Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear technology studies

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging provides anatomical definition of normal and abnormal tissues with a contrast and detection sensitivity superior to those of x-ray computed tomography in the human head and pelvis and parts of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Recent improvements in technology should lead to advances in diagnostic imaging of the breast and regions of the abdomen. Selected-region nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of protons, carbon-13, and phosphorus-31 has developed into a basic science tool for in vivo studies on man and a unique tool for clinical diagnoses of metabolic disorders. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance is considered safe if access to the magnet environment is controlled. Technological advances employing field strengths over 2 teslas will require biophysical studies of heating and static field effects.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  3. A Nuclear Tech Course = Nuclear Technology in War and Peace: A Study of Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    A nuclear technology college course for engineering students is outlined and described. The course begins with an historical account of the scientific discoveries leading up to the uranium experiments of Hahn and Strassman in Germany and the subsequent explanation of nuclear fission by Meitner and Frisch. The technological achievements of the…

  4. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  5. Advanced nuclear propulsion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear propulsion can take on several forms. Radioactive thrust sheets directly use the decay of radioactive nuclei to provide propulsion. The fissioning of nuclei has been extensively studied for propulsion both analytically and experimentally. Fusion has been analytically examined as a means of providing propulsion during the last few decades. In the last decade, serious attention has been given to the direct annihilation of matter. Each of these technologies is discussed in this paper with the greatest emphasis on antiproton annihilation propulsion.

  6. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  7. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  8. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    SciTech Connect

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-07-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  9. Study in the political economy of technological development: Brazil's nuclear program

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman-Solingen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This study is focused on the impact Brazil's nuclear program has had on the development of industrial technological capabilities. In Part I, the theoretical framework, Chapter II discusses contending approaches to technological development, and the role ascribed to the state in this process. Chapter III examines the determinants of the state's behavior as conditioned by its nature and insertion in civil society, through a comparison between Brazil's and Argentina's nuclear program. Part II, the empirical study, evaluates the performance of the state sector (Section A), the private sector (Section B), and the scientific community (Section C) in the country's nuclear program, with systematic comparative references to the Argentine case. Chapter IV dissects a first moment in the process of technology transfer, namely, the bargaining over transfer modes. Chapter V examines a second phase, involving technological absorption, adaptation, and improvements. The impact of the program on the diffusion of technological capabilities into other industrial areas is the focus of Chapter VI. The conclusions place the nuclear program within the general patterns of technological behavior of state enterprises, evaluates opportunity costs and non-technological impacts, and the relevance of some of the findings to the general literature on the state in technological development.

  10. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  11. Space and nuclear research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet is presented on the space and nuclear research and technology program consisting of a research and technology base, system studies, system technology programs, entry systems technology, and experimental programs.

  12. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  13. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-06

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature {approx} 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  14. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation: Results of the NASA/DOE Task Team study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. ); Borowski, S. . Lewis Research Center); Motloch, C. ); Helms, I. ); Diaz, N.; Anghaie, S. ); Latham, T. (United

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops held in the summer of 1990, six task teams were formed to continue evaluation of various nuclear propulsion concepts. The Task Team on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) created the Innovative Concepts Subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. The Subpanel endeavored to evaluate each of the concepts on a level technological playing field,'' and to identify critical technologies, issues, and early proof-of-concept experiments. The concepts included the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter. The results of the studies by the panel will be provided. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nuclear Technology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1988. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

  16. Innovative nuclear thermal propulsion technology evaluation - Results of the NASA/DOE task team study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Borowski, Stanley; Motloch, Chet; Helms, Ira; Diaz, Nils; Anghaie, Samim; Latham, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    In response to findings from two NASA/DOE nuclear propulsion workshops, six task teams were created to continue evaluation of various propulsion concepts, from which evolved an innovative concepts subpanel to evaluate thermal propulsion concepts which did not utilize solid fuel. This subpanel endeavored to evaluate each concept on a level technology basis, and to identify critical issues, technologies, and early proof-of-concept experiments. Results of the concept studies including the liquid core fission, the gas core fission, the fission foil reactors, explosively driven systems, fusion, and antimatter are presented.

  17. Nuclear Technology in War and Peace: A Study of Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This is the syllabus of a course that explores the technology of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy for electric power generation, and considers some problems of nuclear weapons proliferation and technical alternatives. It provides a course description, a course outline, a list of required readings, and information on the films shown in the…

  18. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  19. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  20. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  1. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  2. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  3. Nuclear Medical Technology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H., Ed.

    This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…

  4. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace speech in 1953 is remembered for engaging the world, and the Soviet Union in particular, in a dialogue about arms control and the formulation of a nuclear regime in which national and international security concerns growing from this unprecedented emerging and frightening new weapons capability would be addressed while tapping the civilian promise of nuclear applications for the good of mankind. Out of it came a series of initiatives, leading fifteen years later to the NPT, intended to allow the growth and spread of the beneficial uses of nuclear know-how while constraining the incentives and capabilities for nuclear weapons. The last 50 years has seen a gradual spread in nations with nuclear weapons, other nations with nuclear knowledge and capabilities, and still others with nuclear weapon intentions. Still most nations of the world have forgone weapon development, most have signed and abided by the NPT, and some that have had programs or even weapons, have turned these capabilities off. Yet despite this experience, and despite a relatively successful record up to a few years ago, there is today a clear and generally recognized crisis in nuclear governance, a crisis that affects the future of all the cross-cutting civilian/security issues we have cited. The crux of this crisis is a lack of consensus among the major powers whose support of international efforts is necessary for effective governance of nuclear activities. The lack of consensus focuses on three challenges: what to do about non-compliance, what to do about non-adherence, and what to do about the possible leakage of nuclear materials and technologies to terrorist groups. Short of regaining consensus on the priority to be given to nuclear material and technology controls, it is unlikely that any international regime to control nuclear materials and technologies, let alone oversee a growth in the nuclear power sector, will be successful in the tough cases where it needs to

  5. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    SciTech Connect

    BLanc, Katya Le; Powers, David; Joe, Jeffrey; Spielman, Zachary; Rice, Brandon; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  7. Nonconventional applications of nuclear technology to space

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, D.M.; Dolan, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The application of nuclear energy to power and propulsion to support President Bush's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has received considerable technical attention. This paper discusses the application of other nuclear technologies in space, including nuclear fusion, advanced accelerator research, antimatter research, nuclear technologies for exploration and mining, and nuclear astronomy.

  8. Nuclear technology requires free elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    1999-10-01

    The historical development on our planet has reached a powerful technology of nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles, conceivably controllable through a computerized ``push-button." If this technology ever falls under the control of an irresponsible, miscalculating, or insane DICTATOR, with powerful means of a mass-produced nuclear built-up, anywhere on our planet, the very SURVIVAL OF ALL HUMANITY on our planet could be threatened. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that this technology is under the control by the people, through a sufficiently secure system of FREE ELECTIONS, in any country, wherever and whenever such a threatening possibility exists. Of course, a starting system of FREE ELECTIONS, even if quite rudimentary, should try to provide for its continuous functioning, with an underlying appropriate freedom of expression and with rules for its continuation, while aiming towards continuous improvements.

  9. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-05-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems.

  10. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  11. Plasma core nuclear rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Thomas S.; Roman, Ward C.; Johnson, Bruce V.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear lightbulb (NLB) rocket propulsion concept furnishes specific impulse above 2000 sec in conjunction with the greater-than-50,000 lb thrust levels required for rapid transit-time round-trip Mars missions requiring low initial mass in earth orbit. The NLB transfers energy from the gaseous nuclear fuel region to a hydrogen propellant via thermal radiation, thereby precluding material temperature constraints. An evaluation is presently made of technology and test method readiness for implementation and validation of this propulsion system concept.

  12. Plasma core nuclear rocket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, T.S.; Roman, W.C.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear lightbulb (NLB) rocket propulsion concept furnishes specific impulse above 2000 sec in conjunction with the greater-than-50,000 lb thrust levels required for rapid transit-time round-trip Mars missions requiring low initial mass in earth orbit. The NLB transfers energy from the gaseous nuclear fuel region to a hydrogen propellant via thermal radiation, thereby precluding material temperature constraints. An evaluation is presently made of technology and test method readiness for implementation and validation of this propulsion system concept. 13 refs.

  13. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  14. Technology and applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Rosen, Robert; Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Requirements for a number of potential NASA civil space missions are addressed, and the nuclear power technology base to meet these requirements is described. Particular attention is given to applications of space nuclear power to lunar, Mars, and science missions and the technology status of space nuclear power with emphasis on dynamic isotope and space nuclear reactor power systems.

  15. Reexamining the Ethics of Nuclear Technology.

    PubMed

    Andrianov, Andrei; Kanke, Victor; Kuptsov, Ilya; Murogov, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    This article analyzes the present status, development trends, and problems in the ethics of nuclear technology in light of a possible revision of its conceptual foundations. First, to better recognize the current state of nuclear technology ethics and related problems, this article focuses on presenting a picture of the evolution of the concepts and recent achievements related to technoethics, based on the ethics of responsibility. The term 'ethics of nuclear technology' describes a multidisciplinary endeavor to examine the problems associated with nuclear technology through ethical frameworks and paradigms. Second, to identify the reasons for the intensification of efforts to develop ethics in relation to nuclear technology, this article presents an analysis of the recent situation and future prospects of nuclear technology deployment. This includes contradictions that have aggravated nuclear dilemmas and debates stimulated by the shortcomings of nuclear technology, as well as the need for the further development of a nuclear culture paradigm that is able to provide a conceptual framework to overcome nuclear challenges. Third, efforts in the field of nuclear technology ethics are presented as a short overview of particular examples, and the major findings regarding obstacles to the development of nuclear technology ethics are also summarized. Finally, a potential methodological course is proposed to overcome inaction in this field; the proposed course provides for the further development of nuclear technology ethics, assuming the axiological multidisciplinary problematization of the main concepts in nuclear engineering through the basic ethical paradigms: analytical, hermeneutical, and poststructuralist.

  16. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  17. Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Dave; Kaiser, Krista; Martin, Lonnie; Hanson, Don; Harms, Gary; Quirk, Tom

    2014-11-28

    The Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories’ Technical Area Five (TA-V) is the leader in advancing nuclear technologies through applied radiation science and unique nuclear environments. This video describes the organization’s capabilities, facilities, and culture.

  18. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  19. Nuclear Technology for the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Science, technology and innovation will play a crucial role in helping countries achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since the discovery of nuclear fission in the 1930s, the peaceful applications of nuclear technology have helped many countries improve crops, fight pests, advance health, protect the environment and guarantee a stable supply of energy. Highlighting the goals related to health, hunger, energy and the environment, in this presentation I will discuss how nuclear technology contributes to the SDGs and how nuclear technology can further contribute to the well-being of people, help protect the planet and boost prosperity.

  20. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  1. Nuclear technology for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen papers and abstracts are presented under the following session headings: space nuclear power, health physics and dosimetry, nuclear design and thermal hydraulics, nuclear diagnostics, and fusion technology and plasma physics. The papers were processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  2. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  3. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to

  4. DOE NHI: Progress in Nuclear Connection Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is seeking to develop the technologies to enable the large-scale production of hydrogen from water using a nuclear powered heat source. A necessary component in any nuclear powered hydrogen production process is the energy transfer connection between the nuclear plant and the hydrogen plant. This article provides an overview of the research and development work that has been accomplished on the high-temperature heat transfer connection between the nuclear power plant and the hydrogen production plant by the NHI. A description of future work is also provided.

  5. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given

  6. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  7. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  8. Study of an intrinsically safe infrastructure for training and research on nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripani, Marco; Frambati, Stefano; Mansani, Luigi; Bruzzone, Maurizio; Reale, Marco; Monti, Stefano; Ciotti, Marco; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Celentano, Andrea; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ricco, Giovanni; Saracco, Paolo; Viberti, Carlo Maria; Frasciello, Oscar; Boccaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Juan; Lombardi, Augusto; Maggiore, Mario; Piazza, Leandro A. C.; Prete, Gianfranco; Alba, Rosa; Calabretta, Luciano; Cosentino, Gianluigi; Del Zoppo, Antonio; Di Pietro, Alessia; Figuera, Pierpaolo; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Maiolino, Cettina; Santonocito, Domenico; Schillaci, Maria; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Kostyukov, Alexander; Cammi, Antonio; Bortot, Sara; Lorenzi, Stefano; Ricotti, Marco; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Rebora, Alessandro; Alloni, Daniele; Borio di Tigliole, Andrea; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Cremonesi, Riccardo; Magrotti, Giovanni; Manera, Sergio; Panza, Fabio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Within European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics and engineering parameters of future fast-neutron-based reactors are very important, being some of these features not available in present zero-power prototypes. This presentation will illustrate the conceptual design of an Accelerator-Driven System with high safety standards, but ample flexibility for measurements. The design assumes as base option a 70 MeV, 0.75 mA proton cyclotron, as the one which will be installed at the INFN National Laboratory in Legnaro, Italy and a Beryllium target, with Helium gas as core coolant. Safety is guaranteed by limiting the thermal power to 200 kW, with a neutron multiplication coefficient around 0.94, loading the core with fuel containing Uranium enriched at 20% inserted in a solid-lead diffuser. The small decay heat can be passively removed by thermal radiation from the vessel. Such a system could be used to study, among others, some specific aspects of neutron diffusion in lead, beam-core coupling, target cooling and could serve as a training facility.

  9. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; McKibben, Ph.D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  11. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, Tristan A.

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  12. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Improved Technology To Prevent Nuclear Proliferation And Counter Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J; Yuldashev, B; Labov, S; Knapp, R

    2006-06-12

    As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation. As nuclear energy and hence nuclear materials become an increasingly global phenomenon, using local technologies and capabilities facilitate incorporation of enhanced monitoring and detection on the regional level. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation and countering radiological/nuclear terrorism. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, passive detection, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity many-fold at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Different detection algorithms enable fissile materials to be distinguished from other radioisotopes.

  14. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  15. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  17. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items.

  18. Nuclear Lunar Logistics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This document has been prepared to incorporate all presentation aid material, together with some explanatory text, used during an oral briefing on the Nuclear Lunar Logistics System given at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, on 18 July 1963. The briefing and this document are intended to present the general status of the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) nuclear rocket development, the characteristics of certain operational NERVA-class engines, and appropriate technical and schedule information. Some of the information presented herein is preliminary in nature and will be subject to further verification, checking and analysis during the remainder of the study program. In addition, more detailed information will be prepared in many areas for inclusion in a final summary report. This work has been performed by REON, a division of Aerojet-General Corporation under Subcontract 74-10039 from the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The presentation and this document have been prepared in partial fulfillment of the provisions of the subcontract. From the inception of the NERVA program in July 1961, the stated emphasis has centered around the demonstration of the ability of a nuclear rocket to perform safely and reliably in the space environment, with the understanding that the assignment of a mission (or missions) would place undue emphasis on performance and operational flexibility. However, all were aware that the ultimate justification for the development program must lie in the application of the nuclear propulsion system to the national space objectives.

  19. Small Nuclear Technology and Market Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Schock, R N; Brown, N W; Smith, C F

    2002-05-31

    An overview of energy-system projections into the new century leads to the conclusion that nuclear power will play a significant role. How significant a role will be determined by the marketplace. Within the range of nuclear-power technologies available, small nuclear-power plants of innovative design appear to fit the needs of a number of developing nations and states. Under similar financing options used by the airline industry and others, the capital requirement barrier that puts the nuclear industry at a disadvantage in deregulated markets could be reduced. These plants have the potential advantage of modularity, are proliferation-resistant, incorporate passive safety features, minimize waste, and could be cost-competitive with fossil-fuel plants.

  20. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested.

  1. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  2. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  3. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  4. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.; Sovey, James S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities.

  5. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  6. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  7. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    SciTech Connect

    Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven; Lindberg, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  8. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  9. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a unique opportunity to serve as an international cooperative test bed for developing and demonstrating technologies and processes in a fully operational repository system setting. To address the substantial national security implications for the US resulting from the lack of integrated, transparent management and disposition of nuclear materials at the back-end of the nuclear fuel and weapons cycles, it is proposed that WIPP be used as a test bed to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable the transparent and proliferation-resistant geologic isolation of nuclear materials. The objectives of this initiative are to: (1) enhance public confidence in safe, secure geologic isolation of nuclear materials; (2) develop, test, and demonstrate transparency measures and technologies for the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle; and (3) foster international collaborations leading to workable, effective, globally-accepted standards for the transparent monitoring of geological repositories for nuclear materials. Test-bed activities include: development and testing of monitoring measures and technologies; international demonstration experiments; transparency workshops; visiting scientist exchanges; and educational outreach. These activities are proposed to be managed by the Department of Energy/Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) as part of The Center for Applied Repository and Underground Studies (CARUS).

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear rocket propulsion technology - A joint NASA/DOE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for SEI human and robotic missions to the moon and to Mars. The activities and project plan of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991 are summarized. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  14. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  15. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already

  16. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  17. The broad view of nuclear technology for aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, David; Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies can directly support advanced space initiatives. For near-Earth missions, nuclear technology can be used to power air traffic control, communications and manufacturing platforms, provide emergency power for manned platforms, provide power for maneuvering units, move asteroids for mining, measure the natural radiation environment, provide radiation protection instruments, and design radiation hardened robotic systems. For the Lunar and Mars surfaces, nuclear technology can be used for base stationary, mobile, and emergency power, energy storage, process heat, nuclear thermal and electric rocket propulsion, excavation and underground engineering, water and sewage treatment and sterilization, food processing and preservation, mineral exploration, self-luminous systems, radiation protection instrumentation, radiation environmental warning systems, and habitat shielding design. Outer planet missions can make use of nuclear technology for power and propulsion. Programs need to be initiated to ensure the full beneficial use of nuclear technologies in advanced space missions.

  18. Waging nuclear peace: The technology and politics of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.

    1985-01-01

    Since the explosions of the first atomic bombs, a large literature has appeared on the effects and risks of nuclear war. The most widely quoted recent publications have concentrated on the impossibility of any meaningful survival after a superpower nuclear exchange. By contrast, Dr. Ehrlich tries to show both sides of the various arguments involved. As a result, he undoubtedly succeeds in his avowed intention of angering both hawks and doves. He offers a critical analysis of most considerations apposite to the current nuclear-weapon impasse, including the nature of current nuclear arms, the possibility of limited nuclear war, the short-term and long-term effects of nuclear weapons, the value of civil defense, the importance of public opinion, and the feasibility of arms control.

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 18: Radiological Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 28: Welding Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 19: Radiation Shielding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 27: Metrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 7: Reactor Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. The Limits of Empowerment in Anti-Nuclear Advocacy: A Case Study of Adult Education for Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Robert; Penna, Phillip

    1996-01-01

    Using a theory of technological literacy, analysis of a project to oppose uranium mining in Saskatchewan revealed how the potential for empowerment is often overstated. Informing citizens to participate in critical discourse does not always lead to decisions reflecting their interests. (SK)

  9. Teaching on Science, Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course focusing on science, technology, and the nuclear arms race. Two sample homework exercises and course topics are provided. Topics, with lists of questions that might be addressed, focus on nuclear weapons, alternatives to deterrence, and arms control. Approaches to teaching about the nuclear arms race are also provided. (JN)

  10. The Los Alamos nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Menlove, H.O.; Reilly, T.D.; Bosler, G.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    For nearly three decades, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and implemented nuclear measurement technology and training in support of national and international nuclear safeguards. This paper outlines the major elements of those technologies and highlights some of the latest developments.

  11. eFRMAC Overview: Data Management and Enabling Technologies for Characterization of a Radiological Release A Case Study: The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Clark, Harvey W.; Essex, James J.; Wagner, Eric C.

    2013-07-01

    The eFRMAC enterprise is a suite of technologies and software developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Emergency Response to coordinate the rapid data collection, management, and analysis required during a radiological emergency. This enables the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center assets to evaluate a radiological or nuclear incident efficiently to facilitate protective actions to protect public health and the environment. This document identifies and describes eFRMAC methods including (1) data acquisition, (2) data management, (3) data analysis, (4) product creation, (5) quality control, and (6) dissemination.

  12. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Milton

    2004-02-01

    From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by the industrial team of Aerojet and Westinghouse building on and extending the Los Alamos efforts to flight system development. This presentation describes the NERVA program, the engine system testing that demonstrated the space-practical operation capabilities of nuclear thermal rockets, and the mission studies that point the way to most effectively use the NTR capabilities. Together, the two programs established a technology base that includes proven NTR capabilities of (1) over twice the specific impulse of chemical propulsion systems, (2) thrust capabilities ranging from 44kN to 1112kN, and (3) practical thrust-to-weight ratios for future NASA space exploration missions, both manned payloads to Mars and unmanned payloads to the outer planets. The overall nuclear rocket program had a unique management structure that integrated the efforts of the two government agencies involved-NASA and the then-existing Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this paper is to summarize and convey the technical and management lessons learned in this program as the nation considers the design of its future space exploration activities.

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Materials Processing Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear materials processing technician program is designed for use with courses 23-25 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear instrumentation and control technician program is designed for use with courses 33-35 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist…

  16. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a triagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) panel on Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Technology. NEP has been identified as a candidate nuclear propulsion technology for exploration of the Moon and Mars as part of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The findings are stated in areas of system and subsystem considerations, technology readiness, and ground test facilities. Recommendations made by the panel are summarized concerning: (1) existing space nuclear power and propulsion programs, and (2) the proposed multiagency NEP technology development program.

  17. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. D.; Caffrey, J.; Hedayat, A.; Stephens, J.; Polsgrove, R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management technology is critical to the success of future nuclear thermal propulsion powered vehicles and long duration missions. This paper discusses current capabilities in key technologies and their development path. The thermal environment, complicated from the radiation escaping a reactor of a nuclear thermal propulsion system, is examined and analysis presented. The technology development path required for maintaining cryogenic propellants in this environment is reviewed. This paper is intended to encourage and bring attention to the cryogenic fluid management technologies needed to enable nuclear thermal propulsion powered deep space missions.

  18. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  19. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  20. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-03-25

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 – 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 – 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change.

  1. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  2. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  3. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-19

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  4. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory were 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  5. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory where 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  6. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Study on the characteristics of linac based THz light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiong-Wei; Wang, Shu-Hong; Chen, Sen-Yu

    2009-10-01

    There are many methods based on linac for THz radiation production. As one of the options for the Beijing Advanced Light, an ERL test facility is proposed for THz radiation. In this test facility, there are 4 kinds of methods to produce THz radiation: coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), synchrotron radiation (SR), low gain FEL oscillator, and high gain SASE FEL. In this paper, we study the characteristics of the 4 kinds of THz light sources.

  7. Citizen Education on Nuclear Technology (CENT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intermountain Science Experience Center, ID Falls, ID.

    Using an interdisciplinary approach, this curriculum focuses on an understanding of: (1) the fundamental principles of operation of a nuclear power plant; (2) the place of nuclear energy in the overall energy-supply-demand situation; (3) risk-benefit balance of the major energy sources; and (4) the role of political action in the development of…

  8. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  9. History of the Development of NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Black

    2000-06-04

    During the 17 yr between 1955 and 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) collaborated on an effort to develop a nuclear rocket engine. Based on studies conducted in 1946, the concept selected was a fully enriched uranium-filled, graphite-moderated, beryllium-reflected reactor, cooled by a monopropellant, hydrogen. The program, known as Rover, was centered at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), funded jointly by the AEC and the USAF, with the intent of designing a rocket engine for long-range ballistic missiles. Other nuclear rocket concepts were studied during these years, such as cermet and gas cores, but are not reviewed herein. Even thought the program went through the termination phase in a very short time, the technology may still be fully recoverable/retrievable to the state of its prior technological readiness in a reasonably short time. Documents; drawings; and technical, purchasing, manufacturing, and materials specifications were all stored for ease of retrieval. If the U.S. space program were to discover a need/mission for this engine, its 1972 'pencils down' status could be updated for the technology developments of the past 28 yr for flight demonstration in 8 or fewer years. Depending on today's performance requirements, temperatures and pressures could be increased and weight decreased considerably.

  10. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  11. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  12. Studying Nuclear Astrophysics at NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R; Bernstein, L; Brune, C

    2009-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility's primary goal is to generate fusion energy. But the starlike conditions that it creates will also enable NIF scientists to study astrophysically important nuclear reactions. When scientists at the stadium-sized National Ignition Facility attempt to initiate fusion next year, 192 powerful lasers will direct 1.2 MJ of light energy toward a two-mm-diameter pellet of deuterium ({sup 2}H, or D) and tritium ({sup 3}H, or T). Some of that material will be gaseous, but most will be in a frozen shell. The idea is to initiate 'inertial confinement fusion', in which the two hydrogen isotopes fuse to produce helium-4, a neutron, and 17.6 MeV of energy. The light energy will be delivered to the inside walls of a hohlraum, a heavy-metal, centimeter-sized cylinder that houses the pellet. The container's heated walls will produce x rays that impinge on the pellet and ablate its outer surface. The exiting particles push inward on the pellet and compresses the DT fuel. Ultimately a hot spot develops at the pellet's center, where fusion produces {sup 4}He nuclei that have sufficient energy to propagate outward, trigger successive reactions, and finally react the frozen shell. Ignition should last several tens of picoseconds and generate more than 10 MJ of energy and roughly 10{sup 19} neutrons. The temperature will exceed 10{sup 8} K and fuel will be compressed to a density of several hundred g/cm{sup 3}, both considerably greater than at the center of the Sun. The figure shows a cutaway view of NIF. The extreme conditions that will be produced there simulate those in nuclear weapons and inside stars. For that reason, the facility is an important part of the US stockpile stewardship program, designed to assess the nation's aging nuclear stockpile without doing nuclear tests. In this Quick Study we consider a third application of NIF - using the extraordinary conditions it will produce to perform experiments in basic science. We will focus on

  13. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed.

  14. The radioactive waste debate in the United States and nuclear technology for peaceful purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehan, Terrence Norbert

    Many ethical, cultural, and economic concerns have accompanied the rapid growth of Western technology. Nuclear technology in particular has experienced considerable opposition because of its perceived dangers, especially disposal of atomic waste. While this field of science remains in its infancy, many legal, political and ecological groups oppose any further application of nuclear technology--including the significant medical, environmental, and economic benefits possible from a safe and responsible application of nuclear energy. Complete and objective knowledge of this technology is needed to balance a healthy respect for the danger of atomic power with its many advantages. This study focuses on one aspect of nuclear technology that has particularly aroused political and social controversy: nuclear waste. Finding ways of disposing safely of nuclear waste has become an extremely volatile issue because of the popular misconception that there is no permanent solution to this problem. This investigation will demonstrate that the supposedly enduring waste problem has been resolved in several industrial countries that now outstrip the United States in safe commercial applications of nuclear science. This dissertation offers a reasoned and objective contribution to the continuing national debate on the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. This debate becomes more crucial as the nation seeks a dependable substitute for the non-renewable sources of energy now rapidly being exhausted.

  15. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  16. The broad view of nuclear technology for aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, David; Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    In near-earth aerospace missions, nuclear technology can be used to power (1) ATC systems, (2) LEO communications and manufacturing platforms, (3) orbital maneuvering units, (4) radiation-protection systems, and (5) the movements of asteroids for mining operations. In the cases of the lunar and Martian surfaces, nuclear technology may be used in stationary base, vehicular and rocket propulsion, excavation/mining, water and sewage treatment, food processing/preservation, and radiation-shielding systems. Outer planet missions will capitalize on nuclear powerplants for onboard power and propulsion.

  17. Nuclear reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ``hot`` nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ``flow`` measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study {sup 40}Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs.

  18. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed.

  19. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  20. Telerobotic technology for nuclear and space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Hamel, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    Telerobotic development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are extensive and relatively diverse. Current efforts include development of a prototype space telerobot system for the NASA Langley Research Center and development and large-scale demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle teleoperators in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This paper presents an overview of the efforts in these major programs. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Nuclear safety technology and public acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, F.

    1985-11-01

    In the years 1976 to 1982 officialdom intensified the safety regulations in German nuclear power plants out of all proportion, without actually bringing about a recognizable plus in safety or indeed a greater acceptance by the public of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Although the risk to employees of nuclear power plants and to the population living in their vicinity is substantially smaller than the dangers of modern civilization, the general public still regards with concern the consequences of radioactive exposure and the hazards to later generations from long-life radionuclides. The task for the coming years must be to maintain the safety standard now attained, while simultaneously reducing those exaggerated individual requirements in order to establish a balance in safety precautions. Additionally, a proposal put forward by Sir Walter Marshall, Chairman of the CEGB, should be pursued, i.e., to put the presumed risks of nuclear energy into their correct perspective in the public eye using comprehensible comparisons such as the risks from active or passive smoking. This cannot be accomplished by quoting abstract statistics.

  2. Template identification technology of nuclear warheads and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su-Ping; Gong, Jian; Hao, Fan-Hua; Hu, Guang-Chun

    2008-02-01

    Template identification technology (TIT) is designed for the scenarios where a batch of disarmed nuclear weapons or components would be dismantled to observe a nuclear disarmament treaty. The core function played by the TIT is to make a judgment on whether the verified item belongs to a certain kind of nuclear weapons or component (NW/NC) or to which kind the verified item belongs. This paper analyses the functions played by the TIT in the process of NW/NC dismantlement, and proposes that two phases would be followed when applying the TIT: firstly to establish NW/NC templates with a sample of size n drawn from a certain kind of disarmament NW; secondly to authenticate NW/NC by means of the TIT. This paper also expatiates some terms related to the concept of the TIT and investigates on the development status of NW/NC TIT based on radiation signatures. The study concludes that the design of template structure is crucial to the establishment of an effective TIT and that starting from different research angles and aiming at the same goal of classification different template structures and corresponding template identification methods can be built up to meet specific identification requirements.

  3. A Lesson from the Nuclear Industry: Professionalism and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Widen, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on an innovative approach to instill professionalism in workers such as reactor operators and other nuclear power workers. It may be used by technology instructors to send a message to their students: regardless of the advanced state of technology, the human element provides the key to desirable outcomes. (Author/JOW)

  4. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering`s nuclear experience and technologies are outlined. The following topics are discussed: evolutionary approach using proven technology, substantial improvement to plant safety, utility perspective up front in developing design, integrated design, competitive plant cost, operability and maintainability, standardization, and completion of US NRC technical review.

  6. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  8. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hill

    2007-07-01

    This plan describes the GNEP Technology Demonstration Program (GNEP-TDP). It has been prepared to guide the development of integrated plans and budgets for realizing the domestic portion of the GNEP vision as well as providing the basis for developing international cooperation. Beginning with the GNEP overall goals, it describes the basic technical objectives for each element of the program, summarizes the technology status and identifies the areas of greatest technical risk. On this basis a proposed technology demonstration program is described that can deliver the required information for a Secretarial decision in the summer of 2008 and support construction of facilities.

  10. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  11. Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  12. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  13. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  14. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is recommended for inclusion in the present system based on favorable quantitative and qualitative measures relative to the other options under consideration.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  16. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  17. U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Science and Technology: A Case Study of the TOPAZ Space-Based Nuclear Reactor International Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Richard S.

    2014-08-01

    The TOPAZ International Program (TIP) was the final name given to a series of projects to purchase and test the TOPAZ-II, a space-based nuclear reactor of a type that had been further developed in the Soviet Union than in the United States. In the changing political situation associated with the break-up of the Soviet Union it became possible for the United States to not just purchase the system, but also to employ Russian scientists, engineers and testing facilities to verify its reliability. The lessons learned from the TIP illuminate some of the institutional and cultural challenges to U.S. - Russian cooperation in technology research which remain true today.

  18. [Ergonomic technology. Design study].

    PubMed

    Apostol, I; Ciobanu, O

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with domains and technological developments and related supports that enhance the rehabilitation process. Ergonomic Technology, Rehabilitation Engineering, Accessibility and Assistive technology are factors involved in promoting a greater independence for people with disabilities by designing and developing new devices with improved design and functionality. Results of a device design study for people with disabilities are presented.

  19. High Energy Nuclear Database: A Testbed for Nuclear Data Information Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R; Beck, B; Pruet, J

    2007-04-18

    We describe the development of an on-line high-energy heavy-ion experimental database. When completed, the database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. While this effort is relatively new, it will eventually contain all published data from older heavy-ion programs as well as published data from current and future facilities. These data include all measured observables in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Once in general use, this database will have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models for a broad range of experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion, target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the International Linear Collider and homeland security. This database is part of a larger proposal that includes the production of periodic data evaluations and topical reviews. These reviews would provide an alternative and impartial mechanism to resolve discrepancies between published data from rival experiments and between theory and experiment. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This project serves as a testbed for the further development of an object-oriented nuclear data format and database system. By using ''off-the-shelf'' software tools and techniques, the system is simple, robust, and extensible. Eventually we envision a ''Grand Unified Nuclear Format'' encapsulating data types used in the ENSDF, ENDF/B, EXFOR, NSR and other formats, including processed data formats.

  20. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  1. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  2. Technology Teachers' Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy and Their Implications for Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Yang, Hsiu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore high-school (grades 10-12) technology teachers' attitudes toward nuclear energy and their implications to technology education. A questionnaire was developed to solicit 323 high-school technology teachers' responses in June 2013 and 132 (or 41%) valid questionnaires returned. Consequently, the following…

  3. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  4. NASA/DOE/DOD nuclear propulsion technology planning: Summary of FY 1991 interagency panel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.; Doherty, Michael P.; Marshall, Albert; Bhattacharryya, Samit K.; Warren, John

    1992-01-01

    Interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) technical panels worked in 1991 to evaluate critical nuclear propulsion issues, compare nuclear propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission on a consistent basis, and to continue planning a technology development project for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Panels were formed to address mission analysis, nuclear facilities, safety policy, nuclear fuels and materials, nuclear electric propulsion technology, and nuclear thermal propulsion technology. A summary of the results and recommendations of the panels is presented.

  5. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013γ/s) due to special operation mode.

  6. Important technology considerations for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuspa, J.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.; Bitz, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses the technology considerations that guide the development of space nuclear power sources (NPS) by the Department of Energy (DOE) to meet a wide variety of applications. The Department and its predecessor agencies have been developing NPS since the 1950s and producing NPS for spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) since the early 1960s. No one nuclear power type, isotope or reactor, will suffice over the entire range of mission power required. Nor is one type of power conversion system, be it static or dynamic, the optimum choice of all space nuclear power system applications. There is a need for DOE, in partnership with its users, NASA and DOD, to develop a variety of types of space nuclear power sources -- isotope-static, isotope-dynamic, reactor-static, and reactor-dynamic -- to meet mission requirements well into the next century. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  8. Nuclear Concepts & Technological Issues Institute: Teacher Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Candace C., Ed.; Lunetta, Lois W., Ed.

    For many summers the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Pennsylvania State University has been the site of a Nuclear Concepts and Technological Issues Institute for secondary school science teachers. As a culminating activity of the institute teachers develop lesson plans, laboratory experiments, demonstrations, or other activities and…

  9. The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. A., Jr.

    This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth.

  10. The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. ); Angelo, J.A. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Aspinall, M.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Peranteau, D.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Vaccaro, S.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A. -L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  12. Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Aliende Urtasun, Ana; Luquin, Asunción; Garrido, Julián J

    2017-04-01

    This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.

  13. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  14. Raising Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Technology Readiness Above 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NTP development is currently supported by the NASA program office "Advanced Exploration Systems". The concept is a main propulsion option being considered for human missions to Mars in the 2030's. Major NTP development took place in the 1960's and 1970's under the Rover/NERVA program. The technology had matured to TRL 6 and was preparing to go to TRL 7 with a prototype flight engine before the program was cancelled. Over the last 40 years, a variety of continuations started, but only lasted a few years each. The Rover/NERVA infrastructure is almost all gone. The only remains are a few pieces of hardware, final reports and a few who worked the Rover/NERVA. Two types of nuclear fuel are being investigated to meet the current engine design specific impulse of 900 seconds compared to approximately 850 seconds demonstrated during Rover/NERVA. One is a continuation of composite fuel with new coatings to better control mid-band corrosion. The other type is a CERMET fuel made of Tungsten and UO2. Both fuels are being made from Rover/NERVA lessons learned, but with slightly different recipes to increase fuel endurance at higher operating temperatures. The technology readiness level (TRL) of these current modified reactor fuels is approximately TRL 3. To keep the development cost low and help mature the TRL level past 4 quickly, a few special non-nuclear test facilities have been made to test surrogate fuel, with depleted uranium, as coupons and full length elements. Both facilities utilize inductive heating and are licensed to handle depleted uranium. TRL 5 requires exposing the fuel to a nuclear environment and TRL 6 requires a prototype ground or flight engine system test. Currently, three different NTP ground test facility options are being investigated: exhaust scrubber, bore hole, and total exhaust containment. In parallel, a prototype flight demonstration test is also being studied. The first human mission to Mars in the 2030's is currently 2033. For an advanced

  15. Use of exotic nuclear beams for nuclear structure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, K.

    1984-10-01

    Possible experiments are discussed for nuclear structure studies using, as secondary beams, projectile fragments produced by high-energy heavy-ion collisions. They are, specifically, (a) determination of nuclear sizes from measurements of the total interaction cross sections of nucleus-nucleus collisions, and (b) determination of static electromagnetic moments, ..mu..'s and Q's, of short-lived ..beta..-radioactive nuclei. 9 references.

  16. Legal and Regulatroy Obstacles to Nuclear Fission Technology in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Melissa K.

    2013-09-01

    In forecasting the prospective use of small nuclear reactors for spacecraft and space-based power stations, the U.S. Air Force describes space as "the ultimate high ground," providing access to every part of the globe. But is it? A report titled "Energy Horizons: United States Air Force Energy Science &Technology Vision 2011-2026," focuses on core Air Force missions in space energy generation, operations and propulsion and recognizes that investments into small modular nuclear fission reactors can be leveraged for space-based systems. However, the report mentions, as an aside, that "potential catastrophic outcomes" are an element to be weighed and provides no insight into the monumental political and legal will required to overcome the mere stigma of nuclear energy, even when referring only to the most benign nuclear power generation systems - RTGs. On the heels of that report, a joint Department of Energy and NASA team published positive results from the demonstration of a uranium- powered fission reactor. The experiment was perhaps most notable for exemplifying just how effective the powerful anti-nuclear lobby has been in the United States: It was the first such demonstration of its kind in nearly fifty years. Space visionaries must anticipate a difficult war, consisting of multiple battles that must be waged in order to obtain a license to fly any but the feeblest of nuclear power sources in space. This paper aims to guide the reader through the obstacles to be overcome before nuclear fission technology can be put to use in space.

  17. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    It was with great pleasure that the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia and the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Structure of Pavia organised the XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society, which was held in the historical buildings of the University of Pavia from 5-9 September 2005. The Conference was devoted to the discussion of the most recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the field of Nuclear Physics applications, as well as of the latest developments in technological tools related to Nuclear Physics research. The University of Pavia has a long tradition in Physics and in Applied Physics, being the site where Alessandro Volta developed his "pila", the precursor of the modern battery. This is the place where the first experiments with electricity were conducted and where the term "capacitance" used for capacitors was invented. Today the University hosts a Triga Mark II nuclear reactor, which is used by the Departments of the University of Pavia and by other Universities and private companies as well. Moreover, Pavia is the site selected for the construction of the CNAO complex "Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica" (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy), planned for 2005-2008 which represents a unique facility in Italy and will be among the first complexes of this type in Europe. The Conference has gathered together experts in various fields from different countries and has been the occasion to review the present status and to discuss the new emerging trends in Nuclear Physics and its applications to multidisciplinary researches and the development of new technologies. The following topics were treated: Nuclear Techniques in Medicine and Life Sciences (Cancer Therapy, new Imaging and Diagnostics Tools, Radioisotope production, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry). Applications of Nuclear Techniques in Art, Archaeometry and other Interdisciplinary fields

  18. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  19. Nuclear technology programs. Semiannual progress report, April--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April through September 1991. These programs involve R & D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  20. Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1990--March 1991. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transpose of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  1. Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-06-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  2. Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-06-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

  3. Nuclear technology programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1989--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1989--March 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned water waste stream generated in production of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  4. Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1988--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1990-12-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1988--March 1989. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories. 127 refs., 76 figs., 103 tabs.

  5. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  6. Nuclear fission: the interplay of science and technology.

    PubMed

    Stoneham, A M

    2010-07-28

    When the UK's Calder Hall nuclear power station was connected to the grid in 1956, the programmes that made this possible involved a powerful combination of basic and applied research. Both the science and the engineering were novel, addressing new and challenging problems. That the last Calder Hall reactor was shut down only in 2003 attests to the success of the work. The strengths of bringing basic science to bear on applications continued to be recognized until the 1980s, when government and management fashions changed. This paper identifies a few of the technology challenges, and shows how novel basic science emerged from them and proved essential in their resolution. Today, as the threat of climate change becomes accepted, it has become clear that there is no credible solution without nuclear energy. The design and construction of new fission reactors will need continuing innovation, with the interplay between the science and technology being a crucial component.

  7. Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

  8. Nuclear power and the risks of new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.

    1993-04-01

    There is often excessive euphoria about new technologies. This can lead to disillusionment and then excessive fear. Excessive fear can arise on its own. There are many indications that those who understand nuclear power are more willing to accept it. The author will present from his own experience several occasions in which lack of understanding has led to opposition and how the lack of understanding can be modified. But once a person is already opposed it is hard to change his actions.

  9. Review of the Tri-Agency Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrus, J. H.; Wright, W. E.; Bunch, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program designated SP-100 was created in 1983 by NASA, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Attention is presently given to the development history of SP-100 over the course of its first year, in which it has been engaged in program objectives' definition, the analysis of civil and military missions, nuclear power system functional requirements' definition, concept definition studies, the selection of primary concepts for technology feasibility validation, and the acquisition of initial experimental and analytical results.

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear quality-assurance and quality-control technician program is designed for use with courses 26-32 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to…

  11. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Caffrey, Jarvis; Hedayat, Ali; Stephens, Jonathan; Polsgrove, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate, facilitate a discussion and determine a path forward for technology development of cryogenic fluid management technology that is necessary for long duration deep space missions utilizing nuclear thermal propulsion systems. There are a number of challenges in managing cryogenic liquids that must be addressed before long durations missions into deep space, such as a trip to Mars can be successful. The leakage rate of hydrogen from pressure vessels, seals, lines and valves is a critical factor that must be controlled and minimized. For long duration missions, hydrogen leakage amounts to large increases in hydrogen and therefore vehicle mass. The size of a deep space vehicle, such as a mars transfer vehicle, must be kept small to control cost and the logistics of a multi launch, assembled in orbit vehicle. The boil off control of the cryogenic fluid is an additional obstacle to long duration missions. The boil off caused by heat absorption results in the growth of the propellant needs of the vehicle and therefore vehicle mass. This is a significant problem for a vehicle using nuclear (fission) propulsion systems. Radiation from the engines deposits large quantities of heat into the cryogenic fluid, greatly increasing boil off beyond that caused by environmental heat leakage. Addressing and resolving these challenges is critical to successful long duration space exploration. This paper discusses the state of the technology needed to address these challenges and discuss the path forward needed in technology development.

  12. Nuclear structure studies with intermediate energy probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear structure studies with pions are reviewed. Results from a recent study of 1 p-shell nuclei using (e,e{prime}), ({pi}, {pi}{prime}), and ({gamma},{pi}) reactions are reported. Future nuclear structure studies with GeV electrons at CEBAF are also briefly discussed.

  13. Nuclear and neutron matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Akmal, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear and neutron matter with the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN and Urbana 3N potentials. We use variational wave functions and a diagrammatic cluster expansion with Fermi hypernetted and single-operator chain (FHNC/SOC) integral equations to evaluate the energy expectation value. Initial results show some interesting differences with our previous calculations with the older Argonne v{sub 14} potential. In particular, there are a number of diagrams involving L{center_dot}S and L{sup 2} terms which were small with the older model and were rather crudely estimated or even neglected. It appears that these terms are more important with the new potential and will have to be evaluated more accurately. Work on this subject is in progress. A simple line of attack is to just add additional diagrams at the three-body cluster level. A longer term approach may be to adapt some of the methods for evaluating nucleon clusters used in the few-body and closed shell nuclei described above.

  14. Howitzer Technology Assessment Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A091 782 VEDA INC SOUTHAMPTON PA p~1t HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY.CU) Fs1/ NOV 80 A J CURRAN , J M MAGINN N000OI8?gC-0925 UNCLASSIFIED...ADIO SCONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-SO036 0 HOWITZER TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT STUDY ROGER I. CURRAN - JAMES M. MAGINN VEDA INCORPORATED 1360 INDUSTRIAL...C-0925," 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ARC ADDRESS VI POGAMEUNTPRJCAS JPROe &. M HaSN. RJETTn Veda Incorporated 1360 Industrial Highway Southampton

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  16. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  17. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  18. A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS TECHNOLOGY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.; SISKIND, B.; PEPPER, S.

    2005-07-10

    While there are a number of university graduate-education programs that address non-proliferation and safeguards policy issues; there are none in the United States that train students in the specific technical aspects of nuclear safeguards. Formal education of this kind is necessary to sustain the flow of technically trained individuals to diverse programs in safeguards, nonproliferation, and national security. In response to this need, the University of Missouri-Columbia, with assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory, is initiating a Graduate Certificate Program in Nuclear Safeguards Technology: Students seeking advanced degrees in a variety of technical areas will complete a required sequence of courses in order to receive the certification. Required course work covers topics such as Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A), Physical Protection (PP); nuclear measurements, and a variety of other relevant subjects. Laboratory-based instruction will be included which will utilize the University of Missouri Research Reactor(MURR). MURR is the largest university-based research reactor and has extensive laboratory resources including a Canberra Aquila MPC&A Operational Monitoring demonstration system.

  19. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  20. Technological implications of SNAP reactor power system development on future space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.

    1982-11-16

    Nuclear reactor systems are one method of satisfying space mission power needs. The development of such systems must proceed on a path consistent with mission needs and schedules. This path, or technology roadmap, starts from the power system technology data base available today. Much of this data base was established during the 1960s and early 1970s, when government and industry developed space nuclear reactor systems for steady-state power and propulsion. One of the largest development programs was the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. By the early 1970s, a technology base had evolved from this program at the system, subsystem, and component levels. There are many implications of this technology base on future reactor power systems. A review of this base highlights the need for performing a power system technology and mission overview study. Such a study is currently being performed by Rockwell's Energy Systems Group for the Department of Energy and will assess power system capabilities versus mission needs, considering development, schedule, and cost implications. The end product of the study will be a technology roadmap to guide reactor power system development.

  1. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  2. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M B; Oblozinsky, P; Herman, M; Greene, N M; McKnight, R D; Smith, D L; Young, P G; MacFarlane, R E; Hale, G M; Haight, R C; Frankle, S; Kahler, A C; Kawano, T; Little, R C; Madland, D G; Moller, P; Mosteller, R; Page, P; Talou, P; Trellue, H; White, M; Wilson, W B; Arcilla, R; Dunford, C L; Mughabghab, S F; Pritychenko, B; Rochman, D; Sonzogni, A A; Lubitz, C; Trumbull, T H; Weinman, J; Brown, D; Cullen, D E; Heinrichs, D; McNabb, D; Derrien, H; Dunn, M; Larson, N M; Leal, L C; Carlson, A D; Block, R C; Briggs, B; Cheng, E; Huria, H; Kozier, K; Courcelle, A; Pronyaev, V; der Marck, S

    2006-10-02

    We describe the next generation general purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VII.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, released by the U.S. Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in December 2006, contains data primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons, and photons on almost 400 isotopes. The new evaluations are based on both experimental data and nuclear reaction theory predictions. The principal advances over the previous ENDF/B-VI library are the following: (1) New cross sections for U, Pu, Th, Np and Am actinide isotopes, with improved performance in integral validation criticality and neutron transmission benchmark tests; (2) More precise standard cross sections for neutron reactions on H, {sup 6}Li, {sup 10}B, Au and for {sup 235,238}U fission, developed by a collaboration with the IAEA and the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC); (3) Improved thermal neutron scattering; (4) An extensive set of neutron cross sections on fission products developed through a WPEC collaboration; (5) A large suite of photonuclear reactions; (6) Extension of many neutron- and proton-induced reactions up to an energy of 150 MeV; (7) Many new light nucleus neutron and proton reactions; (8) Post-fission beta-delayed photon decay spectra; (9) New radioactive decay data; and (10) New methods developed to provide uncertainties and covariances, together with covariance evaluations for some sample cases. The paper provides an overview of this library, consisting of 14 sublibraries in the same, ENDF-6 format, as the earlier ENDF/B-VI library. We describe each of the 14 sublibraries, focusing on neutron reactions. Extensive validation, using radiation transport codes to simulate measured critical assemblies, show major improvements: (a) The long-standing underprediction of low enriched U thermal assemblies is removed; (b) The {sup 238}U, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 9}Be reflector

  3. The limits of technology in nuclear crisis management

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    For some purposes, one may consider the roles of technology in nuclear crisis management to fall into four categories. Certain technologies, such as signals intelligence, may assist in monitoring for the emergence of crisis precursors. Other kinds of surveillance, such as that by certain satellites, are intended to detect phenomena, such as missile launches, which clearly signal the transition from pre-crisis to mid-crisis. During this phase, communications and surveillance technologies may be called upon to aid in managing the crisis. Finally, communications technologies will play a vital role in crisis resolution, preferably during the pre-crisis phase, but in mid-crisis if necessary. It has long been recognized that a large fraction of these technical means are vulnerable, both to selective, direct attack, and to the unintended, collateral effects of conflict itself. Systematic efforts are underway to make these systems more robust and survivable in crisis environments, but one must clearly recognize the limits of technology. In particular, one must weigh very seriously the implications and possible consequences of intentional, direct attack, including decapitation, on just those means which may permit timely crisis resolution. In the end, these technologies may prove so vulnerable, that nations may be forced to rely on pre-crisis planning, including force structuring, clearly defined options planning, and clear statements of intent, in order to permit any sort of mid-crisis resolution and conflict termination.

  4. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  6. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  7. Geosynchronous Technology Infusion Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, L.; Jenstrom, D.; Chesters, D.; Racette, P.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and NOAA are now sponsoring Advanced Geosynchronous Studies (AGeoS), technology work that will lead to the next generation of space sensors located in geosynchronous orbit. This report briefly describes the initial steps being taken to investigate the high priority geosynchronous measurement needs identified so far.

  8. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-01-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities.

  10. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  11. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  12. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Obložinský, P.; Herman, M.; Greene, N. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Smith, D. L.; Young, P. G.; MacFarlane, R. E.; Hale, G. M.; Frankle, S. C.; Kahler, A. C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R. C.; Madland, D. G.; Moller, P.; Mosteller, R. D.; Page, P. R.; Talou, P.; Trellue, H.; White, M. C.; Wilson, W. B.; Arcilla, R.; Dunford, C. L.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Pritychenko, B.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Lubitz, C. R.; Trumbull, T. H.; Weinman, J. P.; Brown, D. A.; Cullen, D. E.; Heinrichs, D. P.; McNabb, D. P.; Derrien, H.; Dunn, M. E.; Larson, N. M.; Leal, L. C.; Carlson, A. D.; Block, R. C.; Briggs, J. B.; Cheng, E. T.; Huria, H. C.; Zerkle, M. L.; Kozier, K. S.; Courcelle, A.; Pronyaev, V.; van der Marck, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the next generation general purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VII.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, released by the U.S. Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in December 2006, contains data primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons, and photons on almost 400 isotopes, based on experimental data and theory predictions. The principal advances over the previous ENDF/B-VI library are the following: (1) New cross sections for U, Pu, Th, Np and Am actinide isotopes, with improved performance in integral validation criticality and neutron transmission benchmark tests; (2) More precise standard cross sections for neutron reactions on H, 6Li, 10B, Au and for 235,238U fission, developed by a collaboration with the IAEA and the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC); (3) Improved thermal neutron scattering; (4) An extensive set of neutron cross sections on fission products developed through a WPEC collaboration; (5) A large suite of photonuclear reactions; (6) Extension of many neutron- and proton-induced evaluations up to 150 MeV; (7) Many new light nucleus neutron and proton reactions; (8) Post-fission beta-delayed photon decay spectra; (9) New radioactive decay data; (10) New methods for uncertainties and covariances, together with covariance evaluations for some sample cases; and (11) New actinide fission energy deposition. The paper provides an overview of this library, consisting of 14 sublibraries in the same ENDF-6 format as the earlier ENDF/B-VI library. We describe each of the 14 sublibraries, focusing on neutron reactions. Extensive validation, using radiation transport codes to simulate measured critical assemblies, show major improvements: (a) The long-standing underprediction of low enriched uranium thermal assemblies is removed; (b) The 238U and 208Pb reflector biases in fast systems are largely removed; (c) ENDF/B-VI.8 good

  13. Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  18. Human response to nuclear and advanced technology weapons effects. Final report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to help the system survivability analyst estimate hardness requirements for systems exposed to nuclear weapons and advanced technology weapons (ATWs). The system survivability analyst is often asked to make quick, order-of-magnitude estimates on the hardness requirements for existing or proposed systems based upon human responses to the effects of nuclear weapons and ATWs. The intent of this report is to identity the general range of human survivability to nuclear weapons and ATWs and to provide simple example calcuiations and scenarios that can give the reader rough estimates of the effects of these weapons. While high-powered microwave (HPM) and laser weapons are considered in this report, the main emphasis is on nuclear weapons and their ionizing radiation effects.

  19. Emerging Technologies Integrating Technology into Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    "Ready access to travel and to technology-enhanced social networking (e.g., Facebook or Skype) has changed the nature of study abroad to the point where today's experiences are fundamentally different from those of earlier eras" (Kinginger, 2013a, p. 345). In addition to more travel options and greater technology availability, study…

  20. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing...

  1. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  2. A decade of 3C technologies: insights into nuclear organization

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Elzo; de Laat, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably simple idea that digestion and religation of fixed chromatin in cells, followed by the quantification of ligation junctions, allows for the determination of DNA contact frequencies and insight into chromosome topology. Here we evaluate and compare the current 3C-based methods (including 4C [chromosome conformation capture-on-chip], 5C [chromosome conformation capture carbon copy], HiC, and ChIA-PET), summarize their contribution to our current understanding of genome structure, and discuss how shape influences genome function. PMID:22215806

  3. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  4. Nuclear thermal propulsion technology: Results of an interagency panel in FY 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Howe, Steven; Helms, Ira; Stanley, Marland

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC was selected to lead nuclear propulsion technology development for NASA. Also participating in the project are NASA MSFC and JPL. The U.S. Department of Energy will develop nuclear technology and will conduct nuclear component, subsystem, and system testing at appropriate DOE test facilities. NASA program management is the responsibility of NASA/RP. The project includes both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology development. This report summarizes the efforts of an interagency panel that evaluated NTP technology in 1991. Other panels were also at work in 1991 on other aspects of nuclear propulsion, and the six panels worked closely together. The charters for the other panels and some of their results are also discussed. Important collaborative efforts with other panels are highlighted. The interagency (NASA/DOE/DOD) NTP Technology Panel worked in 1991 to evaluate nuclear thermal propulsion concepts on a consistent basis. Additionally, the panel worked to continue technology development project planning for a joint project in nuclear propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Five meetings of the panel were held in 1991 to continue the planning for technology development of nuclear thermal propulsion systems. The state-of-the-art of the NTP technologies was reviewed in some detail. The major technologies identified were as follows: fuels, coatings, and other reactor technologies; materials; instrumentation, controls, health monitoring and management, and associated technologies; nozzles; and feed system technology, including turbopump assemblies.

  5. Integrated optics technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electrooptical components are described. Issues included in the study are: (1) host material and orientation, (2) waveguide formation, (3) optical loss mechanisms, (4) wavelength selection, (5) polarization effects and control, (6) laser to integrated optics coupling,(7) fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, (8) souces, (9) detectors. The best materials, technology and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are recommended.

  6. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  7. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian D.; Caffrey, Jarvis; Hedayat, Ali; Stephens, Jonathan; Polsgrove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is critical to the success of future nuclear thermal propulsion powered vehicles. While this is an issue for any propulsion system utilizing cryogenic propellants, this is made more challenging by the radiation flux produced by the reactor in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Managing the cryogenic fuel to prevent propellant loss to boil off and leakage is needed to limit the required quantity of propellant to a reasonable level. Analysis shows deposition of energy into liquid hydrogen fuel tanks in the vicinity of the nuclear thermal engine. This is on top of ambient environment sources of heat. Investments in cryogenic/thermal management systems (some of which are ongoing at various organizations) are needed in parallel to nuclear thermal engine development in order to one day see the successful operation of an entire stage. High durability, low thermal conductivity insulation is one developmental need. Light weight cryocoolers capable of removing heat from large fluid volumes at temperatures as low as approx. 20 K are needed to remove heat leak from the propellant of an NTR. Valve leakage is an additional CFM issue of great importance. Leakage rates of state of the art, launch vehicle size valves (which is approximately the size valves needed for a Mars transfer vehicle) are quite high and would result in large quantities of lost propellant over a long duration mission. Additionally, the liquid acquisition system inside the propellant tank must deliver properly conditioned propellant to the feed line for successful engine operation and avoid intake of warm or gaseous propellant. Analysis of the thermal environment and the CFM technology development are discussed in the accompanying presentation.

  8. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  9. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  10. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    SciTech Connect

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  11. Future of strategic nuclear deterrence. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, J.

    1992-04-10

    The evolving role of our Strategic Nuclear Forces and the deterrent requirement of that force in a changing and volatile world are two of the most contentious issues facing this country's leadership. The debate surrounding these forces has been brought about by many diverse factors that include the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resultant end of the Cold War, bilateral arms control agreements and unilateral reductions which have reduced the number and operational status of nuclear forces, and a perceived reduction in the threat facing the U.S. and its allies. Additionally, the success of U.S. technology as seen in the effects of modern conventional munitions in the Gulf War and the proliferation of ballistic missile and nuclear weapons technology into Third World countries have further compounded the complexity of the issue. The concomitant changes in the focus and structure of U.S. and allied military forces have further fueled the debate. As the National Security Strategy and supporting National Military Strategy are evolving to meet new threats, it is essential to provide an analysis of the continued deterrent role of our Strategic Nuclear Force in this changing world.

  12. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  13. [Occupational risk and technological innovations. Comparison of conventional and nuclear energy systems (fuel, coal and nuclear) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fagnani, F; Hubert, P; Maccia, C

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to compare the occupational risks associated to the production of electricity through three alternative technologies: fuel, coal and nuclear (Pressurised Water Reactor). A methodology is proposed in order to integrate the operation and construction activities. The data related to a French scenario have been collected and are presented. The results obtained in the case of nuclear technology correspond to the present French program for 1990 and have in this respect a prospective value.

  14. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  15. Nuclear-spectroscopy problems studied with neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy with neutrons continues to have a major impact on the progress of nuclear science. Neutrons, being uncharged, are particularly useful for the study of low energy reactions. Recent advances in time-of-flight spectroscopy, as well as in the gamma ray spectroscopy following neutron capture, have permitted precision studies of unbound and bound nuclear levels and related phenomena. By going to new energy domains, by using polarized beams and targets, through the invention of new kinds of detectors, and through the general improvement in beam quantity and quality, new features of nuclear structure and reactions have been obtained that are not ony interesting per se but are also grist for old and new theory mills. The above technical advances have opened up new opportunities for further discoveries.

  16. Nuclear-spectroscopy problems studied with neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, S.

    Nuclear spectroscopy with neutrons continues to have a major impact on the progress of nuclear science. Neutrons, being uncharged, are particularly useful for the study of low energy reactions. Recent advances in time-of-flight spectroscopy, as well as in the gamma ray spectroscopy following neutron capture, have permitted precision studies of unbound and bound nuclear levels and related phenomena. By going to new energy domains, by using polarized beams and targets, through the invention of new kinds of detectors, and through the general improvement in beam quantity and quality, new features of nuclear structure and reactions were obtained that are not only interesting per se but are also grist for old and new theory mills. The above technical advances have opened up opportunities for further discoveries.

  17. Technology status of tantalum alloys for space nuclear power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    Tantalum alloys have a variety of properties which make them attractive candidates for application in nuclear power systems required to operate in space at elevated temperatures (1200 to 1600 K) for extended time periods. Most of the technology development on this class of alloys which is pertinent to space system application occurred during the 1960 to 1972 time period under NASA sponsorship. The most extensive data bases resulting from this earlier work were obtained on the alloys T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and ASTAR 811C (Ta-8W-1Re-0.7Hf-0.025C). Emphasis in this paper is directed at the following technical factors: producibility, creep strength, weldability and compatibility. These factors are considered to be the most important elements in the selection of alloys for this application. Review of the available information indicates that alloys of this type are appropriate for application in many systems, particularly those utilizing alkali metals as the working fluid.

  18. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 3: Principles of Process Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 15: Metallurgy and Metals Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 4: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 29: Civil/Structural Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Non-Nuclear Testing of Fission Technologies at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Robert G.; Pearson, J. Boise; Aschenbrenner, Kenneth C.; Bradley, David E.; Dickens, Ricky E.; Emrich, William J.; Garber, Anne E.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Harper, Roger T.; Martin, Jim J.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Highly realistic non-nuclear testing can be used to investigate and resolve potential issues with space nuclear power and propulsion systems. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for systems designed with fuels and materials operating within their demonstrated nuclear performance envelope. Non-nuclear testing also provides an excellent way for screening potential advanced fuels and materials prior to nuclear testing, and for investigating innovative geometries and operating regimes. Non-nuclear testing allows thermal hydraulic, heat transfer, structural, integration, safety, operational, performance, and other potential issues to be investigated and resolved with a greater degree of flexibility and at reduced cost and schedule compared to nuclear testing. The primary limit of non-nuclear testing is that nuclear characteristics and potential nuclear issues cannot be directly investigated. However, non-nuclear testing can be used to augment the potential benefit from any nuclear testing that may be required for space nuclear system design and development. This paper describes previous and ongoing non-nuclear testing related to space nuclear systems at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 16: Mechanical Component Characteristics and Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 11: Radiation Detection and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 31: Quality-Assurance Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 33: Control Systems I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 34: Control Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 10: Power Plant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 9: Reactor Auxiliary Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 13: Power Plant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 35: Systems and Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  2. Application of Telepresence Technologies to Nuclear Material Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.C.; Rome, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Implementation of remote monitoring systems has become a priority area for the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international inspection regimes. For the past three years, DOE2000 has been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) initiative to develop innovative applications to exploit the capabilities of broadband networks and media integration. The aim is to enhance scientific collaboration by merging computing and communications technologies. These Internet-based telepresence technologies could be easily extended to provide remote monitoring and control for confidence building and transparency systems at nuclear facilities around the world. One of the original DOE2000 projects, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory is an interactive virtual laboratory, linking seven DOE user facilities located across the US. At these facilities, external collaborators have access to scientists, data, and instrumentation, all of which are available to varying degrees using the Internet. Remote operation of the instruments varies between passive (observational) to active (direct control), in many cases requiring no software at the remote site beyond a Web browser. Live video streams are continuously available on the Web so that participants can see what is happening at a particular location. An X.509 certificate system provides strong authentication, The hardware and software are commercially available and are easily adaptable to safeguards applications.

  3. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  4. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. 5.20 Section 5.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED....20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  5. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. 5.20 Section 5.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED....20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  6. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. 5.20 Section 5.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED....20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  7. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. 5.20 Section 5.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED....20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  8. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. 5.20 Section 5.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED....20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  9. Leasing of Nuclear Power Plants With Using Floating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.N.; Gabaraev, B.A.; Reshetov, V.A.; Moskin, V.A.

    2002-07-01

    The proposal to organize and realize the international program on leasing of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor compartments is brought to the notice of potential partners. The proposal is oriented to the construction of new NPPs or to replacement of worked-out reactor units of the NPPs in operation on the sites situated near water area and to the use of afloat technologies for construction, mounting and transportation of reactor units as a Reactor Compartment Block Module (RCBM). According to the offered project the RCBM is fabricated in factory conditions at the largest Russian defense shipbuilding plant - State Unitary Enterprise 'Industrial Association SEVMASHPREDPRIYATIE' (SEVMASH) in the city of Severodvinsk of the Arkhangelsk region. After completion of assembling, testing and preliminary licensing the RCBM is given buoyancy by means of hermetic sealing and using pontoons and barges. The RCBM delivery to the NPP site situated near water area is performed by sea route. The RCBM is brought to the place of its installation with the use of appropriate hydraulic structures (canals, shipping locks), then is lowered on the basement constructed beforehand and incorporated into NPP scheme, of which the components are installed in advance. Floating means can be detached from the RCBM and used repeatedly for other RCBMs. Further procedure of NPP commissioning and its operation is carried out according to traditional method by power company in the framework of RCBM leasing with enlisting the services of firm-manufacturer's specialists either to provide reactor plant operation and concomitant processes or to perform author's supervision of operation. After completion of lifetime and reactor unloading the RCBM is dismantled with using the same afloat technology and taken away from NPP site to sea area entirely, together with its structures (reactor vessel, heat exchangers, pumps, pipelines and other equipment). Then RCBM is transported by shipping route to a firm

  10. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  11. Citizen Education on Nuclear Technology (CENT). Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intermountain Science Experience Center, ID Falls, ID.

    Using an interdisciplinary approach, this curriculum focuses on understanding: (1) the fundamental principles of operating a nuclear power plant; (2) the place of nuclear energy in the overall energy supply/demand situation; (3) risk-benefit balance of the major energy sources; and (4) the role of political action in developing nuclear energy…

  12. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  13. An Overview of Comprehensive Inspection Technologies Under Investigation at Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.

    2013-12-01

    Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) under investigation include methods that might be of use in detecting a clandestine underground nuclear test. These include techniques for detecting noble gases, visual observation methods, hyperspectral imaging, controlled- and passive-source seismic surveys, and other geophysical methods. Noble gas detection studies include a series of experiments called the Noble Gas Migration (NGM) experiments, that explore the fundamental parameters that determine the capability to detect radioxenon isotopes and 37Ar produced in underground nuclear tests. These isotopes are of interest to both the International Monitoring System (IMS) global monitoring and On-Site Inspection (OSI) regimes. Through a unique combination of field experiments, sampling of radioactive noble gas from a legacy underground nuclear test, large-scale hydrogeologic computer simulations, and a regimen involving carefully designed field-sampling techniques, the experiments are providing information about the production, release, and sampling challenges that determine the ability to detect these two important noble gases. Other CIT experiments explore and validate geophysical (controlled-source and passive-source seismic, gravity, electrical, magnetic, etc.) and optical techniques (both visual and instrument-based) that greatly enhance the understanding of the efficiency of these techniques for OSI, including how to better integrate the various technologies with each other and individually at different physical scales. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25936--1840.

  14. Extraterrestrial Studies Using Nuclear Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were used to study the recent histories of the aubrite Norton County and the pallasite Brenham using calculated production rates. Calculations were done of the rates for making cosmogenic noble-gas isotopes in the Jovian satellite Europa by the interactions of galactic cosmic rays and especially trapped Jovian protons. Cross sections for the production of cosmogenic nuclides were reported and plans made to measure additional cross sections. A new code, MCNPX, was used to numerically simulate the interactions of cosmic rays with matter and the subsequent production of cosmogenic nuclides. A review was written about studies of extraterrestrial matter using cosmogenic radionuclides. Several other projects were done. Results are reviewed here with references to my recent publications for details.

  15. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  17. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  18. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As visions of space applications expand and as probes extend further and further out into the universe, the need for power also expands, and missions evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources are defined. These include earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration and extraterrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. This paper presents results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear-reactor energy sources combined with various energy-conversion devices for earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rover and surface power, and planetary exploration.

  19. Nuclear Proliferation: A Unit for Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernekes, William R.

    1990-01-01

    Using Argentina as a sample case study, presents a classroom unit designed to explain the implications for world peace of nuclear weapons development. Employs a policy analysis model to make an indepth examination of the values underlying all government policy decisions. Includes unit topics and procedures for the exercise. (NL)

  20. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  1. International academic program in technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. Phases of development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Glebov, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The results of implementation of European educational projects CORONA and CORONA II dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors are analyzed. Present article addresses issues of design and implementation of the program for specialized training in the branch of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. The systematic approach has been used to construct the program for students of nuclear specialties, which corresponding to IAEA standards and commonly accepted nuclear principles recognized in the European Union. Possibilities of further development of the international cooperation between countries and educational institutions are analyzed. Special attention is paid to e-learning/distance training, nuclear knowledge preservation and interaction with European Nuclear Education Network.

  2. RAM Technology Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-03

    reentry systems requirements. 47 I REFERENCES 1. Grove, A. S, "Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices," John Wiley and Sons, 1967. 2. Fisher ...ATTN: Technical Library ATTN: R. Casey lIT Research Institute ATTN: I. Mindel General Electric Co. ATTN: R. Hellen Institute for Defense Analyses ATTN

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  4. Who Should Control Nuclear Technology? A Curriculum Unit for Contemporary U.S. and World History, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimney, Michelle; Boston, Jane

    Since the end of World War II and the onset of the "new age," nuclear technology has remained high on the world's agenda as questions regarding sovereignty and the balance of power, control of the development and spread of nuclear weapons, non-military uses for nuclear technology, and nuclear safety are debated among and within nations.…

  5. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  6. Integrated optics technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B.; Findakly, T.; Innarella, R.

    1982-01-01

    The status and near term potential of materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electro-optical components are discussed. Issues discussed are host material and orientation, waveguide formation, optical loss mechanisms, wavelength selection, polarization effects and control, laser to integrated optics coupling fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, sources, and detectors. Recommendations of the best materials, technology, and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are given.

  7. WELCOME SPEECH: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    2006-06-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, On behalf of the European Physical Society it is my pleasure to welcome you to the Conference: NEW TRENDS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY This is the 19th International Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the Nuclear Physics Board of the EPS. It is a relatively new experience for the Board to support a Conference in an area so closely linked to applications and technology. I am therefore very pleased to see such a good response to the initiative of Professor Scannicchio and his local Organizing Committee under Professor Zenoni's Chairmanship. I would like to take this opportunity to say a few words about the EPS Nuclear Physics Board. The Board consists of 18 people (10 elected plus up to 10 co-opted) from across Europe, with me as Chair. Elections by members of the Division are held if there is competition for a vacancy, which is announced in Europhysics News. The Board exchanges observers with NuPECC. The Board has 3 major activities: 1. Divisional Scientific Meetings of which this is one. There are usually two per year, but this year there are three. Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics 2 (NPA2), Debrecen, Hungary, 16 20 May 2005. This conference, New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology, Pavia, 5 9 September 2005. "Sandanski 3" Co-ordination Meeting in Nuclear Science organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, and the Institute for Nuclear Research and Energy, Sofia, which will be held in Albena, Bulgaria, 25 September to 2 October 2005. This grew out of two earlier meetings in 1995 and 2001 in Sandanski, Bulgaria. The aim of these meetings was to foster and support scientific collaborations in nuclear physics between eastern and western European countries. 2. The Board awards two prizes, usually in alternate years: The Lise Meitner Prize for outstanding contributions in the field of Nuclear Science. The 2004 recipients were Bent Herskind and Peter Twin for their pioneering work on rapidly

  8. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias.

  9. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  10. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  11. 1st International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference 2014 (INST2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology has played an important role in many aspects of our lives, including agriculture, energy, materials, medicine, environment, forensics, healthcare, and frontier research. The International Nuclear Science and Technology Conference (INST) aims to bring together scientists, engineers, academics, and students to share knowledge and experiences about all aspects of nuclear sciences. INST has evolved from a series of national conferences in Thailand called Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Conference, which has been held for 11 times, the first being in 1986. INST2014 was held in August 2014 and hosted by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). The theme was "Driving the future with nuclear technology". The conference working language was English. The proceedings were peer reviewed and considered for publication. The topics covered in the conference were: • Agricultural and food applications [AGR] • Environmental applications [ENV] • Radiation processing and industrial applications [IND] • Medical and nutritional applications [MED] • Nuclear physics and engineering [PHY] • Nuclear and radiation safety [SAF] • Other related topics [OTH] • Device and instrument presentation [DEV] Awards for outstanding oral and poster presentations will be given to qualified students who present their work during the conference.

  12. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of

  13. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O'Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  14. Future payload technology requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology advances needed for an overall mission model standpoint as well as those for individual shuttle payloads are defined. The technology advances relate to the mission scientific equipment, spacecraft subsystems that functionally support this equipment, and other payload-related equipment, software, and environment necessary to meet broad program objectives. In the interest of obtaining commonality of requirements, the study was structured according to technology categories rather than in terms of individual payloads.

  15. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions.

  16. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  17. Nuclear technologies and agricultural production sphere (prospects of application, ecological aspects)

    SciTech Connect

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Issues involved with the application of ionizing radiation to agricultural products are described in this paper. Many sides of agricultural application are alternative. However, nuclear technology is the most safe ecologically of the food preservation techniques.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  19. 75 FR 36648 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting correction. On June 21, 2010,...

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  1. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  2. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger M. C. Swenson

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  3. Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development.

  4. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  5. Blazing the trailway: Nuclear electric propulsion and its technology program plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of the plans for a program in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for space applications being considered by NASA, DOE, and DOD. Possible missions using NEP are examined, and NEP technology plans are addressed regarding concept development, systems engineering, nuclear fuels, power conversion, thermal management, power management and distribution, electric thrusters, facilities, and issues related to safety and environment. The programmatic characteristics are considered.

  6. Artificial intelligence and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Artificial Intelligence Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Task Team was organized to review the status of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, identify guidelines for AI work, and to identify work required to allow the nuclear industry to realize maximum benefit from this technology. The state of the nuclear industry was analyzed to determine where the application of AI technology could be of greatest benefit. Guidelines and criteria were established to focus on those particular problem areas where AI could provide the highest possible payoff to the industry. Information was collected from government, academic, and private organizations. Very little AI work is now being done to specifically support the nuclear industry. The AI Task Team determined that the establishment of a Strategic Automation Initiative (SAI) and the expansion of the DOE Technology Transfer program would ensure that AI technology could be used to develop software for the nuclear industry that would have substantial financial payoff to the industry. The SAI includes both long and short term phases. The short-term phase includes projects which would demonstrate that AI can be applied to the nuclear industry safely, and with substantial financial benefit. The long term phase includes projects which would develop AI technologies with specific applicability to the nuclear industry that would not be developed by people working in any other industry.

  7. Aerospace technology and commercial nuclear power; Proceedings of the Workshop Conference, Williamsburg, VA, November 18-20, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, J.

    An attempt has been made to compare the technologies, institutions and procedures of the aerospace and commercial nuclear power industries, in order to characterize similarities and contrasts as well as to identify the most fruitful means by which to transfer information, technology, and procedures between the two industries. The seven working groups involved in this study took as their topics powerplant design formulation and effectiveness, plant safety and operations, powerplant control technology and integration, economic and financial analyses, public relations, and the management of nuclear waste and spent fuel. Consequential differences are noted between the two industries in matters of certification and licencing procedures, assignment of responsibility for both safety and financial performance, and public viewpoint. Areas for beneficial interaction include systems management and control and safety system technology. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  8. Aerospace technology and commercial nuclear power; Proceedings of the Workshop Conference, Williamsburg, VA, November 18-20, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made to compare the technologies, institutions and procedures of the aerospace and commercial nuclear power industries, in order to characterize similarities and contrasts as well as to identify the most fruitful means by which to transfer information, technology, and procedures between the two industries. The seven working groups involved in this study took as their topics powerplant design formulation and effectiveness, plant safety and operations, powerplant control technology and integration, economic and financial analyses, public relations, and the management of nuclear waste and spent fuel. Consequential differences are noted between the two industries in matters of certification and licencing procedures, assignment of responsibility for both safety and financial performance, and public viewpoint. Areas for beneficial interaction include systems management and control and safety system technology. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  9. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE`s weapons laboratories.

  10. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories.

  11. Ethnographic Study: @ONE Technology Training Project Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Susan; Schiorring, Eva

    This report presents findings from an ethnographic study of technology integration and diffusion in two California community colleges. The study was commissioned to examine whether faculty behavior and student learning outcomes have changed as a result of @ONE instructional technology training and resources. The California Community Colleges…

  12. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date "Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs" initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ("Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors"), information technologies for nuclear industries ("Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich"), and radiation health science ("Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers").

  13. Technological requirements of nuclear electric propulsion systems for fast Earth-Mars transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, N.; Epenoy, R.; Cliquet, E.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Avril, S.

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in electric propulsion technologies such as magnetoplasma rockets gave a new momentum to the study of nuclear electric propulsion concepts for Mars missions. Some recent works have been focused on very short Earth-to-Mars transfers of about 40 days with high-power, variable specific impulse propulsion systems [1]. While the interest of nuclear electric propulsion appears clearly with regard to the payload mass ratio (due to a high level of specific impulse), its interest with regard to the transfer time is more complex to define, as it depends on many design parameters. In this paper, a general analysis of the capability of nuclear electric propulsion systems considering both criteria (the payload mass ratio and the transfer time) is performed, and the technological requirements for fast Earth-Mars transfers are studied. This analysis has been performed in two steps. First, complete trajectory optimizations have been performed by CNES-DCT in order to obtain the propulsion requirements of the mission for different technological hypotheses regarding the engine technology (specific impulse levels and the throttling capability) and different mission requirements. The methodology used for designing fuel-optimal heliocentric trajectories, based on the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle will be presented. Trajectories have been computed for various power levels combined with either variable or fixed Isp. The second step consisted in evaluating a simpler method that could easily link the main mission requirements (the transfer time and the payload fraction) to the main technological requirements (the specific mass of the power generation system and the structure mass ratio of the whole vehicle, excluding the power generation system). Indeed, for power-limited systems, propulsion requirements can be characterized through the "trajectory characteristic" parameter, defined as the integral over time of the squared thrust acceleration. Technological requirements for

  14. SEI nuclear technology findings by the Stafford Synthesis Group

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is key to reducing travel time to Mars, greatly reducing the mass in low Earth orbit, and enhancing schedule flexibility by increasing the Earth orbit departure launch window. Nuclear thermal rockets have twice to three times the performance of the best chemical rockets. This directly translates into reduced trip times and lower mass in low Earth orbit. Trip times of < 400 days in space are possible, a limitation if restricted to chemical propulsion. Psychological, physiological and radiological problems are significant issues for long mission times. The psychology of being cooped up so long in a minimum-sized capsule is cause for concern - much longer than considered healthy for nuclear submarine crews. The effects of long-term weightlessness are being debated. Short trip times eliminate the need for artificial gravity. The largest uncertainty is the effect of galactic radiation that will expose the crew to high levels of radiation for as much as 60 rem/yr.

  15. Nuclear Technology, Global Warming, and the Politicization of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weart, Spencer

    2016-03-01

    Since the mid 20th century physical scientists have engaged in two fierce public debates on issues that posed existential risks to modern society: nuclear weapons and global warming. The two overlapped with a third major debate over the deployment of nuclear power reactors. Each controversy included technical disagreements raised by a minority among the scientists themselves. Despite efforts to deal with the issues objectively, the scientists became entangled in left vs. right political polarization. All these debates, but particularly the one over climate change, resulted in a deterioration of public faith in the objectivity and integrity of scientists.

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Dewar technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a Dewar system for handling liquid helium under weightless conditions is described. Porous plug designs for the prevention of superfluid creep out of the dewar through the vent line were evaluated. For the purpose of designing a neck to provide a transition from the cold cavity to the outside, the loads carried by the neck and equipment supports were studied. Temperature, pressure, and mass flow instrumentation for monitoring Dewar performance were also evaluated. In addition, multilayer blankets consisting of aluminized Mylar separated by Dacron net sheets were designed to insulate the pressure vessel. The dewar system is suggested for use with the star tracking telescope aboard the relativity satellite.

  18. Perceived nuclear risk, organizational commitment, and appraisals of management: A study of nuclear power plant personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.; Salminen, S.

    1995-06-01

    This study examined to what extent nuclear risk perceptions, organizational commitment (OC), and appraisals of management are associated with each other among nuclear power plant personnel. The sample consisted of 428 nuclear power plant workers who completed a questionnaire at their workplace. Perceived nuclear risk and OC were most closely related to the appraisals of the top management of the organization. As the trust in and satisfaction with the top management increased, perceived nuclear safety and acceptance of the organizational goals and values heightened. This result is discussed in the context of industrial safety management. 29 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  20. The Politics of Science and Technology: Nuclear and Solar Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry

    Historical data reveal that U.S. government policy and military and corporate interests have been instrumental in the development of nuclear energy and the underdevelopment of solar energy. It was not until 1972 that solar energy was funded by the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and in 1974 solar energy received $12.2 million as…

  1. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David

    This curriculum guide prescribes an educational program for training nuclear medicine technologists. Following a brief section on program development, the curriculum is both outlined and presented in detail. For each of the 44 courses, the following information is given: (1) sequential placement of the course in the curriculum; (2) course…

  2. Nuclear Medical Technology. Curriculum for a Two Year Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buatti, A.; Rich, D.

    Objectives of the project briefly described here were (1) to develop curriculum for a two-year nuclear medical technology program based on a working relationship between three institutions (community college, university health center, and hospital) and (2) to develop procedures for the operation of a medical imaging and radiation technology core…

  3. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Reisman, A.; Turpen, E.

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  4. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  5. An historical perspective of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine technology program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.H.; Finger, H.B.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  6. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Yan, Yong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to collect dynamic experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), the hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The collected CIRFT data will be utilized to support ongoing spent fuel modeling activities, and support SNF transportation related licensing issues. Recent testing to understand the effects of hydride reorientation on SNF vibration integrity is also being evaluated. CIRFT results have provided insight into the fuel/clad system response to transportation related loads. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance, Fuel structure contributes to the SNF system stiffness, There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interaction, and SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous. Because of the non-homogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, finite element analyses (FEA) are needed to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles. The detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained directly from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, detailed FEA is used to understand the global test response, and that data will also be presented.

  9. Sensors and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Sensors Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The existing sensor systems for the basic process parameters in nuclear power plant operation have limitations with respect to accuracy, ease of maintenance and signal processing. These limitations comprise the economy of nuclear power generation. To reduce the costs and improve performance of nuclear power plant fabrication, operation, maintenance and repair we need to advance the sensor technology being applied in the nuclear industry. The economic viability and public acceptance of nuclear power will depend on how well we direct and apply technological advances to the industry. This report was prepared by a team with members representing a wide range of the nuclear industry embracing the university programs, national laboratories, architect engineers and reactor manufacturers. An intensive effort was made to survey current sensor technology, evaluate future trends and determine development needs. This included literature surveys, visits with utilities, universities, laboratories and organizations outside the nuclear industry. Several conferences were attended to take advantage of the access to experts in selected topics and to obtain opinions. Numerous telephone contacts and exchanges by mail supplemented the above efforts. Finally, the broad technical depth of the team members provided the basis for the stimulating working sessions during which this report was organized and drafted.

  10. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  11. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    What signatures show the presence of nuclear weapons and SNM? For purposes of this report, a signature is a property by which a substance (in...density Atomic number, abbreviated “Z,” is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. It is a property of individual atoms. In contrast, density is a...bulk property , expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used to detect

  12. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  13. A Comparison Study of Various Nuclear Fuel Cycle Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Eun-ha; Ko, Won-il

    2007-07-01

    As a nation develops its nuclear strategies, it must consider various aspects of nuclear energy such as sustainability, environmental-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, and so on. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects; the nation must identify its top priority and accordingly evaluate all the possible nuclear fuel cycle options. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of resource utilization and waste generation. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive from these aspects. (authors)

  14. Analytical study of nozzle performance for nuclear thermal rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion has been identified as one of the key technologies needed for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) uses a nuclear reactor to heat hydrogen to a high temperature followed by expansion through a conventional convergent-divergent nozzle. A parametric study of NTR nozzles was performed using the Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The REDES used the JANNAF standard rigorous methodology to determine nozzle performance over a range of chamber temperatures, chamber pressures, thrust levels, and different nozzle configurations. A design condition was set by fixing the propulsion system exit radius at five meters and throat radius was varied to achieve a target thrust level. An adiabatic wall was assumed for the nozzle, and its length was assumed to be 80 percent of a 15 degree cone. The results conclude that although the performance of the NTR, based on infinite reaction rates, looks promising at low chamber pressures, finite rate chemical reactions will cause the actual performance to be considerably lower. Parameters which have a major influence on the delivered specific impulse value include the chamber temperature and the chamber pressures in the high thrust domain. Other parameters, such as 2-D and boundary layer effects, kinetic rates, and number of nozzles, affect the deliverable performance of an NTR nozzle to a lesser degree. For a single nozzle, maximum performance of 930 seconds and 1030 seconds occur at chamber temperatures of 2700 and 3100 K, respectively.

  15. Nuclear techniques in studies of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have played an important role in the studies of materials over the past several decades. For example, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, neutron activation, and particle- or photon-induced X-ray emission techniques have been used extensively for the elucidation of structural and compositional details of materials. Several new techniques have been developed recently. Four such techniques are briefly reviewed which have great potential in the study and development of new materials. Of these four, Mossbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation, and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques exploit their great sensitivity to the local atomic environments in the test materials. Interest in synchrotron radiation, on the other hand, stems from its special properties, such as high intensity, high degree of polarization, and high monochromaticity. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the exploitation of these newer techniques for the development of improved materials.

  16. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  17. Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Yousry; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

  18. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    like gamma rays. What signatures show the presence of nuclear weapons and SNM? For purposes of this report, a signature is a property by which a...number and density Atomic number, abbreviated “Z,” is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. It is a property of individual atoms. In contrast...density is a bulk property , expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used

  19. ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2009-06-11

    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  20. ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.-J.; Falabella, S.; Guethlein, G.; Harris, J. R.; Hawkins, S.; Holmes, C.; Nelson, S.; Paul, A. C.; Poole, B.; Sanders, D.; Sitaraman, S.; Sullivan, J.; Wang, L.; Watson, J.; Carazo, V.; Guse, S.; Pearson, D.; Schmidt, R.

    2009-12-02

    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve approx10 MV/m gradients for 10 s of nanoseconds pulses and approx100 MV/m gradients for approx1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We describe the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  1. The bungling giant: Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980--1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Ian James

    From 1980--1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be "passively" or "inherently" safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, "piecemeal social engineering." Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  2. SOME RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE UK'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY TO ENABLE HAZARD CHARACTERISATION FOR NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-11

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR&D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  3. Prognostics and Health Management in Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Technologies and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hines, Wes; Upadhyaya, Belle

    2012-07-17

    This report reviews the current state of the art of prognostics and health management (PHM) for nuclear power systems and related technology currently applied in field or under development in other technological application areas, as well as key research needs and technical gaps for increased use of PHM in nuclear power systems. The historical approach to monitoring and maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), including the Maintenance Rule for active components and Aging Management Plans for passive components, are reviewed. An outline is given for the technical and economic challenges that make PHM attractive for both legacy plants through Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) and new plant designs. There is a general introduction to PHM systems for monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics in other, non-nuclear fields. The state of the art for health monitoring in nuclear power systems is reviewed. A discussion of related technologies that support the application of PHM systems in NPPs, including digital instrumentation and control systems, wired and wireless sensor technology, and PHM software architectures is provided. Appropriate codes and standards for PHM are discussed, along with a description of the ongoing work in developing additional necessary standards. Finally, an outline of key research needs and opportunities that must be addressed in order to support the application of PHM in legacy and new NPPs is presented.

  4. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

  5. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1996-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers parts of the second and third year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas: precision test of parity-invariance violation in resonance neutron scattering at LANSCE/LANL; parity violation measurements using charged-particle resonances in A = 20--40 targets and the A = 4 system at TUNL; chaotic behavior in the nuclei {sup 30}P and {sup 34}Cl from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; search for anomalies in the level density (pairing phase transition) in 1f-2p shell nuclei using GEANIE at LANSCE/LANL; parity-conserving time-reversal noninvariance tests using {sup 166}Ho resonances at Geel, ORELA, or LANSCE/LANL; nuclear astrophysics; few-body nuclear systems; Nuclear Data evaluation for A = 3--20 for which TUNL is now the international center. Developments in technology and instrumentation are vital to the research and training program. Innovative work was continued in: polarized beam development; polarized target development; designing new cryogenic systems; designing new detectors; improving high-resolution beams for the KN and FN accelerators; development of an unpolarized Low-Energy Beam Facility for radiative capture studies of astrophysical interest. Preliminary research summaries are presented.

  6. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  7. "Mitochondrial Replacement" Technologies and Human Germline Nuclear Modification.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alyssa; Nisker, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 the United Kingdom became the first jurisdiction to approve "mitochondrial replacement techniques" (MRT), thereby dropping prohibitions against creating human embryos with a permanently altered genetic make-up for purposes of reproduction. MRT is a misnomer because in fact it is the nucleus of the oocyte of the woman who wants a genetically related child that is transferred to the enucleated oocyte of a woman paid to undergo IVF to provide the oocyte. MRT thus constitutes nuclear transfer, which is prohibited by criminal sanctions under sections of laws on reproductive cloning in Canada, the United States, Australia, and European countries that regulate assisted reproduction. By adopting policies permitting the use of MRT, the United Kingdom has become the first jurisdiction to counteract an international consensus prohibiting germline modification. Analyses of the legal, ethical, and societal implications of MRT in assisted human reproduction are essential.

  8. Pulsed Power Science and Technology: A Strategic Outlook for the National Nuclear Security Administration (Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinars, Daniel; Scott, Kimberly Carole; Edwards, M. John; Olson, Russell Teall

    2016-10-17

    Major advances in pulsed power technology and applications over the last twenty years have expanded the mission areas for pulsed power and created compelling new opportunities for the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). This summary document is a forward look at the development of pulsed power science and technology (PPS&T) capabilities in support of the next 20 years of the SSP. This outlook was developed during a three-month-long tri-lab study on the future of PPS&T research and capabilities in support of applications to: (1) Dynamic Materials, (2) Thermonuclear Burn Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and (3) Radiation Effects and Nuclear Survivability. It also considers necessary associated developments in next-generation codes and pulsed power technology as well as opportunities for academic, industry, and international engagement. The document identifies both imperatives and opportunities to address future SSP mission needs. This study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). A copy of the memo request is contained in the Appendix. NNSA guidance received during this study explicitly directed that it not be constrained by resource limitations and not attempt to prioritize its findings against plans and priorities in other areas of the national weapons program. That prioritization, including the relative balance amongst the three focus areas themselves, must of course occur before any action is taken on the observations presented herein. This unclassified summary document presents the principal imperatives and opportunities identified in each mission and supporting area during this study. Preceding this area-specific outlook, we discuss a cross-cutting opportunity to increase the shot capacity on the Z pulsed power facility as a near-term, cost-effective way to broadly impact PPS&T for SSP as well as advancing the science and technology to inform future SSMP milestones over the next 5-10 years. The final page of the

  9. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motobayashi, Tohru

    Collaboration between France and Japan on studies with fast RI (radioactive isotope) beams and related technical developments started in 1980s, when the GANIL accelerators and RIKEN cyclotron complex started operation and RI beam production technique was developed. Several examples of collaboration on nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments including related technical development are discussed.

  10. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  11. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  13. Use of Second Life for interactive instruction and distance learning in nuclear physics and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2009-05-01

    The developing nuclear power renaissance, coupled with related environmental consequences, is forcing a re-examination of the manner in which nuclear science and technology is (or is not) being taught in the United States. The 20-year hiatus of the nuclear power industry has been a decided factor in the relatively stagnant growth of nuclear physics and nuclear technology instruction, from middle school to graduate education. Furthermore, the general public remains fairly ignorant of the various features of nuclear power, at best having been briefly exposed to the subject only in a middle-school course in Physical Science. Essential to this renaissance is the capacity to deal with the regulatory environment and safety standards that must be addressed prior to new plant certification. Regrettably, too few individuals who are trained in environmental science are adequately prepared in the basic concepts of nuclear physics to deal with such issues as radioactive waste storage and transportation, biological effects of ionizing radiation, geological repositories, nuclear fuel reprocessing, etc. which are of great concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We are developing a master's degree, to be taught online, in the area of environmental impact assessment as it relates to these and other issues. To accommodate the need for laboratory exercises, we have adopted the virtual world developed by Linden Laboratory entitled Second Life; it is here that the student, as an avatar, will gain knowledge of the nature of ionizing radiation, radioactive half-lives, gamma and beta ray spectroscopy, neutron activation, and radiation shielding, using virtual apparatus and virtual radiation sources. Additionally, a virtual Generation III+ power reactor has been constructed on an adjoining Second Life island (entitled Science School II) which provides the visitor with a realistic impression of its inner workings. This presentation will provide the details of this construct and how it

  14. Summary and recommendations on nuclear electric propulsion technology for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Holcomb, Robert S.

    1993-04-01

    A project in Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology is being established to develop the NEP technologies needed for advanced propulsion systems. A paced approach has been suggested which calls for progressive development of NEP component and subsystem level technologies. This approach will lead to major facility testing to achieve TRL-5 for megawatt NEP for SEI mission applications. This approach is designed to validate NEP power and propulsion technologies from kilowatt class to megawatt class ratings. Such a paced approach would have the benefit of achieving the development, testing, and flight of NEP systems in an evolutionary manner. This approach may also have the additional benefit of synergistic application with SEI extraterrestrial surface nuclear power applications.

  15. Summary and recommendations on nuclear electric propulsion technology for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Holcomb, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A project in Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology is being established to develop the NEP technologies needed for advanced propulsion systems. A paced approach has been suggested which calls for progressive development of NEP component and subsystem level technologies. This approach will lead to major facility testing to achieve TRL-5 for megawatt NEP for SEI mission applications. This approach is designed to validate NEP power and propulsion technologies from kilowatt class to megawatt class ratings. Such a paced approach would have the benefit of achieving the development, testing, and flight of NEP systems in an evolutionary manner. This approach may also have the additional benefit of synergistic application with SEI extraterrestrial surface nuclear power applications.

  16. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Nuclear Medicine Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0905 - Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boney, Linda; Lee, Joanne; Pyles, Alice; Whitfield, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  17. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

  18. Review of LIBS application in nuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Feng, Chun-Lei; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Ding, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear fusion has enormous potential to greatly affect global energy production. The next-generation tokamak ITER, which is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of energy production from fusion on a commercial scale, is under construction. Wall erosion, material transport, and fuel retention are known factors that shorten the lifetime of ITER during tokamak operation and give rise to safety issues. These factors, which must be understood and solved early in the process of fusion reactor design and development, are among the most important concerns for the community of plasma-wall interaction researchers. To date, laser techniques are among the most promising methods that can solve these open ITER issues, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate for online monitoring of the walls of current and next-generation (such as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a widely used technique for various applications. It has been considered recently as a promising tool for analyzing plasma-facing components in fusion devices in situ. This article reviews the experiments that have been performed by many research groups to assess the feasibility of LIBS for this purpose.

  19. Nuclear waste spectrum as evidence of technological extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Wright, D. P.

    1980-04-01

    The possible observational consequences of galactic civilizations which utilize their local star as a repository for radioactive fissile waste material are considered. If a relatively small fraction of the nuclear resources present in the crust of a terrestrial-type planet were processed via breeder reactors, the resulting stellar spectrum would be selectively modified over geological time periods provided the star has a sufficiently shallow outer convective zone. Consideration of surface convective mixing and stellar lifetimes restricts the possible candidate stars to the approximate spectral range A5-F2. The abundance anomalies resulting from the slow neutron fission of plutonium-239 and uranium-233 are presented and it is argued that these anomalous distributions are unlikely to be duplicated by natural nucleosynthesis processes. Relative to solar system abundances, the elements praseodymium and neodymium are found to be the most overabundant. These elements, along with the radioactive elements technetium and plutonium, could be used to identify A5-F2 candidate stars in a preliminary spectral survey.

  20. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  1. The Fukushima nuclear disaster and its effects on media framing of fission and fusion energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Luisa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sergio; Delicado, Ana

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents results of a comparison of media coverage of fusion and fission energy technologies in three countries (Germany, Spain and Portugal) and in the English language international print media addressing transnational elite, from 2008 to 2012. The analysis showed that the accident in Fukushima in March 2010 did not have significant impact on media framing of nuclear fusion in the major part of print media under investigation. In fact, fusion is clearly dissociated from traditional nuclear (fission) energy and from nuclear accidents. It tends to be portrayed as a safe, clean and unlimited source of energy, although less credited when confronted with research costs, technological feasibility and the possibility to be achieved in a reasonable period of time. On the contrary, fission is portrayed as a hazardous source of energy, expensive when compared to research costs of renewables, hardly a long-term energy option, susceptible to contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or rogue military use. Fukushima accident was consistently discussed in the context of safety problems of nuclear power plants and in many cases appeared not as an isolated event but rather as a reminder of previous nuclear disasters such as Three Miles Island and Chernobyl. (authors)

  2. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  3. The Zwilag interim storage plasma plant technology to handle operational waste from nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heep, Walter

    2007-07-01

    The first processing of low level radioactive wastes from Swiss nuclear power plants marks the successful completion of commissioning in March 2004 of a treatment facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, which is operated with the help of plasma technology. The theoretical principles of this metallurgy-derived process technology are based on plasma technology, which has already been used for a considerable period outside of nuclear technology for the production of highly pure metal alloys and for the plasma synthesis of acetylene. The commercial operation of the Plasma Plant owned by Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) has also enabled this technology to be used successfully for the first time in the nuclear field, especially in compliance with radiation protection aspects. In addition to a brief presentation of the technology used in the plant, the melting process under operating conditions will be explained in more detail. The separation factors attained and volume reductions achieved open interesting perspectives for the further optimisation of the entire process in the future. (author)

  4. Space platform advanced technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G.

    1981-01-01

    Current and past space platform and power module studies were utilized to point the way to areas of development for mechanical devices that will be required for the ultimate implementation of a platform erected and serviced by the Shuttle/Orbiter. The study was performed in accordance with a study plan which included: a review of space platform technology; orbiter berthing system requirements; berthing latch interface requirements, design, and model fabrication; berthing umbilical interface requirements and design; adaptive end effector design and model fabrication; and adaptive end effector requirements.

  5. Robotics and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Robotics Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    A task team was formed at the request of the Department of Energy to evaluate and assess technology development needed for advanced robotics in the nuclear industry. The mission of these technologies is to provide the nuclear industry with the support for the application of advanced robotics to reduce nuclear power generating costs and enhance the safety of the personnel in the industry. The investigation included robotic and teleoperated systems. A robotic system is defined as a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. A teleoperated system includes an operator who remotely controls the system by direct viewing or through a vision system.

  6. Prompt nuclear analytical techniques for material research in accelerator driven transmutation technologies: Prospects and quantitative analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Červená, J.; Peřina, V.; Mach, R.; Peka, I.

    1998-04-01

    Accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) is a promissing way toward liquidation of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes and weapon grade Pu. The ADTT facility comprises a high current (proton) accelerator supplying a subcritical reactor assembly with spallation neutrons. The reactor part is supposed to be cooled by molten fluorides or metals which serve, at the same time, as a carrier of nuclear fuel. Assumed high working temperature (400-600°C) and high radiation load in the subcritical reactor and spallation neutron source put forward the problem of optimal choice of ADTT construction materials, especially from the point of their radiation and corrosion resistance when in contact with liquid working media. The use of prompt nuclear analytical techniques in ADTT related material research is considered and examples of preliminary analytical results obtained using neutron depth profiling method are shown for illustration.

  7. Nuclear Data for Fusion Energy Technologies: Requests, Status and Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Batistoni, P.; Cheng, E.; Forrest, R.A.

    2005-05-24

    The current status of nuclear data evaluations for fusion technologies is reviewed. Well-qualified data are available for neutronics and activation calculations of fusion power reactors and the next-step device ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Major challenges for the further development of fusion nuclear data arise from the needs of the long-term fusion programme. In particular, co-variance data are required for uncertainty assessments of nuclear responses. Further, the nuclear data libraries need to be extended to higher energies above 20 MeV to enable neutronics and activation calculations of IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility. A significant experimental effort is required in this field to provide a reliable and sound database for the evaluation of cross-section data in the higher energy range.

  8. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions require reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional gas cooled, liquid metal, and heat pipe space reactors.

  9. A review on the applications of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology for investigating fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golsanami, Naser; Sun, Jianmeng; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on the recent applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology for characterizing fractures. The paper aims to help researchers in extending the existing reservoir characterization methods (which are commonly used in conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs) for appropriate usage in unconventional resources. This is because some techniques for quantifying and qualifying fractures have been investigated in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs, but the reality for unconventional resources is that such techniques are still poorly developed. Fractures are necessary for economical production of petroleum from many low-permeability reservoirs. The characterization of fractures by well logging technology is of great interest in the petroleum industry. The main purpose of this study is to review the characterization techniques that are developed either for identifying fractures or distinguishing fracture porosity from matrix porosity. This concept plays a leading role in providing availability of an optimized well completion program. The results of this study indicated that in terms of both sandstone and carbonate tight reservoirs, there have not been many steps taken toward the aforementioned goal up to now. Nevertheless, these steps are valuable enough to be counted on and could serve a meaningful function in treating hydrocarbon reservoirs. Because of the ongoing changes in today's petroleum industry, development of a comprehensive methodology will create greater economic benefits in unconventional reservoirs than in the conventional ones.

  10. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrabadi, M. N. Sepiani, M.

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  11. Status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Innovative energy technology is considered to be one of the key solutions for meeting the challenges of climate change and energy security, which is why global leaders are focusing on enhancing energy technology R&D. In accordance with the global movements to accelerate energy R&D, the Korean government has made significant investments in a broad spectrum of energy R&D programs, including energy efficiency, resources, CCS, new and renewable energy, power generation and electricity delivery, nuclear power and nuclear waste management. In order to manage government sponsored energy R&D programs in an efficient and effective way, the government established the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) in 2009. Main activities of KETEP include developing energy technology roadmaps, planning, evaluating, and managing R&D programs, fostering experts in the field of energy, promoting international cooperation programs, gathering and analyzing energy statistics, and supporting infrastructure and commercialization. KETEP assists the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in developing national R&D strategies while also working with researchers, universities, national institutes and the private sector for their successful energy technology and deployment. This presentation consists of three parts. First, I will introduce the characteristics of energy trends and mix in Korea. Then, I'll speak about the related national R&D strategies of energy technology. Finally, I'll finish up with the status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea. The development of the on-line structural integrity monitoring systems and the related techniques in Korean nuclear power plant for the purpose of condition based maintenance is introduced. The needs of NDT techniques for inspection and condition monitoring for GEN IV including SFR, small module reactor etc., are also discussed.

  12. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2013-09-11

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a technique to repair aging cables that have been subjected to degradation associated with long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. The physical degradation of the aging cables manifests itself primarily as cracking and increased brittleness of the polymeric electrical insulation. Therefore, the proposed cable-repair concept comprises development of techniques to impart a softening agent within the deteriorated polymer insulation jacket so as to regain the ability of the insulation to stretch without failing and possibly to heal existing cracks in the insulation. Our approach is to use commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, demonstrate the adsorption of chemical treatments in the EPR and quantify changes in resulting physical and mechanical properties. EPR cable samples have been thermally treated in air to produce specimens corresponding to the full range of cable age-performance points from new (>350% elongation at break) to end-of-life (<50% elongation at break). The current focus is on two chemical treatments selected as candidates for restoring age-related cable elasticity loss: a rubber plasticizer and a reactive silane molecule. EPR specimens of 200, 150, 100, and 50% elongation at break have been soaked in the candidate chemical treatments and the kinetics of chemical uptake, measured by change in mass of the samples, has been determined. Mechanical properties as a function of aging and chemical treatment have been measured including ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus at 50% strain, elongation at break, and storage modulus. Dimensional changes with treatment and changes in glass transition temperature were also investigated. These ongoing experiments are expected to provide insight into the physical-chemical nature of the effect of thermal degradation on EPR rejuvenation limits and to advance novel methods for

  13. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  14. The Biological Consequences of Nuclear War: Initiating National Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Mark A.; Freeman, Ann C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the second volume of the environmental consequences of nuclear war (ENUWAR) study of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) which involves the potential consequences for the Earth's biological systems. Discusses case studies in areas where the indirect effects of nuclear war would be the greatest danger. (CW)

  15. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  16. Nuclear Aircraft Feasibility Study. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Cost 9-20 9.11 Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation 9-20 9.12 Acquisition Cost 9-23 9.13 Ten Year Operating and Support Cost 9-23 9.14 Life...Billions of $74 vs Cumulative Probability 9-23 9.14-1 Ten Year Life Cycle Cost for 60 Production Nuclear Aircraft vs Cumulative Probability 9-28...Production Cost for Ten Nuclear Engines 9-11 9.3.2-2 Production Cost for First Ten Engine Heat Exchangers 9-12 9.3.2-3 Production Cost for Ten

  17. NASA-OAST/JPL high efficiency thermionic conversion studies. [nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were made to develop a thermionic energy conversion TEC technology appropriate for nuclear electric propulsion missions. This space TEC effort was complementary to the terrestrial TEC studies sponsored by the Department of Energy which had the goal of topping fossil fuel power plants. Thermionic energy conversion was a primary conversion option for space reactors because of its: (1) high operating temperature; (2) lack of moving parts; (3) modularity; (4) established technology; and (5) development potential.

  18. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  19. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  20. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  1. Progress report on nuclear structure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.B.

    1991-08-31

    In this report, new results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of {sup 114,116}I and {sup 114}Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides {sup 114,116}Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of {sup 126}Xe are also reported. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Review, Analyses and Recommendations Related to Modern International Use of Nuclear Space Technologies with Focus on United States and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T.

    The current Administration under President Barack Obama has given NASA a new directive in manned spaceflight. Instead of building a fleet of Ares rockets with various load specifications to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and return them to the Moon, the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan [1] states that NASA will develop ``integrated architecture and capabilities for safe crewed and cargo missions beyond Low Earth Orbit.'' The technologies developed within this architecture will take astronauts beyond the Moon, to destinations such as Mars or asteroids and will most likely require the use of Nuclear Space Technologies (NSTs).While there are other proposals for novel power generation and propulsion, such as fusion technology, these technologies are immature and it may be decades before they have demonstrated feasibility; in contrast NSTs are readily available, proven to work in space, and flight qualified. However, NSTs such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) may or may not reach completion - especially with the lack of a mission in which they may be developed. Prospects and progress in current NST projects, ranging from power sources to propulsion units, are explored within this study, mainly in the United States, with an overview of projects occurring in other countries. At the end of the study, recommendations are made in order to address budget and political realities, aerospace export control and nuclear non-proliferation programs, and international issues and potentials as related to NSTs. While this report is not fully comprehensive, the selection of chosen projects illustrates a range of issues for NSTs. Secondly, the reader would be keen to make a distinction between technologies that have flown in the past, projects that have been tested and developed yet not flown, and concepts that have not yet reached the bench for testing.

  3. Workshop on nuclear technology: A joint effort between ANS and the University of Massachusetts-Lowell

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.J.; McDevitt, M.A. ); Schmidt, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) (formerly University of Lowell) sponsored, along with the American Nuclear Society (ANS), a 5-day workshop entitled 'Understanding and Teaching about Nuclear Technology and Its Place in Our Society.' More than 30 middle and high school teachers from the New England area (Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts) attended the workshop, which was held June 24 through 28, 1991. Based on this experience, and with the expectation of replicating if not improving upon initial success, plans are now under way to offer a similar workshop at UML from June 29 through July 3, 1992.

  4. Contributions of the SCK.CEN Academy to education and training in nuclear science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Coeck, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of nuclear science and technology, its innovative research and the availability of large and unique nuclear installations, SCK.CEN is not only a renowned nuclear research institution, but also an important partner for nuclear education and training in Belgium as well as at international level. Within the SCK.CEN Academy, more than 60 years of nuclear expertise and experience gained from our different research projects is collected and transferred. In the interest of maintaining a competent workforce in industry, Healthcare, research, and policy, and of transferring nuclear knowledge and skills to the next generations, the SCK.CEN Academy takes it as its mission to: - provide guidance for students and early-stage researchers; - organize academic courses and customized training for professionals; - offer policy support with regard to education and training matters; - care for critical-intellectual capacities for society. Specifically in the domain of nuclear instrumentation the SCK.CEN Academy provides an opportunity to students at Bachelor, Master and PhD level to make use of the SCK.CEN infrastructure to support their thesis research or to perform an internship with the aim to improve and extend their knowledge and skills in a specific research or technical domain. Further, they can contribute to new findings in the field of nuclear instrumentation. The students are guided by our scientists, engineers and technicians who have years of experience in the relevant field. In addition, the SCK.CEN Academy contributes to traditional university education programs and delivers courses in several nuclear topics such as dosimetry. We also coordinate the Belgian Nuclear higher Engineering Network (BNEN), a one year (60 ECTS) master-after-master specialization in nuclear engineering in which 6 Belgian universities and SCK.CEN are involved. Beyond the contributions to academic education, we also provide several customized training

  5. Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    The successful detection of experimentally produced myocardial infarctions in rats and dogs using /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA) is described. Preferential localization of radioactivity in normal myocardial tissue of rats that had experimentally produced infarctions was also demonstrated by tissue distribution studies following injection of 9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA. The effects of chain length on the myocardial uptake of /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids was also studied further. Selenium-75-labeled 13-selenaheneicosonic acid (H/sub 3/C-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/-/sup 75/Se-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/-COOH, 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA) shows the highest heart uptake in rats of the agents studied. These results indicate that myocardial imaging may be possible with 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA and also suggest that potential positron emission tomography of the myocardium with the /sup 73/Se-labeled agent should be explored. The results of continuing studies with /sup 11/C and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. A variety of /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids were prepared and tested as pancreas and tumor localizing agents in a Medical Cooperative Program with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The microscale synthesis of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)platinum(IV) (/sup 195m/Pt-CHIP) was developed further and preliminary tissue distribution studies with this important second-generation antitumor drug were completed in rats. Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (/sup 195m/Pt-cis-DDP) was supplied for testing to a number of Medical Cooperative Programs. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Further investigation of this arsenic-induced cytotoxicity has demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship and a difference in the permanence of the growth inhibitory effect using different doses.

  6. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium.

  7. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  8. Space nuclear power: technology, policy, and risk considerations in human missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedensen, V P

    1998-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy between potential needs for nuclear propulsion and power systems for the human exploration of Mars and the current status of R&D funding, public opinion, and governmental support for these technologies. Mission planners and spacecraft designers, energized by the recent claims of possible discovery of life on Mars and responding to increased public interest in the human exploration of Mars, frequently propose nuclear reactors and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for interplanetary spacecraft propulsion and for power supply on the surface of Mars. These plans and designs typically assume that reactors will be available "on-the-shelf," and do not take the extensive R&D costs required to develop such reactors into consideration. However, it is likely that current U.S. policies, if unchanged, will prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors and large RTGs in response to a perceived risk by the public.

  9. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, Sakir

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  10. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, Merle Daniel; M. C. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    This report documents an inventory of calcined waste produced at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center during the period from December 1963 to May 2000. The report was prepared based on calciner runs, operation of the calcined solids storage facilities, and miscellaneous operational information that establishes the range of chemical compositions of calcined waste stored at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The report will be used to support obtaining permits for the calcined solids storage facilities, possible treatment of the calcined waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and to ship the waste to an off-site facility including a geologic repository. The information in this report was compiled from calciner operating data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, calcine temperature monitoring records, and facility design of the calcined solids storage facilities. A compact disk copy of this report is provided to facilitate future data manipulations and analysis.

  11. Study of bump bonding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir et al.

    2003-10-17

    Pixel detectors proposed for the new generation of hadron collider experiments will use bump-bonding technology based on either indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have previously reported large-scale tests of the yield using both indium and Pb/Sn solder bump [1]. The conclusion is that both seem to be viable for pixel detectors. We have also carried out studies of various effects (e.g. storage over long period, effect of heating and cooling, and radiation) on both types of bump bonds using daisy-chained parts on a small scale [2], [3]. Overall, these tests showed little changes in the integrity of the bump connections. Nevertheless, questions still remain on the long-term reliability of the bumps due to thermal cycle effects, attachment to a substrate with a different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and radiation.

  12. Developing countries: Non-nuclear energy technology. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning generation of non-nuclear energy technology developed and used by developing countries. Technical, social, economic, and commercial aspects are presented. Applications in the solar, geothermal, synfuels, ocean thermal, and wind power energy industries are discussed. Forecasts and future prospects for these energy industries in developing countries are included. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  14. Enabling Technologies for Ultra-Safe and Secure Modular Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary E.; Middleton, Bobby; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Schleicher, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Atomics are pleased to respond to the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-e)’s request for information on innovative developments that may overcome various current reactor-technology limitations. The RFI is particularly interested in innovations that enable ultra-safe and secure modular nuclear energy systems. Our response addresses the specific features for reactor designs called out in the RFI, including a brief assessment of the current state of the technologies that would enable each feature and the methods by which they could be best incorporated into a reactor design.

  15. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  17. Ideology in science and technology: the case of civilian nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Harrod, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation traces the complicated interrelationships between ideology and interest within the civilian nuclear power controversy. The first chapter introduces the topic. The second chapter provides a social-political-economic overview of the context in which the conflicting ideologies arose. Factors looked at are the ascendancy of the physical sciences, the development of nuclear energy, the disenchantment with science and technology and the consequent rise of an anti-nuclear ideology. Chapter III uses the theories of Alvin Gouldner to understand the structure of ideology. The chapter defines ideology's similarities to and differences from scientific discourse. Chapter IV examines the ideological discourse of a selected sample of scientists who have spoken for and against civilian nuclear power. In parallel to chapter IV, chapter V examines a scientific controversy among the sample of experts. It shows how scientific disagreement can be produced and how ideology is most closely linked to science. Chapter VI examines the social interests of the scientists and experts to discover ways that interests have shaped the ideological and scientific positions for and against civilian nuclear energy. Based on the foregoing, chapter VII concludes that the introduction of science and experts into a controversy cannot be expected to end disagreement over policy because of the link between science and ideology.

  18. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A; Patterson, Eileen F

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  2. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study: NEP systems/modeling report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karns, James

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the initial quantitative reliability bounds for nuclear electric propulsion systems in a manned Mars mission required to ensure crew safety and mission success. Finding the reliability bounds involves balancing top-down (mission driven) requirements and bottom-up (technology driven) capabilities. In seeking this balance we hope to accomplish the following: (1) provide design insights into the achievability of the baseline design in terms of reliability requirements, given the existing technology base; (2) suggest alternative design approaches which might enhance reliability and crew safety; and (3) indicate what technology areas require significant research and development to achieve the reliability objectives.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies in semi-metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented on spectrum analysis of nuclear quadrupole resonance of antimony and arsenic tellurides. Numerical solutions for secular equations of the quadrupole interaction energy are also discussed.

  4. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Taín, J.L.; Jordan, M.D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Bui, V.M.; and others

    2014-06-15

    An overview is given of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of {sup 87,88}Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. The measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Jordan, M. D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Gelletly, W.; Bowry, M.; Mason, P.; Farrelly, G. F.; Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Moore, I.; Penttila, H.; Aysto, J.; Eloma, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolkinen, V.; Reponen, M.; Sonnenschein, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Garcia, A. R.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Kondev, F. G.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present an overview of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. Our measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  7. NASA Earth Science Mission Control Center Enterprise Emerging Technology Study Study (MCC Technology Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan; Horan, Stephen; Royer, Don; Sullivan, Don; Moe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the study to identify technologies that could have a significant impact on Earth Science mission operations when looking out at the 5-15 year horizon (through 2025). The potential benefits of the new technologies will be discussed, as well as recommendations for early research and development, prototyping, or analysis for these technologies.

  8. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  9. In Space Nuclear Power as an Enabling Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Houts, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Deep Space Exploration missions, both for scientific and Human Exploration and Development (HEDS), appear to be as weight limited today as they would have been 35 years ago. Right behind the weight constraints is the nearly equally important mission limitation of cost. Launch vehicles, upper stages and in-space propulsion systems also cost about the same today with the same efficiency as they have had for many years (excluding impact of inflation). Both these dual mission constraints combine to force either very expensive, mega systems missions or very light weight, but high risk/low margin planetary spacecraft designs, such as the recent unsuccessful attempts for an extremely low cost mission to Mars during the 1998-99 opportunity (i.e., Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander). When one considers spacecraft missions to the outer heliopause or even the outer planets, the enormous weight and cost constraints will impose even more daunting concerns for mission cost, risk and the ability to establish adequate mission margins for success. This paper will discuss the benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor as the basis for providing both sufficient electric power and high performance space propulsion that will greatly reduce mission risk and significantly increase weight (IMLEO) and cost margins. Weight and cost margins are increased by enabling much higher payload fractions and redundant design features for a given launch vehicle (higher payload fraction of IMLEO). The paper will also discuss and summarize the recent advances in nuclear reactor technology and safety of modern reactor designs and operating practice and experience, as well as advances in reactor coupled power generation and high performance nuclear thermal and electric propulsion technologies. It will be shown that these nuclear power and propulsion technologies are major enabling capabilities for higher reliability, higher margin and lower cost deep space missions design to reliably

  10. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  11. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L.; Palac, D.; Gibson, M.; Houts, M.; Warren, J.; Werner, J.; Poston, D.; Qualls, L.; Radel, R.; Harlow, S.

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  12. Compact Gamma-ray Source Technology Development Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Rusnak, B

    2009-09-25

    This study focuses on the applicability of current accelerator and laser technologies to the construction of compact, narrow bandwidth, gamma-ray sources for DHS missions in illicit materials detection. It also identifies research and development areas in which advancement will directly benefit these light sources. In particular, we review the physics of Compton scattering based light sources and emphasize the source properties most important to Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) applications of interest. The influences of laser and electron beam properties on the light source are examined in order to evaluate the utility of different technologies for this application. Applicable bulk and fiber-based laser systems and laser recirculation technologies are discussed and Radio Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerator (linac) technologies are examined to determine the optimal frequency and pulse formats achievable.

  13. Advanced Nuclear Technology. Using Technology for Small Modular Reactor Staff Optimization, Improved Effectiveness, and Cost Containment, 3002007071

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard

    2016-03-21

    Through this grant, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will review several functional areas within a nuclear power plant, including fire protection, operations and operations support, refueling, training, procurement, maintenance, site engineering, and others. Several functional areas need to be examined since there appears to be no single staffing area or approach that alone has the potential for significant staff optimization at new nuclear power plants. Several of the functional areas will require a review of technology options such as automation, remote monitoring, fleet wide monitoring, new and specialized instrumentation, human factors engineering, risk informed analysis and PRAs, component and system condition monitoring and reporting, just in time training, electronic and automated procedures, electronic tools for configuration management and license and design basis information, etc., that may be applied to support optimization. Additionally, the project will require a review key regulatory issues that affect staffing and could be optimized with additional technology input. Opportunities to further optimize staffing levels and staffing functions by selection of design attributes of physical systems and structures need also be identified. A goal of this project is to develop a prioritized assessment of the functional areas, and R&D actions needed for those functional areas, to provide the best optimization

  14. Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-22

    A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.

  15. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  16. Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

  17. Nuclear Fusion Rate Study of a Muonic Molecule via Nuclear Threshold Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, F.; Eskandari, M. R.

    This work follows our previous calculations of the ground state binding energy, size, and the effective nuclear charge of the muonic T3 molecule, using the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. In our past articles, we showed that the system possesses two minimum positions, the first one at the muonic distance and the second at the atomic distance. Also, the symmetric planner vibrational model assumed between the two minima and the approximated potential were calculated. Following from the previous studies, we now calculate the fusion rate of the T3 muonic molecule according to the overlap integral of the resonance nuclear compound nucleus and the molecular wave functions.

  18. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  19. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Spes: Exotic Beams for Nuclear Physics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrighetto, Alberto; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Vasquez, Jesu; Rossignoli, Massimo; Monetti, Alberto; Calderolla, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    The SPES project at Laboratori di Legnaro of INFN (Italy) is concentrating on the production of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei for nuclear physics experiments using uranium fission at a rate of 1013 fission/s. The emphasis on neutron-rich isotopes is justified by the fact that this vast territory has been little explored. The Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) will be produced by the ISOL technique using proton induced fission on a direct target of UCx. The most critical element of the SPES project is the Multi-Foil Direct Target. Up to the present time, the proposed target represents an innovation in terms of its capability to sustain the primary beam power. This talk will present the status of the project financed by INFN, which is actually in the construction phase at Legnaro. In particular, developments related to the target and the ion-source activities using the surface ion source, plasma ion source, and laser ion source techniques will be reported.

  2. Engineering Technology Education Study. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    This is the half-way report of a 2-year study of engineering technology education that began in August 1969. The various sections include: (1) the history, traditions and transitions of engineering technology education; (2) abstracts of 4 important reports of technology education since 1960; (3) recent trends in the field; (4) goals, objectives,…

  3. SPACE-R thermionic space nuclear power system: Design and technology demonstration. Monthly report for 1 August 1994--1 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this program is to design, develop, demonstrate, and advance the technology for thermionic space nuclear power system (TI-SNPS) to meet key functional requirements with reliable 5{approximately}40 kWe output and 18-month near-term/10-year long-term goals. A 40 kWe TI-SNPS point design will be prepared, and key technologies and critical components supporting that design will be validated. This program will produce an assessed design of a 40 kWe-EOL space nuclear power system. Phase 1 will provide for the performance of parametric trade studies and demonstration of key technologies, resulting in a preferred conceptual design for the TI-SNPS. The focus of the tasks is technology validation drive by the system design.

  4. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  5. Non-Nuclear Testing of Compact Reactor Technologies at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Safe, reliable, compact, autonomous, long-life fission systems have numerous potential applications, both terrestrially and in space. Technologies and facilities developed in support of these systems could be useful to a variety of concepts. At moderate power levels, fission systems can be designed to operate for decades without the need for refueling. In addition, fast neutron damage to cladding and structural materials can be maintained at an acceptable level. Nuclear design codes have advanced to the stage where high confidence in the behavior and performance of a system can be achieved prior to initial testing. To help ensure reactor affordability, an optimal strategy must be devised for development and qualification. That strategy typically involves a combination of non-nuclear and nuclear testing. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for concepts in which nuclear operating characteristics are well understood and nuclear effects such as burnup and radiation damage are not likely to be significant. To be mass efficient, a SFPS must operate at higher coolant temperatures and use different types of power conversion than typical terrestrial reactors. The primary reason is the difficulty in rejecting excess heat to space. Although many options exist, NASA s current reference SFPS uses a fast spectrum, pumped-NaK cooled reactor coupled to a Stirling power conversion subsystem. The reference system uses technology with significant terrestrial heritage while still providing excellent performance. In addition, technologies from the SFPS system could be applicable to compact terrestrial systems. Recent non-nuclear testing at NASA s Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) has helped assess the viability of the reference SFPS and evaluate methods for system integration. In July, 2011 an Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) provided by Idaho National Laboratory was tested at the EFF-TF to assess performance and verify suitability for use in a10 kWe technology

  6. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  7. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  8. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engines, and to provide a technology plan to guide research and technology efforts toward revolutionizing the small gas turbine technology base. The goal is to define the required technology to provide a 30 percent reduction in mission fuel burned, to reduce direct operating costs by at least 10 percent, and to provide increased reliability and durability of the gas turbine propulsion system. The baseline established to evaluate the year 2000 technology base was an 8-passenger commercial tilt-rotor aircraft powered by a current technology gas turbine engine. Three basic engine cycles were studied: the simple cycle engine, a waste heat recovery cycle, and a wave rotor engine cycle. For the simple cycle engine, two general arrangements were considered: the traditional concentric spool arrangement and a nonconcentric spool arrangement. Both a regenerative and a recuperative cycle were studied for the waste heat recovery cycle.

  9. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  10. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  11. Technology Foresight and nuclear test verification: a structured and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Patrick; Gaya-Piqué, Luis; Haralabus, Georgios; Auer, Matthias; Jain, Amit; Grenard, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the CTBTO's nuclear explosion monitoring programme aims to maintain its sustainability, effectiveness and its long-term relevance to the verification regime. As such, the PTS is conducting a Technology Foresight programme of activities to identify technologies, processes, concepts and ideas that may serve said purpose and become applicable within the next 20 years. Through the Technology Foresight activities (online conferences, interviews, surveys, workshops and other) we have involved the wider science community in the fields of seismology, infrasound, hydroacoustics, radionuclide technology, remote sensing and geophysical techniques. We have assembled a catalogue of over 200 items, which incorporate technologies, processes, concepts and ideas which will have direct future relevance to the IMS (International Monitoring System), IDC (International Data Centre) and OSI (On-Site Inspection) activities within the PTS. In order to render this catalogue as applicable and useful as possible for strategy and planning, we have devised a "taxonomy" based on seven categories, against which each technology is assessed through a peer-review mechanism. These categories are: 1. Focus area of the technology in question: identify whether the technology relates to (one or more of the following) improving our understanding of source and source physics; propagation modelling; data acquisition; data transport; data processing; broad modelling concepts; quality assurance and data storage. 2. Current Development Stage of the technology in question. Based on a scale from one to six, this measure is specific to PTS needs and broadly reflects Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). 3. Impact of the technology on each of the following capabilities: detection, location, characterization, sustainment and confidence building. 4. Development cost: the anticipated monetary cost of validating a prototype (i.e. Development Stage 3) of the technology in question. 5. Time to

  12. Lunar Outpost Technologies Breakeven Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perka, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation compares several Lunar Outpost (LO) life support technology combinations, evaluates the combinations for two clothing options, (i.e., Disposable clothing, and using Laundry to clean the soiled clothing) and evaluates the use of the Advanced Life Support Sizing and Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) to estimate Equivalent System Mass (ESM)

  13. Photonuclear reaction studies at HIγS: Developing the science of remote detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, C. R.

    2014-11-02

    Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is Δl ≤ 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. Here, these measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (γ, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HIγS indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HIγS by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. A brief history of design studies on innovative nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-30

    In a short period after the success of CP1, many types of nuclear reactors were proposed and investigated. However, soon only a small number of reactors were selected for practical use. Around 1970, only LWRs with small number of CANDUs were operated in the western world, and FBRs were under development. It was about the time when Apollo moon landing was accomplished. However, at the same time, the future of human being was widely considered pessimistic and Limits to Growth was published. In the end of 1970’s the TMI accident occurred and many nuclear reactor contracts were cancelled in USA and any more contracts had not been concluded until recent years. From the reflection of this accident, many Inherent Safe Reactors (ISRs) were proposed, though none of them were constructed. A common idea of ISRs is smallness of their size. Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech) held a symposium on small reactors, SR/TIT, in 1991, where many types of small ISRs were presented. Recently small reactors attract interest again. The most ideas employed in these reactors were the same discussed in SR/TIT. In 1980’s the radioactive wastes from fuel cycle became a severe problem around the world. In TokyoTech, this issue was discussed mainly from the viewpoint of nuclear transmutations. The neutron economy became inevitable for these innovative nuclear reactors especially small long-life reactors and transmutation reactors.

  15. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  16. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public’s interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  17. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public's interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  18. An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety

  19. Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. Has technological drift affected clinical interpretation?

    PubMed

    Lock, R J; Unsworth, D J

    2001-03-01

    Precipitating antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens are important in the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases. Disease associations are defined using gel based techniques. Alternative technologies have been introduced, including passive haemagglutination, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and western blotting. This leader contains a review of the literature on the clinical usefulness of these assays, together with knowledge gained from personal experience. Using the example of systemic lupus erythematosus, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the assays for disease is discussed, as is their differences in performance. The conclusion drawn is that disease specificity is method dependent. Validation and audit of performance of the method selected by the investigation laboratory is essential.

  20. Nuclear nonproliferation, controls and US policy. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, R.E.

    1993-03-17

    The world has lived under a nuclear threat since the US used nuclear weapons in World War II. After the war, superpowers evolved that provided nuclear umbrellas to their alliances. The recent decline and breakup of the USSR was hailed by many as the notice that nuclear weapons could be greatly reduced and that the entire world would be a safer place. What has evolved, unfortunately, is a still dangerous and complex world where nations are scrambling for sovereignty, power and status with continued emphasis on nuclear weapons. The US is deeply involved in developing nonproliferation policy to encompass this new environment of a changed world structure and a new balance of power. This paper examines this problem in depth starting with the sheer magnitude of the problem and then delving into each of the more prominent nonproliferation controls measures. These measures are examined for advantages, disadvantages and applicability to US policy. The Iraq pursuit of nuclear weapons and the UN and US response and actions are examined as a case study to determine lessons learned for US policy. Finally, existing US policy is examined to allow suggestion of policy changes based on the paper research.

  1. Nuclear transfer to study the nuclear reprogramming of human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeo; Sawai, Ken; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Kazunari

    2008-01-01

    Research of stem cells will enable us to understand the development and function of tissues and organs in mammals. The ability to induce regeneration of new tissues from embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from cloned blastocysts via nuclear transfer can be expected in the not-too-distant future. The fact that there is no way except nuclear cloning for the return of differentiated cells to undifferentiated cells remains an interesting problem to be solved. We describe protocols for the production of cloned calves from bovine ES cells to study nuclear reprogramming ability of stem cells. The frequency of term pregnancies for blastocysts from ES cells is higher than those of early pregnancies and maintained pregnancies after nuclear transfer with bovine somatic cells. We also describe protocols for gene introduction into bovine ES cells in vitro, particularly the human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Bovine ES cells provide a powerful tool for the generation of transgenic clonal offspring. This technique, when perfected for humans, may be critical for neural stem cell transplantation.

  2. Technological studies for plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomescu, Roxana; Kusko, Cristian; Dinescu, Adrian; Bita, Bogdan; Popescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This work will present the technological processes necessary to experimentally obtain plasmonic metasurfaces for developing flat optical components or diffractive optical elements (DOE) which have reflexion functionalities. This class of metasurfaces offers the possibility to manipulate the beam shape using an array of metallic nanoscale elements patterned on a substrate. The main feature of these structures is that one can manipulate the phase behavior by modifying some of the geometrical parameters of the nano-antennas in order to achieve the required phase shift values for the desired applications. The first important step in experimentally obtaining a plasmonic metasurface structures is the electron beam lithography (EBL) followed by the lift-off method. Due to the small sizes of the gold nano-antennas and tight periodicity of the array a number of impediments can emerge in experimentally obtaining such geometries which can be overcome by the parameter optimization of the employed technologies.

  3. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    small modular reactors and extend the lives and improve the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants. 40 Interdisciplinary MIT Study, The Future of Nuclear Power, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 79. 41 Gronlund, Lisbeth, David Lochbaum, and Edwin Lyman, Nuclear Power in a Warming World, Union of Concerned Scientists, December 2007. 42 Travis Madsen, Tony Dutzik, and Bernadette Del Chiaro, et al., Generating Failure: How Building Nuclear Power Plants

  4. Public perceptions of the risks of an unfamiliar technology: The case of using nuclear energy sources for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharik, Michael

    This thesis addresses the public perception of the risk of a technology not widely known to laypeople. Its aims were (1) to characterize public perceptions of the risk of using nuclear energy in space and decisions related to this risk, and (2) to extend the 'mental model' methodology to studying public perception of unfamiliar, risky technologies. A model of the physical processes capable of creating risks from using nuclear energy sources in space was first constructed. Then, knowledge and beliefs related to this topic were elicited from three different groups of people. The generality of the findings was examined in a constructive replication with environmentally-oriented people. The possibility of involving the public in decision-making processes related to engineering macro-design was then investigated. Finally, a communication regarding these risk processes was developed and evaluated in an experiment comparing it with communications produced by NASA. Although they included large portions of the expert model, people's beliefs also had gaps and misconceptions. Respondents often used scientific terms without a clear understanding of what they meant. Respondents' mental models sometimes contained scattered and inconsistent entries. The impact of pre-existing mental models was clearly seen. Different groups of people had different patterns of knowledge and beliefs. Nevertheless, respondents expressed reasonable and coherent opinions on choices among engineering options. The CMU brochure, derived from the study of readers' existing mental models, provided a better risk communication tool than NASA's material, reflecting primarily experts' perspective. The better performance of subjects reading either brochure generally reflected adding knowledge on issues that they had not previously known, rather than correcting wrong beliefs. The communication study confirmed a hypothesis that improving knowledge on risk processes related to the use of a technology causes a more

  5. Development of pyro-processing technology at CRIEPI for carving out the future of nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Sakamura, Y.; Uozumi, K.; Fujihata, K.; Kato, T.; Murakami, T.; Tsukada, T.; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    Pyro-processing has been attracting increasing attention as a promising candidate as an advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. It provides economic advantage as well as reduction in proliferation risk and burden of long live radioactive waste, especially when it is combined with advanced fuels such as metallic or nitride fuel which gives excellent burning efficiency of minor actinides (MA). CRIEPI has been developing pyro-processing technology since late eighties with both domestic and international collaborations. In the early stage, electrochemical and thermodynamic properties in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt, and fundamental feasibility of core technology like electrorefining were chiefly investigated. Currently, stress in the process chemistry development is also placed on supporting technologies, such as treatment of anode residue and high temperature distillation for cathode product from electrorefining, and so on. Waste treatment process development, such as studies on adsorption behavior of various FP elements into zeolite and conditions for the fabrication of glass-bonded sodalite waste form, are steadily improved as well. In parallel, dedicated pyro-processing equipment such as zeolite column for treatment of spent electro-refiner salt is currently in progress. Recently, an integrated engineering-scale fuel cycle tests were performed funded by Japanese government (MEXT) as an important step before proceeding to large scale hot demonstration of pyro-processing. Oxide fuels can be readily introduced into the pyro-processing by reducing them to metals by adoption of electrochemical reduction technique. Making use of this advantage, the pyro-processing is currently under preliminary evaluation for its applicability to the treatment of the corium, mainly consisting of (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, formed in different composition during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. (authors)

  6. New Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of the supply chain for nuclear materials has historically been hampered by non-intrusive inspection systems that have such large false alarm rates that they are impractical in the flow of commerce. Passport Systems, Inc. (Passport) has developed an active interrogation system which detects fissionable material, high Z material, and other contraband in land, sea and air cargo. Passport's design utilizes several detection modalities including high resolution imaging, passive radiation detection, effective-Z (EZ-3D™) anomaly detection, Prompt Neutrons from Photofission (PNPF), and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) isotopic identification. These technologies combine to: detect fissionable, high-Z, radioactive and contraband materials, differentiate fissionable materials from high-Z shielding materials, and isotopically identify actinides, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), and other contraband (e.g. explosives, drugs, nerve agents). Passport's system generates a 3-D image of the scanned object which contains information such as effective-Z and density, as well as a 2-D image and isotopic and fissionable information for regions of interest.

  7. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  8. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  10. Engineering Technology Education Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    Assessment and evaluation of the current 2- and 4-year programs in engineering technology education was the major purpose of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) in authorizing the present study. The study was implemented primarily through a series of conferences involving engineering educators, engineering technology and junior…

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong Suk; McKellar, Michael George; Deason, Wesley R; Richard B. Vilim; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  12. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of potassium dihydrophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskova, N. I.; Podorozhkin, D. Yu.; Charnaya, E. V.; Nefedov, D. Yu.; Baryshnikov, S. V.; Bugaev, A. S.; Lee, M. K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A powder sample of potassium dihydrophosphate KH2PO4 has been studied by the 31P NMR method in a wide temperature range covering the ferroelectric phase transition. Changes in the position and shape of the resonance line at the transition to the ferroelectric phase have been revealed. The parameters of the chemical shift tensor of 31P (isotropic shift, anisotropy, and asymmetry) in the ferroelectric phase have been calculated from the experimental data. A sharp increase in the anisotropy of the tensor at the phase transition has been demonstrated. Dielectric measurements have also been carried out to verify the transition temperature.

  14. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Interfacial Bonding Efficiency Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Jiang, Hao

    2015-04-30

    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF, also known as “used nuclear fuel” [UNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. Additional CIRFT testing was conducted on three HBR rods; two specimens failed, and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 × 107 cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR SNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the SNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, eleven SNF rod segments from the Limerick BWR were tested using the ORNL CIRFT equipment; one test under static conditions and ten tests under dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at a maximum curvature of 4.0 m-1. The specimen did not show any sign of failure during three repeated loading cycles to a similar maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitudes varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of

  15. Kiwi: An Evaluated Library of Uncertainties in Nuclear Data and Package for Nuclear Sensitivity Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J

    2007-06-23

    This report describes Kiwi, a program developed at Livermore to enable mature studies of the relation between imperfectly known nuclear physics and uncertainties in simulations of complicated systems. Kiwi includes a library of evaluated nuclear data uncertainties, tools for modifying data according to these uncertainties, and a simple interface for generating processed data used by transport codes. As well, Kiwi provides access to calculations of k eigenvalues for critical assemblies. This allows the user to check implications of data modifications against integral experiments for multiplying systems. Kiwi is written in python. The uncertainty library has the same format and directory structure as the native ENDL used at Livermore. Calculations for critical assemblies rely on deterministic and Monte Carlo codes developed by B division.

  16. Nuclear structure studies with gamma-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, Anton; Bhatia, Chitra; Kelley, John; Raut, Rajarshi; Rusev, Gencho; Tornow, Werner; Tsoneva, Nadia

    2015-05-28

    In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies below the neutron-separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in contrast to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the PDR is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in closed-shell nuclei using monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams are presented.

  17. Nuclear techniques applied to dementia studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Trace element imbalances have been implicated in the etiology and/or pathogenesis of several dementing disorders related to aging. Of these diseases, Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent. Many elemental imbalances have been reported in AD brain, compared to neurologically normal controls. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed significant increases (p {le} 0.05) in bromine, chlorine, mercury, sodium, and phosphorus and decreased amounts of cesium, nitrogen, and rubidium in AD brain, compared to age-matched control brain. Because INAA is a simultaneous multielement method that does not require tissue dissolution, fewer opportunities for contamination exist than with otherwise powerful analytical methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry. Although INAA is a very important tool in the study of potential trace element involvement in dementia, we have often found it necessary to go beyond conventional INAA methods.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T{sub 1} relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by {sup 31}P NMR.

  19. A Course Case Study: Nuclear Power Generation and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Allen B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course that uses the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant as a case study. The course involves three component parts: physics of fission events, engineering requirements, and economic considerations; environmental impact from radiation and thermal effluents; and the impact of social, political and legal factors. (GS)

  20. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  1. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  2. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard; Rabiti, Cristian; Suk Kim, Jong; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Chen, Jun; Cetiner, M. Sacit; Harrison, T. Jay; Qualls, A. Lou

    2016-03-01

    renewable technologies will aid in achieving reduced GHG emissions, it also presents new challenges to grid management that must be addressed. These challenges primarily derive from the fundamental characteristics of variable renewable generators, such as wind and solar: non-dispatchability, variable production, and reduced electromechanical inertia. This document presents a preliminary research and development (R&D) plan for detailed dynamic simulation and analysis of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HES), coupled with integrated energy system design, component development, and integrated systems testing. N-R HES are cooperatively-controlled systems that dynamically apportion thermal and/or electrical energy to provide responsive generation to the power grid.

  3. Considerations Associated with Reactor Technology Selection for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and during predecessor activities, alternative reactor technologies have been evaluated to determine the technology that best fulfills the functional and performance requirements of the targeted energy applications and market. Unlike the case of electric power generation where the reactor performance is primarily expressed in terms of economics, the targeted energy applications involve industrial applications that have specific needs in terms of acceptable heat transport fluids and the associated thermodynamic conditions. Hence, to be of interest to these industrial energy applications, the alternative reactor technologies are weighed in terms of the reactor coolant/heat transport fluid, achievable reactor outlet temperature, and practicality of operations to achieve the very high reliability demands associated with the petrochemical, petroleum, metals and related industries. These evaluations have concluded that the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) can uniquely provide the required ranges of energy needs for these target applications, do so with promising economics, and can be commercialized with reasonable development risk in the time frames of current industry interest – i.e., within the next 10-15 years.

  4. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  5. Use of probabilistic inversion to model qualitative expert input when selecting a new nuclear reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Charles R., Jr.

    Complex investment decisions by corporate executives often require the comparison of dissimilar attributes and competing technologies. A technique to evaluate qualitative input from experts using a Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) is described to select a new reactor technology for a merchant nuclear generator. The high capital cost, risks from design, licensing and construction, reactor safety and security considerations are some of the diverse considerations when choosing a reactor design. Three next generation reactor technologies are examined: the Advanced Pressurized-1000 (AP-1000) from Westinghouse, Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) from General Electric, and the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) from AREVA. Recent developments in MCDM and decision support systems are described. The uncertainty inherent in experts' opinions for the attribute weighting in the MCDM is modeled through the use of probabilistic inversion. In probabilistic inversion, a function is inverted into a random variable within a defined range. Once the distribution is created, random samples based on the distribution are used to perform a sensitivity analysis on the decision results to verify the "strength" of the results. The decision results for the pool of experts identified the U.S. EPR as the optimal choice.

  6. TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.

  7. IBA studies of helium mobility in nuclear materials revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Agarwal, S.; Miro, S.; Vaubaillon, S.; Leprêtre, F.; Serruys, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out and to discuss some features extracted from the study of helium migration in nuclear materials performed during the last fifteen years using ion beam analysis (IBA) measurements. The first part of this paper is devoted to a brief description of the two main IBA methods used, i.e. deuteron induced nuclear reaction for 3He depth profiling and high-energy heavy-ion induced elastic recoil detection analysis for 4He measurement. In the second part, we provide an overview of the different studies carried out on model nuclear waste matrices and model nuclear reactor structure materials in order to illustrate and discuss specific results in terms of key influence parameters in relation with thermal or radiation activated migration of helium. Finally, we show that among the key parameters we have investigated as able to influence the height of the helium migration barrier, the following can be considered as pertinent: the experimental conditions used to introduce helium (implanted ion energy and implantation fluence), the grain size of the matrix, the lattice cell volume, the Young's modulus, the ionicity degree of the chemical bond between the transition metal atom M and the non-metal atom X, and the width of the band gap.

  8. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  9. The influence of modern nuclear technologies on immune status in clinic and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.A.; Smirnova, O.V.; Ulanova, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is known that the immune system is extremly sensitive to ionizing radiation. This report described results of investigations pertaining to experimental and clinical data on the character and dynamics of changes in the immune system as under external radiation influence (x-rays, gamma-irradiation, neutrons) as in the result of radionuclides entering an organism. The influence of ionizing radiation on man was studied by data from nuclear accidents such as from people exposed from the Chernobyl accident.

  10. Radioactive waste management: the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Jantine

    2013-07-01

    Throughout this paper we aim to scope the most pregnant themes, issues and research questions concerning the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies in the broad context of radioactive waste management. Especially from a socio-technical point of view the mutual impacts, divergences and complementarities between both strategies seem to have received limited dedicated examination up until today. Specific attention is paid to the main arguments that seem to underpin both research streams, related to how the issue of radioactive waste is contextualized and which problems and solutions are consequently identified and proposed. Ultimately we aim to encourage scientifically integer communication and constructive dialogue between both fields, to investigate the common possibilities of enhancing radioactive waste management as a whole. (authors)

  11. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITS of 950 K and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITS ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo -generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  12. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  13. The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Enabling Computational Technologies FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L F; Garaizar, F X; Henson, V E; Pope, G

    2009-10-12

    In this document we report on the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) effort. In particular, we provide the context for ECT In the broader NEAMS program and describe the three pillars of the ECT effort, namely, (1) tools and libraries, (2) software quality assurance, and (3) computational facility (computers, storage, etc) needs. We report on our FY09 deliverables to determine the needs of the integrated performance and safety codes (IPSCs) in these three areas and lay out the general plan for software quality assurance to meet the requirements of DOE and the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). We conclude with a brief description of our interactions with the Idaho National Laboratory computer center to determine what is needed to expand their role as a NEAMS user facility.

  14. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  15. Application of Sol-Gel Technology to High Pressure Polarized 3HE Nuclear Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, W. A.; Cates, G. D.; Chaput, J.; Deur, A.; Rohrbaugh, S.; Singh, J.

    2003-01-01

    High-purity sol-gel solutions have been developed to coat the interior surface of glass vessels used for polarizing 3He by spin-exchange optical pumping. Such cells have been shown to exhibit 3He longitudinal lifetimes T1 in excess of 350 hours1. The sol-gel technique was designed to minimize spin-relaxation due to wall collisions so that only dipole-dipole interactions between colliding 3He atoms dominate in the relaxation process. Until now, sol-gel technology had not been applied to high pressure 3He gas targets used in nuclear scattering experiments. A description of the sol-gel technique and recent developments on its integration into the production of 3He targets will be presented.

  16. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  17. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  18. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  19. Polarization technology for tissue study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Papaev, Alexander V.

    2002-06-01

    The study of optical clearing dynamics of various connective tissues was carried out by means of polarization microscopy. Rate difference of optical clearing of such types of tissues as cartilage, meniscus, nasal septum tissues, sclera and tunica testis was found. The areas of unidirectional orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage and tunica testis were determined.

  20. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  1. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  2. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B.

    1986-01-01

    Small advanced (450 to 850 pounds thrust, 2002 to 3781 N) gas turbine engines were studied for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year 2000 technology. An aircraft, mission characteristics, and baseline (state-of-the-art) engine were defined to evaluate technology benefits. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engines over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. Critical aerodynamic, materials, and mechanical systems turbine engine technologies were identified and program plans were defined for each identified critical technology.

  3. The PCAST Energy Technology Innovation System Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitz, M.; Fri, R.

    2010-12-01

    The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) recently made recommendations for strengthening the nation's energy innovation system. The PCAST report builds in part on earlier work at the National Research Council (NRC) and elsewhere. For example, PCAST largely adopted the description of the energy innovation system that appeared in the NRC report on 'Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change'. Similarly, the 'Limiting' report provided examples of the importance of social science research in crafting energy policy, a recommendation of the PCAST report. And both the 'Limiting' report and an earlier report on 'America's Energy Future' recommended an aggressive commercial demonstration program for carbon capture and storage and new nuclear power plants. The PCAST report discusses the need for new approaches for federal demonstration projects. This session traces these relationships and suggests how similar synergies might be encouraged in the future.

  4. Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 6: Instrumentation and Control of Reactors and Plant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 14: Introduction to Quality Assurance/Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Go Nuclear? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    The dialogue in this module (about a nuclear power plant in Morong, Bataan) is designed to help students answer these questions: (1) When did the construction of the plant begin? What delayed the construction? (2) How does a nuclear power plant produce electricity? What are the nuclear reactions involved? (3) How does a nuclear power plant control…

  8. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven, Growth Technology for Fast Transit Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The "fast conjunction" long surface stay mission option was selected for NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study because it provided adequate time at Mars (approx. 540 days) for the crew to explore the planet's geological diversity while also reducing the "1-way" transit times to and from Mars to approx. 6 months. Short transit times are desirable in order to reduce the debilitating physiological effects on the human body that can result from prolonged exposure to the zero-gravity (0-gE) and radiation environments of space. Recent measurements from the RAD detector attached to the Curiosity rover indicate that astronauts would receive a radiation dose of approx. 0.66 Sv (approx. 66 rem)-the limiting value established by NASA-during their 1-year journey in deep space. Proven nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology, with its high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s), can cut 1-way transit times by as much as 50 percent by increasing the propellant capacity of the Mars transfer vehicle (MTV). No large technology scale-ups in engine size are required for these short transit missions either since the smallest engine tested during the Rover program-the 25 klbf "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered arrangement of three to four engines. The "Copernicus" crewed MTV developed for DRA 5.0 is a 0-gE design consisting of three basic components: (1) the NTP stage (NTPS); (2) the crewed payload element; and (3) an integrated "saddle truss" and LH2 propellant drop tank assembly that connects the two elements. With a propellant capacity of approx. 190 t, Copernicus can support 1-way transit times ranging from approx. 150 to 220 days over the 15-year synodic cycle. The paper examines the impact on vehicle design of decreasing transit times for the 2033 mission opportunity. With a fourth "upgraded" SLS/HLV launch, an "in-line" LH2 tank element can be added to Copernicus allowing 1-way transit times of 130 days. To achieve 100

  10. New Technologies for Studying Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    FRANKLIN, MICHAEL J.; CHANG, CONNIE; AKIYAMA, TATSUYA; BOTHNER, BRIAN

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have traditionally been studied as single-cell organisms. In laboratory settings, aerobic bacteria are usually cultured in aerated flasks, where the cells are considered essentially homogenous. However, in many natural environments, bacteria and other microorganisms grow in mixed communities, often associated with surfaces. Biofilms are comprised of surface-associated microorganisms, their extracellular matrix material, and environmental chemicals that have adsorbed to the bacteria or their matrix material. While this definition of a biofilm is fairly simple, biofilms are complex and dynamic. Our understanding of the activities of individual biofilm cells and whole biofilm systems has developed rapidly, due in part to advances in molecular, analytical, and imaging tools and the miniaturization of tools designed to characterize biofilms at the enzyme level, cellular level, and systems level. PMID:26350329

  11. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  12. Study of nuclear recoils in liquid argon with monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenfus, C.; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Creus, W.; Ferella, A.; Rochet, J.; Walter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of developments for liquid argon dark matter detectors we assembled a laboratory setup to scatter neutrons on a small liquid argon target. The neutrons are produced mono-energetically (Ekin = 2.45 MeV) by nuclear fusion in a deuterium plasma and are collimated onto a 3" liquid argon cell operating in single-phase mode (zero electric field). Organic liquid scintillators are used to tag scattered neutrons and to provide a time-of-flight measurement. The setup is designed to study light pulse shapes and scintillation yields from nuclear and electronic recoils as well as from alpha particles at working points relevant for dark matter searches. Liquid argon offers the possibility to scrutinise scintillation yields in noble liquids with respect to the population strength of the two fundamental excimer states. Here we present experimental methods and first results from recent data towards such studies.

  13. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  14. Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

  15. Nuclear structure studies with INGA coupled to a fast DDAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, R.

    2014-08-14

    Studies of different types of nuclear excitation and isomers remain the main thrust area of the last experimental campaign using INGA at TIFR-BARC Pelletron Linac Facility at Mumbai. A digital data acquisition system has been coupled with the INGA which has improved the data throughput and better gain stability. About forty experiments that have been proposed in this experimental campaign. Selected results from these experiments will be discussed.

  16. Integrated technology wing study (oral presentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design of a plan for a commercial transport manufacturer to integrate advanced technology into a new wing for a derivative and/or new aircraft that could enter service in the late 1980s to early 1990s time period is proposed. The development of a new wing for a derivative or a new long range commercial aircraft and the incorporation of cost effective technologies are studied. The decision provides guidelines for the best allocation of research funds.

  17. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  19. International Conference on Nuclear Data For Science and Technology in Santa Fe, Sept 26-Oct 1 2004; a Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, Robert; Chadwick, Mark; Moller, Peter

    2004-10-01

    We present a summary of the ND2004 Conference, which focuses on nuclear data, their production, dissemination, testing, processing methods and application. The data are produced both through experiments and theoretical models; they are compiled and evaluated to form data libraries of use in applications; and they are tested through benchmark experiments and a very wide range of applications. The Conference includes all of these activities with the goal of improving nuclear data, identifying areas of data needs where progress is required, and providing reliable data for applications including fission and fusion energy, accelerator driven systems, accelerator technology, spallation-neutron sources, nuclear medicine, environment, space, nonproliferation, nuclear safety, astrophysics and cosmology, and basic research.

  20. Nuclear-structure studies of exotic nuclei with MINIBALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. A.; Cederkall, J.; Reiter, P.

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy has been established at ISOLDE for nuclear-structure and nuclear-reaction studies with reaccelerated radioactive ion beams provided by the REX-ISOLDE facility. The MINIBALL spectrometer comprises 24 six-fold segmented, encapsulated high-purity germanium crystals. It was specially designed for highest γ-ray detection efficiency which is advantageous for low-intensity radioactive ion beams. The MINIBALL array has been used in numerous Coulomb-excitation and transfer-reaction experiments with exotic ion beams of energies up to 3 MeV A–1. The physics case covers a wide range of topics which are addressed with beams ranging from neutron-rich magnesium isotopes up to heavy radium isotopes. In the future the HIE-ISOLDE will allow the in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy program to proceed with higher secondary-beam intensity, higher beam energy and better beam quality.

  1. Using nuclear run-on transcription assays in RNAi studies.

    PubMed

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism regulating gene transcript levels either by transcriptional gene silencing or by posttranscriptional gene silencing, which act in the genome maintenance and the regulation of gene expression which is typically inferred from measuring transcript abundance. Nuclear "run-on" (or "run-off") transcription assays have been used to obtain quantitative information about the relative rates of transcription of different genes in nuclei isolated from a particular tissue or organ. Basically, these assays exploit the activity of RNA polymerases to synthesize radiolabeled transcripts that then can be hybridized to filter-bound, cold, excess single-stranded DNA probes representing genes of interest. The protocol presented here streamlines, adapts, and optimizes nuclear run-on transcription assays for use in RNAi studies.

  2. Dilution Refrigerator for Nuclear Refrigeration and Cryogenic Thermometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hata, Tohru

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the design and construction of an ultra-low temperature facility in order to realize the Provisional low-temperature scale from 0.9 mK to 1 K (PLTS-2000) in Japan, to disseminate its use through calibration services, and to study thermometry at low temperatures below 1 K. To this end, a dilution refrigerator was constructed in-house that has four sintered silver discrete heat exchangers for use as a precooling stage of a copper nuclear demagnetization stage. A melting curve thermometer attached to the mixing chamber flange could be cooled continuously to 4.0 mK using the refrigerator. The dependence of minimum temperatures on circulation rates can be explained by the calculation of Frossati's formula based on a perfect continuous counterflow heat exchanger model, assuming that the Kapitza resistance has a temperature dependence. Residual heat leakage to the mixing chamber was estimated to be around 86 nW. A nuclear demagnetization cryostat with a nuclear stage containing an effective amount of copper (51 mol in a 9 T magnetic field) is under construction, and we will presently start to work toward the realization of the PLTS-2000. In this article, the design and performance of the dilution refrigerator are reported.

  3. A Semi-Classical Model to Study Nuclear Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Martha; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Dorso, Claudio; Lopez, Jorge

    1999-10-01

    A semi-classical model based on the use of molecular dynamics has been developed for the study of heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies. The model reproduces nucleon-nucleon cross sections through the use of a two-body potential. The study covers several characteristics of heavy-ion collisions, such as formation of necks, and formation of intermediate residue. Preliminary results on the use of the model to study the caloric curve of nuclear matter and the temperature evolution of the system are also discussed.

  4. Study of minimum-weight highway transporters for spent nuclear fuel casks: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoess, J.A.; Drago, V.J.

    1989-05-01

    There are federal and state limits on the maximum tractor-trailer- payload combination and individual axle loads permissible on US highways. These can generally be considered as two sets, i.e., legal-weight and overweight limits. The number of individual shipments required will decrease as the capacity of the spent nuclear fuel cask increases. Thus, there is an incentive for identifying readily available minimum-weight tractors and trailers capable of safely and reliably transporting as large a cask as possible without exceeding the legal gross combination weight (GCW) of 80,000 lb or selected overweight GCW limit of 110,000 lb. This study identifies options for commercially available heavy-duty on-highway tractors and trailers for transporting proposed future loaded spent nuclear fuel casks. Loaded cask weights of 56,000 and 80,000 lb were selected as reference design points for the legal-weight and overweight transporters, respectively. The technical data on tractor and trailer characteristics obtained indicate that it is possible to develop a tractor-trailer combination, tailored for spent nuclear fuel transportation service, utilizing existing technology and commercially available components, capable of safely and reliably transporting 56,000 and 80,000-lb spent nuclear fuel casks without exceeding GCWs of 80,000 and 10,000 lb, respectively. 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Home care and technology: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stroulia, Eleni; Nikolaidisa, Ioanis; Liua, Lili; King, Sharla; Lessard, Lysanne

    2012-01-01

    Health care aides (HCAs) are the backbone of the home care system and provide a range of services to people who, for various reasons related to chronic conditions and aging, are not able to take care of themselves independently. The demand for HCA services will increase and the current HCA supply will likely not keep up with this increasing demand without fundamental changes in the current environment. Information and communication technology (ICT) can address some of the workflow challenges HCAs face. In this project, we conducted an ethnographic study to document and analyse HCAs' workflows and team interactions. Based on our findings, we designed an ICT tool suite, integrating easily available existing and newly developed (by our team) technologies to address these issues. Finally, we simulated the deployment of our technologies, to assess the potential impact of these technological solutions on the workflow and productivity of HCAs, their healthcare teams and client care.

  6. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life.

  7. The CASPAR underground accelerator facility for the study of low energy nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The drive of nuclear astrophysics is to push the limits of reaction measurements into the burning regime of astrophysical interest. As current laboratory experiments approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need for higher intensity accelerators, more robust and isotopically enriched target material and lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to the lower energies needed. The CASPAR facility is the first and only underground accelerator facility in the US, focused on the study of low energy reactions of nuclear astrophysical interest. Support provided by NSF Grant No. PHY 1419765, JINA-CEE Grant No. PHY 1430152 and the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority.

  8. High-Power Krypton Hall Thruster Technology Being Developed for Nuclear-Powered Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been performing research and development of moderate specific impulse, xenon-fueled, high-power Hall thrusters for potential solar electric propulsion applications. These applications include Mars missions, reusable tugs for low-Earth-orbit to geosynchronous-Earth-orbit transportation, and missions that require transportation to libration points. This research and development effort resulted in the design and fabrication of the NASA-457M Hall thruster that has been tested at input powers up to 95 kW. During project year 2003, NASA established Project Prometheus to develop technology in the areas of nuclear power and propulsion, which are enabling for deep-space science missions. One of the Project-Prometheus-sponsored Nuclear Propulsion Research tasks is to investigate alternate propellants for high-power Hall thruster electric propulsion. The motivation for alternate propellants includes the disadvantageous cost and availability of xenon propellant for extremely large scale, xenon-fueled propulsion systems and the potential system performance benefits of using alternate propellants. The alternate propellant krypton was investigated because of its low cost relative to xenon. Krypton propellant also has potential performance benefits for deep-space missions because the theoretical specific impulse for a given voltage is 20 percent higher than for xenon because of krypton's lower molecular weight. During project year 2003, the performance of the high-power NASA-457M Hall thruster was measured using krypton as the propellant at power levels ranging from 6.4 to 72.5 kW. The thrust produced ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 N at a discharge specific impulse up to 4500 sec.

  9. Technology and Learning Disabilities. Health Technology Case Study 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Candis; Duhl, Leonard

    A learning disability is seen as the outcome of a network of forces that include neurophysical, emotional, familial, organizational, political, social, historical, and technological cases. Options for research and development are based on this integrative view, and both "hard" and "soft" technologies must be considered. "Hard" technology refers to…

  10. Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-06

    We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

  11. Tool Version Management Technology: A Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Technical Report AD-A235 639 CMU/SEI-90-TR-25 Tool Version Management Technology: A Case Study Peter H. Feiler Grace F. Downey November 1990 x 91...00304 90 7 Technical Report CMU/SEI-90-TR-25 ESD-90-TR-226 November 1990 Tool Version Management Technology: A Case Study Peter H. Feiler Grace F. Downey...trademark holder. Table of Contents 1. lntroducton 1 2. The Problem 3 2.1. Tool Version Organization and Selection 3 2.2. Stability of Selected Tool

  12. The development of nuclear thermal propulsion technology for use in space. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The hearing reviewed the Federal Government`s efforts to develop nuclear technology for use in space. The primary subject was nuclear thermal rockets. The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported on; Space Nuclear Propulsion: History, Cost, and Status of Programs. Statements of government officials of agencies involved were included along with documents and exhibits submitted for the record.

  13. [The risk of congenital malformations and genomic imprinting defects in assisted reproductive technologies and nuclear transfer cloning].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies show that assisted reproductive technologies (ART), whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra-cytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) or applied to cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are associated to a higher risk of congenital malformations and errors in deprogramming, maintenance or reprogramming genomic imprinting in humans and animals. IVF and ICSI are also associated to an increased admission to neonatal intensive care units and more need for health care resources in infancy. A mutagenic effect of a chemical used in SCNT has been reported and gene depression was found in bovine embryos obtained by IVF or SCNT. The causes of these anomalies could be pathological conditions for which ART is applied, a direct effect of technologies on the zygotes or embryos, avoidance for zygotes or embryos of the oviduct path that is needed to elicit necessary immunity or genomic programming processes, or adaptive selective steps acquired during thousands of millions of generations in evolution. The knowledge of evolution is emphasized as essential in the scientific ethical analysis.

  14. Nuclear Power: Pros and Cons. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module brings together in a panel discussion opposing views and supporting data on the first Philippine nuclear power plant in Morong, Bataan. It extends the discussion of issues and ideas about nuclear power in the dialogue "Go Nuclear" (which should be read before starting this panel discussion). The module deals with the…

  15. 75 FR 61139 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice... CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information will be available at http://www.brc.gov... Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585; e-mail to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on...

  16. 75 FR 35001 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice... CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information may also be available at http://www.brc.gov... a.m. on July 12 with the presentations regarding the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear...

  17. 75 FR 51025 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technology Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice...- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information will be available at http://www... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  18. System Study: Technology Assessment and Prioritizing Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    For the Intelligent Engine System (Propulsion 21) study, each technology was evaluated to determine the impact to fuel burn, acoustics, and NOx emissions. The optimum combination of technologies and their overall benefits to the system were also evaluated, resulting in noise improvement potential of 1.89 EPNdB cumulative margin,-1.34 percent fuel burn, and 50 percent NOx reduction from the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. All the technology evaluations, except T18-20D, were based on newengines, where the engine was resized to obtain the maximum system benefit while maintaining the same cycle parameters as the 2015 UEET-QAT baseline. The impact of turbine clearance control on deteriorated engines, T18-20D, was also evaluated. Recommendations for future system study work include, but were not limited to, validation of a university-developed engine deterioration model and customer value analysis as figures of merit beside fuel burn, emissions, and acoustics.

  19. Application of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a nuclear proliferation detection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Chen, C.L.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) potentially possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal verification technology. Some of these ideal traits are: very high selectivity and specificity to allow the deconvolution of a mixture of the chemicals of interest, high sensitivity in order to measure a species at trace levels, high reliability and long-term durability, applicability to a wide range of chemicals capability for sensing in a variety of environmental conditions, independence of the physical state of the chemical capability for quantitative analysis, and finally, but no less important capability for full signal development within seconds. In this presentation, the potential of RRS as a detection/identification technology for chemicals pertinent to nuclear materials production and processing will be assessed. A review of the basic principles behind this technique, both theoretical and experimental, will be discussed along with some recent results obtained in this laboratory. Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon scattering process where an exciting photon of energy hv promotes a molecule to a virtual level and the subsequently emitted photon is shifted in frequency in accordance with the rotational-vibrational structure of the irradiated species, therefore providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. The enhancement of a Raman signal occurs when the excitation frequency is isoenergetic with an allowed electronic transition. Under resonance conditions, scattering cross-sections have been enhanced up to 6 orders of magnitude, thereby allowing the measurement of resonance Raman spectra from concentrations as dilute as 20 ppb for PAHs (with the potential of pptr). In detection/verification programs, this condition translates to increased sensitivity (ppm/ppb) and increased probing distance (m/km).

  20. Application of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a nuclear proliferation detection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Chen, C.L.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) potentially possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal verification technology. Some of these ideal traits are: very high selectivity and specificity to allow the deconvolution of a mixture of the chemicals of interest, high sensitivity in order to measure a species at trace levels, high reliability and long-term durability, applicability to a wide range of chemicals capability for sensing in a variety of environmental conditions, independence of the physical state of the chemical capability for quantitative analysis, and finally, but no less important capability for full signal development within seconds. In this presentation, the potential of RRS as a detection/identification technology for chemicals pertinent to nuclear materials production and processing will be assessed. A review of the basic principles behind this technique, both theoretical and experimental, will be discussed along with some recent results obtained in this laboratory. Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon scattering process where an exciting photon of energy hv promotes a molecule to a virtual level and the subsequently emitted photon is shifted in frequency in accordance with the rotational-vibrational structure of the irradiated species, therefore providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. The enhancement of a Raman signal occurs when the excitation frequency is isoenergetic with an allowed electronic transition. Under resonance conditions, scattering cross-sections have been enhanced up to 6 orders of magnitude, thereby allowing the measurement of resonance Raman spectra from concentrations as dilute as 20 ppb for PAHs (with the potential of pptr). In detection/verification programs, this condition translates to increased sensitivity (ppm/ppb) and increased probing distance (m/km).