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Sample records for nuclear superheating

  1. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  2. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  3. Differences between solid superheating and liquid supercooling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Li, Mo

    2005-10-15

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors for solid superheating and liquid supercooling were critically examined and compared via molecular-dynamics simulations. It is shown that the large elastic energy associated with internal melting and solid-liquid interface disorder play important roles in superheating. The growth rate is anisotropic for supercooling, but isotropic for superheating. Supercooling can be well described by the classical nucleation theory, whereas superheating shows many exceptions. The underlying mechanisms for these differences are discussed.

  4. Zirconium alloys with small amounts of iron and copper or nickel show improved corrosion resistance in superheated steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, S.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Heat treating various compositions of zirconium alloys improve their corrosion resistance to superheated steam at temperatures higher than 500 degrees C. This increases their potential as fuel cladding for superheated-steam nuclear-fueled reactors as well as in autoclaves operating at modest pressures.

  5. Superheating, melting, and annealing of copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, H.; Landman, U. )

    1993-08-16

    Dynamics of superheating, melting, and annealing processes at Cu(111) and Cu(110) surfaces, induced by laser-pulse irradiation, are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations, incorporating energy transfer from the electronic to the ionic degrees of freedom. Superheating occurs at Cu(111) for conditions that lead to melting of the Cu(110) surface. Highly damaged Cu(111) surfaces structurally anneal under the influence of a superheating pulse.

  6. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  7. SUPERHEATING IN A BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-05-31

    A boiling-water reactor is described in which the steam developed in the reactor is superheated in the reactor. This is accomplished by providing means for separating the steam from the water and passing the steam over a surface of the fissionable material which is not in contact with the water. Specifically water is boiled on the outside of tubular fuel elements and the steam is superheated on the inside of the fuel elements.

  8. a Theoretical Model of a Superheated Liquid Droplet Neutron Detector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Mark Joseph

    Neutrons can interact with the atoms in superheated liquid droplets which are suspended in a viscous matrix material, resulting in the formation of charged recoil ions. These ions transfer energy to the liquid, sometimes resulting in the droplets vaporizing and producing observable bubbles. Devices employing this mechanism are known as superheated liquid droplet detectors, or bubble detectors. The basis of bubble detector operation is identical to that of bubble chambers, which have been well characterized by researchers such as Wilson, Glaser, Seitz, and others since the 1950's. Each of the microscopic superheated liquid droplets behaves like an independent bubble chamber. This dissertation presents a theoretical model which considers the three principal aspects of detector operation: nuclear reactions, charged particle energy deposition, and thermodynamic bubble formation. All possible nuclear reactions were examined and those which could reasonably result in recoil ions sufficiently energetic to vaporize a droplet were analyzed in detail. Feasible interactions having adequate cross sections include elastic and inelastic scattering, n-proton, and n-alpha reactions. Ziegler's TRansport of Ions in Matter (TRIM) code was used to calculate the ions' stopping powers in various compounds based on the ionic energies predicted by standard scattering distributions. If the ions deposit enough energy in a small enough volume then the entire droplet will vaporize without further energy input. Various theories as to the vaporization of droplets by ionizing radiation were studied and a novel method of predicting the critical (minimum) energy was developed. This method can be used to calculate the minimum required stopping power for the ion, from which the threshold neutron energy is obtainable. Experimental verification of the model was accomplished by measuring the response of two different types of bubble detectors to monoenergetic thermal neutrons, as well as to neutrons

  9. Ballistic Acceleration By Superheated Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogart, S. L.; Powell, J. R.; Seed, T. J.; Weggel, C. F.; Dalessandro, J. A.; Schuster, J.; Sedehi, S. F.

    1988-04-01

    A new concept for accelerating projectiles to ultra high velocities is described. The concept, termed BASH, rapidly (milliseconds) heats a hydrogen U235 mix-ture in a pulsed nuclear reactor. The hot high pressure propellant, which has a sound speed of .'20 km/sec, then accelerates a 2 kilogram projectile in a conventional gas-gun type barrel to a very high velocity, 30 km/sec or more. The BASH gun can fire at a rate of several Hertz, if desired. Features of the BASH gun are described, along with trade studies of performance and a 30 km/sec baseline design. Technical issues are discussed, including protection against high convective and radiative heat transfer rates.

  10. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  11. Dark matter searches using superheated liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Bou-Cabo; Miguel, Ardid; Ivan, Felis

    2016-07-01

    Direct detection of dark matter is one of the most important topics in modern physics. It is estimated that 22% of universe matter is composed by dark matter in front of 0.4% of ordinary matter like stars, galaxies planets and all kind of known astrophysical objects. Several kinds of experiments are nowadays involved in detection of one of the more accepted particle candidates to be dark matter: WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). These detectors, using several kinds of techniques: Cryogenic semiconductors, scintillation materials like I Na or noble gas chambers among others, are reporting very interesting but inconclusive results. In this paper a review of detectors that are using the superheated liquid technique in bubble chambers in order to detect WIMPs is reported. Basically, we will report about Coupp (Chicagoland observatory for underground particle physics), PICO that is composed by Coupp and Picasso researchers having the aim to build a ton experiment and also about a new detector named MOSCAB (Materia oscura a bolle) that recently published a first results of a test chamber that uses also superheated liquid technique but as a Geyser chamber.

  12. Impact of droplet on superheated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Staat, Hendrik J. J.; Tran, Tuan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao

    2012-11-01

    At impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated way above the liquid's boiling point, the droplet spreads without any surface contact, floating on its own (Leidenfrost-type) vapor layer, and then bounces back. We show that the dimensionless maximum spreading factor Γ, defined by the ratio of the maximal spreading diameter and the droplet diameter, shows a universal scaling Γ ~ Weγ with the Weber number We - regardless of surface temperature and of liquid properties - which is much steeper than that for the impact on non-heated (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) surfaces, for which γ = 1 / 4 . Based on the idea that the vapor shooting out of the gap between the droplet and the superheated surface drags the liquid outwards, we derive scaling laws for the spreading factor Γ, the vapor layer thickness, and the vapor flow velocity.

  13. CFD Modeling of Superheated Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of fuel atomization and vaporization behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA aeronautics initiative, we have undertaken an assessment study to establish baseline accuracy of existing CFD models used in the evaluation of a ashing jet. In a first attempt towards attaining this goal, we have incorporated an existing superheat vaporization model into our spray solution procedure but made some improvements to combine the existing models valid at superheated conditions with the models valid at stable (non-superheat) evaporating conditions. Also, the paper reports some validation results based on the experimental data obtained from the literature for a superheated spray generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle. The predicted profiles for both gas and droplet velocities show a reasonable agreement with the measured data and exhibit a self-similar pattern similar to the correlation reported in the literature. Because of the uncertainty involved in the specification of the initial conditions, we have investigated the effect of initial droplet size distribution on the validation results. The predicted results were found to be sensitive to the initial conditions used for the droplet size specification. However, it was shown that decent droplet size comparisons could be achieved with properly selected initial conditions, For the case considered, it is reasonable to assume that the present vaporization models are capable of providing a reasonable qualitative description for the two-phase jet characteristics generated by a ashing jet. However, there remains some uncertainty with regard to the specification of certain initial spray conditions and there is a need for experimental data on separate gas and liquid temperatures in order to validate the vaporization models based on the Adachi correlation for a liquid involving R134A.

  14. Superheating in linear polymers studied by ultrafast nanocalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Minakov, A A; Wurm, A; Schick, C

    2007-05-01

    To study phase transition kinetics on submillisecond time scale a sensitive ultrafast nanocalorimeter was constructed. Controlled ultrafast cooling, as well as heating, up to 10(6) K/s was attained. The method was applied for the measurements of the superheating phenomenon in a set of linear polymers: iPS, PBT, PET, and iPP. A power law relation between the superheating and the heating rate holds in the heating rate range 10(-2) - 10(4) K/s. A limiting superheating of about 10% of the melting temperature was observed at rates above 10(4) - 10(5) K/s. This limit depends on annealing conditions before sample melting. The observed superheating limit, as well as the power law, can be accounted for the internal stresses near the crystalline amorphous interface in semicrystalline polymers induced by heating, which are related to the thermal expansion gradients inherent in a semicrystalline material.

  15. Ring-diffusion mediated homogeneous melting in the superheating regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Li, Mo

    2008-04-01

    Homogeneous melting in the superheating regime is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation of a Lennard-Jones model system. We show that the commonly observed catastrophic melting at the superheating limit is caused by fast heating rate. By keeping the system isothermally at temperatures below the superheating limit, we observe intense self-diffusion motions as the precursor of melting. The highly correlated atomic motions are related to the self-diffusion loops or rings. Two types of loops are observed, closed loop and open loop, where the latter is directly related to the homogeneous nucleation of the liquid phase. Homogeneous melting occurs when the number density of diffusion loops reaches a critical value. Our results suggest that homogeneous melting in the superheating regime is a first-order thermodynamic phase transition triggered by the self-diffusion loops when the kinetic constraint imposed by heating rate is lessened.

  16. Discrimination of events in superheated liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Simon

    2010-02-01

    PICASSO is a Dark Matter search experiment using superheated droplets of C4F10 as the active detector material, suspended in an elastic polymer. If a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) hits a nucleus inside a droplet, the recoiling nucleus will deposit its energy in a heat spike, triggering a phase transition. The setup, installed at SNOLab, 2 km underground, consists of 32 cylindrical detectors of 4.5L. The acoustic signals emitted during a phase transition are recorded by nine piezo-electric transducers mounted on the detector walls and the waveforms are analysed offline. In this way, different types of events can be identified using different variables. One of these variables, which is proportional to the total energy of the acoustic signal, allows discrimination among neutron or WIMP-induced events, background alpha particle induced events and electronic noise; another discrimination variable is constructed from the Fast Fourier Transform of the signal and allows the discrimination of other classes of backgrounds. )

  17. Chromatographic determination of solubilities in superheated water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Neil; Clifford, Anthony A; Bartle, Keith D; Myers, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Superheated water (SHW) is an effective solvent for the extraction of a variety of environmental pollutants, but knowledge of the solubilities in water at elevated temperatures necessary to maximise the efficiency of the process is often lacking. Ambient temperature aqueous solubilities have been measured by reverse-phase HPLC from correlations with retention factors, k, but for poorly soluble organics the eluent must contain a proportion of organic modifier followed by extrapolation to pure water. The use of SHW as mobile phase allows direct determination of aqueous solubility from measurement of k on a modified HPLC system in which the eluent is cooled before detection to improve baseline stability. Alumina-bonded octadecylsilane columns were found to be more stable in SHW chromatography than their silica-bonded counterparts. To validate the procedure, measurements of k were made between 100 and 200°C for toluene and correlated with literature solubilities; the solubilities at 170°C of a number of related aromatics were then determined from their k-values.

  18. Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Celik, Yeliz; Graham, Laurie A; Mok, Yee-Foong; Bar, Maya; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2010-03-23

    It has been argued that for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to stop ice crystal growth, they must irreversibly bind to the ice surface. Surface-adsorbed AFPs should also prevent ice from melting, but to date this has been demonstrated only in a qualitative manner. Here we present the first quantitative measurements of superheating of ice in AFP solutions. Superheated ice crystals were stable for hours above their equilibrium melting point, and the maximum superheating obtained was 0.44 degrees C. When melting commenced in this superheated regime, rapid melting of the crystals from a point on the surface was observed. This increase in melting temperature was more appreciable for hyperactive AFPs compared to the AFPs with moderate antifreeze activity. For each of the AFP solutions that exhibited superheating, the enhancement of the melting temperature was far smaller than the depression of the freezing temperature. The present findings clearly show that AFPs adsorb to ice surfaces as part of their mechanism of action, and this absorption leads to protection of ice against melting as well as freezing.

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  20. Numerical calculation of superheating magnetic fields and currents for superconducting slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, I. L.; Rinderer, L.

    1995-08-01

    Numerical calculations of superheating magnetic fields and superheating currents for superconducting slabs for a wide range of the sample thickness are presented. The calculations were made for low values of Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ, i.e., for type-1 superconductors. We propose also experimental procedures to measure superheating fields and currents in films and bulk samples.

  1. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  2. Direct dark matter search using large-mass superheated droplet detectors in the PICASSO experiment.

    PubMed

    Azuelos, G; Barnabé-Heider, M; Behnke, E; Clark, K; Di Marco, M; Doane, P; Feighery, W; Genest, M-H; Gornea, R; Guenette, R; Kanagalingam, S; Krauss, C; Leroy, C; Lessard, L; Levine, I; Martin, J P; Noble, A J; Noulty, R; Shore, S N; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V

    2006-01-01

    The PICASSO experiment investigates the presence and nature of dark matter in the Universe. The experiment is based on the detection of acoustic signals generated in explosive phase transitions induced by dark matter particles. This technique is an alternative more traditional detection technique like scintillation and ionisation, which are largely employed for dark matter search. One of the main advantages of this technique, besides its sensitivity to very low nuclear recoil energies (few keV), is its excellent background suppression features. A pilot experiment consisting of six superheated droplet detectors (40 g of active mass) is presently taking data at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) at a depth of 2000 m. We discuss the operation, calibration and data acquisition of the experiment and also the ongoing work to increase the sensitivity and the active mass of the detectors.

  3. Superheated water chromatography--a green technology for the future.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger M

    2008-03-14

    Reversed phase liquid chromatography using superheated water as the mobile phase, at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, offers a number of advantages for the analyst. It is an environmentally clean solvent, reducing solvent usage and disposal costs. It has advantages in detection, allowing UV spectra to be monitored down to short wavelengths, as well as a compatibility with universal flame ionisation detection and mass spectroscopy. By employing deuterium oxide as the eluent, solvent free NMR spectra can be measured. The development of newer more thermally stable stationary phases, including hybrid phases, have expanded the analytes that can be examined and these now range from alkylbenzenes, phenols, alkyl aryl ketones and a number of pharmaceuticals to carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Very few compounds have been found to be unstable during the analysis. The separation methods can be directly coupled to superheated water extraction providing a totally solvent free system for sample extraction and analysis.

  4. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  5. Selective Vaporization of Superheated Nanodroplets for Rapid, Sensitive, Acoustic Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Rajarshi; Mohan, Praveena; Besmer, Jeremy D; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2015-08-26

    Superheated perfluorocarbon nano-droplets exhibit promise as sensitive acoustic biosensors. Aggregation of biotin-decorated lipid-shelled droplets by streptavidin greatly increases the yield of bubbles formed by ultrasound-induced vaporization. Streptavidin is sensed down to 1 × 10(-13) m, with differentiable signal appearing in as little as two minutes, using a scalable assay without washing, processing, or development steps.

  6. Free surfaces overcome superheating in simulated melting of isotactic polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin; Sirota, Eric B.; Zhang, Min; Chung, T. C. Mike; Milner, Scott T.

    The equilibrium melting point (Tm) is a challenging experimental benchmark for molecular dynamics simulation of polymer melting and crystallization. Tm obtained from melting simulation of α phase isotactic polypropylene (iPP) can exhibit superheating of over 100°C. Superheating has been attributed to the use of periodic boundary conditions and ultrafast simulated heating rates, both of which inhibit melting. We have developed a simple method to overcome superheating; we replace the periodic crystal structure with a periodic array of finite thickness slabs, separated by vacuum gaps. Thermal disorder at the slab surface promotes nucleation of the melt phase. Above Tm, we observe that the melting front advances into the crystal with a velocity proportional to T -Tm . This correspond to a quadratic rise in the system energy versus temperature, at constant heating rate. We obtain Tm as the onset of this quadratic rise in energy, which give values consistent with experimental melting points for iPP oligomers. The same simulations allow reasonable estimates of the crystal-vacuum interfacial free energy, from the energy difference between crystalline slabs and periodic crystals. The authors acknowledge support from National Science Foundation DMR-1507980.

  7. Development of a Parching Machine Using Super-Heated Vapor or Super-Heated High-Moisture Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shoichi; Shinsho, Seiji; Iriki, Hiroyuki; Asai, Junya; Suganuma, Hirofumi; Shibata, Tsutomu

    We developed a new parching machine with super-heated vapor or super-heated highmoisture atmosphere as a heat medium, and investigated the influence exerted on the characteristics of manufactured tea and crude tea quality. (1)We developed machine specifications that improved throughput and allowed us to control stable quality compared with the conventional kamairicha parching machine. (2)The new parching machine could not only manufacture like kamairicha but also achieve various degrees of steaming of products like green tea or heavily steamed sencha. (3)The new parching machine could not only deactivate enzymes but dry leaves. (4)The influence of throughput was great with respect to the grade of pan-parched flavour, which meant that there was a contact opportunity for tea leaves and the surface of machine's wall. (5)Unpleasant smells such as that produced in a summer crop of tea were reduced by the new parching machine.

  8. Submicron Dropwise Condensation under Superheated and Rarefied Vapor Condition

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sushant; Son, Sang Young

    2010-01-01

    Phase change accompanying conversion of a saturated or superheated vapor in presence of subcooled surfaces is one of the most common occurring phenomena in nature. The mode of phase change which follows such a transformation is dependent upon surface properties like as of contact angle and thermodynamic conditions of the system. In present studies, an experimental approach is used to study the physics behind droplet growth on a partially wetting surface. Superheated vapor at low pressures of 4–5 torr was condensed on subcooled silicon surface with static contact angle as of 60° in absence of non-condensable gases, and the condensation process monitored using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) with submicroscopic spatial resolution. The condensation process was analyzed in the form of size growth of isolated droplets for before a coalescence event ended the regime of single droplet growth. Droplet growth obtained as a function of time reveals that the rate of growth decreases as the droplet increases in size. This behavior is indicative of an overall droplet growth law existing over larger time scales of which the current observations in their brief time intervals could be fitted in. A theoretical model based on kinetic theory further support the experimental observations indicating a mechanism where growth occurs by interfacial mass transport directly on condensing droplet surface. Evidence was also found which establishes the presence of submicroscopic droplets nucleating and growing in between microscopic droplets for partially wetting case. PMID:20942412

  9. Production of superheated steam from vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; White, D.E.

    1973-01-01

    Vapor-dominated geothermal systems such as Larderello, Italy, The Geysers, California, and Matsukawa, Japan yield dry or superheated steam when exploited. Models for these systems are examined along with production data and the thermodynamic properties of water, steam and rock. It is concluded that these systems initially consist of a water and steam filled reservoir, a water-saturated cap rock, and a water or brine-saturated deep reservoir below a water table. Most liquid water in all parts of the system is relatively immobilized in small pores and crevices; steam dominates the large fractures and voids of the reservoir and is the continuous, pressure-controlling phase. With production, the pressure is lowered and the liquid water boils, causing massive transfer of heat from the rock and its eventual drying. Passage of steam through already dried rock produces superheating. After an initial vaporization of liquid water in the reservoir, the decrease in pressure produces increased boiling below the deep water table. With heavy exploitation, boiling extends deeper into hotter rock and the temperature of the steam increases. This model explains most features of the published production behavior of these systems and can be used to guide exploitation policies. ?? 1973.

  10. Origin and transport of chloride in superheated geothermal steam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Haizlip, J.R.; Armannsson, H.; D'Amore, F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a known component of some volcanic gases and volcanic-related hydrothermal systems. It has recently been discovered in superheated steam in exploited geothermal systems, usually as a result of HCl-induced corrosion of well casing and steam gathering systems. Evaluation of four geothermal systems (Tatun, Taiwan; Krafla, Iceland; Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, USA) which produce CI-bearing steam provides evidence for the presence of Cl as HCl and the natural reservoir conditions which can produce HCl-bearing steam. Theoretical calculations defining the physical and chemical conditions of the reservoir liquid which can produce HCl-bearing steam are presented. The main factors are pH, temperature and Cl concentration. Lower pH, higher temperature and higher chlorinity allow more HCl to be volatilized with steam. In order to reach the surface in steam, the HCl cannot contact liquid water in which it is more soluble, essentially limiting transport to superheated steam. Temperature, pH and Cl concentration of reservoir liquids in each of the geothermal systems evaluated combine differently to produce HCl-bearing steam. ?? 1989.

  11. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1-10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200-400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  12. Recent Developments in Superheated Steam Processing of Foods-A Review.

    PubMed

    Alfy, Anto; Kiran, B V; Jeevitha, G C; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-10-02

    Although the use of superheated steam has been known for quite a long time, only in the recent past has it emerged as a viable technology for food processing. Superheated steam, having higher enthalpy, can quickly transfer heat to the material being processed, resulting in its rapid heating. The major advantages of using superheated steam for food processing are better product quality (color, shrinkage, and rehydration characteristics), reduced oxidation losses, and higher energy efficiency. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies on the application of superheated steam for food-processing operations such as drying, decontamination and microbial load reduction, parboiling, and enzyme inactivation. The review encompasses aspects such as the effect of superheated steam processing on product quality, mathematical models reported for superheated steam drying, and the future scope of application in food processing. Recent studies on process improvisation, wherein superheated steam is used at low pressure, in fluidized bed mode, sequential processing with hot air/infrared, and in combination with micro droplets of water have also been discussed.

  13. Melting and superheating of nanowires--a nanotube approach.

    PubMed

    Sar, Dillip Kumar; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2010-05-21

    We have investigated the size-dependent melting of nanotubes based on a thermodynamic approach and shown that the melting temperature of nanotubes depends on the outer radius and on the inner radius through the thickness of the nanotubes. Size-dependent melting of nanowires and thin films has been derived from that of nanotubes. We validate the size-dependent melting of nanotubes, nanowires and thin films by comparing the results with available molecular dynamic simulations and experimental results. It has also been inferred that superheating occurs when the melting starts from the inner surface and proceeds towards the outer surface, while melting point depression occurs when the melting starts from the outer surface and proceeds towards the inner surface.

  14. Superheating water by CW excitation of gold nanodots.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michael T; Green, Andrew J; Richardson, Hugh H

    2012-03-14

    A temperature-dependent photoluminescent thin film of Al(0.94)Ga(0.06)N doped with Er(3+) is used to measure the temperature of lithographically prepared gold nanodots. The gold nanodots and thin film are excited simultaneously with a continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG 532 nm laser. The gold nanodot is submersed under water, and the dot is subsequently heated. The water immediately surrounding the nanodot is superheated beyond the boiling point up to the spinodal decomposition temperature at 594 ± 17 K. The spinodal decomposition has been confirmed with the observation of critical opalescence. We characterize the laser scattering that occurs in unison with spinodal decomposition due to an increased coherence length associated with the liquid-liquid transition.

  15. Thermal activation of superheated lipid-coated perfluorocarbon drops.

    PubMed

    Mountford, Paul A; Thomas, Alec N; Borden, Mark A

    2015-04-28

    This study explored the thermal conditions necessary for the vaporization of superheated perfluorocarbon nanodrops. Droplets C3F8 and C4F10 coated with a homologous series of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines were formed by condensation of 4 μm diameter microbubbles. These drops were stable at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, but they vaporized back into microbubbles at higher temperatures. The vaporization transition was measured as a function of temperature by laser light extinction. We found that C3F8 and C4F10 drops experienced 90% vaporization at 40 and 75 °C, respectively, near the theoretical superheat limits (80-90% of the critical temperature). We therefore conclude that the metastabilty of these phase-change agents arises not from the droplet Laplace pressure altering the boiling point, as previously reported, but from the metastability of the pure superheated fluid to homogeneous nucleation. The rate of C4F10 drop vaporization was quantified at temperatures ranging from 55 to 75 °C, and an apparent activation energy barrier was calculated from an Arrhenius plot. Interestingly, the activation energy increased linearly with acyl chain length from C14 to C20, indicating that lipid interchain cohesion plays an important role in suppressing the vaporization rate. The vaporized drops (microbubbles) were found to be unstable to dissolution at high temperatures, particularly for C14 and C16. However, proper choice of the fluorocarbon and lipid species provided a nanoemulsion that could undergo at least ten reversible condensation/vaporization cycles. The vaporization properties presented in this study may facilitate the engineering of tunable phase-shift particles for diagnostic imaging, targeted drug delivery, tissue ablation, and other applications.

  16. Temperature-Profile Methods for Estimating Thermally-Driven Flow Processes in Superheated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    In geologic repositories for storage of nuclear wastes, the heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste may result in rock temperatures high enough to cause boiling conditions in the subsurface, which gives rise to strongly altered flow processes. These flow processes are characterized by (1) vapor production in the superheated zone close to the heat source, (2) pressure-driven vapor transport away from the heat source, (3) condensation in cooler regions, and (4) reflux of the condensate back to the heat source. Since the magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field, we propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted by the vapor-water reflux processes creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat-pipe signature. Characteristic features of the temperature profile, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of this zone, can be used to derive the approximate magnitude of the vapor and water fluxes, for both steady-state and transient conditions. We present the theoretical basis for the proposed temperature-profile method, test the method in comparison with a semi-analytical solution of thermally-driven flow processes, and present a sample application using measured temperature profiles from an underground heater test.

  17. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  18. Ginzburg-Landau theory of the superheating field anisotropy of layered superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the superheating field of layered superconductors. We provide an intuitive argument both for the existence of a superheating field, and its dependence on anisotropy, for κ =λ /ξ (the ratio of magnetic to superconducting healing lengths) both large and small. On the one hand, the combination of our estimates with published results using a two-gap model for MgB2 suggests high anisotropy of the superheating field near zero temperature. On the other hand, within Ginzburg-Landau theory for a single gap, we see that the superheating field shows significant anisotropy only when the crystal anisotropy is large and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ is small. We then conclude that only small anisotropies in the superheating field are expected for typical unconventional superconductors near the critical temperature. Using a generalized form of Ginzburg Landau theory, we do a quantitative calculation for the anisotropic superheating field by mapping the problem to the isotropic case, and present a phase diagram in terms of anisotropy and κ , showing type I, type II, or mixed behavior (within Ginzburg-Landau theory), and regions where each asymptotic solution is expected. We estimate anisotropies for a number of different materials, and discuss the importance of these results for radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.

  19. Superheated emulsions as high-energy neutron dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Das, Mala; Sawamura, Teruko; Abe, Masashi; Kaneko, Junichi H; Homma, Akira; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    Superheated emulsions being inexpensive, easy to fabricate, and having tissue equivalent composition make them as one of the popular neutron dosemeters. One more advantage is that they can be made insensitive to gamma rays by the choice of the sensitive liquid. It is observed that the response of commercially available bubble detector to neutron decreases above 20 MeV while its response is roughly flat in the 0.1-15 MeV region. This restricts its application as a dosemeter to high-energy neutrons. The response of bubble detector from Bubble Technology Industries, has been observed by using Pb-breeder for high-energy neutrons from different facilities in Japan. It is observed that 2-3 cm Pb-breeder is effective in increasing the response of the detector to the nominal value. Theoretical calculation using MCNPX code indicates an increase in neutrons in the energy range of 0.1-10 MeV with Pb-breeder. The present work indicates the possibility of using the bubble detector as a dosemeter to high-energy neutron using a Pb-breeder of proper thickness.

  20. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g).

  1. Femtosecond and nanometre visualization of structural dynamics in superheated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Schorb, Sebastian; Coffee, Ryan; Adolph, Marcus; Foucar, Lutz; Rupp, Daniela; Aquila, Andrew; Bozek, John D.; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Gumprecht, Lars; Holmegaard, Lotte; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Günter; Holl, Peter; Hömke, Andre; Johnsson, Per; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Messerschmidt, Marc; Reich, Christian; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudek, Benedikt; Schmidt, Carlo; Schulz, Joachim; Soltau, Heike; Stern, Stephan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Bill; Küpper, Jochen; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme; Ullrich, Joachim; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Möller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The ability to observe ultrafast structural changes in nanoscopic samples is essential for understanding non-equilibrium phenomena such as chemical reactions, matter under extreme conditions, ultrafast phase transitions and intense light-matter interactions. Established imaging techniques are limited either in time or spatial resolution and typically require samples to be deposited on a substrate, which interferes with the dynamics. Here, we show that coherent X-ray diffraction images from isolated single samples can be used to visualize femtosecond electron density dynamics. We recorded X-ray snapshot images from a nanoplasma expansion, a prototypical non-equilibrium phenomenon. Single Xe clusters are superheated using an intense optical laser pulse and the structural evolution of the sample is imaged with a single X-ray pulse. We resolved ultrafast surface softening on the nanometre scale at the plasma/vacuum interface within 100 fs of the heating pulse. Our study is the first time-resolved visualization of irreversible femtosecond processes in free, individual nanometre-sized samples.

  2. Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O. )

    1993-06-01

    The system H[sub 2]O-B[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Na[sub 2]O has been studied experimentally at 277[degrees] and 317[degrees]C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317[degrees]C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios.

  3. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Ultra-Superheated Steam Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fen

    Pure steam gasification has been of interest in hydrogen production, but with the challenge of supplying heat for endothermic reactions. Traditional solutions included either combusting feedstocks at the price of decreasing carbon conversion ratio, or using costly heating apparatus. Therefore, a distributed gasifier with an Ultra-Superheated-Steam (USS) generator was invented, satisfying the heat requirement and avoiding carbon combustion in steam gasification. This project developed the first version of the Ultra-Superheated-Steam-Fluidization-Model (USSFM V1.0) for the USS gasifier. A stand-alone equilibrium combustion model was firstly developed to calculate the USS mixture, which was the input to the USSFM V1.0. Model development of the USSFM V1.0 included assumptions, governing equations, boundary conditions, supporting equations and iterative schemes of guessed values. There were three nested loops in the dense bed and one loop in the freeboard. The USSFM V1.0 included one main routine and twenty-four subroutines. The USSFM V1.0 was validated with experimental data from the Enercon USS gasifier. The calculated USS mixture had a trace of oxygen, validating the initial expectation of creating an oxygen-free environment in the gasifier. Simulations showed that the USS mixture could satisfy the gasification heat requirement without partial carbon combustion. The USSFM V1.0 had good predictions on the H2% in all tests, and on other variables at a level of the lower oxygen feed. Provided with higher oxygen feed, the USSFM V1.0 simulated hotter temperatures, higher CO% and lower CO2%. Errors were explained by assumptions of equilibrium combustion, adiabatic reactors, reaction kinetics, etc. By investigating specific modeling data, gas-particle convective heat transfers were found to be critical in energy balance equations of both emulsion gas and particles, while bubble size controlled both the mass and energy balance equations of bubble gas. Parametric study

  5. An experimental study of evaporation waves in a superheated liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporation waves in superheated liquids are studied using a rapid-depressurization facility consisting of a vertical glass test cell situated beneath a large, low-pressure reservoir. The objective of this study is to learn more about the physical mechanisms of explosive boiling (of which an evaporation wave is a specific example), as well as properties of the flow it produces.The test cell is initially sealed from the reservoir by a foil diaphragm, and is partially filled with a volatile liquid (Refrigerant 12 or 114). An experiment is initiated by rupturing the diaphragm via a pneumatically driven cutter. The instrumentation consists of fast-response pressure measurements, high-speed motion pictures, and spark-illuminated still photographs. The liquid temperature is typically 20°C; the liquid superheat is controlled by setting the reservoir pressure to values between vacuum and 1 atm. The pressures subsequent to depressurization are very much less than the critical pressure, and the initial temperatures are sufficiently low that, although the test liquid is highly superheated, the superheat limit is not approached. Evaporation waves in which bubble nucleation within the liquid column is suppressed entirely are considered almost exclusively.When the diaphragm is ruptured, the liquid pressure drops to virtually the reservoir value within a few milliseconds. Provided that the liquid superheat so obtained is sufficiently high, the free surface then erupts in a process known as explosive boiling, which is characterized by violent, fine-scale fragmentation of the superheated liquid and extremely rapid evaporation. The explosive boiling process proceeds as a "wavefront" into the liquid column, producing a highspeed, two-phase flow that travels upward into the low-pressure reservoir, emptying the test cell in a few hundred milliseconds. The speed of the wavefront varies between 0.2 and 0.6 m/s, depending on run conditions; the corresponding two-phase flow varies between

  6. Cascade control of superheated steam temperature with neuro-PID controller.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Fenfang; Ren, Mifeng; Hou, Guolian; Fang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an improved cascade control methodology for superheated processes is developed, in which the primary PID controller is implemented by neural networks trained by minimizing error entropy criterion. The entropy of the tracking error can be estimated recursively by utilizing receding horizon window technique. The measurable disturbances in superheated processes are input to the neuro-PID controller besides the sequences of tracking error in outer loop control system, hence, feedback control is combined with feedforward control in the proposed neuro-PID controller. The convergent condition of the neural networks is analyzed. The implementation procedures of the proposed cascade control approach are summarized. Compared with the neuro-PID controller using minimizing squared error criterion, the proposed neuro-PID controller using minimizing error entropy criterion may decrease fluctuations of the superheated steam temperature. A simulation example shows the advantages of the proposed method.

  7. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  8. Fabrication and response of high concentration SIMPLE superheated droplet detectors with different liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizardo, M.; Morlat, T.; Marques, J. G.; Ramos, A. R.; Girard, TA; Fernandes, A. C.; Kling, A.; Lázaro, I.; Martins, R. C.; Puibasset, J.

    2013-09-01

    The combined measurement of dark matter interactions with different superheated liquids has recently been suggested as a cross-correlation technique in identifying WIMP candidates. We describe the fabrication of high concentration superheated droplet detectors based on the light nuclei liquids C3F8, C4F8, C4F10 and CCl2F2, and investigation of their irradiation response with respect to C2ClF5. The results are discussed in terms of the basic physics of superheated liquid response to particle interactions, as well as the necessary detector qualifications for application in dark matter search investigations. The possibility of heavier nuclei SDDs is explored using the light nuclei results as a basis, with CF3I provided as an example.

  9. Rapid Generation of Superheated Steam Using a Water-containing Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    Heat treatment by superheated steam has been utilized in several industrial fields including sterilization, desiccation, and cooking. In particular, cooking by superheated steam is receiving increased attention because it has advantages of reducing the salt and fat contents in foods as well as suppressing the oxidation of vitamin C and fat. In this application, quick startup and cut-off responses are required. Most electrically energized steam generators require a relatively long time to generate superheated steam due to the large heat capacities of the water in container and of the heater. Zhao and Liao (2002) introduced a novel process for rapid vaporization of subcooled liquid, in which a low-thermal-conductivity porous wick containing water is heated by a downward-facing grooved heating block in contact with the upper surface of the wick structure. They showed that saturated steam is generated within approximately 30 seconds from room-temperature water at a heat flux 41.2 kW⁄m2. In order to quickly generate superheated steam of approximately 300°C, which is required for cooking, the heat capacity of the heater should be as small as possible and the imposed heat flux should be so high enough that the porous wick is able to dry out in the vicinity of the contact with the heater and that the resulting heater temperature becomes much higher than the saturation temperature. The present paper proposes a simple structured generator to quickly produce superheated steam. Only a fine wire heater is contacted spirally on the inside wall in a hollow porous material. The start-up, cut-off responses and the rate of energy conversion for input power are investigated experimentally. Superheated steam of 300°C is produced in approximately 19 seconds from room-temperature water for an input power of 300 W. The maximum rate of energy conversion in the steady state is approximately 0.9.

  10. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  11. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  12. Solid Superheating Observed in Two-Dimensional Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin

    2008-05-23

    It is demonstrated experimentally that strongly coupled plasma exhibits solid superheating. A 2D suspension of microspheres in dusty plasma, initially self-organized in a solid lattice, was heated and then cooled rapidly by turning laser heating on and off. Particles were tracked using video microscopy, allowing atomistic-scale observation during melting and solidification. During rapid heating, the suspension remained in a solid structure at temperatures above the melting point, demonstrating solid superheating. Hysteresis diagrams did not indicate liquid supercooling in this 2D system.

  13. Melting and superheating of sI methane hydrate: molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Grigory S; Stegailov, Vladimir V

    2012-01-28

    Melting and decay of the superheated sI methane structure are studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The melting curve is calculated by the direct coexistence simulations in a wide range of pressures up to 5000 bar for the SPC/E, TIP4P/2005 and TIP4P/Ice water models and the united-atom model for methane. We locate the kinetic stability boundary of the superheated metastable sI structure that is found to be surprisingly high comparing with the predictions based on the classical nucleation theory.

  14. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, A.C.; Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R.; Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  15. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J.

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  16. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  17. On-line coupled extraction and separation using superheated water for the analysis of triazine herbicides in spiked compost samples.

    PubMed

    Tajuddin, Ruziyati; Smith, Roger M

    2005-08-19

    An on-line method, with a purely aqueous mobile phase, has employed linked superheated water extraction and superheated water separation for the analysis of triazine herbicides in spiked compost samples. After the superheated water extraction, a X-Terra solid-phase trap was used to collect and focus the extracted analytes. The trapped analytes were then released by thermal desorption and passed directly to a superheated water chromatographic separation using a PGC column. Two clean-up steps (prior to extraction and separation) were included to remove most of the interfering matrix components. The effects of the sample matrix and the extraction temperatures on the recovery of the triazines were investigated. Despite some thermal degradation of the chloro-triazines during the SWE, the on-line SWE-SWC method was sensitive and rapid. The coupled method could potentially reduce costs and labour and by using only water in every stage is compatible with the concepts of green chemistry.

  18. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (p<0.05), whereas protein content, redness value (a*-value), hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of superheated steam cooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (p<0.05). Fat content and ash content, springiness, and cohesiveness were not significantly different among the chicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p<0.05), whereas no difference in flavor scores were observed among the other treatments (p>0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak.

  19. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (p<0.05), whereas protein content, redness value (a*-value), hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of superheated steam cooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (p<0.05). Fat content and ash content, springiness, and cohesiveness were not significantly different among the chicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p<0.05), whereas no difference in flavor scores were observed among the other treatments (p>0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak. PMID:27499656

  20. Neutron spectrometry with large volume, heavy-loaded superheated droplet detectors: a simple spin-off.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A R; Giuliani, F; Felizardo, M; Girard, T A; Morlat, T; Marques, J G; Oliveira, C; Limagne, D; Waysand, G; Fernandes, A C

    2005-01-01

    SIMPLE is a superheated droplet detector (SDD) experiment designed to search for the evidence of spin-dependent weakly interacting neutralino dark matter (WIMPs). SDDs, a type of emulsion detector, consist of a uniform suspension of superheated liquid droplets in a compliant material such as a polymeric or aqueous gel. We report on the first neutron spectrometry experiments with SIMPLE SDDs, a spin-off of the neutron detector calibrations performed at the Portuguese Research Reactor. SIMPLE SDDs differ from most SDDs available commercially as they have a 10 times higher loading factor, containing 10(3) times more freon than their commercial counterparts and a 100 times larger volume. We have analysed the response of SIMPLE SDDs to two quasi-monochromatic neutron beams of energies 54 and 144 keV obtained with passive filters. Results show that the characteristic peaks in the fluence distribution of both filters could be determined and their energy position obtained using a simple thermodynamic relation.

  1. Superheated water as chromatographic eluent for parabens separation on octadecyl coated zirconia stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Buonasera, Katia; Crupi, Maria Lucia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the use of pure water at superheated temperatures, between 100 and 200 degrees C, as a mobile phase for RP separation is explored. Instrumental parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, preheating and cooling, have shown significant effects on the quality of the chromatographic peaks. The properties of superheated water as an eluent were investigated by observing the chromatographic behaviour of four parabens on a carbon-clad zirconia (ZR) phase with covalently bonded octadecyl groups. Results were compared with those obtained at 30 degrees C on a silica-based phase with octadecyl groups, using water and ACN as mobile phase. The optimized method was finally applied to analyse parabens in a commercial body cream.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of a vapor bubble expanding in a superheated region of finite size

    SciTech Connect

    Annenkova, E. A.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.

    2015-10-28

    Growth of a vapor bubble in a superheated liquid is studied theoretically. Contrary to the typical situation of boiling, when bubbles grow in a uniformly heated liquid, here the superheated region is considered in the form of a millimeter-sized spherical hot spot. An initial micron-sized bubble is positioned at the hot spot center and a theoretical model is developed that is capable of studying bubble growth caused by vapor pressure inside the bubble and corresponding hydrodynamic and thermal processes in the surrounding liquid. Such a situation is relevant to the dynamics of vapor cavities that are created in soft biological tissue in the focal region of a high-intensity focused ultrasound beam with a shocked pressure waveform. Such beams are used in the recently proposed treatment called boiling histotripsy. Knowing the typical behavior of vapor cavities during boiling histotripsy could help to optimize the therapeutic procedure.

  3. Status of Superheated Spray and Post Combustor Particulate Modeling for NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Raju, Suri; Wey, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    At supersonic cruise conditions, high fuel temperatures, coupled with low pressures in the combustor, create potential for superheated fuel injection leading to shorter fuel jet break-up time and reduced spray penetration. Another issue particularly important to the supersonic cruise is the aircraft emissions contributing to the climate change in the atmosphere. Needless to say, aircraft emissions in general also contribute to the air pollution in the neighborhood of airports. The objectives of the present efforts are to establish baseline for prediction methods and experimental data for (a) liquid fuel atomization and vaporization at superheated conditions and (b) particle sampling systems and laboratory or engine testing environments, as well as to document current capabilities and identify gaps for future research.

  4. Melting Kinetics of Confined Systems at the Nanoscale: Superheating and Supercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, I. D.; Xu, Q.; Yuan, C. W.; Liao, C. Y.; Glaeser, A. M.; Chrzan, D. C.; Haller, E. E.; Yi, D. O.; Minor, A. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Ager, J. W. III; Ridgway, M. C.; Kluth, P.

    2007-04-10

    In situ electron diffraction measurements of silica-embedded Ge nanocrystals reveal a melting/solidification hysteresis of 470 K which is approximately symmetric about the bulk melting point. This surprising behavior, which is thought to be impossible in bulk systems, is well described by a simple, classical thermodynamic model. Surface pre-melting, which occurs for materials with free surfaces, is suppressed by the presence of the host matrix, thereby allowing both kinetic supercooling and kinetic superheating of the embedded nanocrystals.

  5. Generalized computer algorithms for enthalpy, entropy and specific heat of superheated vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, Michael W.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Gebre-Amlak, Yonas D.

    This paper presents an innovative technique for the development of enthalpy, entropy, and specific heat correlations in the superheated vapor region. The method results in a prediction error of less than 5 percent and requires the storage of 39 constants for each fluid. These correlations are obtained by using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state and a least-squares regression for the coefficients involved.

  6. Detection of bubble nucleation event in superheated drop detector by the pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mala; Biswas, Nilanjan

    2017-01-01

    Superheated drop detector consisting of drops of superheated liquid suspended in polymer or gel matrix is of great demand, mainly because of its insensitivity to ß-particles and ?-rays and also because of the low cost. The bubble nucleation event is detected by measuring the acoustic shock wave released during the nucleation process. The present work demonstrates the detection of bubble nucleation events by using the pressure sensor. The associated circuits for the measurement are described in this article. The detection of events is verified by measuring the events with the acoustic sensor. The measurement was done using drops of various sizes to study the effect of the size of the drop on the pressure recovery time. Probability of detection of events has increased for larger size of the superheated drops and lesser volume of air in contact with the gel matrix. The exponential decay fitting to the pressure sensor signals shows the dead time for pressure recovery of such a drop detector to be a few microseconds.

  7. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, James E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  8. Superheating suppresses structural disorder in layered BiI3 semiconductors grown by the Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, J. E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In this work, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown by others to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals (Rudolph et al., 1996) [26]; thus the technique was explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, X-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  9. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M.

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  10. Superheating and Homogeneous Single Bubble Nucleation in a Solid-State Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Gaku; Levine, Edlyn V.; Hoogerheide, David P.; Burns, Michael M.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate extreme superheating and single bubble nucleation in an electrolyte solution within a nanopore in a thin silicon nitride membrane. The high temperatures are achieved by Joule heating from a highly focused ionic current induced to flow through the pore by modest voltage biases. Conductance, nucleation, and bubble evolution are monitored electronically and optically. Temperatures near the thermodynamic limit of superheat are achieved just before bubble nucleation with the system at atmospheric pressure. Bubble nucleation is homogeneous and highly reproducible. This nanopore approach more generally suggests broad application to the excitation, detection, and characterization of highly metastable states of matter. PMID:25062192

  11. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  12. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  13. Rapid Online Non-Enzymatic Protein Digestion Analysis with High Pressure Superheated ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Kinoshita, Masato; Noda, Masato; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, we reported a new ESI ion source that could electrospray the super-heated aqueous solution with liquid temperature much higher than the normal boiling point ( J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 1862-1869). The boiling of liquid was prevented by pressurizing the ion source to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The maximum operating pressure in our previous prototype was 11 atm, and the highest achievable temperature was 180°C. In this paper, a more compact prototype that can operate up to 27 atm and 250°C liquid temperatures is constructed, and reproducible MS acquisition can be extended to electrospray temperatures that have never before been tested. Here, we apply this super-heated ESI source to the rapid online protein digestion MS. The sample solution is rapidly heated when flowing through a heated ESI capillary, and the digestion products are ionized by ESI in situ when the solution emerges from the tip of the heated capillary. With weak acid such as formic acid as solution, the thermally accelerated digestion (acid hydrolysis) has the selective cleavage at the aspartate (Asp, D) residue sites. The residence time of liquid within the active heating region is about 20 s. The online operation eliminates the need to transfer the sample from the digestion reactor, and the output of the digestive reaction can be monitored and manipulated by the solution flow rate and heater temperature in a near real-time basis.

  14. An experimental verification of numerical model on superheated steam drying of Belchatow lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, M.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Kaneko, S.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Due to low production costs, lignite is an important component of energy mixes of countries in its possession. However, high moisture content undermines its applicability as fuel for power generation. Drying in superheated steam is a prospective method of upgrading quality of lignite. The study aimed to validate the drying model of lignite from Belchatow mine in Poland. The experimental investigation on superheated steam drying of lignite was previously conducted. Spheres of 10 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110-170oC. The drying behaviour was described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. With the application of basic coal properties (e.g. density, water percentage, specific heat) as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in subsequent stages of the process, the numerical model of drying was constructed. It was tentatively verified with reference to experimental results both in terms of drying parameters and temperature. The model illustrated drying behaviour in the entire range of conditions. Nevertheless, further development of numerical model is desirable regarding accuracy of the process parameters.

  15. Superheated steam pyrolysis of biomass elemental components and Sugi (Japanese cedar) for fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sagehashi, Masaki; Miyasaka, Noritaka; Shishido, Hiromu; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2006-07-01

    To develop a novel noncatalytic biomass refinery process that can be used as a portable process, superheated steam pyrolysis was investigated to produce both carbonized solid fuels and chemicals using a large-scale reactor. Individual biomass components and native biomass (Sugi, Japanese cedar) were pyrolyzed. Between 150 and 400 degrees C, the vaporizing fractions of cellulose, xylan, and kraft lignin were summarized using a numerical model. Cellulose was converted to glycolaldehyde, furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and levoglucosan, whereas xylan was converted to glycolaldehyde, furfural, and acetic acid. Kraft lignin produced a slight yield of phenol and guaiacol. The total vaporization fraction of Sugi and its vaporizing rate were explained sufficiently using a numerical model based on the weighted average of the vaporizing properties of the individual components. However, the yields of phenol, guaiacol, and acetic acid were underestimated, while the yields of furfurals and levoglucosan were overestimated. Possible synergetic effects among chemicals in the superheated steam pyrolysis of native biomass were also discussed.

  16. Extraction of polyphenols from vine shoots of Vitis vinifera by superheated ethanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Luque-Rodríguez, José M; Pérez-Juan, Pedro; Luque de Castro, María D

    2006-11-15

    A study of the nonvolatile fraction of extracts from vine shoots obtained by superheated ethanol-water mixtures is presented. The influence of the temperature, extraction time, and percentage of ethanol on extraction was investigated by a multivariate experimental design to maximize the yield of total phenolic compounds, measured by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The best values found for these variables were 80% (v/v) ethanol, 240 degrees C, and 60 min. Under these conditions, the effect of pH was also investigated, and a strong improvement of yield was observed by decreasing the pH. The extracts were subject to liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. The remaining polar phase was dried in a rotary evaporator and then reconstituted in 10 mL of water. The insoluble residue was dissolved in 10 mL of methanol. Both fractions (aqueous and methanolic) were analyzed by HPLC, and the differences in composition according to the extraction conditions were studied. Compounds usually present in commercial wood extracts were identified (mainly benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and aldehydes); the most abundant were quantified, and the stability of the identified phenolic families under different extraction conditions was also investigated. Finally, the superiority of the superheated liquid extraction over conventional solid-liquid extraction was demonstrated.

  17. Deducing solid liquid interfacial energy from superheating or supercooling: application to H2O at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Strachan, Alejandro; Swift, Damian C.

    2005-04-01

    We present a general method to determine the solid-liquid interfacial energy (γsl) from the maximum supercooling (or superheating), and apply it to the water-ice system. For solid-liquid phase transitions, the nucleation-theory-based systematics of maximum superheating and supercooling relate a dimensionless nucleation barrier to the superheating (supercooling) and heating (cooling) rates. Given superheating (or supercooling) values from either experiments or simulations, γsl can then be deduced from the dimensionless nucleation barrier, equilibrium melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Lennard-Jones system: our predictions of γsl at various pressures are in excellent agreement with independent, direct MD simulations. With this approach, we predict γsl for the water-ice (Ih and III) system using experimental supercooling values in the pressure range of 0-0.3 GPa. The predicted value (28 ± 0.8 mJ m-2) agrees with measurements on H2O-Ih at ambient pressure.

  18. Using liquid superheating energy for a quick estimation of overpressure in BLEVEs and similar explosions.

    PubMed

    Casal, Joaquim; Salla, Josep M

    2006-10-11

    A method is proposed for the quick estimation of the peak overpressure caused by a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) or a similar explosion. The method is based on the use of the "superheating energy" (SE), which is the difference between the specific enthalpy of the liquid at the temperature just before the explosion and the specific enthalpy of the liquid at its saturation temperature, at atmospheric pressure. The analysis performed with a set of reference substances showed that in a BLEVE or in similar explosions, the energy converted into overpressure will range between 3.5 and 14% of SE. The comparison of the values thus obtained with experimental data from the literature shows a fairly good agreement.

  19. Neutron field parameter measurements on the JET tokamak by means of super-heated fluid detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gherendi, M.; Craciunescu, T.; Pantea, A.; Zoita, V. L.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Baltog, I.; Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    The neutron field parameters (fluence and energy distribution) at a specific location outside the JET Torus Hall have been measured by means of super-heated fluid detectors (or 'bubble detectors') in combination with an independent, time-of-flight, technique. The bubble detector assemblies were placed at the end of a vertical line of sight at about 16 m from the tokamak mid plane. Spatial distributions of the neutron fluence along the radial and toroidal directions have been obtained using two-dimensional arrays of bubble detectors. Using a set of three bubble detector spectrometers the neutron energy distribution was determined over a broad energy range, from about 10 keV to above 10 MeV, with an energy resolution of about 30% at 2.5 MeV. The very broad energy response allowed for the identification of energy features far from the main fusion component (around 2.45 MeV for deuterium discharges).

  20. Cs2 ‘diffuse bands’ emission from superheated cesium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.; Beuc, R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal emission from superheated cesium vapor was studied to very high temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. This was performed in the vapor condition only and with no liquid cesium present in the all-sapphire cell. We observed a number of atomic and molecular spectral features simultaneously in emission and absorption, especially peculiar thermal emission of cesium dimer diffuse bands (2 3Πg → a 3∑u + transitions) around 710 nm coexisting with absorption bands around first resonance lines at 852 and 894 nm. We performed appropriate calculations of the diffuse band emission profiles and compared them with measured profiles. We also performed absorption measurements and compared observed diffuse band profiles with calculated ones. Possible applications of the observed phenomena will be discussed in terms of the solar energy conversion using dense cesium vapor.

  1. Explosive boiling of a metallic glass superheated by nanosecond pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M. Q. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn; Wei, Y. P.; Wilde, G.; Dai, L. H. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2015-01-12

    We report an explosive boiling in a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1) bulk metallic glass irradiated by a nanosecond pulse laser with a single shot. This critical phenomenon is accompanied by the ejection of high-temperature matter from the target and the formation of a liquid-gas spinodal pattern on the irradiated area. An analytical model reveals that the glassy target experiences the normal heating (melting) and significant superheating, eventually culminating in explosive boiling near the spinodal limit. Furthermore, the time lag of nucleation and the critical radius of vapor bubbles are theoretically predicted, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. This study provides the investigation on the instability of a metallic glass liquid near the thermodynamic critical temperature.

  2. Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on the Latent Heat Release of Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junfeng; Dang, Bo; Fan, Dandan; Jian, Zengyun

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy of the baseline evaluation is of importance for calculating the transition enthalpy such as the latent heat of the crystallization. This study demonstrates the modified method of the equivalent non-latent heat baseline, by which the transition enthalpy can be measured accurately according to the transition peak in differential scanning calorimetric curve. With this method, the effect of melt superheating treatment time on the latent heat release upon the solidification of tin is investigated. The results show that the latent heat increases by increasing the treatment time, and is close to a constant when the treatment time is large enough, indicating the homogeneous system. And then, a simple model is established to describe the changes of the crystallization latent heat with the treatment time, which is confirmed by the experimental data of Sn.

  3. Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on the Latent Heat Release of Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junfeng; Dang, Bo; Fan, Dandan; Jian, Zengyun

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of the baseline evaluation is of importance for calculating the transition enthalpy such as the latent heat of the crystallization. This study demonstrates the modified method of the equivalent non-latent heat baseline, by which the transition enthalpy can be measured accurately according to the transition peak in differential scanning calorimetric curve. With this method, the effect of melt superheating treatment time on the latent heat release upon the solidification of tin is investigated. The results show that the latent heat increases by increasing the treatment time, and is close to a constant when the treatment time is large enough, indicating the homogeneous system. And then, a simple model is established to describe the changes of the crystallization latent heat with the treatment time, which is confirmed by the experimental data of Sn.

  4. Evaluation of Drying Rates of Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam Using Single-Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Maeda, Masafumi

    2016-12-01

    Drying rates of lignite particle groups in superheated steam are evaluated using a single-particle model developed for Australian lignite. Size distributions of the particles are assumed to obey the Rosin-Rammler equation with the maximum particle diameters defined as 100, 50, and 6 mm. The results show the drying rate of a lignite group depends strongly on the maximum particle size, and removal of large particles prior to drying is shown to be effective to reduce the drying time. The calculation model is available for simulations of drying behaviors of lignite in various dryers when an appropriate heat transfer coefficient is given. This study simulates the drying of particles smaller than 6 mm using a heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed dryer reported elsewhere. The required drying time estimated from the calculation is comparable to the processing time reported in an actual fluidized bed dryer, supporting the validity of the calculation model.

  5. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  6. Antifreeze protein-induced superheating of ice inside Antarctic notothenioid fishes inhibits melting during summer warming.

    PubMed

    Cziko, Paul A; DeVries, Arthur L; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

    2014-10-07

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) of polar marine teleost fishes are widely recognized as an evolutionary innovation of vast adaptive value in that, by adsorbing to and inhibiting the growth of internalized environmental ice crystals, they prevent death by inoculative freezing. Paradoxically, systemic accumulation of AFP-stabilized ice could also be lethal. Whether or how fishes eliminate internal ice is unknown. To investigate if ice inside high-latitude Antarctic notothenioid fishes could melt seasonally, we measured its melting point and obtained a decadal temperature record from a shallow benthic fish habitat in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We found that AFP-stabilized ice resists melting at temperatures above the expected equilibrium freezing/melting point (eqFMP), both in vitro and in vivo. Superheated ice was directly observed in notothenioid serum samples and in solutions of purified AFPs, and ice was found to persist inside live fishes at temperatures more than 1 °C above their eqFMP for at least 24 h, and at a lower temperature for at least several days. Field experiments confirmed that superheated ice occurs naturally inside wild fishes. Over the long-term record (1999-2012), seawater temperature surpassed the fish eqFMP in most summers, but never exceeded the highest temperature at which ice persisted inside experimental fishes. Thus, because of the effects of AFP-induced melting inhibition, summer warming may not reliably eliminate internal ice. Our results expose a potentially antagonistic pleiotropic effect of AFPs: beneficial freezing avoidance is accompanied by melting inhibition that may contribute to lifelong accumulation of detrimental internal ice crystals.

  7. Subtle Mitsunobu couplings under super-heating: the role of high-throughput continuous flow and microwave strategies.

    PubMed

    Manvar, Atul; Shah, Anamik

    2014-11-07

    Non-conventional heating techniques, high-throughput microwave-assisted synthesis and continuous flow penetrate almost every scientific field. Mitsunobu coupling is a ubiquitous choice for the dehydrative redox condensation of primary or secondary alcohols with (pro)nucleophiles. The aim of this review is to showcase the ease of subtle Mitsunobu coupling under super-heating. Surprisingly, this strategy is rather non-trivial; considering the sensitivity of reagents, Mitsunobu chemistry is typically performed at lower temperatures or under ambient conditions. In view of the absence of any previous work focusing on this topic, the current review considers the utility of super-heating in fragile Mitsunobu reactions. Therefore, we anticipate that this review will also bridge some of the apparent gaps in the extant literature by specifically describing the advances made by non-conventional heating assisted by microwave or continuous flow in one of the most powerful stereochemical transformations.

  8. The Parr formula for the superheating field in a semi-infinite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Castillo, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Di Bartolo, Dolgert, and Dorsey [Phys. Rev. B 53, 5650-5660 (1996)] have constructed asymptotic matched solutions at order 2 for the half-space Ginzburg-Landau model in the weak-κ limit. These authors deduced a formal expansion for the superheating field hsh(κ) up to order 4, extending the de Gennes formula [Proceedings of the Eighth Latin American School of Physics, Caracas, 1966] and the two terms in Parr's formula [Z. Phys. B 25, 359-361 (1976)]. On the other hand, the present author [Eur. J. Appl. Math 13, 519-547 (2002)] obtained two terms in the lower bound for hsh(κ). In this paper, we prove rigorously that the second term of the expansion of hsh(κ) is of the order of O(κ1/2) and we get the Parr formula. We improve the upper bound obtained by Bolley and Helffer [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Anal. Non Linéaire 14, 597-613 (1997)] and we get κ(hsh(κ))2⩽2-3/2=15/32κ+O(κ1+ρ), ρ >0. The proof is based on new estimates for f', A, and A'. To achieve this, we are guided by the analysis of the properties of the approximate solution constructed previously in [Del Castillo, Math Modell. Numer. Anal. 36, 971-973 (2002); J. Math. Phys. 44, 2416-2450 (2003); Dolgert et al., Phys. Rev. B 53, 5650-5660 (1996)].

  9. Microwave superheated water and dilute alkali extraction of brewers' spent grain arabinoxylans and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Elisabete; Rocha, M Angélica M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Microwave superheated water extractions (MWE) were performed to evaluate the feasibility of this technology for quantitative recovery of the arabinoxylans (AX) or arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The AX+AXOS yield increased with the increase of the temperature in the range from 140 to 210 °C during 2 min. The higher temperatures promoted depolymerisation, debranching, and deesterification of the polysaccharides, with formation of brown products. The conditions that promote a compromise between the yield and the structure obtained, minimizing the thermal degradation of the fractions extracted by MWE are the following: (1) 140 °C, to remove the residual starch mixed with β-glucans; (2) Suspension of the residue left in water and treated at 180 °C; (3) suspension of the residue in 0.1 M KOH and treated at 180 °C. Using this sequential procedure, it was possible to extract 62% of BSG AX+AXOS, presenting degrees of polymerization ranging between 7 and 24 xylose residues, and a degree of phenolic acids esterification between 5 and 21%. The structural variability obtained by MWE allows defining specific types of compounds for different applications and uses depending on the extraction conditions used.

  10. Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and Soxhlet extraction of essential oils of Origanum onites.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Mustafa Z; Kaymaz, Hilal

    2004-08-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) at various temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 degrees C), steam distillation, and Soxhlet extraction were compared in the extraction of essential oils from two samples of the plant Origanum onites, one cultivated, the other wild. C18 solid-phase extraction was used to elute the essential oils from the SWE aqueous extract. The compositions of the extracted essential oils obtained from all three methods were then characterized by comprehensive GCxGC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS). The highest essential oil yields were obtained by using SWE at 150 degrees C with a flow rate of 2 mL min(-1) and a pressure of 60 bar for 30 min: these were 3.76 and 4.11% for wild and cultivated O. onites samples, respectively, expressed as a percentage of 100 g of dry (leaf) matter. The yields obtained using SWE at 150 degrees C were slightly higher than those from conventional methods. Steam distillation was performed for 3 h, and Soxhlet extraction was completed in 12 h. The major compounds found were borneol, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

  11. Separation of parabens on a zirconia-based stationary phase in superheated water chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Sasai, Haruka; Nishigaki, Atsuko; Shibukawa, Masami

    2013-01-01

    A superheated water chromatography (SWC) method for the separation of alkyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) using a zirconia-based stationary phase was developed and applied to real sample analysis. First, the SWC system was optimized in terms of the proper length of the preheating coil for establishing thermal equilibration of the mobile phase entering the column at the oven temperature. Next, the effect of the column temperature on the retention was investigated at 100-180°C. The elution time for all parabens decreased with increasing column temperature, and linear relationships between ln k and 1/T were obtained. At higher column temperatures, the elution time was further shortened because of the increased mobile-phase flow rate. Nevertheless, the loss of column efficiency at the higher flow rates was not significant. The application of the present method to the analysis of commercial lotions was then demonstrated. The quantification results obtained from SWC showed good agreement with those from a conventional HPLC method.

  12. Numerical and experimental study of the dynamics of a superheated jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Avick; Gopalakrishnan, Shivasubramanian; Balasubramanian, Sridhar

    2015-11-01

    Flash-boiling is a phenomenon where a liquid experiences low pressures in a system resulting in it getting superheated. The sudden drop in pressures results in accelerated expansion and violent vapour formation. Understanding the physics behind the jet disintegration and flash-boiling phenomenon is still an open problem, with applications in automotive and aerospace combustors. The behaviour of a flash-boiling jet is highly dependent on the input parameters, inlet temperature and pressure. In the present study, the external (outside nozzle) and the internal (inside nozzle) flow characteristics of the two-phase flow has been studied numerically and experimentally. The phase change from liquid to vapour takes place over a finite period of time, modeled sing Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM). In order to validate the numerical results, controlled experiments were performed. Optical diagnostic techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Shadowgraphy were used to study the flow characteristics. Spray angle, penetration depth, droplet spectra were obtained which provides a better understanding of the break-up mechanism. Linear stability analysis is performed to study the stability characteristics of the jet.

  13. A two-phase model for subcooled and superheated liquid jets

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, R.; Jersey, G.R.; Krambeck, F.J.; Sundaresan, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a two-phase jet model for predicting the liquid rainout (capture) and composition of subcooled and superheated HF/additive pressurized liquid releases. The parent droplets of the release mixture constitute the fist phase. The second phase can in general be a vapor-liquid fog. The drops are not in equilibrium with the fog phase with which they exchange mass and energy. The fog at any location is assumed to be in local equilibrium. Correlations are developed for predicting the initial drop size for hydrodynamic breakup of jets. Applications are discussed in this paper for HF/additive mixtures. The fog phase calculations account for HF oligomerization and HF-water complex formation in the vapor phase and equilibrium between the liquid and vapor in the fog. The model incorporates jet trajectory calculations and hence can predict the amount of liquid rained out (liquid capture) and the capture distance. The HF captures predicted by the model for various release conditions are in agreement with small and large scale release experiments.

  14. Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.

    1993-06-01

    The system H{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O has been studied experimentally at 277{degrees} and 317{degrees}C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317{degrees}C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios.

  15. The performance evaluation of gamma- and neutron-sensitive superheated emulsion (bubble) detectors.

    PubMed

    Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, Kana Ram; Hooda, J S; Parihar, A

    2008-01-01

    The superheated emulsion (bubble) detectors have been developed at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ), India, for measurement of gamma doses. The developed detectors have been tested at Radiation Safety and System Division (RSSD), Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai (India) and DLJ having ISO-17025 accredited facility for testing and calibration of Radiation Monitors. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the gamma and neutron sensitivity of these detectors, i.e. batch homogeneity, reproducibility, dose equivalent rate effect, gamma/neutron dose equivalent response, gamma/neutron energy response and change in gamma sensitivity as a function of temperature. All the results were within +/- 20% of themselves. It is observed that the response of the detector is dependent upon temperature. The recommended ideal working temperature range of the detector is 20-28 degrees C, but a temperature correction is required beyond approximately 30 masculineC. The temperature compensation may be possible up to 45 degrees C in improved version using specially prepared reversible thermo-sensitive polymer gel. The detector may have applications in radio-diagnosis, R&D laboratories, and health physics as well as an indicator of gamma radiation for dirty bomb to be useful for first responder in any radiological emergency.

  16. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T. T.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C.; Chao, David F.; Sicker, Ronald J.

    2017-03-01

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  17. Sequential microwave superheated water extraction of mannans from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cláudia P; Moreira, Ana S P; Domingues, M Rosário M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-03-15

    The feasibility of using sequential microwave superheated water extraction (MAE) for the recovery of mannans from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Due to the high contents of mannose still present in the SCG residue left after two consecutive MAE, the unextracted material was re-suspended in water and submitted to a third microwave irradiation (MAE3) at 200 °C for 3 min. With MAE3, mannose recovery achieved 48%, increasing to 56% by MAE4, and reaching a maximum of 69% with MAE5. Glycosidic-linkage analysis showed that in MAE3 mainly galactomannans were recovered, while debranched galactomannans were recovered with MAE4 and MAE5. With increasing the number of extractions, the average degree of polymerization of the mannans decreased, as observed by size-exclusion chromatography and by methylation analysis. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease on cell walls thickness. After final MAE5, the remaining un-extracted insoluble material, representing 22% of the initial SCG, was composed mainly by cellulose (84%).

  18. Effective and reusable monolith capillary trap of nitrosamine extraction by superheated water from frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Chienthavorn, Orapin; Ramnut, Narumol; Subprasert, Panee; Sasook, Anupop; Insuan, Wimonrut

    2014-02-12

    A novel, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method of extraction and cleanup of nitrosamines from frankfurter sausage was achieved with a capillary filled with monolith of either polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB), Polydivinylbenzene (P-DVB), or silica that had been fabricated. The study of capability in trapping nonpolar matrix and monolith capillaries with varied lengths revealed that a silica monolith gave the best result for nitrosamine determination. With an online coupling between superheated water extraction (SWE) and silica monolith capillary connected to a 5% phenyl-methylpolysiloxane column, factors affecting the extraction and determination, namely, sensitivity with and without the monolith, reusability, injection-injection repeatability, capillary-capillary precision, and chromatographic separation, were investigated. This confirmed the feasibility of the method. The optimal length of silica monolith capillary was 30 mm, offering reuse more than 20 times. Separation and quantification of selected volatile nitrosamines were carried out using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either a flame ionization detector (FID) or mass spectrometer (MS). The overall extraction and determination method determined by GC-MS allowed for a recovery of 75-88% with a <5% relative standard deviation (RSD) and detection limit of 2-5 ng of injected nitrosamine.

  19. Investigation of coherent structures in a superheated jet using decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Avick; Gopalakrishnan, Shivasubramanian; Balasubramanian, Sridhar

    2016-11-01

    A superheated turbulent jet, commonly encountered in many engineering flows, is complex two phase mixture of liquid and vapor. The superposition of temporally and spatially evolving coherent vortical motions, known as coherent structures (CS), govern the dynamics of such a jet. Both POD and DMD are employed to analyze such vortical motions. PIV data is used in conjunction with the decomposition methods to analyze the CS in the flow. The experiments were conducted using water emanating into a tank containing homogeneous fluid at ambient condition. Three inlet pressure were employed in the study, all at a fixed inlet temperature. 90% of the total kinetic energy in the mean flow is contained within the first five modes. The scatterplot for any two POD coefficients predominantly showed a circular distribution, representing a strong connection between the two modes. We speculate that the velocity and vorticity contours of spatial POD basis functions show presence of K-H instability in the flow. From DMD, eigenvalues away from the origin is observed for all the cases indicating the presence of a non-oscillatory structure. Spatial structures are also obtained from DMD. The authors are grateful to Confederation of Indian Industry and General Electric India Pvt. Ltd. for partial funding of this project.

  20. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe.

    PubMed

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T T; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C; Chao, David F; Sicker, Ronald J

    2017-03-03

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  1. Optical-cell evidence for superheated ice under gas-hydrate-forming conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Hogenboom, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported indirect but compelling evidence that fine-grained H2O ice under elevated CH4 gas pressure can persist to temperatures well above its ordinary melting point while slowly reacting to form methane clathrate hydrate. This phenomenon has now been visually verified by duplicating these experiments in an optical cell while observing the very slow hydrate-forming process as the reactants were warmed from 250 to 290 K at methane pressures of 23 to 30 MPa. Limited hydrate growth occurred rapidly after initial exposure of the methane gas to the ice grains at temperatures well within the ice subsolidus region. No evidence for continued growth of the hydrate phase was observed until samples were warmed above the equilibrium H2O melting curve. With continued heating, no bulk melting of the ice grains or free liquid water was detected anywhere within the optical cell until hydrate dissociation conditions were reached (292 K at 30 MPa), even though full conversion of the ice grains to hydrate requires 6-8 h at temperatures approaching 290 K. In a separate experimental sequence, unreacted portions of H2O ice grains that had persisted to temperatures above their ordinary melting point were successfully induced to melt, without dissociating the coexisting hydrate in the sample tube, by reducing the pressure overstep of the equilibrium phase boundary and thereby reducing the rate of hydrate growth at the ice-hydrate interface. Results from similar tests using CO2 as the hydrate-forming species demonstrated that this superheating effect is not unique to the CH4-H2O system.

  2. Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded inSiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Sharp, I.D.; Yuan, C.W.; Yi, D.O.; Liao, C.Y.; Glaeser,A.M.; Minor, A.M.; Beeman, J.W.; Ridgway, M.C.; Kluth, P.; Ager III,J.W.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2006-08-21

    Free-standing nanocrystals exhibit a size-dependant thermodynamic melting point reduction relative to the bulk melting point that is governed by the surface free energy. The presence of an encapsulating matrix, however, alters the interface free energy of nanocrystals and their thermodynamic melting point can either increase or decrease relative to bulk. Furthermore, kinetic contributions can significantly alter the melting behaviors of embedded nanoscale materials. To study the effect of an encapsulating matrix on the melting behavior of nanocrystals, we performed in situ electron diffraction measurements on Ge nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. Ge nanocrystals were formed by multi-energy ion implantation into a 500 nm thick silica thin film on a silicon substrate followed by thermal annealing at 900 C for 1 h. We present results demonstrating that Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} exhibit a 470 K melting/solidification hysteresis that is approximately symmetric about the bulk melting point. This unique behavior, which is thought to be impossible for bulk materials, is well described using a classical thermodynamic model that predicts both kinetic supercooling and kinetic superheating. The presence of the silica matrix suppresses surface pre-melting of nanocrystals. Therefore, heterogeneous nucleation of both the liquid phase and the solid phase are required during the heating and cooling cycle. The magnitude of melting hysteresis is governed primarily by the value of the liquid Ge/solid Ge interface free energy, whereas the relative values of the solid Ge/matrix and liquid Ge/matrix interface free energies govern the position of the hysteresis loop in absolute temperature.

  3. Investigations of structural transformation within metal (austenite chromium-manganese steel) at the external surface of steam superheating tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The elemental composition of an altered layer at the external surface of a steam superheating tube of grade DI59 steel is investigated after long-term operation. It is shown that the layer is located between a scale and a matrix and depleted by silicon, manganese, copper, and chromium with the maximum oxidizer affinity, enriched by iron and nickel to 90%, and mainly composed of the α-Fe phase (ferrite) with the ferromagnetic properties. The layer formed as a result of selective oxidation and diffusion from the matrix into the metal scale with the less standard free energy of the formation of sulfides and oxides. A magnetic ferrite meter is used in the experimental investigation of the layer evolution by testing grade DI59 steel for heat resistance in air environment at temperatures of 585, 650, and 700°C for 15 × 103 h; creep at a temperature of 750°C and a stress of 60 MPa; and long-term strength at temperatures of 700 and 750°C and stresses of from 30 to 80 MPa. Specimens for tests are made of tubes under as-received conditions. The relationship between the ferrite phase content in the surface metal layer and the temperature and time of test is determined. The dependence is developed to evaluate the equivalent temperature for operation of the external surface of steam superheating tubes using data of magnetic ferritometry. It is shown that operation temperatures that are determined by the ferrite phase content and the σ phase concentration in the metal structure of steam superheating tubes with the significant operating time are close. It is proposed to use magnetic ferritometry for revelation of thermal nonuniformity and worst tubes of steam superheaters of HPP boilers.

  4. Peculiarities of methane clathrate hydrate formation and solid-state deformation, including possible superheating of water ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Slow, constant-volume heating of water ice plus methane gas mixtures forms methane clathrate hydrate by a progressive reaction that occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface. As this reaction proceeds, the rate of melting of metastable water ice may be suppressed to allow short-lived superheating of ice to at least 276 kelvin. Plastic flow properties measured on clathrate test specimens are significantly different from those of water ice; under nonhydrostatic stress, methane clathrate undergoes extensive strain hardening and a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution at conditions well within its conventional hydrostatic stability field.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-12-04

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating.

  6. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type

  7. Hydrogen bond dynamics of superheated water and methanol by ultrafast IR-pump and EUV-photoelectron probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer-Martinez, E; Link, O; Lugovoy, E; Siefermann, K R; Wiederschein, F; Grubmüller, H; Abel, B

    2014-09-28

    Supercritical water and methanol have recently drawn much attention in the field of green chemistry. It is crucial to an understanding of supercritical solvents to know their dynamics and to what extent hydrogen (H) bonds persist in these fluids. Here, we show that with femtosecond infrared (IR) laser pulses water and methanol can be heated to temperatures near and above their critical temperature Tc and their molecular dynamics can be studied via ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid jet interfaces with high harmonics radiation. As opposed to previous studies, the main focus here is the comparison between the hydrogen bonded systems of methanol and water and their interpretation by theory. Superheated water initially forms a dense hot phase with spectral features resembling those of monomers in gas phase water. On longer timescales, this phase was found to build hot aggregates, whose size increases as a function of time. In contrast, methanol heated to temperatures near Tc initially forms a broad distribution of aggregate sizes and some gas. These experimental features are also found and analyzed in extended molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, the simulations enabled us to relate the origin of the different behavior of these two hydrogen-bonded liquids to the nature of the intermolecular potentials. The combined experimental and theoretical approach delivers new insights into both superheated phases and may contribute to understand their different chemical reactivities.

  8. Radiation linear energy transfer and drop size dependence of the low frequency signal from tiny superheated droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Susnata; Das, Mala

    2016-11-01

    The bubble nucleation in superheated tiny droplets of R-12 (CCl2F2, boiling point: -29.8 °C) induced by neutrons and α-particles has been observed using condenser microphone as an acoustic sensor. The superheated droplets used in these experiments are of very small radii having distribution with main peak around 2-3 μm expanding until about 40 μm. The low frequency component of the acoustic shock wave released during bubble nucleation has been measured with condenser microphone and the analysis has been done using ROOT software. Pulses due to bubble nucleation have been recorded in the presence of 241Am-Be neutron source (few keV to about 10 MeV) and 241Am alpha-source (5.48 MeV with intensity 85.2%). The observables related to the power associated with bubble nucleation (P) and the area under the frequency spectrum of the signal (PFreq) have been estimated for the α-particle and neutron induced events. It shows that the α-particle induced bubble nucleation signals are of lower intensity than those obtained from the neutron induced bubble nucleation signals. This phenomenon as observed with tiny droplets is opposite to that observed so far for the larger droplets.

  9. Local and bulk melting of shocked columnar nanocrystalline Cu: Dynamics, anisotropy, premelting, superheating, supercooling, and re-crystallization.

    PubMed

    He, A M; Duan, S Q; Shao, J L; Wang, P; Luo, S N

    2013-08-21

    We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study shock-induced melting transition of idealized hexagonal columnar nanocrystalline Cu. The as-constructed nanocrystalline Cu consists of unrotated (reference) and rotated columnar crystals, relative to the columnar axis. Shock loading is applied along three principal directions of the columnar Cu: two transverse (zigzag and armchair) and one longitudinal directions. Dynamic local melting processes are highly anisotropic with respect to the shock directions. For the transverse directions, hotspot effect and disparate dynamic responses of grains with different orientations may lead to partial or complete premelting of the initially rotated grains, which in turn leads to transient supercooling and heterogeneous recrystallization, and thus, the formation of nanocrystalline solids with modified grain structures or solid-liquid mixtures, depending on the extent of supercooling. With increasing shock strengths, the reference grains melt heterogeneously at interfaces and homogeneously inside. Conversely, "bulk" premelting of the rotated grains is absent for the longitudinal direction, except for grain boundary melting. The progression of recrystallization or heterogenous melting diminishes and eventually eliminates the transient premelting or superheating of the system via latent heat and thermal diffusion. Premelting or superheating appears unlikely for bulk melting or well-defined Hugoniot states, if the thermal and mechanical equilibria are achieved, and the thermodynamic melting curve coincides with the partial melting Hugoniot states of a polycrystalline solid.

  10. Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

    2014-05-01

    The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

  11. Nanosecond near-spinodal homogeneous boiling of water superheated by a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Lyon, Kevin; Allen, Susan D.

    2007-03-15

    The fast boiling dynamics of superheated surface layers of bulk water cavitating under near-spinodal conditions during nanosecond CO{sub 2} laser heating pulses was studied using contact broad-band photoacoustic spectroscopy. Characteristic pressure-tension cycles recorded by an acoustic transducer at different incident laser fluences represent (a) weak random oscillations of transient nanometer-sized near-critical bubbles-precursors and (b) well-defined stimulated oscillations of micron-sized supercritical bubbles and their submicrosecond coalescence products. These findings provide an important insight into basic thermodynamic parameters, spatial and temporal scales of bubble nucleation during explosive liquid/vapor transformations in absorbing liquids ablated by short laser pulses in the thermal confinement regime.

  12. ARE the Merensky Reef and Massive Chromitites of the Bushveld Complex Formed from Crystal Slurries or Superheated Magmas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, R.; Chistyakova, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many recent models attribute the origin of the Merensky Reef and massive chromitites of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa to replenishment of a magma chamber by phenocryst-rich magmas (crystal slurries). In particular, the emplacement of chromite-rich slurries from the staging chamber is currently thought to be responsible for the formation of massive chromitites of the Bushveld Complex. There are, however, first-order observations that are not compatible with this popular idea. One of the key features of the Merensky Reef and almost all layers of massive chromitites is their close association with so-called potholes, the circular to elliptical depressions with gently to steeply inclined sidewalls that are transgressive relative to their footwall rocks. Portions of magmatic stratigraphy are totally absent from the footwall rocks in pothole areas. Here we summarize abundant field evidence from several localities of the Eastern and Western Bushveld Complex that provide strong support to an idea that these portions of footwall rocks were thermally and partly mechanically eroded away by new magma pulses refilling the chamber. To be able to erode the footwall rocks so effectively, the new magmas must have been superheated upon emplacement into the chamber (no phenocrysts in the magmas). Otherwise the phenocrysts will immediately settle to the floor of the chamber to form a blanket protecting footwall rocks from the thermal erosion. The geological observations thus suggest that the origin of the Merensky Reef and massive chromitites must be tackled in the frame of the models that involve the emplacement of superheated, rather than phenocryst-laden magmas. The important lesson to be drawn from this study is that the field observations are still one of the primary tools for the rigorous testing of our hypotheses in modern igneous/ore petrology.

  13. DIRECT-CYCLE, BOILING-WATER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Harrer, J.M.; Fromm, L.W. Jr.; Kolba, V.M.

    1962-08-14

    A direct-cycle boiling-water nuclear reactor is described that employs a closed vessel and a plurality of fuel assemblies, each comprising an outer tube closed at its lower end, an inner tube, fuel rods in the space between the tubes and within the inner tube. A body of water lying within the pressure vessel and outside the fuel assemblies is converted to saturated steam, which enters each fuel assembly at the top and is converted to superheated steam in the fuel assembly while it is passing therethrough first downward through the space between the inner and outer tubes of the fuel assembly and then upward through the inner tube. (AEC)

  14. A tree-on-a-chip: design and analysis of MEMS-based superheated loop heat pipes exploiting nanoporous silicon membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I.-T.; Stroock, A. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and analysis of a plant-inspired, MEMS- based superheated loop heat pipe (SHLHP) that would exploit nanoporous membranes to allow for operation with large capillary pressures and superheated liquid. The operating principles of SHLHPs differ from conventional designs in 1) the un-coupling of the working fluid from its saturation curve to eliminate limitations associated with temperature head and sub-cooling conditions and 2) the possibility of maintaining sub-saturation throughout the device to eliminate film condensation and improve the condenser thermal conductivity. Nanoporous silicon membranes integrated with DRIE channels are fabricated and characterized. The ability of the membrane to hold liquid under tension is tested by equilibrating water-filled device with various relative humidity and observing the cavitation events within individual voids underneath the membrane. Silicon membranes with desired functionality are further incorporated with patterned glass substrates to form prototype MEMS-based SHLHPs.

  15. Response function of a superheated drop neutron monitor with lead shell in the thermal to 400-MeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Itoga, Toshiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanimura, Yoshihiko

    2011-07-01

    Superheated drop detectors are currently used for personal and environmental dosimetry and their characteristics such as response to neutrons and temperature dependency are well known. A new bubble counter based on the superheated drop technology has been developed by Framework Scientific. However, the response of this detector with the lead shell is not clear especially above several tens of MeV. In this study, the response has been measured with quasi-monoenergetic and monoenergetic neutron sources with and without a lead shell. The experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo calculations using the 'Event Generator Mode' in the PHITS code with the JENDL-HE/2007 data library to clarify the response of this detector with a lead shell in the entire energy range.

  16. Separation of phenols and furfural by pervaporation and reverse osmosis membranes from biomass--superheated steam pyrolysis-derived aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sagehashi, Masaki; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Shishido, Hiromu; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    The separation of valuable chemicals from raw products, where a great number of chemicals coexist, is the key technology in biomass refinery. In this study, the applicability of membrane separation of valuable chemicals from our currently developed portable superheated steam (SHS) biomass pyrolysis process was demonstrated. Phenols (phenol, p-cresol, guaiacol, methyl guaiacol, and ethyl guaiacol), furfural, and acetone were successfully separated by pervaporation using the silicone rubber membrane from model solutions and an actual SHS derived aqueous solution. The solution was also concentrated effectively by reverse osmosis separation using a polyamide membrane. When a high concentration of SHS solution was fed to the pervaporation process, a phase-separated permeate was obtained, which indicated that the reverse osmosis concentration combined with pervaporation separation is useful for the superheated steam process.

  17. Direct simulation of melting a cryogenic surface with a two-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent superheated vapor jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Adam J.

    This dissertation presents original research into the melting process of a downward facing cryogenic solid hydrogen surface subject to a two dimensional axisymmetric jet impingement flow of superheated hydrogen vapor. The motivation for the study is to investigate concepts of storing rocket propellants as a solid and rapidly melting the solid for liquid propellant delivery to a rocket engine. The present study considers a more favorable liquid removal arrangement than prior (1970s) experiments which melted solid hydrogen at the bottom of a cryostat. This is a numerical study that involves computation fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of four distinct physical phenomena: (1) melting, (2) jet impingement heat transfer (JIHT), (3) multiphase transport, and (4) film breakup/droplet formation. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used with the V2F turbulence model in a commercial CFD Navier-Stokes solver (FLUENT) to investigate the multiphase nature of melt transport and its interaction with the vapor stream; i.e., the phenomena relevant to effective heat transfer between the vapor and the melting interface. The goal of the research is: (1) to develop a numerical method to study the problem and (2) evaluate several simple configurations to begin investigating relevant phenomena for the purpose of enhancing melting rate. Many options exist for the vapor to interact with the solid surface. The scope of this initial research is limited to a steady jet of single phase superheated hydrogen vapor at fixed jet exit conditions (T = 525 R and Re = 11,000) at a fixed jet standoff ( H/D = 1.0). Condensation/vaporization are not considered. Although film breakup/droplet formation is a phenomenon where two dimensional features evolve into three dimensional events, this phenomenon is approximated as two dimensional to allow a computationally tractable problem for this initial study. Calculations are performed validating the numerical method for melting and JIHT against known results

  18. A Bubble Chamber Revival: Superheated Liquid Detectors for Dark Matter Searches and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Bubble chambers were recently deemed to be obsolete, of interest only to historians, but a few new applications have unexpectedly emerged in nuclear and particle astrophysics. These include the search for WIMP dark matter and the measurement of a few otherwise intractable nuclear cross sections. The new bubble chambers exploit features of the bubble nucleation process that were unappreciated or irrelevant in the 1950s-1970s when the technology was known for its capability to provide fine-grained tracking of high energy particles in a dense target medium. By carefully tuning the temperature and pressure, a liquid can be made selectively sensitive to particles on the basis of their specific rate of energy loss, enabling a high degree of background rejection power when searching for rare heavily-ionizing tracks. Surprisingly, additional information on the microstructure of particle tracks can be extracted from the acoustic noise produce by bubble nucleation. Other novel features of the new bubble chambers include the use of digital photography, self-triggering, and the achievement of nearly continuous sensitivity by the avoidance of bubble nucleation on internal wetted surfaces.

  19. A field study of lignite as a drying aid in the superheated steam drying of anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, A F A; Qi, Y; Nguyen, T; Hapgood, K; Desai, D; Pinches, D

    2015-10-01

    Dried sludge is preferred when the sludge is either to be incinerated or used as a soil amendment. This paper focuses on superheated steam drying which has many benefits, because the system is totally enclosed, thereby minimising odours and particulate emissions. This work reports on field trials at a wastewater treatment plant where anaerobically digested sludge is dried immediately after being dewatered by belt press. The trials showed that unlike previous off-site tests, the sludge could be dried without the addition of a filter aid at a low production rate. However, the trials also confirmed that the addition of the lignite (brown coal) into the anaerobically digested sludge led to a more productive drying process, improved product quality and a greater fraction of the product being in the desired product size range. It is concluded that these results were achieved because the lignite helped to control the granule size in the dryer. Furthermore neither Salmonella spp or E coli were detected in the dried samples. Tests on spontaneous combustion show that this risk is increased in proportion to the amount of lignite used as a drying aid.

  20. Chemical kinetics of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid in superheated steam: effect of isomerization on mate (Ilex paraguariensis) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zanoelo, Everton Fernando; Benincá, Cristina

    2009-12-23

    A set of experiments was carried out to investigate the chemical stability of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) in the presence of superheated steam. A batch cylindrical reactor made of glass and isothermally operated between 398 and 499 K was used in the experiments. A high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector was applied to monitor the 5-CQA concentrations. The conversions of 5-CQA were correctly reproduced with a simplified kinetic model represented by a reversible pseudofirst-order reaction of isomerization. The effect of temperature on the forward rate constant was represented by the Arrhenius equation with parameters tuned on experimental data. The heat of isomerization of 5-CQA and the equilibrium constant at 298 K were calculated by involving the integrated form of the van't Hoff equation. The observed reaction was revealed to not be detrimental for the quality of manufactured leaves and branches of mate because the content of total chlorogenic acids was not changed.

  1. Transcriptional response of selected genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm cells during inactivation by superheated steam.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Yoon, Hyunjin

    2015-01-02

    Superheated steam (SHS), produced by the addition of heat to saturated steam (SS) at the same pressure, has great advantages over conventional heat sterilization due to its high temperature and accelerated drying rate. We previously demonstrated that treatment with SHS at 200°C for 10 sec inactivated Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes biofilm cells on the surface of stainless steel to below the detection limit. However, bacteria withstanding heat stress become more resistant to other stress conditions, and may be more virulent when consumed by a host. Herein, we studied the transcriptional regulation of genes important for stress resistance and virulence in Salmonella biofilms after SHS treatments. Genes encoding heat shock proteins and general stress resistance proteins showed transcriptional surges after 1 sec of SHS treatment at 200°C, with parallel induction of stress-related regulator genes including rpoE, rpoS, and rpoH. Interestingly, Salmonella biofilm cells exposed to SHS showed decreased transcription of flagella and Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) genes required for motility and invasion of host cells, respectively, whereas increased transcription of SPI-2 genes, important for bacterial survival and replication inside host cells, was detected. When the transcriptional response was compared between cells treated with SHS (200°C) and SS (100°C), SHS caused immediate changes in gene expression by shorter treatments. Understanding the status of Salmonella virulence and stress resistance induced by SHS treatments is important for wider application of SHS in controlling Salmonella biofilm formation during food production.

  2. The role of superheating in the formation of Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) inferred through crystallization of sanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Laura E.; Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2016-10-01

    crystals (and other mineral phases) must have an associated kinetic effect(s) that efficiently hinders crystal nucleation and growth. Decompression experiments conducted in this study and from the literature collectively demonstrate that the simplest way to inhibit nucleation during degassing-induced crystallization is to initiate degassing ± cooling from superliquidus conditions, and therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were superheated prior to crystallization.

  3. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  4. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  5. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PV<1.0 meq/kg). These results show that thermal application of 200 °C SHS treatment for 15s and 30s did not affect the quality of almonds and pistachios, respectively. Therefore, SHS treatment is a very promising alternative technology for the tree nuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time.

  6. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-26

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  7. Bubble chambers for experiments in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Raut, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-05-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with γ-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross-sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross-sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross-sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets. Also, the detector is virtually insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself, thus allowing us to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The development and the operation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the bubble chamber are discussed.

  8. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  9. Theoretical prediction of physical and chemical characteristics of the first drop'' of condensate from superheated geothermal steam: Implications for corrosion and scaling in turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, P. . Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche); Corsi, R. ); Guidi, M.; Marini, L. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a method for computing: (1) the chemical composition of the first drop of condensate which forms at dew-point temperature through expansion of superheated steam, and (2) the saturation index of the drop with respect to relevant solid phases, such as halite, amorphous silica, boric acid, borax and sal ammoniac. Boiling-point elevation is taken into account in these calculations. Preliminary application to some wells in the Larderello geothermal field indicate that: (1) the high concentration of HCl in the steam causes both the low pH and very high TDS of the first drop; (2) the lower the dew-point temperature, the higher the TDS of the first drop; (3) for a given chemical composition, the lower the steam pressure, the higher the risk of corrosion and scaling in the steam path.

  10. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  11. Second, third and correlation moments from nonequilibrium and equilibrium fluctuation theory, N, P, T ensemble, compared between supercooled and superheated liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walrafen, G. E.; Chu, Y. C.

    1994-05-01

    A local nonequilibrium fluctuation (NEF) theory has been developed which applies to modest deviations from equilibrium when gradients, time dependences, etc., are absent, and, provided that long-range spatial correlations of the fluctuations are suppressed, for example, by droplet sizes down to 3 μm required to obtain thermodynamic data at the extremes of supercooling. The predictions from NEF theory are constrasted against those from equilibrium fluctuation (EF) theory using the extensive data available for metastable liquid water. NEF and EF second and third T and P moments were calculated and compared between the maximum supercooling and superheating spinodals, ≈227 K and ≈596 K, at 1 atm pressure. The EF second and third T and P moments are either small or zero near 227 K, but <(δ T) 2> and <(δ P) 2> approach +∞ near 227 K, and <(δ T) 3> and <(δ P) 3> approach -∞ and +∞, respectively, when calculated by NEF theory. Moreover, all NEF second moments, G, A, H, E, P, V, T and S, approach +∞ for supercooled water near 227 K, and correlation moments, e.g., entropy-pressure, also diverge. The positive infinities in <(δ P) 3> and <(δ P) 3> require some pressure fluctuations to reach the negative-pressure stability limit of supercooled water at 227 K, thus causing mechanical instability, but mechanical instability at 227 K is not obtained from EF theory. An even more important result is that the NEF second S moment diverges much faster near 227 K then the EF second S moment. This occurs because the NEF second S moment contains two diverging terms; the first is the same as the EF second S moment, but the second, more-rapidly diverging term, is related to the nonequilibrium entropy production. The NEF second E moment also is somewhat larger than the EF second E moment near 227 K, whereas other second moments, of A, H and V, are identical in EF and NEF theory. Several NEF second moment divergences do not result just from the infinities in the individual

  12. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  13. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  14. Modeling and Testing of Non-Nuclear, Highpower Simulated Nuclear Thermal Rocket Reactor Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    When the President offered his new vision for space exploration in January of 2004, he said, "Our third goal is to return to the moon by 2020, as the launching point for missions beyond," and, "With the experience and knowledge gained on the moon, we will then be ready to take the next steps of space exploration: human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond." A human mission to Mars implies the need to move large payloads as rapidly as possible, in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, with the scientific advancements possible with Project Prometheus and its Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), (these use electric propulsion), there is a renewed interest in deep space exploration propulsion systems. According to many mission analyses, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), with its relatively high thrust and high specific impulse, is a serious candidate for such missions. Nuclear rockets utilize fission energy to heat a reactor core to very high temperatures. Hydrogen gas flowing through the core then becomes superheated and exits the engine at very high exhaust velocities. The combination of temperature and low molecular weight results in an engine with specific impulses above 900 seconds. This is almost twice the performance of the LOX/LH2 space shuttle engines, and the impact of this performance would be to reduce the trip time of a manned Mars mission from the 2.5 years, possible with chemical engines, to about 12-14 months.

  15. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  16. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d’Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  17. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  18. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    DOE PAGES

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; ...

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information.more » More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.« less

  19. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; D'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  20. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  1. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  2. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  3. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, F; Curzio, G; Ciolini, R; Del Gratta, A; Nath, R

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photomicrosensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc, France. The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets.

  6. Experimental investigation on combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alekseev, M. V.; Bogomolov, A. R.; Sorokin, A. L.; Azikhanov, S. S.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data are represented on the investigation of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated (initial temperature of approximately 150°C) steam at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the ratio of mass flows of the combustible mixture and steam on the qualitative composition of combustion products and the temperature of produced steam is revealed. Main laws for combustion of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, which affect the completeness of mixture combustion, are determined. Experimental data on the influence of concentrations of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the flow of the steam and the combustible mixture upon the completeness of combustion are given. It is found that, when burning the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow with a temperature of 1000-1200°C, it is possible using a variation of the combustible mixture flow. At the same time, the volume fraction of noncondensable gases in the produced steam is no more than 2%. It is revealed that there are several combustion modes of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, in which, in one case, the steam always suppresses combustion and, in another one, detonation of the combustible mixture combustible mixture occurs. It is found that with the excess air factor close to unit, the combustion of the methane-oxygen mixture within steam and the vapor conversion of methane, which result in the appearance of free hydrogen in the produced high-temperature steam, are possible. The description and the principle of the operation of the experimental bench for investigation of combustion of methane-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in the medium of steam are given. Results of experimental investigations of burning fuel and oxygen in the medium of steam are used in the development of a steam superheater for a hightemperature steam turbine.

  7. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (<8%) and highly-evolved (high SiO2, low MgO, Sr, Ba) and, therefore, their formation required extremely efficient crystal-liquid separation. Petrologic and experimental investigation of the mineral phases in Glass Mountain lavas may reveal differentiation processes that generated the obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  10. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  13. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  14. Development of bubble chambers with enhanced stability and sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils

    SciTech Connect

    Bolte, W.J.; Collar, Juan I.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; Nakazawa, D.; Odom, B.; O'Sullivan, K.; Plunkett, R.; Ramberg, E.; Raskin, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Vieira, J.D.; /Chicago U., EFI /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The viability of using a Bubble Chamber for rare event searches and in particular for the detection of dark matter particle candidates is considered. Techniques leading to the deactivation of inhomogeneous nucleation centers and subsequent enhanced stability in such a detector are described. Results from prototype trials indicate that sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils like those expected from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles can be obtained in conditions of near total insensitivity to minimum ionizing backgrounds. An understanding of the response of superheated heavy refrigerants to these recoils is demonstrated within the context of existing theoretical models. We comment on the prospects for the detection of supersymmetric dark matter particles with a large CF{sub 3}I chamber.

  15. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  16. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  17. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  18. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  1. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  2. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  3. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  4. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  6. Drop Impact on Superheated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuan; Staat, Hendrik J. J.; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    At the impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated above the liquid’s boiling point, the droplet either immediately boils when it contacts the surface (“contact boiling”), or without any surface contact forms a Leidenfrost vapor layer towards the hot surface and bounces back (“gentle film boiling”), or both forms the Leidenfrost layer and ejects tiny droplets upward (“spraying film boiling”). We experimentally determine conditions under which impact behaviors in each regime can be realized. We show that the dimensionless maximum spreading γ of impacting droplets on the heated surfaces in both gentle and spraying film boiling regimes shows a universal scaling with the Weber number We (γ˜We2/5), which is much steeper than for the impact on nonheated (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) surfaces (γ˜We1/4). We also interferometrically measure the vapor thickness under the droplet.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  8. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  9. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  10. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  12. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  14. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  15. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  17. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  18. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  20. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  2. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  3. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  4. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  5. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  6. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  7. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  9. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  10. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect.

  11. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  12. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  13. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  18. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  19. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  20. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  1. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  3. The influence of green surface modification of oil palm mesocarp fiber by superheated steam on the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of oil palm mesocarp fiber/poly(butylene succinate) biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Then, Yoon Yee; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-08-29

    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200-230 °C) and time (30-120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication.

  4. The Influence of Green Surface Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber by Superheated Steam on the Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber/Poly(butylene succinate) Biocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Then, Yoon Yee; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200–230 °C) and time (30–120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication. PMID:25177865

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  6. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  7. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  8. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  9. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  10. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  12. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  13. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  14. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  15. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  16. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  17. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  18. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  19. NUCLEAR SUPERHEATER FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Holl, R.J.; Klecker, R.W.; Graham, C.B.

    1962-05-15

    A description is given of a boiling water reactor having a superheating region integral with the core. The core consists essentially of an annular boiling region surrounding an inner superheating region. Both regions contain fuel elements and are separated by a cylindrical wall, perforations being provided in the lower portion of the cylindrical wall to permit circulation of a common water moderator between the two regions. The superheater region comprises a plurality of tubular fuel assemblies through which the steam emanating from the boiling region passes to the steam outlet. Each superheater fuel assembly has an outer double-walled cylinder, the double walls being concentrically spaced and connected together at their upper ends but open at the bottom to provide for differential thermal expansion of the inner and outer walls. Gas is entrapped in the annulus between the walls which acts as an insulating space between the fissionable material inside and the moderator outside. (AEC)

  20. RbCu 1.2Ag 3.8Se 3 and Cs 2Cu 2Sb 2Se 5: Novel Quaternary Intermetallics Synthesized from Superheated Organic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Wang, Ru-Ji; Dilks, Kieran J.; Li, Jing

    1999-10-01

    Reactions in superheated ethylenediamine (en) solutions at 160°C resulted in two novel quaternary intermetallic copper selenides, RbCu1.2Ag3.8Se3(I) and Cs2Cu2Sb2Se5(II). Both I and II are metal rich and represent new layered structure types. Compound I crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system, space group P4/nbm (No. 125) with a=5.991(1) Å, c=10.918(2) Å, Z=2, V=391.9(1) Å3, R1/wR2=0.0373/0.0458 for all reflections. Compound II belongs to the triclinic crystal system, space group Poverline1 (No. 2), a=7.645(1) Å, b=8.768(2) Å, c=10.264(1) Å, α=91.97(2)°, β=92.07(2)°, γ=103.05(1)°, Z=2, V=669.2(3) Å3, R1/wR2=0.0685/0.0740 for all reflections. I consists of 2∞[(Cu1.2Ag3.8Se3)-] layers and Rb+ counterions located between these layers. There are two types of metal-to-selenium coordination, a square planar (Ag) and a trigonal pyramidal (Cu/Ag). The Se(1) atom displays an unusual eight coordination with Ag and Cu. II contains alternating 2∞[(Cu2Sb2Se5)2-] anionic and Cs+ cationic layers. Each copper atom has a distorted tetrahedral coordination to four Se atoms, and each antimony atom bonds to three Se atoms to result in a trigonal pyramidal geometry. Both I and II are semiconductors with estimated band gaps of 0.7-0.8 and 1.2-1.3 eV, respectively.

  1. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  2. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  3. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  4. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  6. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  7. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  8. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  9. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  10. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    small modular reactors and extend the lives and improve the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants. 40 Interdisciplinary MIT Study, The Future of Nuclear Power, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 79. 41 Gronlund, Lisbeth, David Lochbaum, and Edwin Lyman, Nuclear Power in a Warming World, Union of Concerned Scientists, December 2007. 42 Travis Madsen, Tony Dutzik, and Bernadette Del Chiaro, et al., Generating Failure: How Building Nuclear Power Plants

  11. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    of efforts to improve the safety of nuclear reactors that were started together with the USSR. These efforts are focused in particular on...characteristics of these reactors are quite encouraging. With their improved safety and low radiation effect on environment they ensure the possi...Nuclear Power [KYODO] 3 Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Reports Leak [KYODO] 3 NORTH KOREA Nuclear Weapons Capability Discussed by ROK Paper

  12. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  13. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  16. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  17. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  18. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    a new generation of nuclear Because of the significant improvements in radiation read- reactors with an increased degree of safety are developed...With USSR [Moscow PRA VDA 14 Aug] ...................... 14 Future Nuclear Reactor Plans Detailed fIslamnahad Radio...July Stoppages /Moscow International] ........................................... 19 Suspension of Nuclear Reactor Construction Urged ITASS

  19. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    extraction plant in collaboration with the Fer- Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). tilizers and Chemicals , Travancore (FACT) at Eloor near Cochin...Nuclear Reactor Shut Down After Malfunction [KYODO] ................................................................ 8 PHILIPPINES Proposal To Operate...Nuclear Reactor in Algeria [TELAM] .............................................................. 10 Nuclear Official Returns From Algeria [TELAM

  20. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... necesita saber acerca de... Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Un procedimiento de medicina nuclear se describe algunas veces como unos rayos- ... través del cuerpo del paciente. Los procedimientos de medicina nuclear utilizan pequeñas cantidades de mate- riales radiactivos, ...

  2. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  3. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  4. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  5. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  6. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  8. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  9. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  10. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  11. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  12. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  16. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    2004 revelations about a procurement network run by former Pakistani nuclear official A. Q. Khan, Islamabad has taken a number of steps to improve ...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s...context where these broader tensions and conflicts are present. 1 Pakistani efforts to improve the security of its nuclear weapons have been ongoing

  17. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  18. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  19. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  20. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  1. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  2. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  3. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  4. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  5. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  6. The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mice from the MRL or “superhealing” strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan (Sgcg), a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. With disruption of the dystrophin complex, the muscle plasma membrane becomes leaky and muscles develop increased fibrosis. Methods MRL/MpJ mice were bred with Sgcg mice, and cardiac function was measured. Muscles were assessed for fibrosis and membrane leak using measurements of hydroxyproline and Evans blue dye. Quantitative trait locus mapping was conducted using single nucleotide polymorphisms distinct between the two parental strains. Results Introduction of the MRL genome reduced fibrosis but did not alter membrane leak in skeletal muscle of the Sgcg model. The MRL genome was also associated with improved cardiac function with reversal of depressed fractional shortening and the left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic modifiers and found that a region on chromosome 2 was associated with cardiac, diaphragm muscle and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Conclusions These data are consistent with a model where the MRL genome acts in a dominant manner to suppress fibrosis in this chronic disease setting of heart and muscle disease. PMID:23216833

  7. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  8. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  10. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  11. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  12. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  13. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  14. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  15. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    7 Scientists Term Nuclear Reactor ’Satisfactory’ [XINHUA] ............................................................... 7 Neutron Velocity...PAULO 29 Oct] .................................... 14 Details of Secret Army Graphite Reactor Disclosed [FOLHA DE SAO PAULO 24 Oct] .............. 14...Corporation Plans To Expand Production [THE HINDU 2 Oct] .................................. 28 ISRAEL Request for Canadian Nuclear Reactor Confirmed

  16. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  17. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  18. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  2. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  3. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  4. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  6. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  7. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  8. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  9. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  10. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  11. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  12. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  13. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  14. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  15. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  16. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  17. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee)...

  18. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC,: Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License...

  19. 76 FR 15001 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  1. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  3. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  4. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  5. The new nuclear nations

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it.

  6. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  7. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  8. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  9. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  10. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the March 1996 listing of NRC issuances. Included are: (1) NRC orders granting Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company`s petition for review of the ASLB order LBP-95-17, (2) NRC orders relating to the potential disqualification of two commissioners in the matter of the decommissioning of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (3) ASLB orders pertaining to the Oncology Services Corporation, (4) ASLB orders pertaining to the Radiation Oncology Center, (5) ASLB orders pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and (6) Director`s decision pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  12. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  13. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  14. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  15. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  17. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Deborah K.; Anderson, Dale N.; Shumway, Robert

    2008-09-15

    Teleseismic events (earthquakes or explosions) generate strong seismic energy waves that propagate largely in the mantle. For example, the Threshold Test Ban Treaty restricted nuclear tests to be less that 150 kilotons in size, and explosions of this size generate seismic energy waves that are observed teleseismically. Teleseismic monitoring for explosions answers three questions: Where is the seismic event located? Is the event an explosion or natural (event identification)? If an explosion, how large was it? Resolving whether an explosion is chemical or nuclear can require additional analysis (e.g., analysis of atmospherically observed chemical and nuclear spectra). Because of the political ramifications of event identification errors, risk analysis in the context of nuclear explosion monitoring is unique.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer in your child’s body will lose its radioactivity over time. In many cases, the radioactivity will ...

  19. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  20. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  1. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  2. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  3. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  4. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  5. Nuclear energy: moving ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Electricity is assuming a larger role despite conservation efforts because it can be generated from a variety of fuels, it is essential for many industrial processes, and it is easier to control the environmental impacts from centralized power plants. The growth in electricity use over the next 10 years is expected to match that of productivity and the gross national product. After examining available energy sources and concluding that nuclear energy is necessary for an adequate and reliable supply, this booklet goes on to examine the risks, accidents and accident control, safety research, nuclear waste management, and the economics of nuclear energy. It concludes that nuclear energy is needed for both the transition period as fossil fuels are used up and in the long term when demand may increase as much as 50%. 24 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  7. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  8. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  9. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  10. Nuclear Clusters in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-03-01

    The role of nuclear clustering is discussed for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before. Special emphasis is placed on α-induced stellar reactions together with molecular states for O and C burning.

  11. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  16. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  18. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  19. Nuclear Warfare Water Contamination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Products x Applied Health Physics, Inc x Applied Physical Technology, Inc x Aptec Nuclear Inc x The Aston Company x Baird Corp x Berthold-Beta...15, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C., June 1966. 61 26. Private Communication, D. C. Lindsten (USAMERADCOM) to John C.Phillips (SA[-Chicago...Detection and Measurement," John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1919. 29. Lichholz, G. G., "Environmental Aspects of Nuclear Power," Ann Arbor, Science, Ann Arbor

  20. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  1. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  3. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMERCIO 21 Aug] 23 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA EGYPT Agreements Signed to Develop Domestic Uranium [AL-JUMHURIYAH 2 Aug] 24 INDIA Two Large...Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock...96.622 authorizes the establishment of Uranium of Brasil S.A. as a subsidiary of INB, with headquarters in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais State

  4. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Generation IV Program will also focus on developing a sodium-cooled fast reactor ( SFR ). Existing U.S. commercial nuclear reactors use water to slow...Nevada. The UREX+ process also would reduce the heat generated by nuclear waste — the major limit on the repository’s capacity — by removing cesium ...significantly contaminated by radioactive cesium .17 Greenpeace issued a report in 2006 estimating that 200,000 deaths in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine resulted

  5. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  6. A Nuclear Energy Renaissance: Challenges to Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    civilian nuclear power infrastructure. Light water reactors require enriched uranium to operate, albeit at much lower enrichment percentages...the horizon. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident the world’s nuclear energy industry is booming.1 Nuclear energy is...experiencing a strong revival around the world and in the United States. There are currently 439 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, in 30 countries. Thirty

  7. Analysis of nuclear reconstitution, nuclear envelope assembly, and nuclear pore assembly using Xenopus in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of "wild-type" and "biochemically mutant" nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates.

  8. Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear Envelope Assembly, and Nuclear Pore Assembly Using Xenopus In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2015-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of “wild-type” and “biochemically mutant” nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates. PMID:24857730

  9. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  10. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  11. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  12. Uncertainties in nuclear fission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We review the current status of our knowledge of nuclear fission data, and quantify uncertainties related to each fission observable whenever possible. We also discuss the roles that theory and experiment play in reducing those uncertainties, contributing to the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process as well as of evaluated nuclear data libraries used in nuclear applications.

  13. Britain`s nuclear quandary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    This article is review of energy policy in the United Kingdom, in particular, the British government`s review of the nuclear industry. Major topics of this review include: (1) The economic viability of new nuclear stations, (2) The privitization of the nuclear industry, (3) Nuclear waste disposal, and (4) Liabilities associated with decommissioning.

  14. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  15. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  17. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  18. Nuclear Lunar Logistics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This document has been prepared to incorporate all presentation aid material, together with some explanatory text, used during an oral briefing on the Nuclear Lunar Logistics System given at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, on 18 July 1963. The briefing and this document are intended to present the general status of the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) nuclear rocket development, the characteristics of certain operational NERVA-class engines, and appropriate technical and schedule information. Some of the information presented herein is preliminary in nature and will be subject to further verification, checking and analysis during the remainder of the study program. In addition, more detailed information will be prepared in many areas for inclusion in a final summary report. This work has been performed by REON, a division of Aerojet-General Corporation under Subcontract 74-10039 from the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The presentation and this document have been prepared in partial fulfillment of the provisions of the subcontract. From the inception of the NERVA program in July 1961, the stated emphasis has centered around the demonstration of the ability of a nuclear rocket to perform safely and reliably in the space environment, with the understanding that the assignment of a mission (or missions) would place undue emphasis on performance and operational flexibility. However, all were aware that the ultimate justification for the development program must lie in the application of the nuclear propulsion system to the national space objectives.

  19. Nuclear pumped laser II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Pinkston, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The first direct nuclear pumped laser using the He-2-(n,p) H-3 reaction is reported. Lasing took place on the 1.79 microns Ar I transition in a mixture of He-3-Ar at approximately 600 Torr total pressure. It was found that the electrically pulsed afterglow He-Ar laser had the same concentration profile as the nuclear pumped laser. As a result, nuclear lasing was also achieved in He-3-Xe (2.027 micron) and He-3-Kr (2.52 micron). Scaling of laser output with both thermal flux and total pressure as well as minority concentration has been completed. A peak output (He-3-Ar) of 3.7 watts has been achieved at a total pressure of 4 atm. Direct nuclear pumping of He-3-Ne has also been achieved. Nuclear pumping of a He-3-NF3 mixture was attempted, lasing in FI at approximately 7000 A, without success, although the potential lasing transitions appeared in spontaneous emission. Both NF3 and 238UF6 appear to quench spontaneous emission when they constitute more than 1% of the gas mixture.

  20. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, R.

    1987-04-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come.

  1. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  2. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  3. Nuclear Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    The centers of galaxies host two distinct, compact components: massive black holes and nuclear star clusters. Nuclear star clusters are the densest stellar systems in the universe, with masses of ~ 107M⊙ and sizes of ~ 5pc. They are almost ubiquitous at the centres of nearby galaxies with masses similar to, or lower than the Milky Way. Their occurrence both in spirals and dwarf elliptical galaxies appears to be a strong function of total galaxy light or mass. Nucleation fractions are up to 100% for total galaxy magnitudes of M B = -19mag or total galaxy luminosities of about L B = 1010 L ⊙ and falling nucleation fractions for both smaller and higher galaxy masses. Although nuclear star clusters are so common, their formation mechanisms are still under debate. The two main formation scenarios proposed are the infall and subsequent merging of star clusters and the in-situ formation of stars at the center of a galaxy. Here, I review the state-of-the-art of nuclear star cluster observations concerning their structure, stellar populations and kinematics. These observations are used to constrain the proposed formation scenarios for nuclear star clusters. Constraints from observations show, that likely both cluster infall and in-situ star formation are at work. The relative importance of these two mechanisms is still subject of investigation.

  4. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  5. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  8. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  9. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  10. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  11. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  12. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schienbein, I.; Yu, J.-Y.; Keppel, Cynthia; Morfin, Jorge; Olness, F.; Owens, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a chi^2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x_Bj-dependent and Q^2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x_Bj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  13. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens

    2009-06-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  14. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  15. Friction in nuclear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1985-03-01

    The problem of dissipation in nuclear dynamics is related to the breaking down of nuclear symmetries and the transition from ordered to chaotic nucleonic motions. In the two extreme idealizations of the perfectly Ordered Regime and the fully Chaotic Regime, the nucleus should behave as an elastic solid or an overdamped fluid, respectively. In the intermediate regime a complicated visco-elastic behaviour is expected. The discussion is illustrated by a simple estimate of the frequency of the giant quadrupole resonance in the Ordered Regime and by applications of the wall and window dissipation formulae in the Chaotic Regime. 51 refs.

  16. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  17. Nuclear medicine annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland and assess the current status of diuretic renography. Also included are articles on changes in functional imaging with aging, on radionuclide evaluation of the lower genitourinary tract in children, and on cholescintigraphy in children.

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  19. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  20. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  1. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  2. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  3. Fast neutron nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.

    1985-01-08

    The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.

  4. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-28

    AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program — totaling $281 million — to the nuclear energy program from the nuclear...appropriations act, signed December 26, 2007 (P.L. 110-161), holds AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program — totaling $281...million in FY2007 to $395.0 million in FY2008. The FY2008 omnibus appropriation holds AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program

  5. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  6. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  7. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  8. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  10. Nuclear membrane: nuclear envelope PORosity in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Sazer, Shelley

    2010-11-09

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes closed mitosis but 'virtual nuclear envelope breakdown' at anaphase of meiosis II, in which the nuclear envelope is structurally closed but functionally open.

  11. Nuclear transport: shifting gears in fungal nuclear and cytoplasmic organization.

    PubMed

    Casey, Amanda K; Wente, Susan R

    2012-10-09

    In fungi, nuclear pore complexes are free to move through the nuclear envelope; however, little is known about how movement is regulated. New evidence reveals roles for molecular motors and potential impacts on genomic organization.

  12. Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.

  13. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  14. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  16. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  17. Nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen G; Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Fong, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g., striated muscle, bone, and fibrous tissue). Recently, however, a series of papers have identified important roles for nuclear lamins in the central nervous system. Studies of knockout mice uncovered a key role for B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) in neuronal migration in the developing brain. Also, duplications of LMNB1 (the gene for lamin B1) have been shown to cause autosome-dominant leukodystrophy. Finally, recent studies have uncovered a peculiar pattern of nuclear lamin expression in the brain. Lamin C transcripts are present at high levels in the brain, but prelamin A expression levels are very low-due to regulation of prelamin A transcripts by microRNA 9. This form of prelamin A regulation likely explains why "prelamin A diseases" such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome spare the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent progress in elucidating links between nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

  18. Viewpoints on Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Committee on the Present Danger, Inc., the Committee of Atomic Bomb Survivors in the United States, the World Friendship Center in Hiroshima, two authors, physics and education professors, an English and history teacher, and a high school student comment on nuclear education. (RM)

  19. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  20. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  1. Second Nuclear Era

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Nuclear cardiograph and scintigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive advances in the technology of detectors, data analysis systems, and tracers used have resulted in greatly expanded applications of radioisotopes to the assessment of cardiac function and disease. The development of nuclear cardiology has proceeded along four lines: (1) radionuclide angiography, (2) myocardial perfusion imaging, (3) intracoronary microsphere imaging, and (4) regional myocardial blood flow determination using inert gases.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  6. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    improvement commitments toward Iran with respect to the Bushehr in the wings’ aerodynamic profile. The production costs nuclear reactor , will have negative...16 Commentary Reviews Defense Research, Development [Delhi Overseas Service 23 Nov] .............. 17 Reactor Using Man...18 Paper Urges Germany To Honor Reactor Contract [KAYHAN INTERNATIONAL 18 Oct] .......... 19 ISRAEL IDF To Deploy New

  7. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    United States would no longer insist on retaining two per While the situation has been continuously improving on cent of its present stock of chemical ...production, possession, and use of chemical and biological weapons will continue to appear under appropriate geographic headings in the ARMS CONTROL...I Foreign Ministry on Algerian Nuclear Reactor [ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE] .............................. I

  8. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  9. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  10. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  12. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-14

    activity back integrated guided missile programme ( IGMP ) launched to Indian territory. To be effective as a nuclear delivery under Mrs Gandhi in July 1983...A prime objective be within India’s reach. of the IGMP was to minimise delays and get the wheels of research and development moving smoothly. What

  14. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  15. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  16. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  17. NUCLEAR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.

    1960-05-31

    A novel reactor composition for use in a self-sustaining fast nuclear reactor is described. More particularly, a fuel alloy comprising thorium and uranium-235 is de scribed, the uranium-235 existing in approximately the same amount that it is found in natural uranium, i.e., 1.4%.

  18. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  19. Nuclear Medical Technology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H., Ed.

    This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…

  20. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  1. Northeast Asia Nuclear Dilemmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    deterrence.40 Rather, analysts suggest that China fears that Japanese proliferation would beget Taiwan to renew its long- aborted nuclear weapons... abortive effort to establish...Cabinet Being Reshuffled After Rape Gaffes.” Associated Press, January 8, 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/japan-cabinet-being-reshuffled- rape -gaffes

  2. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  3. Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

  4. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  6. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  7. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  8. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  9. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  10. Nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.B.; Markusen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the section titles are: Is Hiroshima Our Text.; Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects; Can Nuclear War be Survived.; The Debate Over U.S. Strategic Nuclear Weapons Policy; and Costs of the Arms Race.

  11. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  14. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-01

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  16. The Nuclear Debate in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    1977-01-01

    Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

  17. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  19. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  20. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  1. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  3. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-23

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  5. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  6. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Arcones, Almudena; Escher, Jutta E.; Others, M.

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  7. Nuclear Wallet Cards from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tuli, Jagdish K.

    Nuclear Wallet Cards present properties for ground and isomeric states of all known nuclides. Properties given are: spin and parity assignments, nuclear mass excesses, half-life, isotopic abundances, and decay modes. Appendices contain properties of elements, fundamental constants and other useful information. Nuclear Wallet Cards booklet is published by the National Nuclear Data Center and its electronic (current) version is periodically updated. The Nuclear Wallet Cards by Dr. Jagdish K. Tuli, presently in its 8th edition, is distributed in print as well as in PDA-adaptable Palm Pilot format; the data table as an ASCII file is available upon request. [Taken from http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/wallet/

  8. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses trends in job opportunities for nuclear engineers. Lists some of the factors influencing increases and decreases in the demand for nuclear engineers. Describes the effects on career opportunities from recent nuclear accidents, military research and development, and projected increases of demand for electricity. (TW)

  9. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    As the debate over nuclear safety continues, the job market remains healthy for nuclear engineers. The average salary offered to new nuclear engineers with bachelor's degrees is $27,400. Salary averages and increases compare favorably with other engineering disciplines. Various job sources in the field are noted. (JN)

  10. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  11. Game Imaging Meets Nuclear Reality

    ScienceCinema

    Michel, Kelly; Watkins, Adam

    2016-07-12

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a team of artists and animators, nuclear engineers and computer scientists is teaming to provide 3-D models of nuclear facilities to train IAEA safeguards inspectors and others who need fast familiarity with specific nuclear sites.

  12. Game Imaging Meets Nuclear Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Kelly; Watkins, Adam

    2011-03-21

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a team of artists and animators, nuclear engineers and computer scientists is teaming to provide 3-D models of nuclear facilities to train IAEA safeguards inspectors and others who need fast familiarity with specific nuclear sites.

  13. Educators and the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Stanley M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses education's long-term role in preventing nuclear war and reports on a three-state survey of 118 high school seniors on their knowledge of nuclear war issues. Describes educational groups' activities around the issues and recounts the author's personal experiences at Hiroshima (Japan) and growing awareness of nuclear problems. (RW)

  14. Report Card on Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1974-01-01

    Problems facing the nuclear power industry include skyrocketing construction costs, technical failures, fuel scarcity, power plant safety, and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Possible solutions include: reductions in nuclear power plant construction, a complete moratorium on new plant construction, the construction of fast breeder reactors and the…

  15. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  16. Overview paper on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  17. Multidimensional Analysis of Nuclear Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    reconstructions and temperature distributions of the early time nuclear fireballs. Initial developments have resulted in the first 2-dimensional... temperature distribution of a nuclear fireball using digitized film. This temperature analysis underwent verification using the Digital Imaging and Remote... temperature profile of the nuclear fireball as a function of optical path length. A 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed using a variation of a

  18. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  19. Nuclear dreams: the malignant alteration of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, J A

    1998-08-01

    Cancer is diagnosed by examining the architectural alterations to cells and tissues. Changes in nuclear structure are among the most universal of these and include increases in nuclear size, deformities in nuclear shape, and changes in the internal organization of the nucleus. These may all reflect changes in the nuclear matrix, a non-chromatin nuclear scaffolding determining nuclear form, higher order chromatin folding, and the spatial organization of nucleic acid metabolism. Malignancy-induced changes in this structure may have profound effects on chromatin folding, on the fidelity of genome replication, and on gene expression. Elucidating the mechanisms and the biological consequences of nuclear changes will require the identification of the major structural molecules of the internal nuclear matrix and an understanding of their assembly into structural elements. If biochemical correlates to malignant alterations in nuclear structure can be identified then nuclear matrix proteins and, perhaps nuclear matrix-associated structural RNAs, may be an attractive set of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  20. Historical civilian nuclear accident based Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn Marie

    There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.

  1. Nuclear past, nuclear present: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and contemporary strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, I.

    1985-01-01

    The controversial atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 represent the only occasions when atomic weapons have been employed in war, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the relationship between the bombings and the course of subsequent nuclear strategy. Dr. Clark contends that the August 1945 experience was crucially formative and gave rise to a set of influential assumptions about the moral acceptability of using nuclear weapons, the rationality of nuclear decision-making, and the controllability of nuclear operations. The author's detailed reconstruction of the events of 1945 sheds new light upon these assumptions and contributes to the present debate about nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear concerns and problems back to some of the misleading conclusions drawn from the bombings.

  2. Leading twist nuclear shadowing, nuclear generalized parton distributions and nuclear DVCS at small x

    SciTech Connect

    Guzey, Vadim; Goeke, Klaus; Siddikov, Marat

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing and calculate quark and gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of spinless nuclei. We predict very large nuclear shadowing for nuclear GPDs. In the limit of the purely transverse momentum transfer, our nuclear GPDs become impact parameter dependent nuclear parton distributions (PDFs). Nuclear shadowing induces non-trivial correlations between the impact parameter $b$ and the light-cone fraction $x$. We make predictions for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) amplitude and the DVCS cross section on $^{208}$Pb at high energies. We calculate the cross section of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process and address the issue of the extraction of the DVCS signal from the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ cross section. We find that the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ differential cross section is dominated by DVCS at the momentum transfer $t$ near the minima of the nuclear form factor. We also find that nuclear shadowing leads

  3. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  4. Outpatient therapeutic nuclear oncology.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Harvey

    2012-05-01

    In the beginning, nuclear medicine was radionuclide therapy, which has evolved into molecular tumour-targeted control of metastatic cancer. Safe, efficacious, clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology may now be based upon accurate personalised dosimetry by quantitative gamma SPECT/CT imaging to prescribe tumoricidal activities without critical organ toxicity. Preferred therapy radionuclides possess gamma emission of modest energy and abundance to enable quantitative SPECT/CT imaging for calculation of the beta therapy dosimetry, without radiation exposure risk to hospital personnel, carers, family or members of the public. The safety of outpatient radiopharmaceutical therapy of cancer with Iodine-131, Samarium-153, Holmium-166, Rhenium-186, Rhenium-188, Lutetium-177 and Indium-111 is reviewed. Measured activity release rates and radiation exposure to carers and the public are all within recommendations and guidelines of international regulatory agencies and, when permitted by local regulatory authorities allow cost-effective, safe, outpatient radionuclide therapy of cancer without isolation in hospital.

  5. Graphite for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    Relative dimensional changes and physical properties of structural graphites - {Gamma}p-280 (nuclear graphite) and {Gamma}p{Pi}-2 (modificated variety of nuclear graphite for the rings of elastic contact) irradiated at temperatures ranging from 320 to 1900K with a fluence of about 2.5.10{sup 22}nvt (E {ge} 0.18 MeV) are represented. In order to ensure a long-time serviceability of the VGM - reactor blocks the high-strength graphite of {Gamma}p-1 grade are developed. The properties and its irradiation changes of {Gamma}p-1 graphite are represented. A secondary swelling of the graphite develops similar to the swelling of metals, alloys and high-melting compounds.

  6. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  7. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  8. Nuclear functions of prefoldin

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Chávez, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    Prefoldin is a cochaperone, present in all eukaryotes, that cooperates with the chaperonin CCT. It is known mainly for its functional relevance in the cytoplasmic folding of actin and tubulin monomers during cytoskeleton assembly. However, both canonical and prefoldin-like subunits of this heterohexameric complex have also been found in the nucleus, and are functionally connected with nuclear processes in yeast and metazoa. Plant prefoldin has also been detected in the nucleus and physically associated with a gene regulator. In this review, we summarize the information available on the involvement of prefoldin in nuclear phenomena, place special emphasis on gene transcription, and discuss the possibility of a global coordination between gene regulation and cytoplasmic dynamics mediated by prefoldin. PMID:25008233

  9. (Theoretical nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the following topics: Consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; vacuum polarization in a finite system; isovector correlations in QHD description of nuclear matter; nuclear response functions in quasielastic electron scattering; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in quantum hadro-dynamics; excitation of the 10.957 MeV 0{sup {minus}}; T=0 state in {sup 16}O by 400 MeV protons; deformed chiral nucleons; new basis for exact vacuum calculations in 3-spatial dimensions; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Sigma}{sup 0} + c.c; and radiative capture of protons by light nuclei at low energies.

  10. Rutherford's Nuclear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heibron, John

    2011-04-01

    Rutherford's nuclear model originally was a theory of scattering that represented both the incoming alpha particles and their targets as point charges. The assumption that the apha particle, which Rutherford knew to be a doubly ionized helium atom, was a bare nucleus, and the associated assumption that the electronic structure of the atom played no significant role in large-angle scattering, had immediate and profound consequences well beyond the special problem for which Rutherford introduced them. The group around him in Manchester in 1911/12, which included Niels Bohr, Charles Darwin, Georg von Hevesy, and Henry Moseley, worked out some of these consequences. Their elucidation of radioactivity, isotopy, atomic number, and quantization marked an epoch in microphysics. Rutherford's nuclear model was exemplary not only for its fertility and picturability, but also for its radical simplicity. The lecturer will not undertake to answer the baffling question why such simple models work.

  11. Nuclear overlap functions

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, K.J.; Vogt, R.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    A three parameter Wood-Saxon shape is used to describe the nuclear density distribution, which R{sub A} is the nuclear radius, {approx} is the surface thickness, and {omega} allows for central irregularities. The electron scattering data is used where available for R{sub A}, z, and {omega}. When data is unavailable, the parameters {omega} = O, z = 0.54 fm and R{sub A} = 1.19 A{sup 1/3} - 1.61 A{sup -1/3} fm are used. The central density {rho}{sub 0} is found from the normalization {infinity} d{sup 3}r{rho}{sub A}(r) = A.

  12. Topics in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-04

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  13. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Brian E.; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient.

  14. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  15. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reconsidering...

  16. 78 FR 52987 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has concluded that existing exemptions from...

  17. 75 FR 11205 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station... Nuclear Power Station,'' NUREG-1437, Supplement 29, published in July 2007 (ADAMS Accession...

  18. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  19. The Strong Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-05-24

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  20. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-15

    advisor at the Atomic Energy Commissariat ; a former nuclear submarine captain, currently senior advisor to the Director of Strategic Affairs, Ministry of...the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Atomic Energy Commissariat . Two excellent compilations of primary texts and sources have been published... Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA, discussed later in this chapter) when it was founded in 1945. B. Threat Perceptions The perception of a

  1. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  2. British Nuclear Policymaking,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    devoted to capital spending.’ This has all Laken place although Britain’s economy has been seriously troubled by inflation, low productivity, and...American support was required to counterbalance Soviet influence in Western.Europe, Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Britain’s exhausted economy loomed as an...for a British deterrent. The simple truth is that when the Empire crumbled and the economy failed to recover, nuclear weapons became-and continue to

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  4. Advanced nuclear propulsion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear propulsion can take on several forms. Radioactive thrust sheets directly use the decay of radioactive nuclei to provide propulsion. The fissioning of nuclei has been extensively studied for propulsion both analytically and experimentally. Fusion has been analytically examined as a means of providing propulsion during the last few decades. In the last decade, serious attention has been given to the direct annihilation of matter. Each of these technologies is discussed in this paper with the greatest emphasis on antiproton annihilation propulsion.

  5. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  6. Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-05

    ratify the NPT. The Soviet press has been cautious about publically condemning NPT hold-outs, usually avoiding naming Third World nations, though it is...fissionable fuel for nuclear weapons. Furthermore, Brazil has not signed the NPT. Moscow has bitterly condemned this "deal of the century." The Soviet press ...equipment sent to a nonnuclear state. Germany, of course, is. France, however, has anounced its intention to observe the safeguard Provisions of the NPT

  7. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  8. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    BANGLADESH Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Sacked [Delhi Domestic Service 9 Nov] 5 EGYPT West Germans Build Small Nuclear Power Stations...Brazil has geologial uranium reserves calculated at 301,400 metric tons, and the world market allows annual business involving up to $65 million, "a...country. JPRS-TND-88-020 28 November 1988 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Sacked BK0911075888 Delhi Domestic

  9. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  10. Post detonation nuclear forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jay

    2014-05-09

    The problem of working backwards from the debris of a nuclear explosion to attempt to attribute the event to a particular actor is singularly difficult technically. However, moving from physical information of any certainty through the political steps that would lead to national action presents daunting policy questions as well. This monograph will outline the operational and physical components of this problem and suggest the difficulty of the policy questions that remain.

  11. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  12. The Strong Nuclear Force

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  13. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... to page Search NRC Report a Safety Concern Nuclear Reactors Power Reactors Research & Test Reactors Operating Reactors Operator ... Reactors Operator Licensing for New Reactors Research Activities Nuclear Reactor Quick Links Nuclear Materials Special Nuclear Material Source ...

  14. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [October 6, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-10-06

    Partial contents of this report include: Nuclear Weapons; Nuclear Development; Nuclear Power Plant; Uranium; Missiles; Space Firm Protested; Satellite; Rocket Launching; Nuclear Submarine; Environmental; Radioactivity; Radiation Accident; and Tritium Sparks.

  15. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  16. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  17. Synopsis of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Waweru, F N; Othieno, J O

    1989-10-01

    The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine.

  18. Nuclear Technology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1988. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

  19. Nuclear and particle astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-10-31

    We discuss the physics of matter that is relevant to the structure of compact stars. This includes nuclear, neutron star matter and quark matter and phase transitions between them. Many aspects of neutron star structure and its dependance on a number of physical assumptions about nuclear matter properties and hyperon couplings are investigated. We also discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neuron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general of theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Indeed the prompt explosion, from which a constraint had been thought to follow, is now believed not to be mechanism by which most, if any stars, explode. In any case the nuclear equation of state is but one of a multitude on uncertain factors, and possibly one of the least important. The rapid rotation of pulsars is also discussed. It is shown that for periods below a certain limit it becomes increasingly difficult to reconcile them with neutron stars. Strange stars are possible if strange matter is the absolute ground state. We discuss such stars and their compatibility with observation. 112 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.