinterpreting questions about the arithmetic structure of integers and, in this case, primality. PMID:23006153
Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system
Agrawal, Milan; Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.
2014-09-01
A microwave technique is employed to simultaneously examine the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect processes in a YIG|Pt bilayer system. The experimental results show that for these two processes, the spin current flows in opposite directions. The temporal dynamics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect exhibits that the effect depends on the diffusion of bulk thermal-magnons in the thermal gradient in the ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal system.
Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rullhusen, Peter
2006-04-01
Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S
Spin-glass structures in biological systems (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsapin, Alexandre I.; Blumenfeld, L. A.
1994-05-01
We have discovered spin-glass structures in different biological systems like animal and plant tissues, cells, chloroplasts, mitochondria, etc. These structures were detected by the ESR method. This work has been done using a synchronous culture of yeasts, saccharomyces cer. To detect spin-glass structures in a biological system, the sample must be cooled in the presence of a strong magnetic field, from 77 to 10 K. After such cooling, we recorded the ESR signal at g factor about 3.0 caused by spin-glass structures. The rotation of the sample at 10 K relative to the permanent magnetic field (always present in ESR experiments) leads to the significant change in the intensity of the ESR signal as well as in its shape. The curve of the dependence of the ESR signal intensity on the magnetic field in which the sample was cooled is S-shaped. The cooling of the same sample in zero magnetic field resulted in the absence of the ESR signal at g=3,0. It had been shown that the maximum ESR signal at g factor about 3,0 was reached 15 min before the beginning of mitosis. The study of the properties of the ESR signal at g=3,0 allowed us to make the conclusion that the paramagnetic centers responsible for this signal have been formed by Fe(II) ions localized at the chromosomes. Formed during mitosis, spin-glass structures which play a significant role in cell biology, can be detected only by the ESR method in field cooling experiments.
Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.
Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi
2013-10-01
The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.
Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter
2000-08-01
A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA‧BB‧ spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.
Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferg, D. A.
1973-01-01
The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.
Hyperpolarization of 29Si by Resonant Nuclear Spin Transfer from Optically Hyperpolarized 31P Donors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dluhy, Phillip; Salvail, Jeff; Saeedi, Kamyar; Thewalt, Mike; Simons, Stephanie
2014-03-01
Recent developments in nanomedicine have allowed nanoparticles of silicon containing hyperpolarized 29Si to be imaged in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. The extremely long relaxation times and isotropy of the Si lattice make polarized 29Si isotopes ideal for these sorts of imaging methods. However, one of the major difficulties standing in the path of widespread adoption of these techniques is the slow rate at which the 29Si is hyperpolarized and the limited maximum hyperpolarization achievable. In this talk, I will describe an effective method for hyperpolarization of the 29Si isotopes using resonant optical pumping of the donor bound exciton transitions to polarize the 31P donor nuclei, and a choice of static magnetic field that conserves energy during spin flip flops between donor nuclear and 29Si spins to facilitate diffusion of this polarization. Using this method, we are able to polarize greater than 10% of the 29Si centers in 64 hours without seeing saturation of the 29Si polarization.
Nuclear spin relaxation of {sup 129}Xe due to persistent xenon dimers
Berry-Pusey, B. N.; Anger, B. C.; Laicher, G.; Saam, B.
2006-12-15
We have measured longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of {sup 129}Xe in Xe-N{sub 2} mixtures at densities below 0.5 amagats in a magnetic field of 8.0 T. We find that intrinsic spin relaxation in this regime is principally due to fluctuations in the intramolecular spin-rotation (SR) and chemical-shift-anisotropy (CSA) interactions, mediated by the formation of {sup 129}Xe-Xe persistent dimers. Our results are consistent with previous work done in one case at much lower applied fields where the CSA interaction is negligible and in another case at much higher gas densities where transient xenon dimers mediate the interactions. We have verified that a large applied field suppresses the persistent-dimer mechanism, consistent with standard relaxation theory, allowing us to measure room-temperature gas-phase relaxation times T{sub 1} for {sup 129}Xe greater than 25 h at 8.0 T. These data also yield a maximum possible low-field T{sub 1} for pure xenon gas at room temperature of 5.45{+-}0.2 h. The coupling strengths for the SR and CSA interactions that we extract are in fair agreement with estimates based both on previous experimental work and on ab initio calculations. Our results have potential implications for the production and storage of large quantities of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe for use in various applications.
Spin dipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decay nuclei by charge-exchange reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejiri, H.; Frekers, D.
2016-11-01
Spin dipole (SD) strengths for double beta-decay (DBD) nuclei were studied experimentally for the first time by using measured cross sections of (3He, t) charge-exchange reactions (CERs). Then SD nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) {M}α ({{SD}}) for low-lying 2‑ states were derived from the experimental SD strengths by referring to the experimental α = GT (Gamow–Teller) and α = F (Fermi) strengths. They are consistent with the empirical NMEs M({{SD}}) based on the quasi-particle model with the empirical effective SD coupling constant. The CERs are used to evaluate the SD NME, which is associated with one of the major components of the neutrino-less DBD NME.
Features of influence of dc magnetic field pulses on a nuclear spin echo in magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamniashvili, G. I.; Gegechkori, T. O.; Akhalkatsi, A. M.; Gavasheli, C. A.
2012-06-01
Signal intensities of a two-pulse nuclear spin echo as a function of parameters of dc magnetic field pulses are measured in the series of materials: Li0.5Fe2.5-xZnxO4 (x < 0.25) (enriched in 57Fe isotope to 96.8%), NiMnSb, Co2MnSi, La1-хСахMnO3 (x = 0.2; 0.25) and polycrystalline Co. Two types of dependences of these signals on a supplying time of such pulses with respect to the times of the exciting RF pulses are found. The mechanisms of influence of a domain structure and a dynamic frequency shift on the observed features of the investigated signals are discussed.
Van Yperen-De Deyne, A; Pauwels, E; Van Speybroeck, V; Waroquier, M
2012-08-14
In this paper an overview is presented of several approximations within Density Functional Theory (DFT) to calculate g-tensors in transition metal containing systems and a new accurate description of the spin-other-orbit contribution for high spin systems is suggested. Various implementations in a broad variety of software packages (ORCA, ADF, Gaussian, CP2K, GIPAW and BAND) are critically assessed on various aspects including (i) non-relativistic versus relativistic Hamiltonians, (ii) spin-orbit coupling contributions and (iii) the gauge. Particular attention is given to the level of accuracy that can be achieved for codes that allow g-tensor calculations under periodic boundary conditions, as these are ideally suited to efficiently describe extended condensed-phase systems containing transition metals. In periodic codes like CP2K and GIPAW, the g-tensor calculation schemes currently suffer from an incorrect treatment of the exchange spin-orbit interaction and a deficient description of the spin-other-orbit term. In this paper a protocol is proposed, making the predictions of the exchange part to the g-tensor shift more plausible. Focus is also put on the influence of the spin-other-orbit interaction which becomes of higher importance for high-spin systems. In a revisited derivation of the various terms arising from the two-electron spin-orbit and spin-other-orbit interaction (SOO), new insight has been obtained revealing amongst other issues new terms for the SOO contribution. The periodic CP2K code has been adapted in view of this new development. One of the objectives of this study is indeed a serious enhancement of the performance of periodic codes in predicting g-tensors in transition metal containing systems at the same level of accuracy as the most advanced but time consuming spin-orbit mean-field approach. The methods are first applied on rhodium carbide but afterwards extended to a broad test set of molecules containing transition metals from the fourth
SPIN–SPIN COUPLING IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro
2015-09-10
The richness of dynamical behavior exhibited by the rotational states of various solar system objects has driven significant advances in the theoretical understanding of their evolutionary histories. An important factor that determines whether a given object is prone to exhibiting non-trivial rotational evolution is the extent to which such an object can maintain a permanent aspheroidal shape, meaning that exotic behavior is far more common among the small body populations of the solar system. Gravitationally bound binary objects constitute a substantial fraction of asteroidal and TNO populations, comprising systems of triaxial satellites that orbit permanently deformed central bodies. In this work, we explore the rotational evolution of such systems with specific emphasis on quadrupole–quadrupole interactions, and show that for closely orbiting, highly deformed objects, both prograde and retrograde spin–spin resonances naturally arise. Subsequently, we derive capture probabilities for leading order commensurabilities and apply our results to the illustrative examples of (87) Sylvia and (216) Kleopatra asteroid systems. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spin–spin coupling may be consequential for highly elongated, tightly orbiting binary objects.
Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements
Buckman, R.W. Jr.
2004-02-04
High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.
Spin-dependent Electron Correlations of a System with Broken Spin Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, K. S.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. S.
2001-04-01
The spin-dependent local field corrections Gσ, σ'/ (q, ω) of a spin-polarized electron gas(SPEG) are examined within a genralized RPA. Numerical results of Gσ, σ/ (q, 0) for both the majority and minority spin electrons of SPEG show a complicated but interesting behavior as one varies the spin polarization ζ of the SPEG. A pronounced maximum in Gσ, σ/ (q, 0) is observed and the location of the peaks are found to depend strongly on the values of ζ. We also show some numerical results of the mixed susceptibilities χem and χme, which are finite and not identical in SPEG.
Fractionated Mercury Isotopes in Fish: The Effects of Nuclear Mass, Spin, and Volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, R.; Odom, A. L.
2007-12-01
.3, and thus more than one mass-independent isotope effect is inferred. MIF of mercury can be caused by the nuclear volume effect. Schauble, 2007 has calculated nuclear volume fractionation scaling factors for a number of common mercury chemical species in equilibrium with Hg° vapor. From his calculations the nuclear field shift effect is larger in Δ199Hg than in Δ201Hg by approximately a factor of two. The predominant mercury chemical species in fish is methylmercury cysteine. From the experimental studies of Buchachenko and others (2004) on the reaction of methylmercury chloride with creatine kinase it seems reasonable to predicted that the thiol functional groups of cysteine gets enriched in 199Hg and 201Hg. Here the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) produces a kinetic partial separation of isotopes with non-zero nuclear spin quantum numbers from the even-N isotopes. The ratio of enrichment of Δ201Hg /Δ199Hg is predicted from theory to be 1.11, which is the ratio of the magnetic moments of 199Hg and 201Hg. Because mercury possesses two odd-N isotopes, it is possible to detect and evaluate the effects of two distinct, mass-independent isotope fractionating processes. From the data obtained on fish samples, we can deconvolute the contributions of the isotope effects of nuclear mass, spin and volume. For these samples the role of spin or the magnetic isotope effect is the most dominant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter
2004-12-01
Coupling constants of nuclear spin systems can be determined from phase modulation of multiplet resonances. Strongly coupled systems such as citrate in prostatic tissue exhibit a more complex modulation than AX connectivities, because of substantial mixing of quantum states. An extreme limit is the coupling of n isochronous spins (A n system). It is observable only for directly connected spins like the methylene protons of creatine and phosphocreatine which experience residual dipolar coupling in intact muscle tissue in vivo. We will demonstrate that phase modulation of this "pseudo-strong" system is quite simple compared to those of AB systems. Theory predicts that the spin-echo experiment yields conditions as in the case of weak interactions, in particular, the phase modulation depends linearly on the line splitting and the echo time.
Quantum mechanical NMR simulation algorithm for protein-size spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Luke J.; Savostyanov, D. V.; Welderufael, Z. T.; Lee, Donghan; Kuprov, Ilya
2014-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the few remaining areas of physical chemistry for which polynomially scaling quantum mechanical simulation methods have not so far been available. In this communication we adapt the restricted state space approximation to protein NMR spectroscopy and illustrate its performance by simulating common 2D and 3D liquid state NMR experiments (including accurate description of relaxation processes using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory) on isotopically enriched human ubiquitin - a protein containing over a thousand nuclear spins forming an irregular polycyclic three-dimensional coupling lattice. The algorithm uses careful tailoring of the density operator space to only include nuclear spin states that are populated to a significant extent. The reduced state space is generated by analysing spin connectivity and decoherence properties: rapidly relaxing states as well as correlations between topologically remote spins are dropped from the basis set.
Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.
2011-07-15
An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.
Multimegawatt nuclear power systems for nuclear electric propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, Jeffrey A.
1991-01-01
Results from systems analysis studies of multimegawatt nuclear power systems are presented for application to nuclear electric propulsion. Specific mass estimates are presented for nearer term SP-100 reactor-based potassium Rankine and Brayton power systems for piloted and cargo missions. Growth SP-100/Rankine systems were found to range from roughly 7 to 10 kg/kWe specific mass depending on full power life requirements. The SP-100/Rankine systems were also found to result in a 4-kg/kWe savings in specific mass over SP-100/Brayton systems. The potential of advanced, higher temperature reactor and power conversion technologies for achieving reduced mass Rankine and Brayton systems was also investigated. A target goal of 5 kg/kWe specific mass was deemed reasonable given either 1400 K potassium Rankine with 1500 K lithium-cooled reactors or 2000 K gas cooled reactors with Brayton conversion.
NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING
Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon
2012-09-01
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability
Cui, J.; Roy, B.; Tanatar, M. A.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Prozorov, R.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2015-11-06
We report 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of single-crystalline Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2 (x=0.023, 0.028, 0.033, and 0.059) annealed at 350°C for 7 days. From the observation of a characteristic shape of 75As NMR spectra in the stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as in the case of x=0 (TN=170 K), clear evidence for the commensurate AFM phase transition with the concomitant structural phase transition is observed in x=0.023 (TN=106 K) and x=0.028 (TN=53 K). Through the temperature dependence of the Knight shifts and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1), although stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations are realized in the paramagnetic state as inmore » the case of other iron pnictide superconductors, we found a gradual decrease of the AFM spin fluctuations below a crossover temperature T* that was nearly independent of Co-substitution concentration, and it is attributed to a pseudogaplike behavior in the spin excitation spectra of these systems. The T* feature finds correlation with features in the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity, ρc(T), but not with the in-plane resistivity ρa(T). The temperature evolution of anisotropic stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations is tracked in the paramagnetic and pseudogap phases by the 1/T1 data measured under magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the c axis. As a result, based on our NMR data, we have added a pseudogaplike phase to the magnetic and electronic phase diagram of Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2.« less
Dynamical Spin Properties of Confined Fermi and Bose Systems in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrosetti, A.; Salasnich, L.; Silvestrelli, P. L.
2016-10-01
Due to the recent experimental progress, tunable spin-orbit (SO) interactions represent ideal candidates for the control of polarization and dynamical spin properties in both quantum wells and cold atomic systems. A detailed understanding of spin properties in SO-coupled systems is thus a compelling prerequisite for possible novel applications or improvements in the context of spintronics and quantum computers. Here, we analyze the case of equal Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings in both homogeneous and laterally confined two-dimensional systems. Starting from the single-particle picture and subsequently introducing two-body interactions we observe that periodic spin fluctuations can be induced and maintained in the system. Through an analytical derivation, we show that the two-body interaction does not involve decoherence effects in the bosonic dimer, and, in the repulsive homogeneous Fermi gas, it may be even exploited in combination with the SO coupling to induce and tune standing currents. By further studying the effects of a harmonic lateral confinement—a particularly interesting case for Bose condensates—we evidence the possible appearance of nontrivial spin textures, whereas the further application of a small Zeeman-type interaction can be exploited to fine-tune the system's polarizability.
Dynamical Spin Properties of Confined Fermi and Bose Systems in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrosetti, A.; Salasnich, L.; Silvestrelli, P. L.
2016-04-01
Due to the recent experimental progress, tunable spin-orbit (SO) interactions represent ideal candidates for the control of polarization and dynamical spin properties in both quantum wells and cold atomic systems. A detailed understanding of spin properties in SO-coupled systems is thus a compelling prerequisite for possible novel applications or improvements in the context of spintronics and quantum computers. Here, we analyze the case of equal Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings in both homogeneous and laterally confined two-dimensional systems. Starting from the single-particle picture and subsequently introducing two-body interactions we observe that periodic spin fluctuations can be induced and maintained in the system. Through an analytical derivation, we show that the two-body interaction does not involve decoherence effects in the bosonic dimer, and, in the repulsive homogeneous Fermi gas, it may be even exploited in combination with the SO coupling to induce and tune standing currents. By further studying the effects of a harmonic lateral confinement—a particularly interesting case for Bose condensates—we evidence the possible appearance of nontrivial spin textures, whereas the further application of a small Zeeman-type interaction can be exploited to fine-tune the system's polarizability.
Spectroscopy of composite solid-state spin environments for improved metrology with spin ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bar-Gill, Nir; Pham, Linh; Belthangady, Chinmay; Lesage, David; Cappellaro, Paola; Maze, Jeronimo; Lukin, Mikhail; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald
2012-02-01
For precision coherent measurements with ensembles of quantum spins the relevant Figure-of-Merit (FOM) is the product of spin density and coherence lifetime, which is generally limited by the dynamics of spin coupling to the environment. Significant effort has been invested in understanding the causes of decoherence in a diverse range of spin systems in order to increase the FOM and improve measurement sensitivity. Here, we apply a coherent spectroscopic technique to characterize the dynamics of a composite solid-state spin environment consisting of Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color centers in room temperature diamond coupled to baths of electronic spin (N) and nuclear spin (13C) impurities. For diamond samples with a wide range of NV densities and impurity spin concentrations we employ a dynamical decoupling technique to minimize coupling to the environment, and find similar values for the FOM, which is three orders of magnitude larger than previously achieved in any room-temperature solid-state spin system, and thus should enable greatly improved precision spin metrology. We also identify a suppression of electronic spin bath dynamics in the presence of a nuclear spin bath of sufficient nuclear spin concentration. This suppression could inform efforts to engineer samples with even larger FOM for solid-state spin ensemble metrology and collective quantum information processing.
Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing
Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens
2006-05-15
We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.
Interfacial spin cluster effects in exchange bias systems
Carpenter, R. Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.
2014-05-07
In this work, the effect of exchange bias on the hysteresis loop of CoFe is observed. The evolution of the coercivities and the shift of the hysteresis loop during the annealing process has been measured for films deposited on NiCr and Cu seed layers. Through comparison of the as deposited and field annealed loops, it is clear that for an exchange biased material, the two coercivities are due to different reversal processes. This behaviour is attributed to spin clusters at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, which behave in a similar manner to a fine particle system.
Importance-Sampling Monte Carlo Approach to Classical Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Hsing-Mei
A new approach for carrying out static Monte Carlo calculations of thermodynamic quantities for classical spin systems is proposed. Combining the ideas of coincidence countings and importance samplings, we formulate a scheme for obtaining Γ(E), the number of states for a fixed energy E, and use Γ(E) to compute thermodynamic properties. Using the Ising model as an example, we demonstrate that our procedure leads to accurate numerical results without excessive use of computer time. We also show that the procedure is easily extended to obtaining magnetic properties of the Ising model.
Predicted signatures of the intrinsic spin Hall effect in closed systems.
Valín-Rodríguez, Manuel
2011-12-23
We study a two-dimensional electron system in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. It is shown analytically that the spin-orbit interaction acts as a transversal effective electric field, whose orientation depends on the sign of the z-axis spin projection. This effect does not require any driving electrical field and is inherent to the spin-orbit interactions present in semiconductor materials. Therefore, it should manifest in both closed and open systems. An experiment is proposed to observe the intrinsic spin Hall effect in the far infrared absorption of an asymmetric semiconductor nanostructure.
Coalescing binary systems of compact objects to (post)5/2-Newtonian order. V. Spin effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence E.
1995-07-01
We examine the effects of spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings on the inspiral of a coalescing binary system of spinning compact objects and on the gravitational radiation emitted therefrom. Using a formalism developed by Blanchet, Damour, and Iyer we calculate the contributions due to the spins of the bodies to the symmetric trace-free radiative multipole moments which are used to calculate the waveform, energy loss, and angular momentum loss from the inspiraling binary. Using equations of motion which include terms due to spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings we evolve the orbit of a coalescing binary and use the orbit to calculate the emitted gravitational waveform. We find the spins of the bodies affect the waveform in several ways: (1) the spin terms contribute to the orbital decay of the binary, and thus to the accumulated phase of the gravitational waveform; (2) the spins cause the orbital plane to precess, which changes the orientation of the orbital plane with respect to an observer, thus causing the shape of the waveform to be modulated; (3) the spins contribute directly to the amplitude of the waveform. We discuss the size and importance of spin effects for the case of two coalescing neutron stars, and for the case of a neutron star orbiting a rapidly rotating 10Msolar black hole.
Nuclear energy surfaces at high-spin in the A{approximately}180 mass region
Chasman, R.R.; Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.
1995-08-01
We are studying nuclear energy surfaces at high spin, with an emphasis on very deformed shapes using two complementary methods: (1) the Strutinsky method for making surveys of mass regions and (2) Hartree-Fock calculations using a Gogny interaction to study specific nuclei that appear to be particularly interesting from the Strutinsky method calculations. The great advantage of the Strutinsky method is that one can study the energy surfaces of many nuclides ({approximately}300) with a single set of calculations. Although the Hartree-Fock calculations are quite time-consuming relative to the Strutinsky calculations, they determine the shape at a minimum without being limited to a few deformation modes. We completed a study of {sup 182}Os using both approaches. In our cranked Strutinsky calculations, which incorporate a necking mode deformation in addition to quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, we found three well-separated, deep, strongly deformed minima. The first is characterized by nuclear shapes with axis ratios of 1.5:1; the second by axis ratios of 2.2:1 and the third by axis ratios of 2.9:1. We also studied this nuclide with the density-dependent Gogny interaction at I = 60 using the Hartree-Fock method and found minima characterized by shapes with axis ratios of 1.5:1 and 2.2:1. A comparison of the shapes at these minima, generated in the two calculations, shows that the necking mode of deformation is extremely useful for generating nuclear shapes at large deformation that minimize the energy. The Hartree-Fock calculations are being extended to larger deformations in order to further explore the energy surface in the region of the 2.9:1 minimum.
Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.
On the control of spin-boson systems
Boscain, Ugo; Mason, Paolo; Panati, Gianluca; Sigalotti, Mario
2015-09-15
In this paper, we study the so-called spin-boson system, namely, a two-level system in interaction with a distinguished mode of a quantized bosonic field. We give a brief description of the controlled Rabi and Jaynes–Cummings models and we discuss their appearance in the mathematics and physics literature. We then study the controllability of the Rabi model when the control is an external field acting on the bosonic part. Applying geometric control techniques to the Galerkin approximation and using perturbation theory to guarantee non-resonance of the spectrum of the drift operator, we prove approximate controllability of the system, for almost every value of the interaction parameter.
Eigenstate thermalization within isolated spin-chain systems.
Steinigeweg, R; Herbrych, J; Prelovšek, P
2013-01-01
The thermalization phenomenon and many-body quantum statistical properties are studied on the example of several observables in isolated spin-chain systems, both integrable and generic nonintegrable. While diagonal matrix elements for nonintegrable models comply with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, the integrable systems show evident deviations and similarity to properties of noninteracting many-fermion models. The finite-size scaling reveals that the crossover between the two regimes is given by a scale closely related to the scattering length. Low-frequency off-diagonal matrix elements related to dc transport quantities also follow in a generic system a behavior analogous to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, however, unrelated to one of the diagonal matrix elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, E. A.; Yanvarev, Eugene A.; Bashkirov, Sh. S.; Kouznetsov, V. I.
2001-11-01
Nuclear forward scattering (NFS) of synchrotron radiation (SR) is being modeled in metal proteins containing the single paramagnetic centers of integer spin (Fe2+). It is known the spin fluctuations in the electron environment of Moessbauer ion Fe2+ will be manifested itself in NFS if a sample undergoes the influence of applied magnetic field of a few Tesla. Under the condition we are analyzing how the resonant response (RR) of a sample to SR pulse will be changed due to the both spin-lattice and spin-spin interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martel, L.; Somers, J.; Berkmann, C.; Koepp, F.; Rothermel, A.; Pauvert, O.; Selfslag, C.; Farnan, I.
2013-05-01
A concept to integrate a commercial high-resolution, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) probe capable of very rapid rotation rates (70 kHz) in a hermetically sealed enclosure for the study of highly radiotoxic materials has been developed and successfully demonstrated. The concept centres on a conventional wide bore (89 mm) solid-state NMR magnet operating with industry standard 54 mm diameter probes designed for narrow bore magnets. Rotor insertion and probe tuning take place within a hermetically enclosed glovebox, which extends into the bore of the magnet, in the space between the probe and the magnet shim system. Oxygen-17 MAS-NMR measurements demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high quality spectra from small sample masses (˜10 mg) of highly radiotoxic material and the need for high spinning speeds to improve the spectral resolution when working with actinides. The large paramagnetic susceptibility arising from actinide paramagnetism in (Th1-xUx)O2 solid solutions gives rise to extensive spinning sidebands and poor resolution at 15 kHz, which is dramatically improved at 55 kHz. The first 17O MAS-NMR measurements on NpO2+x samples spinning at 55 kHz are also reported. The glovebox approach developed here for radiotoxic materials can be easily adapted to work with other hazardous or even air sensitive materials.
Memory of spin polarization in triplet-doublet systems
Imamura, T.; Onitsuka, O.; Obi, K.
1986-12-18
The interaction between triplet molecules and nitroxide radicals is studied in solution by the time-resolved ESR technique. Spin polarization induced in the radical reflects that of the triplet molecule which is an encounter partner. The spin-polarized ESR signals observed in nitroxide radicals are interpreted in terms of electron and/or spin exchange mechanisms.
Microwave Field Distribution in a Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR Probe
Nanni, Emilio A.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Matsuki, Yoh; Woskov, Paul P.; Corzilius, Björn; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.
2011-01-01
We present a calculation of the microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning (MAS) probe utilized in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The microwave magnetic field (B1S) profile was obtained from simulations performed with the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software suite, using a model that includes the launching antenna, the outer Kel-F stator housing coated with Ag, the RF coil, and the 4 mm diameter sapphire rotor containing the sample. The predicted average B1S field is 13µT/W1/2, where S denotes the electron spin. For a routinely achievable input power of 5 W the corresponding value is γ SB1S = 0.84 MHz. The calculations provide insights into the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including reflections from the RF coil and diffraction of the power transmitted through the coil. The variation of enhancement with rotor wall thickness was also successfully simulated. A second, simplified calculation was performed using a single pass model based on Gaussian beam propagation and Fresnel diffraction. This model provided additional physical insight and was in good agreement with the full HFSS simulation. These calculations indicate approaches to increasing the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including the use of a converging lens and fine adjustment of the spacing of the windings of the RF coil. The present results should prove useful in optimizing the coupling of microwave power to the sample in future DNP experiments. Finally, the results of the simulation were used to predict the cross effect DNP enhancement (ε) vs. ω1S/(2π) for a sample of 13C-urea dissolved in a 60:40 glycerol/water mixture containing the polarizing agent TOTAPOL; very good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. PMID:21382733
Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems
Michalakis, Spyridon; Hamza, Eman; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert
2009-01-01
We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.
Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems
El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.
1987-01-01
This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)
Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems
El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.
1988-01-01
This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)
Krishtopenko, S. S.
2015-02-15
The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morawetz, K.
2015-12-01
The spin and density response functions in the random phase approximation are derived by linearizing the kinetic equation including a magnetic field, the spin-orbit coupling, and mean fields with respect to an external electric field. Different polarization functions appear describing various precession motions showing Rabi satellites due to an effective Zeeman field. The latter turns out to consist of the mean-field magnetization, the magnetic field, and the spin-orbit vector. The collective modes for charged and neutral systems are derived and a threefold splitting of the spin waves dependent on the polarization and spin-orbit coupling is shown. The dielectric function including spin-orbit coupling, polarization, and magnetic fields is presented analytically for long wavelengths and in the static limit. The dynamical screening length as well as the long-wavelength dielectric function shows an instability in charge modes, which are interpreted as spin segregation and domain formation. The spin response describes a crossover from damped oscillatory behavior to exponentially damped behavior dependent on the polarization and collision frequency. The magnetic field causes ellipsoidal trajectories of the spin response to an external electric field and the spin-orbit coupling causes a rotation of the spin axes. The spin-dephasing times are extracted and discussed in dependence on the polarization, magnetic field, spin-orbit coupling, and single-particle relaxation times.
Dual mode nuclear rocket system applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boretz, J. E.; Bell, J. M.; Plebuch, R. K.; Priest, C. C.
1972-01-01
Mission areas where the dual-mode nuclear rocket system is superior to nondual-mode systems are demonstrated. It is shown that the dual-mode system is competitive with the nondual-mode system even for those specific missions and particular payload configurations where it does not have a clear-cut advantage.
Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble
Giedke, G.; Taylor, J. M.; Lukin, M. D.; D'Alessandro, D.; Imamoglu, A.
2006-09-15
We describe a method for precise estimation of the polarization of a mesoscopic spin ensemble by using its coupling to a single two-level system. Our approach requires a minimal number of measurements on the two-level system for a given measurement precision. We consider the application of this method to the case of nuclear-spin ensemble defined by a single electron-charged quantum dot: we show that decreasing the electron spin dephasing due to nuclei and increasing the fidelity of nuclear-spin-based quantum memory could be within the reach of present day experiments.
Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.
2015-12-01
The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Qingze; Blume, Doerte
2016-05-01
The explicit correlated Gaussian (ECG) basis set expansion approach is a variational approach that has been used in various areas, including molecular, nuclear, atomic, and chemical physics. In the world of cold atoms, e.g., the ECG approach has been used to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenstates of few-body systems governed by Efimov physics. Since the first experimental realization of synthesized gauge fields, few-body systems with spin-orbit coupling have attracted a great deal of attention. Here, the ECG approach is customized to few-body systems with both short-range interactions and spin-orbit couplings. Benchmark tests and a performance analysis will be presented. Support by the NSF is gratefully acknowledged.
Fractalization drives crystalline states in a frustrated spin system
Harrison, Neil; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batista, Cristian; Sebastian, Suchitra
2008-01-01
The fractalized Hofstadter butterfly energy spectrum predicted for magnetically confined fermions diffracted by a crystal lattice has remained beyond the reach of laboratory-accessible magnetic fields. We find the geometrically frustrated spin system SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} to provide a sterling demonstration of a system in which bosons confined by a magnetic and lattice potential mimic the behavior of fermions in the extreme quantum limit, giving rise to a sequence of plateaus at all magnetization m{sub z}/M{sub sat} = 1/q ratios 9 {>=} q {>=} 2 and p/q = 2/9 (m{sub sat} is the saturation magnetization) in magnetic fields up to 85 T and temperatures down to 29 mK, within the sequence of previously identified plateaus at 1/8, 1/4, and 1/3 of the saturated magnetization. We identify this hierarchy of plateaus as a consequence of confined bosons in SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} mimicking the high magnetic field fractalization predicted by the Hofstadter butterfly for fermionic systems. Such an experimental realization of the Hofstadter problem for interacting fermions has not been previously achieved in real materials, given the unachievably high magnetic flux densities or large lattice periods required. By a theoretical treatment that includes short-range repulsion in the Hofstadter treatment, stripe-like spin density-modulated phases are revealed in SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} as emergent from a fluidic fractal spectrum.
Ferro, Fabrizio; Surzhykov, Andrey; Stoehlker, Thomas
2011-05-15
In this paper a scheme is proposed for measuring nuclear-spin-dependent parity-nonconservation effects in highly charged ions. The idea is to employ circularly polarized laser light for inducing the transition between the level (1s2s){sup 1}S{sub 0} and the hyperfine sublevels of (1s2s){sup 3}S{sub 1} in He-like ions with nonzero nuclear spin. We argue that an interference between the allowed magnetic dipole M1 and the parity-violating electric dipole E1 decay channel leads to an observable asymmetry of order 10{sup -7} in the transition cross section, in the atomic range 28{<=}Z{<=}35. Experimental requirements for asymmetry measurements are discussed in the case of He-like {sub 34}{sup 77}Se.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle
2016-05-01
We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) center under moderate transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV ground state hyperfine anti-crossing occurring at magnetic bias fields as low as tens of Gauss - two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported hyperfine anti-crossings at ~ 510 G and ~ 1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how this regime can be optimized for magnetometry and other sensing applications and propose a method for how the nitrogen-vacancy ground state Hamiltonian can be manipulated by small transverse magnetic fields to polarize the nuclear spin state. Acknowlegement: The Lincoln Laboratory portion of this work is sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.
Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.
This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.
Infrared spectroscopic investigation of nuclear spin conversion in solid CH{sub 4}
Sugimoto, Takeru; Yamakawa, Koichiro Arakawa, Ichiro
2015-12-14
Infrared spectra of solid CH{sub 4} were studied in the ν{sub 3} and ν{sub 4} vibrational regions. The phase I crystal around 30 K showed broad absorption bands, whereas the phase II crystal at 6.9–10.3 K exhibited splitting of these bands after annealing above 20 K. The split peaks were assigned to the librating and almost freely rotating molecules in phase II on the basis of the peak spacings and time evolution of the peak intensities. From the quantitative analysis of the temporal changes of the R(0) and R(1) peak intensities, the relaxation rates of the numbers of molecules with J = 0 (I = 2) and J = 1 (I = 1) were determined in the temperature range of 6.9–10.3 K. We fitted the function resulting from a combination of direct and indirect relaxation processes mediated by phonons to the temperature dependence of these rates and obtained the activation energies of the indirect process: C ≃ 36 K. Since this value is higher than the energies of perturbed J = 2 states relative to the J = 1 state, we argue that the nuclear spin conversion through the J = 3 state also takes place.
Infrared spectroscopic investigation of nuclear spin conversion in solid CH4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimoto, Takeru; Yamakawa, Koichiro; Arakawa, Ichiro
2015-12-01
Infrared spectra of solid CH4 were studied in the ν3 and ν4 vibrational regions. The phase I crystal around 30 K showed broad absorption bands, whereas the phase II crystal at 6.9-10.3 K exhibited splitting of these bands after annealing above 20 K. The split peaks were assigned to the librating and almost freely rotating molecules in phase II on the basis of the peak spacings and time evolution of the peak intensities. From the quantitative analysis of the temporal changes of the R(0) and R(1) peak intensities, the relaxation rates of the numbers of molecules with J = 0 (I = 2) and J = 1 (I = 1) were determined in the temperature range of 6.9-10.3 K. We fitted the function resulting from a combination of direct and indirect relaxation processes mediated by phonons to the temperature dependence of these rates and obtained the activation energies of the indirect process: C ≃ 36 K. Since this value is higher than the energies of perturbed J = 2 states relative to the J = 1 state, we argue that the nuclear spin conversion through the J = 3 state also takes place.
Non-Nuclear Testing of Space Nuclear Systems at NASA MSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houts, Michael G.; Pearson, Boise J.; Aschenbrenner, Kenneth C.; Bradley, David E.; Dickens, Ricky; Emrich, William J.; Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Harper, Roger T.; Martin, Jim J.; Polzin, Kurt; Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenneth L.
2010-01-01
Highly realistic non-nuclear testing can be used to investigate and resolve potential issues with space nuclear power and propulsion systems. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for systems designed with fuels and materials operating within their demonstrated nuclear performance envelope. Non-nuclear testing allows thermal hydraulic, heat transfer, structural, integration, safety, operational, performance, and other potential issues to be investigated and resolved with a greater degree of flexibility and at reduced cost and schedule compared to nuclear testing. The primary limit of non-nuclear testing is that nuclear characteristics and potential nuclear issues cannot be directly investigated. However, non-nuclear testing can be used to augment the potential benefit from any nuclear testing that may be required for space nuclear system design and development. This paper describes previous and ongoing non-nuclear testing related to space nuclear systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Fundamental properties of spin-polarized quantum systems
Silvera, I.F.
1990-01-01
The principle thrust of this research project is to observe Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen. After the stabilization of hydrogen by Silvera and Walraven a decade ago, a number of straightforward attempts to Bose condense hydrogen were thwarted by the large recombination rates on the cell surfaces and in the bulk, at high densities. Currently there are several very promising approaches to BEC, and we are intensively developing some of these ideas. In addition we continue to carry out research to further develop our understanding of hydrogen interactions, as our experience has shown that knowledge of the system parameters is vital for any attempt to achieve BEC.
Lifting mean field degeneracies in anisotropic spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sizyuk, Yuriy; Perkins, Natalia; Wolfle, Peter
We propose a method for calculating the fluctuation contribution to the free energy of anisotropic spin systems with generic bilinear superexchange magnetic Hamiltonian based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. We show that this contribution splits the set of mean field degenerate states with rotational symmetry, and chooses states with the order parameter directed along lattice symmetric directions as the true ground states. We consider the simple example of Heisenberg-compass model on cubic lattice to show that depending on the relative strength of the compass and Heisenberg interactions the spontaneous magnetization is pinned to either one of the cubic directions or one of the cubic body diagonals with a intermediate phase in between where the minima and maxima of the free energy interchange. DMR-1005932, DMR-1511768, and NSF PHY11-25915.
Duality in spin systems via the SU(4) algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaller, Gernot; Schützhold, Ralf
2016-05-01
We provide several examples and an intuitive diagrammatic representation demonstrating the use of two-qubit unitary transformations for mapping coupled spin Hamiltonians to simpler ones and vice versa. The corresponding dualities may be exploited to identify phase transition points or to aid the diagonalization of such Hamiltonians. For example, our method shows that a suitable one-parameter family of coupled Hamiltonians whose ground states transform from an initially factorizing state to a final cluster state on a lattice of arbitrary dimension is dual to a family of trivial decoupled Hamiltonians containing local on-site terms only. As a consequence, the minimum energy gap (which determines the adiabatic run-time) does not scale with system size, which facilitates an efficient and simple adiabatic preparation of e.g. the two-dimensional cluster state used for measurement-based quantum computation.
Spin-system dynamics and fault detection in threshold networks
Kirkland, Steve; Severini, Simone
2011-01-15
We consider an agent on a fixed but arbitrary node of a known threshold network, with the task of detecting an unknown missing link. We obtain analytic formulas for the probability of success when the agent's tool is the free evolution of a single excitation on an XX spin system paired with the network. We completely characterize the parameters, which allows us to obtain an advantageous solution. From the results emerges an optimal (deterministic) algorithm for quantum search, from which a quadratic speedup with respect to the optimal classical analog and in line with well-known results in quantum computation is gained. When attempting to detect a faulty node, the chosen setting appears to be very fragile and the probability of success too small to be of any direct use.
Numerical simulations of strongly correlated electron and spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Changlani, Hitesh Jaiprakash
Developing analytical and numerical tools for strongly correlated systems is a central challenge for the condensed matter physics community. In the absence of exact solutions and controlled analytical approximations, numerical techniques have often contributed to our understanding of these systems. Exact Diagonalization (ED) requires the storage of at least two vectors the size of the Hilbert space under consideration (which grows exponentially with system size) which makes it affordable only for small systems. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) uses an intelligent Hilbert space truncation procedure to significantly reduce this cost, but in its present formulation is limited to quasi-1D systems. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) maps the Schrodinger equation to the diffusion equation (in imaginary time) and only samples the eigenvector over time, thereby avoiding the memory limitation. However, the stochasticity involved in the method gives rise to the "sign problem" characteristic of fermion and frustrated spin systems. The first part of this thesis is an effort to make progress in the development of a numerical technique which overcomes the above mentioned problems. We consider novel variational wavefunctions, christened "Correlator Product States" (CPS), that have a general functional form which hopes to capture essential correlations in the ground states of spin and fermion systems in any dimension. We also consider a recent proposal to modify projector (Green's Function) Quantum Monte Carlo to ameliorate the sign problem for realistic and model Hamiltonians (such as the Hubbard model). This exploration led to our own set of improvements, primarily a semistochastic formulation of projector Quantum Monte Carlo. Despite their limitations, existing numerical techniques can yield physical insights into a wide variety of problems. The second part of this thesis considers one such numerical technique - DMRG - and adapts it to study the Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.
Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I
2014-10-31
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems. PMID:25323697
Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.
Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I
2014-10-31
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.
The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update
Koponen, B.L.
1991-07-01
The US Department of Energy`s Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.
The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update
Koponen, B.L.
1991-07-01
The US Department of Energy's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.
Safe, Affordable, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houts, M. G.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Doughty, G. E.
2014-01-01
The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).
Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual
Chiang, L.G.
2001-04-10
This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.
THE LOW-TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR SPIN EQUILIBRIUM OF H{sup +} {sub 3} IN COLLISIONS WITH H{sub 2}
Grussie, F.; Berg, M. H.; Wolf, A.; Kreckel, H.; Crabtree, K. N.; McCall, B. J.; Gaertner, S.; Schlemmer, S.
2012-11-01
Recent observations of H{sub 2} and H{sup +} {sub 3} in diffuse interstellar sightlines revealed a difference in the nuclear spin excitation temperatures of the two species. This discrepancy comes as a surprise, as H{sup +} {sub 3} and H{sub 2} should undergo frequent thermalizing collisions in molecular clouds. Non-thermal behavior of the fundamental H{sup +} {sub 3}/H{sub 2} collision system at low temperatures was considered as a possible cause for the observed irregular populations. Here, we present measurements of the steady-state ortho/para ratio of H{sup +} {sub 3} in collisions with H{sub 2} molecules in a temperature-variable radiofrequency ion trap between 45 and 100 K. The experimental results are close to the expected thermal outcome and they agree very well with a previous micro-canonical model. We briefly discuss the implications of the experimental results for the chemistry of the diffuse interstellar medium.
Nozirov, Farhod E-mail: farhod.nozirov@gmail.com; Stachów, Michał; Kupka, Teobald E-mail: farhod.nozirov@gmail.com
2014-04-14
A theoretical prediction of nuclear magnetic shieldings and indirect spin-spin coupling constants in 1,1-, cis- and trans-1,2-difluoroethylenes is reported. The results obtained using density functional theory (DFT) combined with large basis sets and gauge-independent atomic orbital calculations were critically compared with experiment and conventional, higher level correlated electronic structure methods. Accurate structural, vibrational, and NMR parameters of difluoroethylenes were obtained using several density functionals combined with dedicated basis sets. B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) optimized structures of difluoroethylenes closely reproduced experimental geometries and earlier reported benchmark coupled cluster results, while BLYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) produced accurate harmonic vibrational frequencies. The most accurate vibrations were obtained using B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) with correction for anharmonicity. Becke half and half (BHandH) density functional predicted more accurate {sup 19}F isotropic shieldings and van Voorhis and Scuseria's τ-dependent gradient-corrected correlation functional yielded better carbon shieldings than B3LYP. A surprisingly good performance of Hartree-Fock (HF) method in predicting nuclear shieldings in these molecules was observed. Inclusion of zero-point vibrational correction markedly improved agreement with experiment for nuclear shieldings calculated by HF, MP2, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods but worsened the DFT results. The threefold improvement in accuracy when predicting {sup 2}J(FF) in 1,1-difluoroethylene for BHandH density functional compared to B3LYP was observed (the deviations from experiment were −46 vs. −115 Hz)
Measurement-induced phase transition in a quantum spin system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, Shrabanti; Dasgupta, Subinay
2016-05-01
Suppose a quantum system starts to evolve under a Hamiltonian from some initial state. When, for the first time, will an observable attain a preassigned value? To answer this question, one method often adopted is to make instantaneous measurements periodically and note down the serial number for which the desired result is obtained for the first time. We apply this protocol to an interacting spin system at zero temperature and show analytically that the response of this system shows a nonanalyticity as a function of the parameter of the Hamiltonian and the time interval of measurement. In contrast to quantum phase transitions, this type of phase transition is not a property of the ground state and arises from the Hamiltonian dynamics and quantum-mechanical nature of the measurement. The specific system studied is the transverse Ising chain, and the measurement performed is whether the total transverse magnetic moment (per site) is not equal to 1. The results for some other types of measurement are also discussed.
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-07-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-07-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer.
Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing
Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof
2016-01-01
Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform—an essential building block for many quantum algorithms—is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems.
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and [Formula: see text] at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices. PMID:27479155
Spin-charge separation in strongly correlated electronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaosa, Naoto
1998-12-01
The spin-charge separation (SCS) in 1D and 2D are discussed from the viewpoint of gauge theory. For 1D I discuss the angle-resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES), which show clear evidence for the spin-charge separation. For 2D the underdoped cuprates are discussed, where the three classes of electronic state, i.e., the Néel state (N), the valence-bond solid (VBS) state and the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) state, are relevant. These states can be understood in terms of the competition between (i) magnetic ordering versus singlet formation and (ii) confinement versus deconfinement of the gauge field. It is fairly easy to understand the former, (i), but the latter, (ii), is more subtle and has not yet been established. I argue that the deconfining phase, i.e., the RVB state, is a new state of matter with SCS, and is realized when the sheet resistance 0953-8984/10/49/025/img1 is less than a critical value of the order of the quantum resistance 0953-8984/10/49/025/img2. This condition is equivalent to that for superconductivity in the Josephson network model. The anomalous Kondo effect due to the non-magnetic impurities doped into the system reflects the non-Fermi-liquid nature of the host electronic state, and hence is the most promising experimental evidence for this new state of matter. We put special emphasis on the residual resistivity, and propose that its value provides a clear test for SCS.
Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station
Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.
1996-12-31
Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.
Quantum impurities develop fractional local moments in spin-orbit coupled systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwala, Adhip; Shenoy, Vijay B.
2016-06-01
Systems with spin-orbit coupling have the potential to realize exotic quantum states which are interesting both from fundamental and technological perspectives. We investigate the physics that arises when a correlated spin-1/2 quantum impurity hybridizes with a spin-orbit coupled Fermi system. The intriguing aspect uncovered is that, in contrast to unit local moments in conventional systems, the impurity here develops a fractional local moment of 2/3. The concomitant Kondo effect has a high Kondo temperature (TK). Our theory explains these features including the origins of the fractional local moment and provides a recipe to use spin-orbit coupling (λ ) to enhance the Kondo temperature (TK˜λ4 /3 ). Even as our finding of such rich phenomena in a simple looking many-body system is of interest in itself, we also point out opportunities for systems with tunable spin-orbit coupling (such as cold atoms) to explore this physics.
Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times from Continuous Wave NMR Spectroscopy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wooten, Jan B.; And Others
1979-01-01
The experiment described, suitable for undergraduate physical chemistry laboratories, illustrates the general principles of relaxation and introduces the nmr concepts of saturation and spin-inversion. (BB)
Measuring the spin of black holes in binary systems using gravitational waves.
Vitale, Salvatore; Lynch, Ryan; Veitch, John; Raymond, Vivien; Sturani, Riccardo
2014-06-27
Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this Letter, we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientations, and signal-to-noise ratios, as detected by an advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that for moderate or high signal-to-noise ratio the spin magnitudes can be estimated with errors of a few percent (5%-30%) for neutron star-black hole (black hole-black hole) systems. Spins' tilt angle can be estimated with errors of 0.04 rad in the best cases, but typical values will be above 0.1 rad. Errors will be larger for signals barely above the threshold for detection. The difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from angles such that the plane of the orbit can be seen both from above and below during the time the signal is in band. This study suggests that direct measurement of black hole spin by means of GWs can be as precise as what can be obtained from x-ray binaries.
Tunable spin-orbit coupling via strong driving in ultracold-atom systems.
Jiménez-García, K; LeBlanc, L J; Williams, R A; Beeler, M C; Qu, C; Gong, M; Zhang, C; Spielman, I B
2015-03-27
Spin-orbit coupling is an essential ingredient in topological materials, conventional and quantum-gas-based alike. Engineered spin-orbit coupling in ultracold-atom systems-unique in their experimental control and measurement opportunities-provides a major opportunity to investigate and understand topological phenomena. Here we experimentally demonstrate and theoretically analyze a technique for controlling spin-orbit coupling in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate using amplitude-modulated Raman coupling.
Loschmidt echo in many-spin systems: contrasting time scales of local and global measurements.
Zangara, Pablo R; Bendersky, Denise; Levstein, Patricia R; Pastawski, Horacio M
2016-06-13
A local excitation in a quantum many-spin system evolves deterministically. A time-reversal procedure, involving the inversion of the signs of every energy and interaction, should produce the excitation revival. This idea, experimentally coined in nuclear magnetic resonance, embodies the concept of the Loschmidt echo (LE). While such an implementation involves a single spin autocorrelation M(1,1), i.e. a local LE, theoretical efforts have focused on the study of the recovery probability of a complete many-body state, referred to here as global or many-body LE MMB Here, we analyse the relation between these magnitudes, with regard to their characteristic time scales and their dependence on the number of spins N We show that the global LE can be understood, to some extent, as the simultaneous occurrence of N independent local LEs, i.e. MMB∼(M(1,1))(N/4) This extensive hypothesis is exact for very short times and confirmed numerically beyond such a regime. Furthermore, we discuss a general picture of the decay of M1,1 as a consequence of the interplay between the time scale that characterizes the reversible interactions (T(2)) and that of the perturbation (τ(Σ)). Our analysis suggests that the short-time decay, characterized by the time scale τ(Σ), is greatly enhanced by the complex processes that occur beyond T(2) This would ultimately lead to the experimentally observed T(3), which was found to be roughly independent of τ(Σ) but closely tied to T(2). PMID:27140970
Loschmidt echo in many-spin systems: contrasting time scales of local and global measurements.
Zangara, Pablo R; Bendersky, Denise; Levstein, Patricia R; Pastawski, Horacio M
2016-06-13
A local excitation in a quantum many-spin system evolves deterministically. A time-reversal procedure, involving the inversion of the signs of every energy and interaction, should produce the excitation revival. This idea, experimentally coined in nuclear magnetic resonance, embodies the concept of the Loschmidt echo (LE). While such an implementation involves a single spin autocorrelation M(1,1), i.e. a local LE, theoretical efforts have focused on the study of the recovery probability of a complete many-body state, referred to here as global or many-body LE MMB Here, we analyse the relation between these magnitudes, with regard to their characteristic time scales and their dependence on the number of spins N We show that the global LE can be understood, to some extent, as the simultaneous occurrence of N independent local LEs, i.e. MMB∼(M(1,1))(N/4) This extensive hypothesis is exact for very short times and confirmed numerically beyond such a regime. Furthermore, we discuss a general picture of the decay of M1,1 as a consequence of the interplay between the time scale that characterizes the reversible interactions (T(2)) and that of the perturbation (τ(Σ)). Our analysis suggests that the short-time decay, characterized by the time scale τ(Σ), is greatly enhanced by the complex processes that occur beyond T(2) This would ultimately lead to the experimentally observed T(3), which was found to be roughly independent of τ(Σ) but closely tied to T(2).
Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects
Gevorkyan, A. S. Abajyan, H. G.
2013-08-15
We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N{sup 2} numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to
Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.
2016-05-01
The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.
Distribution of Pico- and Nanosecond Motions in Disordered Proteins from Nuclear Spin Relaxation.
Khan, Shahid N; Charlier, Cyril; Augustyniak, Rafal; Salvi, Nicola; Déjean, Victoire; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Lequin, Olivier; Pelupessy, Philippe; Ferrage, Fabien
2015-09-01
Intrinsically disordered proteins and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic proteome. The description and understanding of their conformational properties require the development of new experimental, computational, and theoretical approaches. Here, we use nuclear spin relaxation to investigate the distribution of timescales of motions in an IDR from picoseconds to nanoseconds. Nitrogen-15 relaxation rates have been measured at five magnetic fields, ranging from 9.4 to 23.5 T (400-1000 MHz for protons). This exceptional wealth of data allowed us to map the spectral density function for the motions of backbone NH pairs in the partially disordered transcription factor Engrailed at 11 different frequencies. We introduce an approach called interpretation of motions by a projection onto an array of correlation times (IMPACT), which focuses on an array of six correlation times with intervals that are equidistant on a logarithmic scale between 21 ps and 21 ns. The distribution of motions in Engrailed varies smoothly along the protein sequence and is multimodal for most residues, with a prevalence of motions around 1 ns in the IDR. We show that IMPACT often provides better quantitative agreement with experimental data than conventional model-free or extended model-free analyses with two or three correlation times. We introduce a graphical representation that offers a convenient platform for a qualitative discussion of dynamics. Even when relaxation data are only acquired at three magnetic fields that are readily accessible, the IMPACT analysis gives a satisfactory characterization of spectral density functions, thus opening the way to a broad use of this approach. PMID:26331256
Distribution of Pico- and Nanosecond Motions in Disordered Proteins from Nuclear Spin Relaxation
Khan, Shahid N.; Charlier, Cyril; Augustyniak, Rafal; Salvi, Nicola; Déjean, Victoire; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Lequin, Olivier; Pelupessy, Philippe; Ferrage, Fabien
2015-01-01
Intrinsically disordered proteins and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic proteome. The description and understanding of their conformational properties require the development of new experimental, computational, and theoretical approaches. Here, we use nuclear spin relaxation to investigate the distribution of timescales of motions in an IDR from picoseconds to nanoseconds. Nitrogen-15 relaxation rates have been measured at five magnetic fields, ranging from 9.4 to 23.5 T (400–1000 MHz for protons). This exceptional wealth of data allowed us to map the spectral density function for the motions of backbone NH pairs in the partially disordered transcription factor Engrailed at 11 different frequencies. We introduce an approach called interpretation of motions by a projection onto an array of correlation times (IMPACT), which focuses on an array of six correlation times with intervals that are equidistant on a logarithmic scale between 21 ps and 21 ns. The distribution of motions in Engrailed varies smoothly along the protein sequence and is multimodal for most residues, with a prevalence of motions around 1 ns in the IDR. We show that IMPACT often provides better quantitative agreement with experimental data than conventional model-free or extended model-free analyses with two or three correlation times. We introduce a graphical representation that offers a convenient platform for a qualitative discussion of dynamics. Even when relaxation data are only acquired at three magnetic fields that are readily accessible, the IMPACT analysis gives a satisfactory characterization of spectral density functions, thus opening the way to a broad use of this approach. PMID:26331256
Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy and Nuclear Spin Conversion of NH3 and ND3 in Solid Parahydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruzi, Mahmut; Anderson, David T.
2013-10-01
We present matrix isolation infrared absorption spectra of NH3 and ND3 trapped in solid parahydrogen (pH2) at temperatures around 1.8 K. We used the relatively slow nuclear spin conversion (NSC) of NH3 and ND3 in freshly deposited pH2 samples as a tool to assign the sparse vibration-inversion-rotation (VIR) spectra of NH3 in the regions of the -2, -4, 2-4, -1, and -3 bands and ND3 in the regions of the -2, -4, -1, and -3 fundamentals. Partial assignments are also presented for various combination bands of NH3. Detailed analysis of the -2 bands of NH3 and ND3 indicates that both isotopomers are nearly free rotors; that the vibrational energy is blue-shifted by 1-2%; and that the rotational constants and inversion tunneling splitting are 91-94% and 67-75%, respectively, of the gas-phase values. The line shapes of the VIR absorptions are narrow (0.2-0.4 cm-1) for upper states that cannot rotationally relax and broad (>1 cm-1) for upper states that can rotationally relax. We report and assign a number of NH3-induced infrared absorption features of the pH2 host near 4150 cm-1, along with a cooperative transition that involves simultaneous vibrational excitation of a pH2 molecule and rotation-inversion excitation of NH3. The NSCs of NH3 and ND3 were found to follow first-order kinetics with rate constants at 1.8 K of k = 1.88(16) - 10-3 s-1 and k = 1.08(8) - 10-3 s-1, respectively. These measured rate constants are compared to previous measurements for NH3 in an Ar matrix and with the rate constants measured for other dopant molecules isolated in solid pH2.
Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFarlane, Harold
2008-05-01
Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.
Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems
Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.
1995-09-01
DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems.
Porto, Rafael A; Rothstein, Ira Z
2006-07-14
We use recently developed effective field theory techniques to calculate the third order post-Newtonian correction to the spin-spin potential between two spinning objects. This correction represents the first contribution to the spin-spin interaction due to the nonlinear nature of general relativity and will play an important role in forthcoming gravity wave experiments.
Dynamic neutron scattering on incoherent systems using efficient resonance spin flip techniques
Häussler, Wolfgang; Kredler, Lukas
2014-05-15
We have performed numerical ray-tracing Monte-Carlo-simulations of incoherent dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We intend to optimize the efficiency of incoherent measurements depending on the fraction of neutrons scattered without and with spin flip at the sample. In addition to conventional spin echo, we have numerically and experimentally studied oscillating intensity techniques. The results point out the advantages of these different spin echo variants and are an important prerequisite for neutron resonance spin echo instruments like RESEDA (FRM II, Munich), to choose the most efficient technique depending on the scattering vector range and the properties of the sample system under study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bill, E.; Bominaar, E. L.; Ding, X.-Q.; Trautwein, A. X.; Winkler, H.; Mandon, D.; Weiss, R.; Gold, A.; Jayaraj, K.; Toney, G. E.
1990-07-01
Magnetic properties of frozen solutions of highly oxidized iron porphyrin complexes were investigated by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectra, recorded at low temperatures in various magnetic fields, were analyzed on the basis of spin Hamiltonian simulations. Spin coupling between ferryl iron (FeIV) and porphyrin cation radical was taken into account explicitly. Hyperfine and spin-coupling parameters are given for several complexes, together with zero-field parameters. One of the complexes exhibits weak spin coupling, it is the first model system exhibiting properties comparable to those of the oxoferryl cation radical enzyme Horse Radish Peroxidase I.
Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David
1990-01-01
An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.
Thermoelectric response of spin polarization in Rashba spintronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui
2016-06-01
Motivated by the recent discovery of a strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional (2D) electron gas near the surface of Rashba semiconductors BiTeX (X = Cl, Br, I), we calculate the thermoelectric responses of spin polarization in a 2D Rashba model. By self-consistently determining the energyand band-dependent transport time, we present an exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation for elastic scattering. Using this solution, we find a non-Edelstein electric-field-induced spin polarization that is linear in the Fermi energy E F when E F lies below the band crossing point. The spin polarization efficiency, which is the electric-field-induced spin polarization divided by the driven electric current, increases for smaller E F . We show that, as a function of E F , the temperature-gradient-induced spin polarization increases continuously to a saturation value when E F decreases below the band crossing point. As the temperature tends to zero, the temperature-gradient-induced spin polarization vanishes.
Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Hâkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.
2015-01-01
Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in 13CH3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.
Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation
Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.
2015-01-28
Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1}. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in {sup 13}CH{sub 3} groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.
Nuclear spin relaxation times in hydrogen-helium and methane-helium slush at 4 MHz using pulsed NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamida, J. A.
2005-03-01
We compare the nuclear spin-lattice and nuclear spin-spin relaxation times observed for small grains of hydrogen suspended in liquid helium (hydrogen-helium ``slush'') with that of methane-helium ``slush.'' The transport properties of these ``slush'' materials are critical to NASA's goal of realizing atomic propellant designs for future spacecraft. Atoms of active propellants are stored cryogenically in a host matrix such as hydrogen (H2) or methane (CH4) to prevent recombination while liquid helium is ideal for holding the host matrix and for easy transportation. The host matrix must therefore be stable in liquid helium. We find that for hydrogen ``slush,'' NMR rate is consistent with scattering at grain boundaries due to the large electric quadrupole moment of hydrogen; on the other hand the ``slush'' rate for methane is consistent with internal diffusion as opposed to surface scattering. We conclude that for atomic propellants, methane is a better host than hydrogen because grains of methane are better isolated from the helium bath.
Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg
2015-11-01
This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.
Spin-dependent recombination and hyperfine interaction at deep defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivchenko, E. L.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Kalevich, V. K.
2015-05-01
We present a theoretical study of optical electron-spin orientation and spin-dependent Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in the longitudinal magnetic field, taking into account the hyperfine coupling between the bound-electron spin and the nuclear spin of a deep paramagnetic center. The master rate equations for the coupled system are extended to describe the nuclear spin relaxation by using two distinct relaxation times, τn 1 and τn 2, respectively, for defect states with one and two (singlet) bound electrons. The general theory is developed for an arbitrary value of the nuclear spin I . The magnetic-field and excitation-power dependencies of the electron and nuclear spin polarizations are calculated for the value of I =1 /2 . In this particular case the nuclear effects can be taken into account by a simple replacement of the bound-electron spin relaxation time by an effective time dependent on free-electron and hole densities and free-electron spin polarization. The role of nuclear spin relaxation is visualized by isolines of the electron spin polarization on a two-dimensional graph with the axes log2(τn 1) and log2(τn 2) .
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin–orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.
Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies
Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.
2003-02-25
Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.
2016-07-01
Mixed-spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising model on the decorated triangular lattice is studied by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Within this approach, the results for the ground-state of the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic of decorated triangular lattice are obtained. The reduced transition temperature of each sublattice are obtained. The reduced temperature of compensation is also obtained. The thermal total ratio of magnetic susceptibilities of sublattices is given. The effect of crystal field and exchange interactions on the magnetization of the system are detailed. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are found for different values of exchanges interactions between the same lattice and the two sublattices different, for different crystal filed and temperatures. In addition, very weak exchange interactions and for a higher temperatures and a higher crystal filed values the decorated triangular lattice has been exhibited the superparamagnetic behavior.
Spin pumping in strongly coupled magnon-photon systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier-Flaig, H.; Harder, M.; Gross, R.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.
2016-08-01
We experimentally investigate magnon polaritons arising in ferrimagnetic resonance experiments in a microwave cavity with a tunable quality factor. To this end, we simultaneously measure the electrically detected spin pumping signal and the microwave reflection (the ferrimagnetic resonance signal) of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG)/platinum (Pt) bilayer in the microwave cavity. The coupling strength of the fundamental magnetic resonance mode and the cavity is determined from the microwave reflection data. All features of the magnetic resonance spectra predicted by first principle calculations and an input-output formalism agree with our experimental observations. By changing the decay rate of the cavity at constant magnon-photon coupling rate, we experimentally tune in and out of the strong coupling regime and successfully model the corresponding change of the spin pumping signal and microwave reflection. Furthermore, we observe the coupling and spin pumping of several spin wave modes and provide a quantitative analysis of their coupling rates to the cavity.
Versatile approach to spin dynamics in correlated electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrmann, Malte; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Lechermann, Frank
2016-10-01
Time-dependent spin phenomena in condensed matter are most often either described in the weakly correlated limit of metallic Stoner-Slater-like magnetism via band theory or in the strongly correlated limit of Heisenberg-like interacting spins in an insulator. However, many experimental studies, e.g., of (de)magnetization processes, focus on itinerant local-moment materials, such as transition metals and various of their compounds. We here present a general theoretical framework that is capable of addressing correlated spin dynamics, also in the presence of a vanishing charge gap. A real-space implementation of the time-dependent rotational-invariant slave boson methodology allows us to treat nonequilibrium spins numerically fast and efficiently beyond linear response as well as beyond the band-theoretical or Heisenberg limit.
Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…
Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…
Relaxation of AB Spin Systems in Stimulated-Echo Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straubinger, Klaus; Schick, Fritz; Lutz, Otto
1995-12-01
The behavior of the strongly coupled AB spin system during the STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) sequence was calculated analytically. Relaxation during the TM interval, in which longitudinal magnetization and zero-quantum coherences (ZQCs) occur, was accounted for by following the course of the different density-matrix terms. The result allows one to determine sequence timings to provide high signal intensities or signals resulting from certain coherences. Theoretically calculated spectra can be generated, using an analytical function. Series of proton spectra were recorded from a 0.1maqueous solution of citrate on a 1.5 T whole-body imager at 22°C. Spectra series with constant echo time TE were used to evaluate the longitudinal relaxation timeT1as well as the zero-quantum relaxation timeTZQby fitting the theoretically predicted curve to the experimental data. The evaluated proton relaxation timesT1andTZQin citrate differ strongly:T1= 770 ms,TZQ= 1300 ms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alemany, Lawrence B.; Malloy, Thomas B.; Nunes, Megan M.; Zaibaq, Nicholas G.
2012-09-01
In a continuation of our initial investigation of the complex 13C and 19F spectra exhibited by two simple organofluorine compounds, additional organofluorine compounds expected to exhibit a wide range of spectral complexity were studied. Spectral simulations are critical for analyzing the more complex spin systems, in particular, A3B3X and A6B3X. Cross-correlated relaxation is commonly observed; examples of 13Csbnd 19F cross-correlated relaxation are shown with the signals for each nucleus exhibiting unequal relaxation rates. Higher order effects are particularly noticeable in the spectra of perfluoro-t-butyl alcohol because of a large 4JFF value in the (13CF3)(12CF3)212COH isotopomer. The many additional transitions in an A3B3X spin system compared to an ABX spin system result in much more complex 19F (A3 and B3) and 13C (X) spectra, even though only three types of nuclei are involved in each spin system. The corresponding protio compounds typically constitute a much simpler A3M3X spin system because the long-range nJHH coupling (n ⩾ 4) is much smaller than the corresponding long-range nJFF coupling. Spectra previously published for ethane-1-13C (A3B3X) and hexafluoroethane-1-13C (A3M3X) are notable exceptions and are discussed.
Quantum rotor theory of systems of spin-2 bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payrits, Matjaž; Barnett, Ryan
2016-08-01
We consider quantum phases of tightly confined spin-2 bosons in an external field under the presence of rotationally invariant interactions. Generalizing previous treatments, we show how this system can be mapped onto a quantum rotor model. Within the rotor framework, low-energy excitations about fragmented states, which cannot be accessed within standard Bogoliubov theory, can be obtained. In the spatially extended system in the thermodynamic limit there exists a mean field ground-state degeneracy between a family of nematic states for appropriate interaction parameters. It has been established that quantum fluctuations lift this degeneracy through the mechanism of order by disorder and select either a uniaxial or square-biaxial ground state. On the other hand, in the full quantum treatment of the analogous single-spatial-mode problem with finite-particle number, it is known that, due to symmetry-restoring fluctuations, there is a unique ground state across the entire nematic region of the phase diagram. Within the established rotor framework, we investigate the possible quantum phases under the presence of a quadratic Zeeman field, a problem which has previously received little attention. By investigating wave-function overlaps, we do not find any signatures of the order-by-disorder phenomenon which is present in the continuum case. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative external potential which breaks less symmetry than the quadratic Zeeman field. For this case, we do find the phenomenon of order by disorder in the fully quantum system. This is established within the rotor framework and with exact diagonalization.