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Sample records for nuclear track microfilters

  1. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fraundorf, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear tracks have been identified in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) collected from the stratosphere. The presence of tracks unambiguously confirms the extraterrestrial nature of IDP's, and the high track densities (10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th per square centimeter) suggest an exposure age of approximately 10,000 years within the inner solar system. Tracks also provide an upper temperature limit for the heating of IDP's during atmospheric entry, thereby making it possible to distinguish between pristine and thermally modified micrometeorites.

  2. WIMP tracking with cryogenic nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Naka, T.; Furuya, S.; Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Umemoto, A.; Machii, S.; Ichiki, H.; Sato, O.; Hoshino, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Directional dark matter search experiments enable us to reveal the presence of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. A promising detector for a directional measurement is a fine-grained nuclear emulsion consisting of fine crystals of silver bromide with 20 nm or 40 nm size. A critical task for the success of the experiment is to remove background tracks of electrons coming from stopping beta rays of 14C decays in the nuclear emulsion. An electron rejection power of at least 10-10 is needed in order to start a 10 kg experiment. We present a novel cryogenic approach to reject the electron background that makes use of the phonon effect in nuclear emulsion. For the proof of principle, we have been investigating the sensitivity of fine-grained nuclear emulsions as a function of temperature by exposing to gamma rays and ion beams with an ion implant system in the range of 77-300 K. Results of gamma ray exposure indicate that the electron rejection power is estimated to be better than 3 ×10-9 at 77 K. Results of ion exposure imply that fine-grained nuclear emulsion is sensitive to ions which are light and heavy and ion tracks' angle can be measured.

  3. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  4. ``Fast Track'' nuclear thermal propulsion concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Richard A.; Zweig, Herbert R.; Cooper, Martin H.; Wett, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Space Exploration Initiative (``America at the Threshold...,'' 1991) is the exploration of Mars by man in the second decade of the 21st century. The NASA ``Fast Track'' approach (NASA-LeRC Presentation, 1992) could accelerate the manned exploration of Mars to 2007. NERVA-derived nuclear propulsion represents a viable near-term technology approach to accomplish the accelerated schedule. Key milestones in the progression to the manned Mars mission are (1) demonstration of TRL-6 for the man-rateable system by 1999, (2) a robotic lunar mission by 2000, (3) the first cargo mission to Mars by 2005, and (4) the piloted Mars mission in 2007. The Rocketdyne-Westinghouse concept for nuclear thermal propulsion to achieve these milestones combines the nuclear reactor technology of the Rover/NERVA programs and the state-of-the-art hardware designs from hydrogen-fueled rocket engine successes like the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).

  5. Diffraction pattern by rotated conical tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, N.; Markovic, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    The method for determination of diffraction pattern for irregular 3D objects with application on rotated conical tracks in solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) wasdescribed in this paper. The model can be applied for different types of the diffraction (Fresnel, Fraunhofer) and arbitrary shapes of the obstacle. By applying the developed model on conical tracks it was fond that diffraction pattern strongly depends from radius, length and rotation angle of the conical tracks. These dependences were investigated in this paper and results can be applied for determination of inner tracks structure via diffraction pattern.

  6. A microfilter utilizing a polyethersulfone porous membrane with nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ye; Miki, Norihisa

    2007-11-01

    We present a novel microfilter system used for the selective separation of solutes of molecular sizes 1-2 nm. The microfilter system consists of two layers of micro chambers made of PDMS and one piece of porous membrane made of polyethersulfone (PES) using the wet-phase inversion method. The PES membrane at the center of the two micro chambers acts as a barrier to molecules larger than its pores. A novel method of bonding the PES membrane to PDMS surface was developed in the device fabrication, whereby diffusion in the microfilter was theoretically derived and applied in the filtering evaluation. The filtering capacity of this microfilter for molecules of molecular sizes from 0.3 nm to 6.6 nm was evaluated using solution samples of sodium chloride (NaCl) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextrans with molecular weights of 4k, 20k and 70k, respectively. The filtering experiments indicated that the optimal membrane used for the device was P2S2. This microfilter system with optimal PES membrane was believed to be capable of selective separation at a molecular size barrier of 1-2 nm and also believed to have the potential for use in portable hemodialysis systems.

  7. High resolution image measurements of nuclear tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirk, E. K.; Price, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The striking clarity and high contrast of the mouths of tracks etched in CR-39 plastic detectors allow automatic measurement of track parameters to be made with simple image-recognition equipment. Using a commercially available Vidicon camera system with a microprocessor-controlled digitizer, resolution for normally incident C-12 and N-14 ions at 32 MeV/amu equivalent to a 14sigma separation of adjacent charges was demonstrated.

  8. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Prior to capture by the Earth's atmosphere individual interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) have allegedly spent up to 10 to the 5th power years as discrete bodies within the interplanetary medium. Observation of tracks in IDP's in the form of solar flare tracks would provide hitherto unknown data about micrometeorites such as: (1) whether an IDP existed in space as an individual particle or as part of a larger meteroid; (2) the degree to which a particle was heated during the trauma of atmospheric entry; (3) residence time of an IDP within the interplanetary medium; and (4) possible hints as to the pre-accretional exposure of component mineral grains to solar or galactic irradiation. Using transmission electron microscopy tracks in several micrometeorites have been successfully identified. All of the studied particles had been retrieved from the stratosphere by U-2 aircraft. Three pristine IDP's (between 5 and 15 micro m diameter) have so far been searched for solar flare tracks, and they have been found in the two smaller particles U2-20B11 (11 micro m) and U2-20B37 (8 micro m).

  9. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  10. BACKPRESSURE TESTING OF ROTARY MICROFILTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-04-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), is modifying and testing the SpinTek{trademark} rotary microfilter (RMF) for radioactive filtration service in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The RMF has been shown to improve filtration throughput when compared to other conventional methods such as cross-flow filtration. A concern with the RMF was that backpressure, or reverse flow through the disk, would damage the filter membranes. Reverse flow might happen as a result of an inadvertent valve alignment during flushing. Testing was completed in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) located in SRNL to study the physical effects of backpressure as well as to determine the maximum allowable back-pressure for RMF disks. The RMF disks tested at the EDL were manufactured by SpinTek{trademark} Filtration and used a Pall Corporation PMM050 filter membrane (0.5 micron nominal pore size) made from 316L stainless steel. Early versions of the RMF disks were made from synthetic materials that were incompatible with caustic solutions and radioactive service as well as being susceptible to delaminating when subjected to backpressure. Figure 1-1 shows the essential components of the RMF; 3 rotating disks and 3 stationary turbulence promoters (or shear elements) are shown. Figure 1-2 show the assembly view of a 25 disk RMF proposed for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the Hanford Facility. The purpose of the testing discussed in this report was to determine the allowable backpressure for RMF disks as well as study the physical effects of backpressure on RMF disks made with the Pall PMM050 membrane. This was accomplished by pressurizing the disks in the reverse flow direction (backpressure) until the test limit was reached or until membrane failure occurred. Backpressure was applied to the disks with air while submerged in deionized (DI) water. This method provided a visual

  11. Effects of etching time on alpha tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Crust, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas is thought to be the cause of about 1100 lung cancer related deaths each year in the UK (1). Radon concentrations can be monitored using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable microscopic analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (2, 3). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs. Six SSNTDs were placed in a chamber with a luminous dial watch for a fixed period. The detectors were etched for between 30 minutes and 4.5 hours using 6M NaOH at a temperature of 90oC. A 'LEXT' OLS4000 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 2D and 3D image datasets of CR-39 plastic SSNTDs. Confocal microscope 3D images were acquired using a x50 or x100 objective lens. Data were saved as images and also spreadsheet files with height measurements. Software was written using MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., USA) to analyse the height data. Comparing the 30 minute and 4 hour etching time detectors, we observed that there were marked differences in track area; the lower the etching time the smaller the track area. The degree to which etching may prevent visualising adjacent tracks also requires further study as it is possible that etching could result in some tracks being subsumed in other tracks. On the other hand if there is too little etching, track sizes would be reduced and hence could be more difficult to image; thus there is a balance required to obtain suitable measurement accuracy. (1) Gray A, Read S, McGale P and Darby S. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them. BMJ 2009; 338: a3110. (2) Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in

  12. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  13. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Porter, John D.; Yoshiyama, James M.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  14. UV Enhancement of CR-39 Nuclear Track Detector Etch Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traynor, Nathan; McLauchlin, Christopher; Dodge, Kenneth; McLean, James; Padalino, Stephen; Burke, Michelle; Sangster, Craig

    2014-03-01

    CR-39 plastic is an effective and commonly used solid state nuclear track detector. High-energy charged particles leave tracks of chemical damage. When CR-39 is chemically etched with NaOH at elevated temperatures, pits are produced at the track sites that are measurable by an optical microscope. We have shown that by exposing the CR-39 to high intensity UV light between nuclear irradiation and chemical etching, the rate at which the pits grow during etching is increased. The effect has been observed for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, to at least 250 nm. Heating of samples during UV exposure dramatically increases the etch rates, although heating alone does not produce the effect. The pit enhancement is the result of an increase in both the bulk and track etch rates, while the ratio of these rates (which determines sensitivity to particles) remains roughly constant. By determining the best processing parameters, this effect promises to significantly reduce the time required to process CR-39 track detectors. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  15. Tracking of Nuclear Production using Indigenous Species: Final LDRD Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Alam, Mary Kathleen; McIntyre, Sarah K.; Volk, David; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Luxon, Bruce A.; Ansari, G. A. Shakeel

    2009-10-01

    Our LDRD research project sought to develop an analytical method for detection of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Our approach is distinctly different than current research involving hardware-based sensors. By utilizing the response of indigenous species of plants and/or animals surrounding (or within) a nuclear processing facility, we propose tracking 'suspicious molecules' relevant to nuclear materials processing. As proof of concept, we have examined TBP, tributylphosphate, used in uranium enrichment as well as plutonium extraction from spent nuclear fuels. We will compare TBP to the TPP (triphenylphosphate) analog to determine the uniqueness of the metabonomic response. We show that there is a unique metabonomic response within our animal model to TBP. The TBP signature can further be delineated from that of TPP. We have also developed unique methods of instrumental transfer for metabonomic data sets.

  16. In-laboratory development of an automatic track counting system for solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık; Ulus, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an automatic track counting system was developed for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Firstly the specifications of required hardware components were determined, and accordingly the CCD camera, microscope and stage motor table was supplied and integrated. The system was completed by developing parametric software with VB.Net language. Finally a set of test intended for radon activity concentration measurement was applied. According to the test results, the system was enabled for routine radon measurement. Whether the parameters of system are adjusted for another SSNTD application, it could be used for other fields of SSNTD like neutron dosimetry or heavy charged particle detection.

  17. Nuclear track membranes: Production in nuclear reactors and prospects of application

    SciTech Connect

    Fursov, B.I.; Kryuchkov, E.A.; Mironov, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear track membranes are produced by a physico-chemical treatment of polymeric films exposed to fission fragments in nuclear reactors or to heavy ion beams. Heavy charged particles form in the solids along their trajectories regions of high ionization density where polymer destruction takes place. Selective dissolution of damaged material converts the initial film into a microfiltration membrane with cylindrical through pores. The main feature of nuclear membranes are a small thickness and uniformity of pore size. The qualities of the nuclear membranes promise good prospects for applications in many areas.

  18. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  19. Evaluation of Alternative Filter Media for the Rotary Microfilter

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Herman, D. T.; Bhave, R.

    2011-11-09

    The Savannah River Site is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. Previous testing showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together to develop asymmetric ceramic ? stainless steel composite filters and asymmetric 100% stainless steel filters to improve the throughput of the rotary microfilter. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Inorganic Membrane Group fabricated samples of alternative filter membranes. In addition, Savannah River National Laboratory obtained samples of filter membranes from Pall, Porvair, and SpinTek. They tested these samples in a static test cell with feed slurries containing monosodium titanate and simulated sludge.

  20. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  1. Atmospheric heating of meteorites: Results from nuclear track studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A quantitative model to estimate the degree of annealing of nuclear tracks in mineral grains subjected to a variable temperature history was proposed. This model is applied to study the track annealing records in different meteorites resulting from their atmospheric heating. Scale lengths were measured of complete and partial track annealing, delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2, respectively. In mineral grain close to fusion crust in about a dozen meteorites. Values of delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2 depend on extent and duration of heating during atmospheric transit and hence on meteorite entry parameters. To estimate track annealing, the temperature history during atmospheric heating at different distances from the crusted surface of the meteorite is obtained by solving heat conduction equation in conjunction with meteorite entry model, and use of the annealing model to evaluate the degree of annealing of tracks. It is shown that the measured values of delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2 in three of the meteorites studied are consistent with values using preatmospheric mass, entry velocity and entry angle of these meteorites.

  2. Guidance for identifying, reporting and tracking nuclear safety noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document provides Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors and suppliers with guidance in the effective use of DOE`s Price-Anderson nuclear safety Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). Prompt contractor identification, reporting to DOE, and correction of nuclear safety noncompliances provides DOE with a basis to exercise enforcement discretion to mitigate civil penalties, and suspend the issuance of Notices of Violation for certain violations. Use of this reporting methodology is elective by contractors; however, this methodology is intended to reflect DOE`s philosophy on effective identification and reporting of nuclear safety noncompliances. To the extent that these expectations are met for particular noncompliances, DOE intends to appropriately exercise its enforcement discretion in considering whether, and to what extent, to undertake enforcement action.

  3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FILTER MEDIA FOR THE ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Herman, D.; Bhave, R.

    2011-09-13

    SRS is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. These processes include the Integrated Salt Disposition Process (ISDP), the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX). Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. SRNL researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The testing showed significant improvement in filter flux with the rotary microfilter over the baseline crossflow filter (i.e., 2.5-6.5X during scoping tests, as much as 10X in actual waste tests, and approximately 3X in pilot-scale tests). SRNL received funding from DOE EM-21, and subsequently DOE EM-31 to develop the rotary microfilter for high level radioactive service. The work has included upgrading the rotary microfilter for radioactive service, testing with simulated SRS waste streams, and testing it with simulated Hanford waste streams. While the filtration rate is better than that obtained during testing of crossflow filters, the authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. The rotary microfilter membrane is made of stainless steel (Pall PMM050). Previous testing, funded by DOE EM-21, showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. In that testing, the Pall Accusep and Graver filters produced 13-21% larger filter flux than the baseline 0.1 {micro}m Mott filter. While the improvement in flux is not as dramatic as the improvement of the rotary filter over a crossflow filter, a 13-21% increase could reduce the lifetime of a 30 year process by 4-6 years, with significant cost savings. Subsequent rotary filter testing showed the Pall PMM050 stainless steel filter membrane produced

  4. A parameterization of nuclear track profiles in CR-39 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azooz, A. A.; Al-Nia'emi, S. H.; Al-Jubbori, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15598 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3933244 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB. Computer: Any Desktop or Laptop. Operating system: Windows 1998 or above (with MATLAB R13 or above installed). RAM: 512 Megabytes or higher Classification: 17.5. Nature of problem: A new semispherical parameterization of charged particle tracks in CR-39 SSNTD is carried out in a previous paper. This parameterization is developed here into a MATLAB based software to calculate the track length and track profile for any proton or alpha particle energy or etching time. This software is intended to compete with the TRACK_TEST [1] and TRACK_VISION [2] software currently in use by all people working in the field of SSNTD. Solution method: Based on fitting of experimental results of protons and alpha particles track lengths for various energies and etching times to a new semispherical formula with four free fitting parameters, the best set of energy independent parameters were found. These parameters are introduced into the software and the software is programmed to solve the set of equations to calculate the track depth, track etching rate as a function of both time and residual range for particles of normal and oblique incidence, the track longitudinal profile at both normal and oblique incidence, and the three dimensional track profile at normal incidence. Running time: 1-8 s on Pentium (4) 2 GHz CPU, 3 GB of RAM depending on the etching time value References: [1] ADWT_v1_0 Track_Test Computer program TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters and plotting profiles for etch pits in nuclear track materials. D. Nikezic, K.N. Yu Comput. Phys. Commun. 174(2006)160 [2] AEAF

  5. Automated Track Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Cherry, M. L.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.; Kolganova, E. D.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B. S.; Olszewski, A.; Pozharova, E. A.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.

    1998-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject back- ground and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities approx. 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-208 beam at CERN. Automatically reconstructed track lists agree with our best manual measurements to 3%. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties.

  6. Irradiation of nuclear track emulsions with thermal neutrons, heavy ions, and muons

    SciTech Connect

    Artemenkov, D. A. Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rusakova, V. V.

    2015-07-15

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n{sub th} +{sup 10} B → {sup 7} Li + (γ)+ α were studied in nuclear track emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with {sup 86}Kr{sup +17} and {sup 124}Xe{sup +26} ions of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsionsmade it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nucleardiffraction interaction mechanism.

  7. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  8. Application of fluorescent nuclear track detectors for cellular dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, S.; Niklas, M.; Abdollahi, A.; Jäkel, O.; Greilich, S.

    2017-04-01

    Ion beams radiotherapy with charged particles show greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to conventional photon therapy. This enhanced RBE is due to a localized energy deposition pattern, which is subject to large fluctuations on cellular scales. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg crystals coated with cells (Cell-Fit-HD) can provide information on individual cellular energy deposition. In this study we provide a theoretical framework to obtain the distribution of microscopic energy deposition and ionization density in cells exposed to ion beams and identifies contributions of five different sources of variations to the overall energy fluctuation at different depths of a biologically optimized spread-out Bragg peak. We show that fluctuation in the individual energy loss of the particles is the major source of variability while the fluctuation in particle hits plays a minor role. With the Cell-Fit-HD system the uncertainty arising from four of these sources, namely the nucleus area, the number of nuclear hits, the particle linear energy transfer and the chord length can be reduced and only energy loss straggling remains fundamentally unknown. The ability to quantify these factors results in a reduction of the uncertainty in cellular energy deposition from 24–55% down to only 7–12%. We have also shown current experimental results with FNTDs which show promising results, but need further improvements to reach the ideals predicted in this study.

  9. Application of fluorescent nuclear track detectors for cellular dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, S; Niklas, M; Abdollahi, A; Jäkel, O; Greilich, S

    2017-04-07

    Ion beams radiotherapy with charged particles show greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to conventional photon therapy. This enhanced RBE is due to a localized energy deposition pattern, which is subject to large fluctuations on cellular scales. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg crystals coated with cells (Cell-Fit-HD) can provide information on individual cellular energy deposition. In this study we provide a theoretical framework to obtain the distribution of microscopic energy deposition and ionization density in cells exposed to ion beams and identifies contributions of five different sources of variations to the overall energy fluctuation at different depths of a biologically optimized spread-out Bragg peak. We show that fluctuation in the individual energy loss of the particles is the major source of variability while the fluctuation in particle hits plays a minor role. With the Cell-Fit-HD system the uncertainty arising from four of these sources, namely the nucleus area, the number of nuclear hits, the particle linear energy transfer and the chord length can be reduced and only energy loss straggling remains fundamentally unknown. The ability to quantify these factors results in a reduction of the uncertainty in cellular energy deposition from 24-55% down to only 7-12%. We have also shown current experimental results with FNTDs which show promising results, but need further improvements to reach the ideals predicted in this study.

  10. Computer program TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters and plotting profiles for etch pits in nuclear track materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters (lengths of the major and minor axes) and plotting profiles in nuclear track materials resulted from light-ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching is described. The programming steps are outlined, including calculations of alpha-particle ranges, determination of the distance along the particle trajectory penetrated by the chemical etchant, calculations of track coordinates, determination of the lengths of the major and minor axes and determination of the contour of the track opening. Descriptions of the program are given, including the built-in V functions for the two commonly employed nuclear track materials commercially known as LR 115 (cellulose nitrate) and CR-39 (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) irradiated by alpha particles. Program summaryTitle of the program:TRACK_TEST Catalogue identifier:ADWT Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWT Computer:Pentium PC Operating systems:Windows 95+ Programming language:Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data:256 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2739 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:204 526 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MSFLIB library Nature of problem: Fast heavy charged particles (like alpha particles and other light ions etc.) create latent tracks in some dielectric materials. After chemical etching in aqueous NaOH or KOH solutions, these tracks become visible under an optical microscope. The growth of a track is based on the simultaneous actions of the etchant on undamaged regions (with the bulk etch rate V) and along the particle track (with the track etch rate V). Growth of the track is described satisfactorily by these two parameters ( V and V). Several models have been presented in the past describing

  11. Nuclear track studies of the Pasamonte and Moore County eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    The selective annealing technique was applied to samples from the Pasamonte eucrite with a view to obtaining fission track ages of clasts in the meteorite. The method did not permit cosmic ray tracks to be distinguished from fission tracks in either Pasamonte or Moore County. A difference between the fossil track densities observed in an igneous clast and the surrounding host material appears to be due to a pre-irradiation on the Pasamonte parent planet.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years

  13. WE-D-BRF-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Investigating Particle Track Structures Using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors and Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdell, S; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J; Greilich, S; Zimmerman, F; Evans, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To report on the efforts funded by the AAPM seed funding grant to develop the basis for fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) based radiobiological experiments in combination with dedicated Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) on the nanometer scale. Methods: Two confocal microscopes were utilized in this study. Two FNTD samples were used to find the optimal microscope settings, one FNTD irradiated with 11.1 MeV/u Gold ions and one irradiated with 428.77 MeV/u Carbon ions. The first sample provided a brightly luminescent central track while the latter is used to test the capabilities to observe secondary electrons. MCS were performed using TOPAS beta9 version, layered on top of Geant4.9.6p02. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with the Geant4-DNA physics list and approximating the FNTDs by water, a second set using the Penelope physics list in a water-approximated FNTD and a aluminum-oxide FNTD. Results: Within the first half of the funding period, we have successfully established readout capabilities of FNTDs at our institute. Due to technical limitations, our microscope setup is significantly different from the approach implemented at the DKFZ, Germany. However, we can clearly reconstruct Carbon tracks in 3D with electron track resolution of 200 nm. A second microscope with superior readout capabilities will be tested in the second half of the funding period, we expect an improvement in signal to background ratio with the same the resolution.We have successfully simulated tracks in FNTDs. The more accurate Geant4-DNA track simulations can be used to reconstruct the track energy from the size and brightness of the observed tracks. Conclusion: We have achieved the goals set in the seed funding proposal: the setup of FNTD readout and simulation capabilities. We will work on improving the readout resolution to validate our MCS track structures down to the nanometer scales.

  14. Current status and prospects of nuclear physics research based on tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Alexandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavskiy, M. M.; Goncharova, L. A.; Gorbunov, S. A.; Kalinina, G. V.; Konovalova, N. S.; Okatyeva, N. M.; Pavlova, T. A.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymirov, M. S.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of nuclear physics research made using track detectors are briefly reviewed. Advantages and prospects of the track detection technique in particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and other fields are discussed on the example of the results of the search for direct origination of tau neutrino in a muon neutrino beam within the framework of the international experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) and works on search for superheavy nuclei in nature on base of their tracks in meteoritic olivine crystals. The spectra of superheavy elements in galactic cosmic rays are presented. Prospects of using the track detection technique in fundamental and applied research are reported.

  15. Formation of nanometer-size wires using infiltration into latent nuclear tracks

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Nanometer-size wires having a cross-sectional dimension of less than 8 nm with controllable lengths and diameters are produced by infiltrating latent nuclear or ion tracks formed in trackable materials with atomic species. The trackable materials and atomic species are essentially insoluble in each other, thus the wires are formed by thermally driven, self-assembly of the atomic species during annealing, or re-crystallization, of the damage in the latent tracks. Unlike conventional ion track lithography, the inventive method does not require etching of the latent tracks.

  16. Operational comparison of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors in fuel fabrication facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, N; Takada, C; Yoshida, T; Momose, T

    2007-01-01

    The authors carried out an operational study that compared the use of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detector in plutonium environments of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works. A selected group of workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX (Plutonium-Uranium mixed oxide) fuel wore both TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors. The TL readings were generally proportional to the counted etch-pits, and thus the dose equivalent results obtained from TLD albedo dosemeter agreed with those from solid state nuclear tracks detector within a factor of 1.5. This result indicates that, in the workplaces of the MOX fuel plants, the neutron spectrum remained almost constant in terms of time and space, and the appropriate range of field-specific correction with spectrum variations was small in albedo dosimetry.

  17. A study of commercially-available polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate as nuclear track detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Vazquez-Lopez, C.; Trejo, R.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the study of the sensitivity of materials to be used as nuclear track detectors, it was found that commercial polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from Ciel® water bottles, commercial roof cover polycarbonate, and recycled packaging strips (recycled PET), can be used as nuclear track detectors. These three commercial materials present nuclear tracks when bombarded by 2.27 MeV nitrogen ions produced in a Pelletron particle accelerator, and by fission fragments from a 252Cf source (79.4 and 103.8 MeV), after a chemical etching with a 6.25M KOH solution, or with a 6.25M KOH solution with 20% methanol, both solutions at 60±1°C. As an example, the nitrogen ions deposit approximately 1 keV/nm in the form of ionization and excitation at the surface of PET, as calculated using the SRIM code. The fission fragments deposit up to 9 keV/nm at the surface, in both cases generating sufficient free radicals to initiate the track formation process. However, 5 MeV alpha particles, typical of radon (222Rn) emissions, deposit only 0.12 keV/nm, do not present tracks after the chemical etching process. This valuable information could be very useful for further studies of new materials in nuclear track methodology.

  18. A cancer detection platform which measures telomerase activity from live circulating tumor cells captured on microfilter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tong; Lu, Bo; Tai, Yu-Chong; Goldkorn, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantified in cancer patients’ blood can predict disease outcome and response to therapy. However, the CTC analysis platforms commonly used cannot capture live CTCs and only apply to tumors of epithelial origin. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel cancer detection platform which measures telomerase activity from live CTCs captured on a Parylene-C slot microfilter. Using a constant low-pressure delivery system, the new microfilter platform was capable of cell capture from 1 ml of whole blood in less than 5 minutes, achieving 90% capture efficiency, 90% cell viability and 200-fold sample enrichment. Importantly, the captured cells retained normal morphology by scanning electron microscopy and could be readily manipulated, further analyzed, or expanded on or off filter. Telomerase activity – a well-recognized universal cancer marker – was reliably detected by qPCR from as few as 25 cancer cells spiked into 7.5 ml whole blood and captured on microfilter. Moreover, significant telomerase activity elevation also was measured from patient blood samples and from single cancer cells lifted off the microfilter. Live CTC capture and analysis is fast and simple yet highly quantitative, versatile, and applicable to nearly all solid tumor types, making this a highly promising new strategy for cancer detection and characterization. PMID:20663903

  19. Tracking of Ions Produced at Near Barrier Energies in Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Examples of detectors, presently in use, for tracking products from nuclear reactions induced by radioactive ion beams are described. A new tracking detector is being designed to study the binary products from reactions induced by heavy neutron-rich radioactive ion beams on heavy neutron-rich target nuclei. The motivation for such studies and the features designed to accomplish this goal will be presented.

  20. Experimental set up for the irradiation of biological samples and nuclear track detectors with UV C

    PubMed Central

    Portu, Agustina Mariana; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Bernaola, Omar Alberto; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2016-01-01

    Aim In this work we present a methodology to produce an “imprint” of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector by exposure of the detector to UV C radiation. Background The distribution and concentration of 10B atoms in tissue samples coming from BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) protocols can be determined through the quantification and analysis of the tracks forming its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. The location of boron atoms in the cell structure could be known more accurately by the simultaneous observation of the nuclear tracks and the sample image on the detector. Materials and Methods A UV C irradiator was constructed. The irradiance was measured along the lamp direction and at different distances. Melanoma cells were cultured on polycarbonate foils, incubated with borophenylalanine, irradiated with thermal neutrons and exposed to UV C radiation. The samples were chemically attacked with a KOH solution. Results A uniform irradiation field was established to expose the detector foils to UV C light. Cells could be seeded on the polycarbonate surface. Both imprints from cells and nuclear tracks were obtained after chemical etching. Conclusions It is possible to yield cellular imprints in polycarbonate. The nuclear tracks were mostly present inside the cells, indicating a preferential boron uptake. PMID:26933396

  1. Atomic force microscopy methods for the analysis of high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Carl E., Jr.

    Scope and Method of Study. Proton- and neutron-induced target fragmentation reactions generate short-range (˜1-10 mum), high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy nuclear recoil (HNR) particles that contribute to total radiation dose deposited in healthy tissue in patients undergoing proton cancer therapy and to astronauts during spaceflight. Conventional detection using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy fails because the required bulk etch, B ≈ 40 mum removes short-range tracks. We have developed a method based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to directly measure HNR particle tracks in CR-39 PNTD. Novel algorithms using least squares ellipse fitting and estimation of fitting in an iterative process were developed to enable the analysis of nuclear tracks in AFM data. In irradiations conducted at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) Proton Therapy Facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), targets of varying composition, including a number of elemental targets of high Z, were exposed in contact with layers of CR-39 PNTD to beams of 60 MeV, 230 MeV, and 1 GeV protons at doses between 2 and 10 Gy. Chemical etching of the CR-39 PNTD was performed under standard conditions (50°C, 6.25 N NaOH) for 2-4 hours (removed layer B = 0.5-1.0 mum). Findings and Conclusions. The use of a short duration chemical etch yielded densities of secondary tracks of 105-10 6 cm-2 using the analysis methods presented in this work for accelerator-based experiments. LET spectra were obtained with good statistics between 200 and 1500 keV/mum and the results were consistent with nonelastic nuclear cross sections. Absorbed dose measurements were also completed for selected detectors, ˜7 x 10-10 Gy ion -1 was measured for 230 MeV protons. Additionally our data are consistent with an isotropic HNR particle production mechanism. The semi

  2. Image processing analysis of nuclear track parameters for CR-39 detector irradiated by thermal neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jobouri, Hussain A.; Rajab, Mustafa Y.

    2016-03-01

    CR-39 detector which covered with boric acid (H3Bo3) pellet was irradiated by thermal neutrons from (241Am - 9Be) source with activity 12Ci and neutron flux 105 n. cm-2. s-1. The irradiation times -TD for detector were 4h, 8h, 16h and 24h. Chemical etching solution for detector was sodium hydroxide NaOH, 6.25N with 45 min etching time and 60 C˚ temperature. Images of CR-39 detector after chemical etching were taken from digital camera which connected from optical microscope. MATLAB software version 7.0 was used to image processing. The outputs of image processing of MATLAB software were analyzed and found the following relationships: (a) The irradiation time -TD has behavior linear relationships with following nuclear track parameters: i) total track number - NT ii) maximum track number - MRD (relative to track diameter - DT) at response region range 2.5 µm to 4 µm iii) maximum track number - MD (without depending on track diameter - DT). (b) The irradiation time -TD has behavior logarithmic relationship with maximum track number - MA (without depending on track area - AT). The image processing technique principally track diameter - DT can be take into account to classification of α-particle emitters, In addition to the contribution of these technique in preparation of nano- filters and nano-membrane in nanotechnology fields.

  3. Measurements of alpha particle energy using nuclear tracks in solids methodology.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Amero, C; Gammage, R B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the measurement of alpha particle energy using polycarbonate materials as nuclear track detectors (NTDs). This method is based on the interaction of the radiation with the solid-state materials, using the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by the ionising particle and the track developed after an established chemical process. The determination of the geometrical parameters of the formed track, such as major axis, minor axis and overall track length, permit determination of the energy of the alpha particle. The track analysis is performed automatically using a digital image system, and the data are processed in a PC with commercial software. In this experiment 148Gd, 238U, 230Th, 239Pu and 244Cm alpha particle emitters were used. The values for alpha particle energy resolution, the linear response to energy, the confidence in the results and the automatisation of the procedure make this method a promising analysis system.

  4. Electron recombination in low-energy nuclear recoils tracks in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of electron-ion recombination processes in ionization tracks of recoiled atoms in liquid argon (LAr) detectors. The analysis is based on the results of computer simulations which use realistic models of electron transport and reactions. The calculations reproduce the recent experimental results of the ionization yield from 6.7 keV nuclear recoils in LAr. The statistical distribution of the number of electrons that escape recombination is found to deviate from the binomial distribution, and estimates of recombination fluctuations for nuclear recoils tracks are obtained. A study of the recombination kinetics shows that a significant part of electrons undergo very fast static recombination, an effect that may be responsible for the weak drift-field dependence of the ionization yield from nuclear recoils in some noble liquids. The obtained results can be useful in the search for hypothetical dark matter particles and in other studies that involve detection of recoiled nuclei.

  5. Fast neutrons detection in CR-39 and DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, A. M.; Ashraf, O.; Rammah, Y. S.; Ashry, A. H.; Eisa, M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2015-03-01

    Fast detection of neutrons in CR-39 and DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors were investigated using new etching conditions. The neutron irradiation is performed using a 5 mCi Am-Be source present at the National Institute of Standards (NIS) of Egypt. Using the new etching condition, irradiated CR-39 samples were etched for 4 h and DAM-ADC samples for 80 min. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data.The dependence of neutrons track density on the neutrons fluence is investigated. When etched under optimum conditions, the relationship between track density and fluence is determined which is found to be linear. Detection efficiency has been represented for both SSNTDs and found to be constant with fluence, which reflects the importance of using CR-39 and DAM-ADC detectors in the field of neutron dosimetry. Linear relationship between track density and effective dose is determined.

  6. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  7. RADON AND PROGENY ALPHA-PARTICLE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING NUCLEAR TRACK METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo; Golzarri y Moreno, Dr. Jose Ignacio; Bogard, James S

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary procedure for alpha energy analysis of radon and progeny using Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) is described in this paper. The method is based on the relationship between alpha-particle energies deposited in polycarbonate material (CR-39) and the track size developed after a well-established chemical etching process. Track geometry, defined by parameters such as major or minor diameters, track area and overall track length, is shown to correlate with alpha-particle energy over the range 6.00 MeV (218Po) to 7.69 MeV (214Po). Track features are measured and the data analyzed automatically using a digital imaging system and commercial PC software. Examination of particle track diameters in CR-39 exposed to environmental radon reveals a multi-modal distribution. Locations of the maxima in this distribution are highly correlated with alpha particle energies of radon daughters, and the distributions are sufficiently resolved to identify the radioisotopes. This method can be useful for estimating the radiation dose from indoor exposure to radon and its progeny.

  8. Nuclear Track Detector Characterization via Alpha-Spectrometry for Radioprotection Use

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, D.; Imme, G.; Catalano, R.; Aranzulla, M.; Tazzer, A. L. Rosselli; Mangano, G.

    2011-12-13

    Solid Nuclear Track Detectors (SNTDs), CR-39 type, are usually adopted to monitor radon gas concentrations. In order to characterize the detectors according to track geometrical parameters, detectors were irradiated inside a vacuum chamber by alpha particles at twelve energy values, obtained by different Mylar foils in front of a {sup 241}Am source. The alpha energy values were verified using a Si detector. After the exposure to the alpha particles, the detectors were chemically etched to enlarge the tracks, which were then analyzed by means of a semiautomatic system composed of an optical microscope equipped with a CCD camera connected to a personal computer to store images. A suitable routine analyzed the track parameters: major and minor axis length and mean grey level, allowing us to differentiate tracks according to the incident alpha energy and then to individuate the discrimination factors for radon alpha tracks. The combined use of geometrical and optical parameters allows one to overcome the ambiguity in the alpha energy determination due to the non-monotonicity of each parameter versus energy. After track parameter determination, a calibration procedure was performed by means of a radon chamber. The calibration was verified through an inter-comparing survey.

  9. Reduced Noise UV Enhancement of Etch Rates for Nuclear Tracks in CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Rebecca; Clarkson, David; Ume, Rubab; Regan, Sean; Sangster, Craig; Padalino, Stephen; McLean, James

    2016-10-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is an effective technique for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched in NaOH at 80°C for 6 hours, producing micron-scale signal pits at the nuclear track sites. Using CR-39 irradiated with 5.4 MeV alpha particles and 1.0 MeV protons, we show that exposing the CR-39 to high intensity UV light before etching, with wavelengths between 240 nm and 350 nm, speeds the etch process. Elevated temperatures during UV exposure amplifies this effect, with etch rates up to 50% greater than unprocessed conditions. CR-39 pieces exposed to UV light and heat can also exhibit heightened levels of etch-induced noise (surface features not caused by nuclear particles). By illuminating the CR-39 from the side opposite to the tracks, a similar level of etch enhancement was obtained with little to no noise. The effective wavelength range is reduced, due to strong attenuation of shorter wavelengths. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  10. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  11. Evaluation of a low-cost automatic counting system for nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, C F; Wong, H W; Tsang, P W

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes a low-cost automatic counting system for recognising and counting microscopic track holes in plastic nuclear track detectors. The hardware includes an Olympus BH2 microscope, (manufactured by the Olympus Optical Company, Japan) a Philips resistive gate sensor (RGS) board, (manufactured by the Philips Company, Netherlands) a frame-grabber board and an IBM PC compatible. The RGS board acts like a camera, sending analog video signals of the microscope's field image to the frame-grabber, which produces a digital image with a resolution of 256 x 256 pixels and 128 grey levels in about 20 ms. This is then stored in either one of two 64K on-board RAMs for processing by the PC. The software is menu-driven and allows image grabbing, saving, loading and processing. The image processing can be divided into three parts namely: segmentation, speckle elimination and the removal of ill-formed track holes. In this paper we will present the results of testing the system with sample images obtained from CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. The limitations of the system for counting track holes on these detectors will be discussed.

  12. Thoron activity level and radon measurement by a nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Planinić, J; Faj, Z; Vuković, B

    1993-03-01

    Radon activity concentrations in the air were measured with LR-115 nuclear track detectors at three locations in Osijek. The respective equilibrium factors and the effective dose equivalents were determined. Indoor concentrations were from 9.8 to 58.2 Bq m-3 and relative errors of the track etching method were near 19 per cent. The indoor alpha potential energy of the radon and thoron progenies was measured with an ISD detector. Independent measurements, performed with a Radhome semiconductor detector, showed that the indoor thoron concentration was nearly 20 per cent of the radon one.

  13. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  14. ATMS_Phase_II: a standalone code for counting non-overlapping high-density nuclear tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, Omid

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we focus on counting and density measurements of non-overlapping high-density nuclear track images. This paper is a continuum of another paper of the author introducing ATMS software which has been particularly developed for overlapping nuclear tracks. Here, as the second phase of the ATMS software, a hybrid algorithm is presented for counting the tracks according to user parameter initialization, template inserting and correlation estimation to initially detect nuclear track candidates, then to evaluate geometrical and contextual features of track candidates and finally a decision-making process according to the user's sensitivity considerations. The presented hybrid algorithm is verified and validated by a database containing 100 randomly selected Alpha track images captured from the surface of CR-39 polycarbonate detectors irradiated by environmental Alpha particles emitted from Rn-222 near a copper mine around Anarak city.

  15. Isolation of plasma from whole blood using planar microfilters for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Timothy A; Pizziconi, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    Researchers are actively developing devices for the microanalysis of complex fluids, such as blood. These devices have the potential to revolutionize biological analysis in a manner parallel to the computer chip by providing very high throughput screening of complex samples and massively parallel bioanalytical capabilities. A necessary step performed in clinical chemistry is the isolation of plasma from whole blood, and effective sample preparation techniques are needed for the development of miniaturized clinical diagnostic devices. This study demonstrates the use of passive, operating entirely on capillary action, transverse-flow microfilter devices for the microfluidic isolation of plasma from whole blood. Using these planar microfilters, blood can be controllably fractionated with minimal cell lysis. A characterization of the device performance reveals that plasma filter flux is dependent upon the wall shear rate of blood in the filtration channel, and this result is consistent with macroscale blood filtration using microporous membranes. Also, an innovative microfluidic layout is demonstrated that extends device operation time via capillary action from seconds to minutes. Efficiency of these microfilters is approximately three times higher than the separation efficiencies predicted for microporous membranes under similar conditions. As such, the application of the microscale blood filtration designs used in this study may have broad implications in the design of lab-on-a-chip devices, as well as the field of separation science.

  16. Solid State Track Recorder applications in United States nuclear reactor energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The domain of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) applications in United States nuclear reactor energy programs extends from the harsh high temperature environments found in high power reactor cores to very low flux environments arising in out-of-core locations, critical assemblies, or away from reactors (AFR) experiments. The neutron energy region arising in these applications is very broad, covering more than eight orders of magnitude from thermal up to fusion energies. The range of neutron flux/fluence intensity is even greater, extending over more than thirteen orders of magnitude. As a consequence, use of a variety of SSTR is entailed in US nuclear reactor energy programs.

  17. Toward an Automated Analysis of Slow Ions in Nuclear Track Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Ambrozova, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a 252Cf source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  18. Thermoluminescence and nuclear particle tracks in ALHA-81005 Evidence for a brief transit time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Crozaz, G.

    1983-09-01

    Thermoluminescence and nuclear particle track measurements were made on the Antarctic meteorite ALHA-81005. No nuclear particle tracks were found in lithic fragments indicating that the clast material never resided at the very surface of the parent body. The unusually low natural thermoluminescence of this material is interpreted as being due to a combination of anomalous fading and thermal decay. The thermal decay could be due to very long terrestrial age or heating either during atmospheric entry, in a near sun orbit or during a parent body impact event. Impact heating is considered the more likely of these possibilities for this meteorite. If the impact heating interpretation is correct the thermoluminescence data constrains the space exposure time of the object to be less than 2,500 years. Such a brief earth transit time is consistent with a lunar origin for this meteorite.

  19. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  20. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2008-10-15

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

  1. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    DOE PAGES

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; ...

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather thanmore » the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.« less

  2. Automated scanning of plastic nuclear track detectors using the Minnesota star scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, P. J.; Waddington, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The problems found in an attempt to adapt an automated scanner of astronomical plates, the Minnesota Automated Dual Plate Scanner (APS), to locating and measuring the etch pits produced by ionizing particles in plastic nuclear track detectors (CR-39) are described. A visual study of these pits was made to determine the errors introduced in determining positions and shapes. Measurements made under a low power microscope were compared with those from the APS.

  3. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  4. Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Ashraf, O.; Abdalla, A. M.; Eisa, M.; Ashry, A. H.; Tsuruta, T.

    2015-02-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am sources were used for irradiating samples of DAM-ADC SSNTDs with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal temperature and pressure. A series of experimental chemical etching are carried out using new etching solution (8 ml of 10 N NaOH+ 1 ml CH3OH) at 60 °C to detect alpha particle in short time in DAM-ADC detectors. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data. From fission and alpha track diameters, the value of bulk etching rate is equal to 8.52 μm/h. Both of the sensitivity and etching efficiency were found to vary with the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The DAM-ADC detectors represent the best efficiency applicable in detectors in the entire range of alpha energies (from 1 to 5 MeV). The activation energies of this etchant have been calculated; track activation energy, ET, has been found to be lower than the bulk activation energy, EB, for the DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors. These results are in more agreement with the previous work.

  5. A new fast scanning system for the measurement of large angle tracks in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Galati, G.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M. C.; Pupilli, F.; Shchedrina, T.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been widely used in particle physics to identify new particles through the observation of their decays thanks to their unique spatial resolution. Nevertheless, before the advent of automatic scanning systems, the emulsion analysis was very demanding in terms of well trained manpower. Due to this reason, they were gradually replaced by electronic detectors, until the '90s, when automatic microscopes started to be developed in Japan and in Europe. Automatic scanning was essential to conceive large scale emulsion-based neutrino experiments like CHORUS, DONUT and OPERA. Standard scanning systems have been initially designed to recognize tracks within a limited angular acceptance (θ lesssim 30°) where θ is the track angle with respect to a line perpendicular to the emulsion plane. In this paper we describe the implementation of a novel fast automatic scanning system aimed at extending the track recognition to the full angular range and improving the present scanning speed. Indeed, nuclear emulsions do not have any intrinsic limit to detect particle direction. Such improvement opens new perspectives to use nuclear emulsions in several fields in addition to large scale neutrino experiments, like muon radiography, medical applications and dark matter directional detection.

  6. Automatic track following system to study double strangeness nuclei in nuclear emulsion exposed to the observable limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint Kyaw Soe; Goto, Ryosuke; Mishina, Akihiro; Nakanisi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Daisuke; Yoshida, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazuma

    2017-03-01

    An automatic track following system has been successfully developed to follow tracks in nuclear emulsion sheets exposed with beam up to the limit to be observed for the first time. The track followed rate of the system is 99.5% with the assistance of the new techniques. The working speed for a track is less than 1 min through one thick emulsion sheet, whereas it is 15 times faster than that of semiautomatic system with human. The system working for 24 h is applied for the E07 experiment at J-PARC and makes it possible to detect 102 nuclei with double strangeness (S=-2 nuclei) within one year. Regarding analyses to identify nuclear species of S=-2 nuclei, the system shows quite decent job for significant steps such as following tracks emitted to spherical directions from S=-2 nuclei, measurement of lengths of followed tracks, and so on.

  7. Demonstration (DEMO) of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and monitoring of nuclear materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. C.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y. Y.; Shuler, J.

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) [Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)] Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has developed a radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system for the management of nuclear materials packages during storage and transportation. The system, developed by the PCP team at Argonne National Laboratory, involves hardware modification, application software development, secured database and web server development, and irradiation experiments. In April 2008, Argonne tested key features of the RFID tracking and monitoring system in a weeklong, 1700 mile (2736 km) demonstration employing 14 empty type B fissile material drums of three designs (models 9975, 9977 and ES-3100) that have been certified for shipment by the DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The demonstration successfully integrated global positioning system (GPS) technology for vehicle tracking, satellite/cellular (general packet radio service, or GPRS) technologies for wireless communication, and active RFID tags with multiple sensors (seal integrity, shock, temperature, humidity and battery status) on drums. In addition, the demonstration integrated geographic information system (GIS) technology with automatic alarm notifications of incidents and generated buffer zone reports for emergency response and management of staged incidents. The demonstration was sponsored by EM and the US National Nuclear Security Administration, with the participation of Argonne, Savannah River and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Over 50 authorised stakeholders across the country observed the demonstration via secured Internet access. The DOE PCP and national laboratories are working on several RFID system implementation projects at selected DOE sites, as well as continuing device and systems development and widening applications beyond DOE sites and possibly beyond nuclear materials to include other radioactive materials.

  8. Nuclear tracks, SM isotopes and neutron capture effects in the Elephant Morraine shergottite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, R. S.; Lugmair, G.; Tamhane, A. S.; Poupeau, G.

    1986-06-01

    Nuclear track studies, uranium concentration measurements and Sm-isotope studies have been performed on both lithologies A and B of the Elephant Morraine shergottite, EETA 79001. Track studies show that EETA 79001 was a rather small object in space with a preatmospheric radius of 12 + or - 2 cm, corresponding to a preatmospheric mass of 28 + or - 13 kg. Phosphates have U concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 ppm. There are occasional phosphates with excess fission tracks, possibly produced from neutron-induced fission of U and Th, during the regolith exposure in the shergottite parent body (SPB). Sm-isotope studies, while not showing any clear-cut excess in Sm-150, make it possible to derive meaningful upper limits to thermal neutron fluences of 2 to 3 x 10 to the 15th n/sq cm, during a possible regolith irradiation. These limits are consistent with the track data and also make it possible to derive an upper limit to the neutron exposure age of EETA 79001 of 55 Myr in the SPB regolith.

  9. Nuclear tracks, Sm isotopes and neutron capture effects in the Elephant Morraine shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, R. S.; Lugmair, G.; Tamhane, A. S.; Poupeau, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear track studies, uranium concentration measurements and Sm-isotope studies have been performed on both lithologies A and B of the Elephant Morraine shergottite, EETA 79001. Track studies show that EETA 79001 was a rather small object in space with a preatmospheric radius of 12 + or - 2 cm, corresponding to a preatmospheric mass of 28 + or - 13 kg. Phosphates have U concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 ppm. There are occasional phosphates with excess fission tracks, possibly produced from neutron-induced fission of U and Th, during the regolith exposure in the shergottite parent body (SPB). Sm-isotope studies, while not showing any clear-cut excess in Sm-150, make it possible to derive meaningful upper limits to thermal neutron fluences of 2 to 3 x 10 to the 15th n/sq cm, during a possible regolith irradiation. These limits are consistent with the track data and also make it possible to derive an upper limit to the neutron exposure age of EETA 79001 of 55 Myr in the SPB regolith.

  10. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  11. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Abdel-Naby, A.; Morsy, A. Ahmed

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as ^{93}Nb, ^{86}Kr and ^{4}He in CR-39 and ^{4}He and ^{132}Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke-Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  12. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.

  13. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  14. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.

    2015-06-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed.

  15. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    PubMed

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  16. Determination of the detection threshold for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Nuclear Track Detector (NTD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Dey, S.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we investigated the detection threshold of the polymer material Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) intended to be used as Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) in the search for rare events (e.g. strangelets) in cosmic rays. 11 MeV 12C and 2 MeV proton beams from the accelerator at the Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar were utilized for this study. The results show that the PET detector has a much higher detection threshold (Z / β ∼ 140) compared to many other commercially available and widely used detector materials like CR-39 (Z / β ∼ 6-20) or Makrofol (Z / β ∼ 57). This makes PET a particularly suitable detector material for testing certain phenomenological models which predict the presence of strangelets as low energy, heavily ionizing particles in cosmic radiation at high mountain altitudes.

  17. Copper Nano- and Micro Wires Electrodeposited in Etched Cellulose Nitrate and Makrofol KG Nuclear Track Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooybari, B. Shakeri; Afarideh, H.; Lamehi-Racti, M.; Moghimi, R.; Ghergherehchi, M.

    Cellulose Nitrate and Makrofol KG nuclear track detector foils of 96 μm and 20 μm thicknesses were irradiated with 238U ions (kinetic energy 17.7 MeV/u, fluence 105 ion/cm2) and 208Pd (kinetic energy 14.0MeV/u, fluence 105 ion/cm2), respectively. By etching of damage trail caused by the ion, templates containing conical pore were prepared. By electrochemical deposition of copper in homemade design electrolytic cell, conical wires were obtained. The electric current recorded during electrodeposition reflects the geometry of the pore. The lengths of wires were 96 μm and 20 μm, corresponding to the thickness of membranes. X-Ray Diffraction analysis indicated that texture and orientation of Cu wire were polycrystalline.

  18. Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2002-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation.

  19. Assessment of a Nuclear Affinity Labeling Method for Tracking Implanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leiker, Merced; Suzuki, Gen; Iyer, Vijay S.; Canty, John M.; Lee, Techung

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is entering the realm of clinical trials for several human diseases, and yet much remains uncertain regarding their dynamic distribution and cell fate after in vivo application. Discrepancies in the literature can be attributed in part to the use of different cell labeling/tracking methods and cell administration protocols. To identify a stem cell detection method suitable for myocardial implantation in a large animal model, we experimented on three different MSC labeling methods: adenovirus-mediated expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and β-galactosidase (LacZ), and nuclear staining with DAPI. Intramuscular and intracoronary administrations of labeled porcine MSCs identified the nuclear affinity dye to be a reliable stem cell tracking marker. Stem cell identification is facilitated by an optimized live cell labeling condition generating bright blue fluorescence sharply confined to the nucleus. DAPI-labeled MSCs retained full viability, ceased proliferation, and exhibited an increased differentiation potential. The labeled MSCs remained fully active in expressing key growth factor and cytokine genes, and notably exhibited enhanced expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF1, indicating their competency in response to tissue injury. Histological analysis revealed that approximately half a million MSCs or ∼2% of the administered MSCs remained localized in the normal pig heart 2 weeks after coronary infusion. That the vast majority of these identified MSCs were interstitial indicated the ability of MSCs to migrate across the coronary endothelium. No evidence was obtained indicating MSC differentiation to cardiomyocyte. PMID:19069634

  20. Automatic neutron dosimetry system based on fluorescent nuclear track detector technology.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, M S; Fomenko, V V; Bartz, J A; Haslett, T L

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, the authors are describing an automatic fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) reader for neutron dosimetry. FNTD is a luminescent integrating type of detector made of aluminium oxide crystals that does not require electronics or batteries during irradiation. Non-destructive optical readout of the detector is performed using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence imaging with near-diffraction limited resolution. The fully automatic table-top reader allows one to load up to 216 detectors on a tray, read their engraved IDs using a CCD camera and optical character recognition, scan and process simultaneously two types of images in fluorescent and reflected laser light contrast to eliminate false-positive tracks related to surface and volume crystal imperfections. The FNTD dosimetry system allows one to measure neutron doses from 0.1 mSv to 20 Sv and covers neutron energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The reader is characterised by a robust, compact optical design, fast data processing electronics and user-friendly software.

  1. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  2. 3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Siyang; Lin, Henry K; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-02-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.

  3. Practical advances in cortisol (F) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) radioimmunoassay using the microfilter paper method

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Shine, S.; Levine, L.S.; New, M.I.

    1980-04-01

    A new reliable microfilter paper technique for measuring F and DS by RIA has been developed to overcome the difficulties of venipuncture and the inconvenience of storage and transportation of serum samples. This method requires only a drop of whole capillary blood, to impregnate filter paper for obtaining a 1/8-inch disc specimen. The dried filter paper specimen was eluted with buffer, and a further diluted eluate was used in RIA directly for DS and, after ether extraction, for F. Steroid concentrations of F and DS were not detectable in either hemolysate of 20 ..mu..l of packed washed red blood cells or dexamethasone-suppressed whole blood specimens. The percent recoveries of both added radiolabeled and unlabeled steroid from whole blood filter paper specimens were similar to those of the plasma studies. These steroid concentrations remained unchanged in dried whole blood on filter paper for up to 30 days when stored at room temperature. Evaluation of plasma volume in disc samples with varying hematocrits (27% to 51%) indicated a constant plasma volume in the disc (1.52 to 1.72 ..mu..l per 1/8-inch disc) regardless of the hematocrit range. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of these steroids in the filter paper disc, based on a mean constant plasma volume in the disc (1.66 ..mu..l per 1/8-inch disc), were similar to that of the plasma sample. This indicates that the microfilter paper method has the specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of RIA of DS and F in whole plasma, and simplifies sample collection, storage, and transportation.

  4. A fusion nuclear science facility for a fast-track path to DEMO

    DOE PAGES

    Garofalo, A. M.; Abdou, M. A.; Canik, John M.; ...

    2014-04-24

    An accelerated fusion energy development program, a fast-track approach, requires proceeding with a nuclear and materials testing program in parallel with research on burning plasmas, ITER. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) would address many of the key issues that need to be addressed prior to DEMO, including breeding tritium and completing the fuel cycle, qualifying nuclear materials for high fluence, developing suitable materials for the plasma-boundary interface, and demonstrating power extraction. The Advanced Tokamak (AT) is a strong candidate for an FNSF as a consequence of its mature physics base, capability to address the key issues, and the directmore » relevance to an attractive target power plant. The standard aspect ratio provides space for a solenoid, assuring robust plasma current initiation,and for an inboard blanket, assuring robust tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 for FNSF tritium self-sufficiency and building of inventory needed to start up DEMO. An example design point gives a moderate sized Cu-coil device with R/a = 2.7 m/0.77 κ = 2.3, BT= 5.4 T, IP = 6.6 MA, βN = 2.75, Pfus = 127 MW. The modest bootstrap fraction of fBS = 0.55 provides an opportunity to develop steady state with sufficient current drive for adequate control. Lastly, proceeding with a FNSF in parallel with ITER provides a strong basis to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q ~ 10 in ITER.« less

  5. A fusion nuclear science facility for a fast-track path to DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Garofalo, A. M.; Abdou, M. A.; Canik, John M.; Chan, Vincent S.; Hyatt, A. W.; Hill, D. N.; Morley, N. B.; Navratil, G. A.; Sawan, M. E.; Taylor, T. S.; Wong, C. P. C.; Wu, W.; Ying, Alice

    2014-04-24

    An accelerated fusion energy development program, a fast-track approach, requires proceeding with a nuclear and materials testing program in parallel with research on burning plasmas, ITER. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) would address many of the key issues that need to be addressed prior to DEMO, including breeding tritium and completing the fuel cycle, qualifying nuclear materials for high fluence, developing suitable materials for the plasma-boundary interface, and demonstrating power extraction. The Advanced Tokamak (AT) is a strong candidate for an FNSF as a consequence of its mature physics base, capability to address the key issues, and the direct relevance to an attractive target power plant. The standard aspect ratio provides space for a solenoid, assuring robust plasma current initiation,and for an inboard blanket, assuring robust tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 for FNSF tritium self-sufficiency and building of inventory needed to start up DEMO. An example design point gives a moderate sized Cu-coil device with R/a = 2.7 m/0.77 κ = 2.3, BT= 5.4 T, IP = 6.6 MA, βN = 2.75, Pfus = 127 MW. The modest bootstrap fraction of fBS = 0.55 provides an opportunity to develop steady state with sufficient current drive for adequate control. Lastly, proceeding with a FNSF in parallel with ITER provides a strong basis to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q ~ 10 in ITER.

  6. Track structure based modelling of light ion radiation effects on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elke; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Dingfelder, Michael; Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Baiocco, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation risk assessment is of great importance for manned spaceflights in order to estimate risks and to develop counter-measures to reduce them. Biophysical simulations with PARTRAC can help greatly to improve the understanding of initial biological response to ionizing radiation. Results from modelling radiation quality dependent DNA damage and repair mechanisms up to chromosomal aberrations (e.g. dicentrics) can be used to predict radiation effects depending on the kind of mixed radiation field exposure. Especially dicentric yields can serve as a biomarker for an increased risk due to radiation and hence as an indicator for the effectiveness of the used shielding. PARTRAC [1] is a multi-scale biophysical research MC code for track structure based initial DNA damage and damage response modelling. It integrates physics, radiochemistry, detailed nuclear DNA structure and molecular biology of DNA repair by NHEJ-pathway to assess radiation effects on cellular level [2]. Ongoing experiments with quasi-homogeneously distributed compared to sub-micrometre focused bunches of protons, lithium and carbon ions allow a separation of effects due to DNA damage complexity on nanometre scale from damage clustering on (sub-) micrometre scale [3, 4]. These data provide an unprecedented benchmark for the DNA damage response model in PARTRAC and help understand the mechanisms leading to cell killing and chromosomal aberrations (e.g. dicentrics) induction. A large part of space radiation is due to a mixed ion field of high energy protons and few heavier ions that can be only partly absorbed by the shielding. Radiation damage induced by low-energy ions significantly contributes to the high relative biological efficiency (RBE) of ion beams around Bragg peak regions. For slow light ions the physical cross section data basis in PARTRAC has been extended to investigate radiation quality effects in the Bragg peak region [5]. The resulting range and LET values agree with ICRU data

  7. Development of Laser-Mediated Nanodroplet Real-Time PCR on Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) by Microfilter Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    for droplet PCR on the University of Miami microfilters, we have extended our DNA melting temperature calibration methodology to use DNA hairpins...of contact-quenched fluorescently labeled DNA oligomers. An oligomer labeled with a 5’ fluorescent reporter is contact-quenched by a 3’ quencher on...6 degrees Celsius when a thermal melt is performed with the high melt DNA hairpin. ! Figure 3: (a) Fluorescence profile of a 115 µm aqueous

  8. Track-hole formation of alpha-particle and recoil nuclei in an LR-115 nuclear track detector exposed to neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, A. F.; Khalil, G. I.

    1994-10-01

    The response function V(REL) of an LR-115 polymeric nuclear track detector has been used to determine the V( R) sensitivity functions for recoil nuclei which are produced by the interactions of fast neutrons with the detector material. For an external radiator placed in close contact with the LR-115 detector, the sensitivity functions have also been determined for the generated nuclei from the (n, α) reaction of thermal neutrons with the radiator material. The REL and the range for the studied nuclei as a function of their energies were calculated by using the BASIC-E version of Henke and Benton's programme. The theory of etch-track kinetics which depends on the V( R) function is used to predict the residual thickness necessary for track-hole formation of a charged particle at different angles by normally incident neutrons. The theoretical treatments were found to be in fair agreement with the previously obtained data for other cellulose nitrate track detectors.

  9. A measurement of the angular distribution of the diffuse optical transmittance of etched nuclear tracks in CR-39

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez-López, C.; Zendejas-Leal, B. E.; Bogard, James S; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the angular distribution of the diffuse optical transmittance produced by etched nuclear tracks in polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) detector. The device makes use of a stepper motor to move an array of four photodetectors around the sample in 1.8-degree steps. The integrated transmitted light was observed to increase monotonically with the etched track density in a range from zero to 2.8 x 10^5 per cm^2, using a neutron Am Be source.

  10. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  11. Development of an automated multisample scanning system for nuclear track etched detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, H.; Eda, K.; Takahashi, K.; Doke, T.; Hasebe, N.; Kodaira, S.; Ota, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-08-01

    We have developed an automated scanning system for handling a large number of nuclear track etched detectors (NTEDs). The system consists of a magazine station for sample storage, a robotic sample loader, a high-speed wide-area digital imaging microscope device (modified HSP-1000) and PitFit software for analyzing etch pits. We investigated the performance of the system using CR-39 plastic NTED samples exposed to high-energy heavy ions and fast neutrons. When applying the system to fast neutron dosimetry, the typical scanning speed was about 100 samples/day with a scan area of 4 cm 2/sample. The neutron doses obtained from a fully automatic measurement agreed closely with those from a semi-automatic measurement. These results indicate the feasibility of fully automatic scanning of CR-39 personal neutron dosimeters. The system is also expected to be applicable to future large-scale experiments using CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass NTEDs for observing ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays with high mass resolution.

  12. Experimental study on non-woven filamentous fibre micro-filter with high filtration speed.

    PubMed

    Niu, Siping; Park, Kisoo; Guerra, Heidi B; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to pursue the filter performance of a micro-filter module employing highly porous fibre media under a high filtration rate (≥1,500 m/day), faster than that of any conventional filter process. The effects of filtration rate, head loss, raw water turbidity, and filter aid chemicals on filter performance were analysed. In spite of the extremely high filtration rate, the filter achieved an attractive efficiency, reducing the raw water turbidity by over 80%. As with other filter systems, the filter aid used ((polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) greatly affected the performance of this particular fibre filter. Long-term repetitive runs were additionally carried out to confirm the reproducibility of the filter performance. Also, a comparison was carried out with other high-rate filter systems which are either being tested for use in experimental studies, or are already commercially available. This study reveals that the filter performance under a high filtration speed is still attractive especially as PAC is used. Due to the high porosity of the fibre, the filter had small head loss even though the filtration rate was high. These results ascertain that it is possible to operate the filters with high filtration rate achieving reliable treatment performance.

  13. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhi M.; Qiang, Liangliang; Li, Zhe; Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Bishop, Gregory W.; Rusling, James F.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr), the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized. PMID:25774709

  14. Development and integration of xerogel polymeric absorbance micro-filters into lab-on-chip systems.

    PubMed

    Carregal-Romero, Ester; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Eguizabal, Alma; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Llobera, Andreu

    2012-10-08

    This work reports on the implementation of different absorption micro-filters based on a dye-doped hybrid organic-inorganic xerogel polymeric material synthesized by the sol-gel process. Microstructures containing eight different filter widths were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), bonded to glass substrates and filled with the corresponding dye doped polymeric material by a soft lithography approach. The filtering capacity as a function of dye concentration and filter width was studied and revealed a linear dependence with both parameters, as expected according to the Beer-Lambert law. Zero passband transmittance values and relatively sharp stopband regions were achieved with all the filters, also showing rejection levels between -6 dB and -55 dB. Finally, such filters were monolithically integrated into a disposable fluorescence-based photonic lab-on-a-chip (PhLoC) approach. Calibration curves carried out with a model fluorophore target analyte showed an over two-fold increase in sensitivity and a thirty-fold decrease of the limit of detection (LOD) compared with the values recorded using the same PhLoC system but without the polymeric filter structure. The results presented herein clearly indicate the feasibility of these xerogel-based absorbance filtering structures for being applied as low-cost optical components that can be easily incorporated into disposable fluorescence-based photonic lab on a chip systems.

  15. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity.

  16. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FILTER MEDIA FOR THE ROTARY MICROFILTER, PHASE 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.

    2012-07-31

    Testing was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate filter membrane performance in an effort to increase rotary microfilter (RMF) throughput. Membranes were tested in the SpinTek Filtration, Inc. Static Test Cell (STC), which permitted quick and easy testing of several different membranes. Testing consisted of 100 hours tests with two different slurry feeds, based on recommendations from the phase 1 testing. One feed contained Monosodium Titanate (MST) solids in a simulated salt solution. The other feed contained simulated sludge batch 6 (SB6) solids in a simulated salt solution. Five membranes were tested, one each from filter manufactures Pall and Porvair and three from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The membrane from Pall is the current membrane used on the latest generation RMF. The Porvair membrane performed well in previous STC tests as well as one of the ORNL membranes. The other two membranes from ORNL were recently developed and not available for the previous STC test. The results indicate that the Porvair filter performed best with the MST slurry and the ORNL SVB6-1B filter performed best with the SB6 slurry. Difficulty was encountered with the ORNL filters due to their dimensional thickness, which was greater than the recommended filter thickness for the STC. The STC equipment was modified to complete the testing of the ORNL filters.

  17. Unstable nuclei in dissociation of light stable and radioactive nuclei in nuclear track emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.

    2017-01-01

    A role of the unstable nuclei 6Be, 8Be and 9B in the dissociation of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C is under study on the basis of nuclear track emulsion exposed to secondary beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Contribution of the configuration 6Be + n to the 7Be nucleus structure is 8 ± 1% which is near the value for the configuration 6Li + p. Distributions over the opening angle of α-particle pairs indicate to a simultaneous presence of virtual 8Beg.s. and 8Be2+ states in the ground states of the 9Be and 10C nuclei. The core 9B is manifested in the 10C nucleus with a probability of 30 ± 4%. Selection of the 10C "white" stars accompanied by 8Beg.s. (9B) leads to appearance in the excitation energy distribution of 2α2 p "quartets" of the distinct peak with a maximum at 4.1 ± 0.3 MeV. 8Beg.s. decays are presented in 24 ± 7% of 2He + 2H events of the 11C coherent dissociation and 27 ± 11% of the 3He ones. The channel 9B + H amounts 14 ± 3%. The 8Bg.s. nucleus is manifested in the coherent dissociation 10B → 2He + H with a probability of 25 ± 5% including 13 ± 3% of 9B decays. A probability ratio of the mirror channels 9B + n and 9Be + p is estimated to be 10 ± 1.

  18. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices. PMID:26064193

  19. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria.

    PubMed

    Aghaamoo, Mohammad; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAMINATED DISK FOR THE SPIN TEK ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2011-06-03

    Funded by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, EM-31, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) partnered with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to develop a filter disk that would withstand a reverse pressure or flow during operation of the rotary microfilter. The ability to withstand a reverse pressure and flow eliminates a potential accident scenario that could have resulted in damage to the filter membranes. While the original welded filter disks have been shown to withstand and reverse pressure/flow in the static condition, the filter disk design discussed in this report will allow a reverse pressure/flow while the disks are rotating. In addition, the laminated disk increases the flexibility during filter startup and cleaning operations. The new filter disk developed by SRNL and SpinTek is manufactured with a more open structure significantly reducing internal flow restrictions in the disk. The prototype was tested at the University of Maryland and demonstrated to withstand the reverse pressure due to the centrifugal action of the rotary filter. The tested water flux of the disk was demonstrated to be 1.34 gpm in a single disk test. By comparison, the water flux of the current disk was 0.49 gpm per disk during a 25 disk test. The disk also demonstrated rejection of solids by filtering a 5 wt % Strontium Carbonate slurry with a filtrate clarity of less the 1.4 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) throughout the two hour test. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to adapt the rotary microfilter for radioactive service in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. One potential weakness is the loose nature of the membrane on the filter disks. The current disk is constructed by welding the membrane at the outer edge of the disk. The seal for the center of the membrane is accomplished by an o-ring in compression for the assembled stack. The remainder of the membrane is free floating on

  1. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  2. Development of an energy discriminate CR-39(®) nuclear track etch dosimeter for Radon-220 gas measurements.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M C; Solomon, S; Tinker, R A

    2011-10-01

    An energy discriminate CR-39(®) nuclear track etch dosimeter for use in a (220)Rn and (222)Rn gas monitor has been developed and experimentally assessed. It utilises a thin film of Mylar(®) C to attenuate the alpha particle energies to allow only the damage tracks created by the 8.785 MeV alpha particles emitted from (212)Po of the (232)Th decay chain to be registered in the CR-39(®) plaque, allowing for the direct measurement of (220)Rn gas concentrations. The dosimeter was developed through a combination of experimental investigations and theoretical simulations using the Monte Carlo ion transport modelling program Stopping and Range of Ions in Materials (SRIM 2008). A film thickness of 54 μm has been shown to attenuate all alpha energies less then 7.7 MeV.

  3. Tracking nuclear wave-packet dynamics in molecular oxygen ions with few-cycle infrared laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    De, S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Thumm, U.; Cocke, C. L.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-07-15

    We have tracked nuclear wave-packet dynamics in doubly charged states of molecular oxygen using few-cycle infrared laser pulses. Bound and dissociating wave packets were launched and subsequently probed via a pair of 8-fs pulses of 790 nm radiation. Ionic fragments from the dissociating molecules were monitored by velocity-map imaging. Pronounced oscillations in the delay-dependent kinetic energy release spectra were observed. The occurrence of vibrational revivals permits us to identify the potential curves of the O{sub 2} dication which are most relevant to the molecular dynamics. These studies show the accessibility to the dynamics of such higher-charged molecules.

  4. Characteristics of flux and gel layer on microfilter and non-woven fabric filter surface based on anoxic-aerobic MBRs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung-Guen

    2012-10-01

    Non-woven fabric filter- (NWFF) and microfilter-MBR modules were made using 100 μm polypropylene and 0.25 μm polyethylene materials, respectively. The performances and mechanisms of the two processes were investigated, including additional batch filtration tests to find the function of the dynamic gel layer on the membrane surface. The HRT of both MBRs was 9 h and the operating permeate flux was 13 L/m(2)/h. The two MBRs consisted of an anoxic and aerobic reactor. The NWFF or microfilter (MF) was submerged in each of the aerobic reactors. The two MBRs showed similar performances for the removal of organic matters, suspended solids and nitrogen. Cake formation on the NWFF contributed to major resistance, while the gel layer on the microfilter or internal fouling of the pores played a key role in the fouling of the membrane surface. The amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances (EPS) (13 mg/L) of the attached sludge on the NWFF surface was larger than that (11 mg/L) of that suspended sludge. Consequently, the functional gel layer for the coarse and microfilter is established based on the relationship among the EPS, transmembrane pressure and MLSS.

  5. Track 1.5/2 Security Dialogues with China: Nuclear Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    that American missile defense activities in the region undercut China’s ability to have an assured second strike capability, especially when coupled ...Looking to the Future,” 34. 25 Zarate (Foreign Policy Institute). Senior advisors to the Working Group were Linton Brooks, Bonnie Glaser , Jeffrey...42 Brooks and Glaser also have been active participants in the Beijing and Hawaii Track 1.5/2 talks described

  6. Recommendations for Additional Design Development of Components for the SpinTek Rotary Microfilter Prior to Radioactive Service

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.T.

    2004-02-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter is being considered as an alternative to crossflow filtration. Prior testing evaluated the vendor's standard design for a 1-disk and 3-disk design. We noted several areas of improvement during the testing of the two filter systems that can be included in the 25-disk plant size unit.This report outlines several potential enhancements and improvements to the vendor's standard design which would extend the lifetime of the unit and increase the ability to perform maintenance for units deployed in radioactive service. The enhancements proposed in this report can be implemented to the current design with minimal impact to the cost and schedule of the purchase of the standard unit. An example of this is the replacement of the current mechanical seal with a bellows seal. The improvements proposed will require an extensive redesign of components found in the current system such as the filter chamber.

  7. Color changes in X-ray irradiated PM-355 and Makrofol DE 7-2 nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouh, Samir A.; Mohamed, Amal; Bahareth, Radiyah Ahmed; Abutalib, Maymona M.; Benthami, Kaoutar

    2014-03-01

    Effects of X-ray irradiation on the color changes of PM-355 and Makrofol DE 7-2 nuclear track detectors have been investigated. Samples from PM-355 and Makrofol DE 7-2 polycarbonates were irradiated with X-ray doses at levels between 10 and 250 kGy. The transmission of these samples in the wavelength range 370-780 nm, as well as any color changes, was studied. The Commission International de E'Claire (CIE units x, y and z) methodology was used in this work for the description of colored samples. The color differences between the non-irradiated sample and those irradiated with different X-ray doses were calculated. The results indicate that both PM-355 and Makrofol DE 7-2 detectors acquire color changes under X-ray irradiation, but the PM-355 detector has more response to color change than that of Makrofol DE 7-2.

  8. Co-visualization of DNA damage and ion traversals in live mammalian cells using a fluorescent nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa; Maeda, Takeshi; Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku; Yang, Gen; Akselrod, Mark S; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    The geometric locations of ion traversals in mammalian cells constitute important information in the study of heavy ion-induced biological effect. Single ion traversal through a cellular nucleus produces complex and massive DNA damage at a nanometer level, leading to cell inactivation, mutations and transformation. We present a novel approach that uses a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) for the simultaneous detection of the geometrical images of ion traversals and DNA damage in single cells using confocal microscopy. HT1080 or HT1080-53BP1-GFP cells were cultured on the surface of a FNTD and exposed to 5.1-MeV/n neon ions. The positions of the ion traversals were obtained as fluorescent images of a FNTD. Localized DNA damage in cells was identified as fluorescent spots of γ-H2AX or 53BP1-GFP. These track images and images of damaged DNA were obtained in a short time using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The geometrical distribution of DNA damage indicated by fluorescent γ-H2AX spots in fixed cells or fluorescent 53BP1-GFP spots in living cells was found to correlate well with the distribution of the ion traversals. This method will be useful for evaluating the number of ion hits on individual cells, not only for micro-beam but also for random-beam experiments.

  9. The potential of nuclear magnetic resonance to track lipids in planta.

    PubMed

    Munz, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter M; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a highly flexible platform for non invasive analysis and imaging biological samples, since the manipulation of nuclear spin allows the tailoring of experiments to maximize the informativeness of the data. MRI is capable of visualizing a holistic picture of the lipid storage in living plant/seed. This review has sought to explain how the technology can be used to acquire functional and physiological data from plant samples, and how to exploit it to characterize lipid deposition in vivo. At the same time, we have referred to the current limitations of NMR technology as applied to plants, and in particular of the difficulty of transferring methodologies optimized for animal/medical subjects to plant ones. A forward look into likely developments in the field is included, anticipating its key future role in the study of living plant.

  10. Remedial actions of nuclear safety shot sites: Double Tracks and Clean Slates

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, M.; Shotton, M.; Lyons, C.

    1998-03-01

    Remedial actions of plutonium (Pu)-contaminated soils are in the preliminary stages of development at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Interim clean-up actions were completed at the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 safety shot sites in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Soil at both sites, with a total transuranic activity greater than 20 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g), was excavated and shipped to the NTS for disposal. Characterization and assessment efforts were initiated at the Double Tracks site in 1995, and the clean-up of this site as an interim action was completed in 1996. Clean-up of this site consisted of taking site-specific data and applying rationale for dose and risk calculations in selecting parameter values for the interim corrective action level. The remediation process included excavating and stockpiling the contaminated soil and loading the soil into supersacks with approximately 1,513 cubic meters (53,500 cubic feet) being shipped to the NTS for disposal. In 1997, remediation began on the Clean Slate 1 site on which characterization had already been completed using a very similar approach; however, the site incorporated lessons learned, cost efficiencies, and significant improvements to the process. This paper focuses on those factors and the progress that has been made in cleaning up the sites. The application of a technically reasonable remediation method, as well as the cost factors that supported transport and disposal of the low-level waste in bulk are discussed.

  11. In Vivo Tracking of Cell Therapies for Cardiac Diseases with Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Mayra Lorena; da Costa Medeiros, Priscylla; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Even though heart diseases are amongst the main causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, existing treatments are limited in restoring cardiac lesions. Cell transplantations, originally developed for the treatment of hematologic ailments, are presently being explored in preclinical and clinical trials for cardiac diseases. Nonetheless, little is known about the possible efficacy and mechanisms for these therapies and they are the center of continuous investigation. In this scenario, noninvasive imaging techniques lead to greater comprehension of cell therapies. Radiopharmaceutical cell labeling, firstly developed to track leukocytes, has been used successfully to evaluate the migration of cell therapies for myocardial diseases. A substantial rise in the amount of reports employing this methodology has taken place in the previous years. We will review the diverse radiopharmaceuticals, imaging modalities, and results of experimental and clinical studies published until now. Also, we report on current limitations and potential advances of radiopharmaceutical labeling for cell therapies in cardiac diseases. PMID:26880951

  12. Analysis system of submicron particle tracks in the fine-grained nuclear emulsion by a combination of hard x-ray and optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Tawara, Y.; Umemoto, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Terada, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Kimura, M.

    2015-07-15

    Analyses of nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect and identify charged particles or radiation as tracks have typically utilized optical microscope systems because the targets have lengths from several μm to more than 1000 μm. For recent new nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect tracks of submicron length or less, the current readout systems are insufficient due to their poor resolution. In this study, we developed a new system and method using an optical microscope system for rough candidate selection and the hard X-ray microscope system at SPring-8 for high-precision analysis with a resolution of better than 70 nm resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrated the analysis of submicron-length tracks with a matching efficiency of more than 99% and position accuracy of better than 5 μm. This system is now running semi-automatically.

  13. FAST TRACK PAPER: Regional observations of the second North Korean nuclear test on 2009 May 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The suspicious seismic event that occurred in the northern Korean Peninsula on 2009 May 25 was declared to be the second underground nuclear test (NK2ND) by North Korea. We investigated the characteristics of NK2ND using seismic signals recorded at regional-distance stations in South Korea and China. The Pn/Lg ratios of NK2ND definitely discriminate this event from two nearby natural earthquakes at frequencies above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion of full waveform data shows that NK2ND had a very large isotropic component. Pure isotropic moment tensor inversion also resulted in good recovery of observed waveforms, with clear indication that NK2ND was explosive in origin. The moment magnitude (Mw) from the full moment tensor inversion was estimated to be 4.5 and network-averaged values of 4.6 and 3.6 were calculated for rms mb(Lg) and Ms(VMAX), respectively. Although mb - Ms signature has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, this signature showed poor discrimination in the case of NK2ND. The Pn/Lg ratios and moment tensor inversion give more reliable evidence than does the mb - Ms for classifying the suspicious event in the northern Korean Peninsula as a possible explosion. The characteristics of NK2ND are also quite similar to those of the first North Korean nuclear test on 2006 October 9.

  14. Tracking thermal degradation on passion fruit juice through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marcia Valeria L; Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Canuto, Kirley Marques; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Narain, Narendra; de Brito, Edy Sousa

    2017-03-15

    Thermal food processing mainly aims to control microorganism in order to extend its shelf life. However, it may induce chemical and nutritional changes in foodstuff. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled to multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effect of different thermal processing conditions (85 and 140°C for 4; 15; 30; and 60s) on the passion fruit juice using an Armfield pasteurizer. Through this approach it was possible to identify the changes in the juice composition. The temperature and the time lead to a hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose. Additionally, juice submitted to 140°C for 60s results in the degradation of the sucrose and the formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF). Despite no novel chemical marker has been identified, the (1)H NMR chemometrics approach may contribute in the choice of the temperature and time to be employed in the juice processing.

  15. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED DESIGN OF THE 25-DISK ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-09-29

    This report details redesign of a commercially available rotary microfilter to meet the operational and maintenance requirements for radioactive service. Personnel developed the design and coordinated procurement of two filters followed by testing of one unit. System testing examined the ability to rinse soluble material from the system, filtration performance using several insoluble solids loadings, effectiveness in washing sludge, amount of wear to parts and maintenance of the system including the insertion and removal of the filter stack, and the ability to flush solids from the system. The test program examined flushing the filter for soluble material by filling the system with a Rhodamine WT dye solution. Results showed that draining the system and rinsing with 50 gallons of water resulted in grater than 100X reduction of the dye concentration. Personnel determined filter performance using various amounts of insoluble sludge solids ranging from 0.06 to 15 weight percent (wt%) insoluble solids in a 3 molar (M) sodium simulated supernate. Through approximately 120 hours of start-and-stop (i.e., day shift) operation and various insoluble solids loadings, the filter produced filtration rates between 3 and 7 gallons per minute (gpm) (0.12-0.29 gpm/ft{sup 2}) for a 25-disk filter. Personnel washed approximately 80 gallons of simulated sludge using 207 gallons of inhibited water. Washing occurred at constant volume with wash water fed to a well mixed tank at the same rate as filtrate removal. Performance measurement involved collecting and analyzing samples throughout the washing for density and sodium content. Results showed an effective washing, mimicking a predicted dilution calculation for a well mixed tank and reducing the sodium concentration from 3.2 M to less than 0.3 M. Filtration rates during the washing process ranged between 3 and 4.3 gpm for one filter unit. The filter system then concentrated the washed 15 wt% insoluble solids slurry to approximately 20

  16. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  17. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  18. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe.

  19. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  20. Effect of mesophilic lactobacilli and enterococci adjunct cultures on the final characteristics of a microfiltered milk Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Yvette; Buchin, Solange; Duboz, Gabriel; Pochet, Sylvie; Beuvier, Eric

    2009-04-01

    The effect of four associations of adjunct cultures composed of mesophilic lactobacilli and enterococci, either solely or combined, on the microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of Swiss-type cheese made using microfiltered cows' milk and supplemented with propionibacteria was studied. The global pattern of growth was similar to that generally observed in raw milk cheese and interactions between microflora were highlighted during ripening. Enterococci, which negatively affected the survival of streptococci starters, seemed to play a limited role in the formation of volatile compounds, probably due to their low levels throughout ripening. On the contrary, mesophilic lactobacilli, which affected the evolution of propionibacteria, enterococci and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis starter counts, modified free amino acid content, production of volatile compounds and organoleptic properties of mature cheese. This population appeared to be of major importance in the formation of cheese flavor as it was positively related to numerous potential flavor compounds such as alcohols and their corresponding esters, acetaldehyde and 4-methyl-4-heptanone. The original mesophilic lactobacilli present in milk could play an important role in the sensorial diversity of raw milk Swiss-type cheeses such as Comte.

  1. Theoretical feasibility study on neutron spectrometry with the polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) solid-state nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry with the polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) film detector was analyzed in detail. The computer codes TRACK_TEST and TRACK_VISION, which were originally developed for studies on alpha-particle tracks, were modified to compute parameters of etched proton tracks developed in the PADC film detector and to simulate their appearance under an optical microscope in the transmission mode. It was shown that protons with same energy and recoil angle could produce different etched tracks with various size and shape, depending on the point of their creation. As such, it was necessary to employ multiple etching, and to measure the removed layer thickness and to record the track appearance after each etching step. A new variable, namely, the effective removed layer heff, was introduced as the difference between the total removed layer and the depth where the proton was created in the detector. A program modified from the TRACK_VISION code was used to plot the appearance of a number of representative etched proton tracks. For proton energies larger than 2 MeV, the V function for protons in PADC was found to be almost constant, so the simple formulas for major and minor axes of proton track openings could be used to determine the proton energy, recoiled angle as well as the energy of the neutron which caused the proton recoil. For lower proton energies, a databank of various proton tracks showing the track opening appearances and the track profiles should be created for comparison to facilitate the determination of the proton energy.

  2. Characterization of solid state nuclear track detectors of the polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39/PM-355) type for light charged particle spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowska, A. Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A.; Kuk, M.; Szydłowski, A.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a method which uses the characteristics of the etch pits induced in a polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (PADC) detector of the CR-39/PM-355 type to estimate particle energy. This method is based on the data provided by a semiautomatic system that selects tracks according to two parameters, crater diameters, and mean gray level values. In this paper we used the results of the calibration measurements that were obtained in our laboratory in the period 2000–2014. Combining the information on the two parameters it is possible to determine unambiguously the incident projectile energy values. The paper presents the results of an attempt to estimate the energy resolution of the method when analyzing the tracks produced in the CR-39/PM-355 detector by energetic ions such as alpha particles, protons, and deuterons. We discuss the energy resolution of the measurement of light charged particle energy which is based on the parameters (crater diameter and mean gray level value) of tracks induced in solid state nuclear track detectors of the PADC type.

  3. Results from a Field Trial of the Radio Frequency Based Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D; Martyn, Rose; Pickett, Chris A; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Shephard, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) is a tool designed for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve overall inspector efficiency through real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, site specific rules-based event detection, and the capability to integrate many types of monitoring technologies. The system is based on the tracking of cylinder movements using (radio frequency) RF tags, and the collection of data, such as accountability weights, that can be associated with the cylinders. This presentation will cover the installation and evaluation of the CATS at the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC. This system was installed to evaluate its safeguards applicability, operational durability under operating conditions, and overall performance. An overview of the system design and elements specific to the GNF deployment will be presented along with lessons learned from the installation process and results from the field trial.

  4. Fast track, dynein-dependent nuclear targeting of human immunodeficiency virus Vpr protein; impaired trafficking in a clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Caly, Leon; Kassouf, Vicki T; Moseley, Gregory W; Diefenbach, Russell J; Cunningham, Anthony L; Jans, David A

    2016-02-12

    Nuclear import of the accessory protein Vpr is central to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We previously identified the Vpr F72L mutation in a HIV-infected, long-term non-progressor, showing that it resulted in reduced Vpr nuclear accumulation and altered cytoplasmic localisation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the effects of nuclear accumulation of the F72L mutation are due to impairment of microtubule-dependent-enhancement of Vpr nuclear import. We use high resolution imaging approaches including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and other approaches to document interaction between Vpr and the dynein light chain protein, DYNLT1, and impaired interaction of the F72L mutant with DYNLT1. The results implicate MTs/DYNLT1 as drivers of Vpr nuclear import and HIV infection, with important therapeutic implications.

  5. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camplani, M.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Barbato, F.; Antonelli, L.; Poggi, L. A.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Salgado, L.; Richetta, M.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  6. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Camplani, M.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Poggi, L. A.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Richetta, M.; Gaudio, P.; Barbato, F.; Antonelli, L.; Salgado, L.

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles’ velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  7. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant.

    PubMed

    Camplani, M; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Barbato, F; Antonelli, L; Poggi, L A; Ciparisse, J F; Salgado, L; Richetta, M; Gaudio, P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  8. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  9. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  10. Dissociation of {sup 10}C nuclei in a track nuclear emulsion at an energy of 1.2 GeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Alikulov, S. S.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bekmirzaev, R. N.; Bradnova, V.; Zarubin, P. I. Zarubina, I. G.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Krivenkov, D. O.; Malakhov, A. I.; Olimov, K.; Peresadko, N. G.; Polukhina, N. G.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Kharlamov, S. P.

    2013-10-15

    The charge topology in the fragmentation of {sup 10}C nuclei in a track nuclear emulsion at an energy of 1.2 GeV per nucleon is studied. In the coherent dissociation of {sup 10}C nuclei, about 82% of events are associated with the channel {sup 10}C {yields} 2{alpha}+ 2p. The angular distributions and correlations of product fragments are presented for this channel. It is found that among {sup 10}C {yields} 2{alpha}+ 2p events, about 30% are associated with the process in which dissociation through the ground state of the unstable {sup 9}Be{sub g.s.} nucleus is followed by {sup 8}Be{sub g.s.} + p decays.

  11. Mapping of the thermal neutron distribution in the lead block assembly of the PS-211 experiment at CERN, using thermoluminescence and nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Savvidis, E; Eleftheriadis, C A; Kitis, G

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the TARC (Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing) experiment (PS-211), was to demonstrate the possibility to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFF) in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The experimental set-up which consisted of a lead block with dimensions 3.3 x 3.3 x 3 m3, was installed in a CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) beam line. The proton beam at 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c, was incident in the centre of the lead block assembly producing neutrons via spallation reactions. In this study, neutron flux measurements are presented in the lead block assembly using thermoluminescence and nuclear track detectors. The results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations as well as with the results of the other methods used in the framework of the TARC experiment.

  12. Changes in the thermal properties of PADC film-based nuclear track detectors produced by high doses of γ-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Saad, Noura; Abdalla, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    Irradiation effects on the thermal properties of poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymer-based nuclear track detectors (in the form of CR-39) have been investigated. PADC films were exposed to γ-rays at high doses ranging from 5.0 × 105 to 1.0 × 106 Gy. The induced modifications were analyzed by means of thermogravimetric analysis, which indicated that the PADC film decomposed in three main stages. The activation energy for thermal decomposition was determined using a type of Arrhenius equation based on the TGA experimental results. This study presents quantitative results showing that the exposed PADC films do not undergo continual further degradation from high-energy γ-photons with increase in dose. The experimental results also provide insight into the specific property changes induced by γ-rays, which may be of use for industrial applications.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation-induced modifications of the optical and registration properties of a CR-39 nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Faitory, N. M.; Hussein, M.; Mohamed, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    The UV-VIS (ultraviolet-visible) spectra and etching characteristics of poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC, a form of the CR-39 polymer) detector films after exposure to UV radiation for various times have been studied. Etching experiments were carried out on the UV-exposed CR-39 detectors after alpha particle and fission-fragment irradiation using a 252Cf source. The bulk and track etch rates were measured using the alpha and fission-fragment track diameters, and the sensitivity and the detection efficiency were also determined. The optical band gap for both indirect and direct transitions was calculated based on the absorption edge of the UV spectra of the pristine and variously UV-exposed detectors. The optical band gap evidently indicates a gradual change in the optical properties of the CR-39 detector that is induced by the UV radiation. This study shows that the UV-exposed CR-39 detectors were demonstrated to be highly sensitive to alpha particles, but proved to be somewhat less sensitive to the fission fragments.

  14. Measurements and calculations of the Coulomb cross section for the production of direct electron pairs by energetic heavy nuclei in nuclear track emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Eby, P. B.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T. A.; Dong, B. L.; Gregory, J. C.; Takahashi, Y.; King, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements and theoretical predictions of the Coulomb cross section for the production of direct electron pairs by heavy ions in emulsion have been performed. Nuclear track emulsions were exposed to the 1.8 GeV/amu Fe-56 beam at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory bevalac and to the 60 and 200 GeV/amu O-16 and the 200 GeV/amu S-32 beam at the European Center for Nuclear Research Super Proton Synchrotron modified to accelerate heavy ions. The calculations combine the Weizsacker-Williams virtual quanta method applicable to the low-energy transfers and the Kelner-Kotov relativistic treatment for the high-energy transfers. Comparison of the measured total electron pair yield, the energy transfer distribution, and the emission angle distribution with theoretical predictions revealed a discrepancy in the frequency of occurrence of the low-energy pairs (less than or = 10 MeV). The microscope scanning criteria used to identify the direct electron pairs is described and efforts to improve the calculation of the cross section for pair production are also discussed.

  15. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Bak, M. S.; Kim, T.

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ṡ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  16. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A; Ha, S; Joshirao, P; Manchanda, V; Bak, M S; Kim, T

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ⋅ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  17. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  18. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  19. Microfluidic device with integrated microfilter of conical-shaped holes for high efficiency and high purity capture of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yadong; Shi, Jian; Li, Sisi; Wang, Li; Cayre, Yvon E; Chen, Yong

    2014-08-13

    Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of cancer patients has major implications for metastatic detection and therapy analyses. Here we demonstrated a microfluidic device for high efficiency and high purity capture of CTCs. The key novelty of this approach lies on the integration of a microfilter with conical-shaped holes and a micro-injector with cross-flow components for size dependent capture of tumor cells without significant retention of non-tumor cells. Under conditions of constant flow rate, tumor cells spiked into phosphate buffered saline could be recovered and then cultured for further analyses. When tumor cells were spiked in blood of healthy donors, they could also be recovered at high efficiency and high clearance efficiency of white blood cells. When the same device was used for clinical validation, CTCs could be detected in blood samples of cancer patients but not in that of healthy donors. Finally, the capture efficiency of tumor cells is cell-type dependent but the hole size of the filter should be more closely correlated to the nuclei size of the tumor cells. Together with the advantage of easy operation, low-cost and high potential of integration, this approach offers unprecedented opportunities for metastatic detection and cancer treatment monitoring.

  20. Microfluidic device with integrated microfilter of conical-shaped holes for high efficiency and high purity capture of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yadong; Shi, Jian; Li, Sisi; Wang, Li; Cayre, Yvon E.; Chen, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of cancer patients has major implications for metastatic detection and therapy analyses. Here we demonstrated a microfluidic device for high efficiency and high purity capture of CTCs. The key novelty of this approach lies on the integration of a microfilter with conical-shaped holes and a micro-injector with cross-flow components for size dependent capture of tumor cells without significant retention of non-tumor cells. Under conditions of constant flow rate, tumor cells spiked into phosphate buffered saline could be recovered and then cultured for further analyses. When tumor cells were spiked in blood of healthy donors, they could also be recovered at high efficiency and high clearance efficiency of white blood cells. When the same device was used for clinical validation, CTCs could be detected in blood samples of cancer patients but not in that of healthy donors. Finally, the capture efficiency of tumor cells is cell-type dependent but the hole size of the filter should be more closely correlated to the nuclei size of the tumor cells. Together with the advantage of easy operation, low-cost and high potential of integration, this approach offers unprecedented opportunities for metastatic detection and cancer treatment monitoring.

  1. Multiscale study of the boron and carbon behavior in the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy by the nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy after tensile tests are presented. The main attention was attended to the multiscale investigation of boron and carbon distribution in the area of the cracks propagation by the direct nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography. Tensile tests were performed at the temperatures up to 1150 °C. The nuclear reactor MEPhI IRT-2000 and cyclotron were applied for the autoradiography studies. Significant depleting of boron in the fracture zone which was revealed can be explained due to the intensive moving of the dislocation.

  2. A performance test of a new high-surface-quality and high-sensitivity CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector - TechnoTrak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, S.; Morishige, K.; Kawashima, H.; Kitamura, H.; Kurano, M.; Hasebe, N.; Koguchi, Y.; Shinozaki, W.; Ogura, K.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the performance of a newly-commercialized CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD), ;TechnoTrak;, in energetic heavy ion measurements. The advantages of TechnoTrak are derived from its use of a purified CR-39 monomer to improve surface quality combined with an antioxidant to improve sensitivity to low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. We irradiated these detectors with various heavy ions (from protons to krypton) with various energies (30-500 MeV/u) at the heavy ion accelerator facilities in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The surface roughness after chemical etching was improved to be 59% of that of the conventional high-sensitivity CR-39 detector (HARZLAS/TD-1). The detectable dynamic range of LET was found to be 3.5-600 keV/μm. The LET and charge resolutions for three ions tested ranged from 5.1% to 1.5% and 0.14 to 0.22 c.u. (charge unit), respectively, in the LET range of 17-230 keV/μm, which represents an improvement over conventional products (HARZLAS/TD-1 and BARYOTRAK). A correction factor for the angular dependence was determined for correcting the LET spectrum in an isotropic radiation field. We have demonstrated the potential of TechnoTrak, with its two key features of high surface quality and high sensitivity to low-LET particles, to improve automatic analysis protocols in radiation dosimetry and various other radiological applications.

  3. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  4. Development of a rapid and sensitive method combining a cellulose ester microfilter and a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in 20 liters of drinking water or low-turbidity waters.

    PubMed

    Tissier, Adeline; Denis, Martine; Hartemann, Philippe; Gassilloud, Benoît

    2012-02-01

    Investigations of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of drinking water suspected of being at the origin of an outbreak very often lead to negative results. One of the reasons for this failure is the small volume of water typically used for detecting these pathogens (10 to 1,000 ml). The efficiencies of three microfilters and different elution procedures were determined using real-time quantitative PCR to propose a procedure allowing detection of Campylobacter in 20 liters of drinking water or low-turbidity water samples. The results showed that more than 80% of the bacteria inoculated in 1 liter of drinking water were retained on each microfilter. An elution with a solution containing 3% beef extract, 0.05 M glycine at pH 9, combined with direct extraction of the bacterial genomes retained on the cellulose ester microfilter, allowed recovery of 87.3% (±22% [standard deviation]) of Campylobacter per 1 liter of tap water. Recoveries obtained from 20-liter volumes of tap water spiked with a C. coli strain were 69.5% (±10.3%) and 78.5% (±15.1%) for 91 CFU and 36 CFU, respectively. Finally, tests performed on eight samples of 20 liters of groundwater collected from an alluvial well used for the production of drinking water revealed the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli genomes, whereas no bacteria were detected with the normative culture method in volumes ranging from 10 to 1,000 ml. In the absence of available epidemiological data and information on bacterial viability, these last results indicate only that the water resource is not protected from contamination by Campylobacter.

  5. Nuclear Track Detection in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mold, P.; Bull, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments using solid state detectors in modern physics courses. The apparatus involved is simple and inexpensive, avoiding costly electronics, and the very high efficiency of plastic detectors in particular makes them ideally suited for work with very weak radioactive sources. (Author/SK)

  6. Nuclear tracks in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the appearance of an etched tract to the atomic number and velocity of the ion that left it using 10 MeV/nucleon Kr beams and 6 MeV/nucleon Zn beams. It was found that the etching rate along a tract in minerals and glass is a monototonic function of ionization rate thus, making particle identification possible. Results show the following were present in lunar samples: superheavy elements, cosmic rays with z greater than 26, and solar flare particles in Surveyor glass.

  7. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  8. ST-segment elevation in the recovery phase of nuclear exercise stress test with ⁹⁹mTc-sestamibi in a patient with critical RCA stenosis and subtle systolic dysfunction in speckle tracking imaging.

    PubMed

    Piszczek, Stanislaw; Dziuk, Miroslaw; Mazurek, Andrzej; Krzesiński, Paweł; Jaguś-Jamiola, Agnieszka; Ryczek, Robert; Tkaczewski, Konrad; Skrobowski, Andrzej; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2012-04-24

    An asymptomatic Caucasian male patient underwent coronary artery disease diagnostics. Standard exercise treadmill test was inconclusive, and Holter ECG study didn't show any significant abnormalities. Considering the high risk of ischemic heart disease nuclear exercise stress test was performed,which revealed ST-segment elevation in the recovery phase of the treadmill exercise test. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) showed myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the inferior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Furthermore,speckle tracking imaging showed subtle left ventricle dysfunction. Finally critical stenosis in the second segment of right coronary artery was diagnosed in coronary angiography.

  9. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Etienne V.; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from <1 to 7.9 log cfu/mL. In total, 15% of samples were spoiled. High G+C Gram-positive bacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, but were responsible for only 31% of spoilage. In contrast, psychrotolerant spores were isolated from 55% of spoiled packages. In 90% of samples with pure cultures of Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Paenibacillus spp., counts exceeded 6 log cfu/mL. In bulk tank milk, the concentration of psychrotolerant spores was low, accounting for merely 0.5 ± 0.8 MPN/mL. Paenibacillus amylolyticus/xylanexedens was by far the most dominant species in bulk tank milk (48% of all isolates), but was never detected in ESL milk, pointing to efficient removal during manufacturing. Six large-scale process analyses confirmed a high removal rate for psychrotolerant spores (reduction by nearly 4 log-units). B. cereus sensu lato, on the contrary, was frequently found in spoiled end products, but was rarely detected in bulk tank milk. Due to low counts in bulk tank samples and efficient spore removal during production, we suggest that shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw

  10. Ship Tracks

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

  11. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification.

    PubMed

    Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Depierreux, S; Neuville, C; Goyon, C; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Ducret, J E; Boutoux, G; Rafelski, J; Labaune, C

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  12. Beam emittance forming line of the CW race-track microtron of the institute of nuclear physics of Moscow State University (INP MSU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, A. S.; Gevorkyan, V. G.; Gorbatov, Yu. I.; Gribov, I. V.; Ibadov, A. Kh.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Korneenkov, V. A.; Lazutin, E. V.; Makulbekov, E. A.; Piskarev, I. M.; Platov, K. Yu.; Savitsky, A. B.; Shumakov, A. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sorvin, V. M.; Tiunov, A. V.; Ushkanov, V. A.; Zinoviev, S. V.

    1989-06-01

    The transverse and longitudinal emittance forming line (EFL) of the race-track microtron of INP MSU is described. The work presents the principles of operation, parameters of EFL elements, description of rf power supply system and automated control system. The method of EFL tuning and experimental results are discussed.

  13. Online Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to track you on all kinds of internet-connected devices that have browsers, such as smart phones, tablets, laptop and desktop computers. How does tracking in mobile apps occur? When you access mobile applications, companies don’t have access to ...

  14. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  15. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  16. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2).

  17. Kalman filter-based fast track reconstruction for charged particles in a Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment using parallel computing on a multicore server at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main goals in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is to find parameters of charged particle trajectories. An online full event reconstruction is planned to be carried out in this experiment, thus demanding fast algorithms be developed, which make the most of the capabilities of modern CPU and GPU architectures. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Kalman filter-based track reconstruction for charged particles implemented by using various code parallelization methods. A multicore server located at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR), with two CPU Intel Xeon X5660 processors and a GPU Nvidia GTX 480 video card is used.

  18. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. On charged particle tracks in cellulose nitrate and Lexan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were performed aimed at developing plastic nuclear track detectors into quantitative tools for recording and measuring multicharged, heavy particles. Accurate track etch rate measurements as a function of LET were performed for cellulose nitrate and Lexan plastic detectors. This was done using a variety of incident charged particle types and energies. The effect of aging of latent tracks in Lexan in different gaseous atmospheres was investigated. Range distributions of high energy N-14 particle bevatron beams in nuclear emulsion were measured. Investigation of charge resolution and Bragg peak measurements were carried out using plastic nuclear track detectors.

  20. Analysis of 3-dimentional track parameters from 2-dimensional images of etched tracks in solid polymeric track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Tripathy, S. P.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2012-10-01

    An algorithm and a computer program (autoTRAK) are developed for rapid and precise estimation of track parameters in solid polymeric track detectors (SPTD). In this work, an effort is made to determine the 3-dimensional (3D) parameters such as depth (or length) and angle of the tracks, which are usually difficult to estimate from 2D images. The basic parameters such as diameter, major axis, minor axis, area, track density, etc. are also determined by the program precisely. The program is capable of selecting genuine tracks with precise tracing of track contours, segregating overlapped tracks and rejecting track-like unwanted objects. The algorithm is based on grey level analysis of the 2D images of etched nuclear tracks and is successfully tested for the analysis of alpha tracks in CR-39 detectors. The track depth values obtained by autoTRAK are found to match with those of other predictive codes. The details of the autoTRAK program and comparison of its output with those obtained using manual and automatic mode of other available image analyzing softwares, viz. ImageJ and AxioVision, are presented in the paper.

  1. DOE R and D data tracking base

    SciTech Connect

    Horpedahl, L.; Brooks, M.

    2000-12-01

    This document consists of DOE R and D tracking information for the following topics: Stockpile Readiness Program; Stockpile Reduction Program; Enduring Stockpile Program; Future Stockpile Program; Archiving; Nuclear Component Assessment; Advanced Application; Validation and Verification; Distance and Distributed Computing; DOD Munitions; Performance Assessment; Physics; Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility/Los Alamos Neutron Science Center; Advanced Hydrodynamic Radiography; Systems Engineering; Advanced Manufacturing; Chemistry and Materials; High Explosives; Special Nuclear Mateirals; Tritium; Collaboration with ASCI; Numeric Environment for Weapons Simulation; Target Physics; Theory and Modeling; Target Development; Fabrication and Handling; Other ICF Activities; Development of Predictive Capabilities--Nuclear; Development of Diagnostic Tools--Nuclear; Process Development; and IPPD/Agile Manufacturing.

  2. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  3. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  4. Track structure in biological models.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B

    1986-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation.

  5. On the reproducibility of SSNTD track counting efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Paulo, S. R.; Tello S, C. A.

    1998-12-01

    In this work, the influence of track density and chemical etching on the reproducibility of the track counting efficiency, ɛ0, in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is studied. This was performed by means of the analysis of CR-39 sheets that were attached to a thin film of natural uranium. Maintaining the chemical etching parameters constant and varying the exposition time, ɛ0 is observed to be constant for track densities varying between values approximately equal to the track background and those corresponding to the track overlapping limit, where track counting becomes difficult ( ˜10 5 cm-2 at our conditions). Otherwise, keeping constant the exposition time and varying the etching temperature, a variation in ɛ0 is found if a usual track counting criterion is employed. However, such a variation vanishes statistically when a more rigorous criterion is adopted.

  6. The software peculiarities of pattern recognition in track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Starkov, N.

    2015-12-31

    The different kinds of nuclear track recognition algorithms are represented. Several complicated samples of use them in physical experiments are considered. The some processing methods of complicated images are described.

  7. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  8. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  9. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  10. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  11. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students…

  12. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  13. Atomistic simulation of track formation by energetic recoils in zircon.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro A F P; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J

    2010-10-06

    We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of fission track formation in zircon. We simulated the passage of a swift heavy ion through crystalline zircon using cylindrical thermal spikes with energy deposition (dE/dx) of 2.5-12.8 keV nm( - 1) and a radius of 3 nm. At a low dE/dx of 2.55 keV nm( - 1), the structural damage recovered almost completely and a damage track was not produced. At higher values of dE/dx, tracks were observed and the radius of the track increased with increasing dE/dx. Our structural analysis shows amorphization in the core of the track and phase separation into Si-rich regions near the center of the track and Zr-rich regions near the periphery. These simulations establish a threshold dE/dx for fission track formation in zircon that is relevant to thermochronology and nuclear waste immobilization.

  14. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  15. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  16. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  17. Straight-Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; McCallum. Thomas J.; Schmitt, Edwin W.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, high-efficiency gas particulate filter has precise particle size screening, low pressure drop, and a simple and fast regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated, and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time. This filter is of a novel material composite that contains the support structure and a novel coating.

  18. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  19. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  20. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  1. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  2. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  5. A 3D feature point tracking method for ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouwenberg, Jasper J. M.; Ulrich, Leonie; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    A robust and computationally efficient algorithm for automated tracking of high densities of particles travelling in (semi-) straight lines is presented. It extends the implementation of (Sbalzarini and Koumoutsakos 2005) and is intended for use in the analysis of single ion track detectors. By including information of existing tracks in the exclusion criteria and a recursive cost minimization function, the algorithm is robust to variations on the measured particle tracks. A trajectory relinking algorithm was included to resolve the crossing of tracks in high particle density images. Validation of the algorithm was performed using fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTD) irradiated with high- and low (heavy) ion fluences and showed less than 1% faulty trajectories in the latter.

  6. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  7. The Tracking System in the Panda Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintz, P.

    2012-08-01

    The bar {P}ANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany) will investigate antiproton collisions on proton and nuclear targets in the charm quark mass regime. The wide-range physics program requires a universal detector concept, combining state-of-the-art and novel techniques in particle measurements and data readout. This paper gives an overview of the detector setup and summarizes the status, in particular of the charged particle tracking detectors in the bar {P}ANDA spectrometer.

  8. Photon track evolution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A D

    2005-01-01

    Given the time scale of biological, biochemical, biophysical and physical effects in a radiation exposure of living tissue, the first physical stage can be considered to be independent of time. All the physical interactions caused by the incident photons happen at the same starting time. From this point of view it would seem that the evolution of photon tracks is not a relevant topic for analysis; however, if the photon track is considered as a sequence of several interactions, there are several steps until the total degradation of the energy of the primary photon. We can characterise the photon track structure by the probability p(E,j), that is, the probability that a photon with energy E suffers j secondary interactions. The aim of this work is to analyse the photon track structure by considering j as a step of the photon track evolution towards the total degradation of the photon energy. Low energy photons (<150 keV) are considered, with water phantoms and half-extended geometry. The photon track evolution concept is presented and compared with the energy deposition along the track and also with the spatial distribution of the several steps in the photon track.

  9. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  10. Track Starter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  11. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  12. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  13. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  14. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  15. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  16. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  19. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  20. Ion track doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L. T.; Cruz, S. A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hnatowicz, V.; Te Kaat, E. H.; Melnikov, A. A.; Varichenko, V. S.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    Longitudinal dopant distribution along ion tracks in soft (polymers [1?5]) and hard (diamond [6,7]) condensed carbonaceous matter have been studied by neutron depth profiling and cathodoluminesence. Both in-diffusion from the aqueous phase and energetic ion implantation were used in primary track doping. In-situ self-decoration of tracks and post-implantation with a secondary ion species were used in the specific case of ion implantation. Radial dopant distributions were also studied by means of a modified tomographic procedure. Decorative doping of ion bombarded solids is useful in probing track structure, and especially in pointing the way to potential development of nanometric-sized electronic devices.

  1. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  2. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  3. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  4. Methods for the assessment of long-lived radionuclides in humans resulting from nuclear activities or accidents: Fission track analysis of trace amounts plutonium-239 and a copper hexacyanoferrate kit for monitoring radiocaesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Lena Camilla

    Fission track analysis (FTA) was developed to be applied to ultra-low levels of 239Pu in bioassay samples. An analytical protocol was established for the FTA processing. The detection limit was determined to 1.5 μBq and the calibration constant was 24 fission fragments per μBq 239Pu. Naturally occurring nuclides of thorium and uranium, present in biological and environmental samples, did not interfere in the determination of 239Pu. Self-absorption of fission fragments was shown to be insignificant. The study included the determination of 239Pu in urine samples from twenty Chernobyl clean-up workers. All urine samples contained activities below the detection limit for radioanalytical analysis using alpha spectrometry (0.5 mBq). Seven of the samples were further investigated using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer with a sensitivity of 106 atoms 239Pu. The content of 239Pu in the samples showed to be below 1μBq (106 atoms), with only one exception. It was not possible to draw any major conclusions from the 239Pu results, regarding the clean-up workers' exposure from radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident. A kit was designed for selective adsorption of radiocaesium in urine samples to be used in situ by contaminated subjects. The kit consisted of copper hexacyanoferrate impregnated cotton filters held by filter holders for sample flow-through. After use, the adsorbed fraction of caesium was >=90% in urine samples. The kit facilitates the screening of a population exposed to radiocaesium. Parameters influencing the adsorption efficiency, such as potassium, sodium and calcium concentration of the sample and the sample pH, were investigated and shown to be insignificant for urine samples.

  5. Analysis of latent tracks for MeV protons in CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Takahashi, S.; Zayats, A.; Malka, V.; Fritzler, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2007-02-01

    For protons of energy up to a few MeV, the temporal evolution of etched latent tracks in CR-39 nuclear track detector has been numerically modeled by assuming that the electronic energy loss of the protons governs the latent track formation. The technique is applied in order to obtain the energy spectrum of high intensity laser driven proton beams, with high accuracy. The precise measurement of the track length and areal track density have been achieved by scanning short etched, highly populated CR-39 employing atomic force microscope.

  6. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  7. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  8. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  9. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-05-27

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  10. Robust superpixel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan Yang; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

    2014-04-01

    While numerous algorithms have been proposed for object tracking with demonstrated success, it remains a challenging problem for a tracker to handle large appearance change due to factors such as scale, motion, shape deformation, and occlusion. One of the main reasons is the lack of effective image representation schemes to account for appearance variation. Most of the trackers use high-level appearance structure or low-level cues for representing and matching target objects. In this paper, we propose a tracking method from the perspective of midlevel vision with structural information captured in superpixels. We present a discriminative appearance model based on superpixels, thereby facilitating a tracker to distinguish the target and the background with midlevel cues. The tracking task is then formulated by computing a target-background confidence map, and obtaining the best candidate by maximum a posterior estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that our tracker is able to handle heavy occlusion and recover from drifts. In conjunction with online update, the proposed algorithm is shown to perform favorably against existing methods for object tracking. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm facilitates foreground and background segmentation during tracking.

  11. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  12. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  13. 10 CFR 32.201 - Serialization of nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serialization of nationally tracked sources. 32.201 Section 32.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Specifically Licensed Items § 32.201 Serialization...

  14. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  15. Reviews Equipment: Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Book: A Universe from Nothing Equipment: Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Report: Nuclear Physics and Technology Book: Particle Physics Booklet: Radiation and You Book: The Million Death Quake Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Locktronics Electronics, Magnestism and Materials Unit Robust, reliable and proven classroom kit The Million Death Quake: the Science of Predicting the Earth's Deadliest Natural Disaster Accessible and well-written book covers everything you might (and perhaps should) want to know about earthquakes WORTH A LOOK Time Trial R/C Race Track Timer Fun kit for use with toy cars but little flexibility for other uses A Universe From Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing Up-to-date account of cosmology explains very well but becomes polemical and loses focus Nuclear physics and technology—inside the atom IOP report useful for students considering a career in physics Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction Passages of good writing undermined by editing as the structure and illustrations disappoint Radiation and You Report is an interesting insight into radiation information from 25 years back, but some errors and a slow start let it down WEB WATCH App that aids star identification is highly recommended and videos for students and teachers also make the grade

  16. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  17. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  18. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  19. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  20. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  1. Tracking in 4 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartiglia, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Baldassarri, B.; Boscardin, M.; Cenna, F.; Dellacasa, G.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Ferrero, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Garbolino, S.; Grabas, H.; Monaco, V.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sadrozinski, H.; Seiden, A.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Ravera, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution we will review the progresses toward the construction of a tracking system able to measure the passage of charged particles with a combined precision of ∼10 ps and ∼10 μm, either using a single type of sensor, able to concurrently measure position and time, or a combination of position and time sensors.

  2. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life.

  3. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  4. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  5. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  6. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  7. Registration and Tracking Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Single No Partial Yes Appearance Tracking [66] Single No Partial Yes Layering [67] Multi No Full No Bramble [68] Multi Yes Full No EigenTracker [14...representations.” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24(1):75-89, 2002. [68] M. Isard and J. MacCormick. ” BraMBLe : A Bayesian Multiple-Blob

  8. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  9. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  10. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  11. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  12. Curved track segment finding using Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    We describe the applications of a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves the grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint forming of a track segment. The TTF was originally developed solving straight track segment finding problem, however, it is also suitable in many curved track segment finding problems. The examples discussed in this document are among popular detector layouts in high-energy/nuclear physics experiments. Although it is not practical to find a universal recipe for arbitrary detector layouts, the method of the TTF application is illustrated via the discussion of the examples. Generally speaking, whenever the data item to be found in a pattern recognition problem contains two free parameters, and if the constraint connecting the measurements and the two free parameters has an approximate shift invariant property, the Tiny Triplet Finder can be used.

  13. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  14. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  15. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  16. Atomistic simulation of track formation by energetic ions in zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Pedro A.F.P.; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J

    2010-01-01

    We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of fission track formation in zircon. We simulated the passage of a swift heavy ion through crystalline zircon using cylindrical thermal spikes with energy deposition (dE/dx) of 2.5-12.8 keV nm{sup -1} and a radius of 3 nm. At a low dE/dx of 2.55 keV nm{sup -1}, the structural damage recovered almost completely and a damage track was not produced. At higher values of dE/dx, tracks were observed and the radius of the track increased with increasing dE/dx. Our structural analysis shows amorphization in the core of the track and phase separation into Si-rich regions near the center of the track and Zr-rich regions near the periphery. These simulations establish a threshold dE/dx for fission track formation in zircon that is relevant to thermochronology and nuclear waste immobilization.

  17. Atomistic Simulation of Track Formation by Energetic Recoils in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Pedro A.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Weber, William J.

    2010-09-17

    We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of fission track formation in zircon. We simulated the passage of a swift heavy ion through crystalline zircon using cylindrical thermal spikes with energy deposition (dE/dx) of 2.5 to 12.8 keV/nm and radius of 3 nm. At a low dE/dx of 2.55 keV/nm, the structural damage recovered almost completely and a damage track was not produced. At higher values of dE/dx, tracks were observed and the radius of the track increased with increasing dE/dx. Our structural analysis shows amorphization in the core of the track and phase separation into Si-rich regions near the center of the track and Zr-rich regions near the periphery. These simulations establish a threshold dE/dx for fission-track formation in zircon that is relevant to thermo-chronology and nuclear waste immobilization.

  18. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  19. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  20. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  1. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  2. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  3. Perceptual style and tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual style and tracking of a target was examined. Four pilots were given the Embedded Figures Test to assess their degrees of field dependence or independence. Then they flew in a helicopter simulator and attempted to track an airborne target. A high negative correlation was found between perceptual style and tracking performance. Field-independent subjects were able to track the target for longer periods than field-dependent subjects.

  4. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  5. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  8. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  9. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  10. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  11. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  12. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  13. Improvement in the speed of alpha-decay track measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Yoshida, Jyunya; Mishina, Akihiro; Kinbara, Shinji; Endo, Yoko; Itoh, Hiroki; Soe, Mintkyaw; Tantint, Kint; E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    For analysis of double- Λ hypernucleus in nuclear emulsion, it is necessary to know shrinkage factor and density of emulsion plate by measuring the track ranges of alpha particles. The kinetic energies of nuclear fragment from double- Λ hypernucleus are measured by their ranges in the emulsion, which is dedicated photographic emulsion for nuclear physics. Then we have to reconstruct their original ranges since the emulsion plate shrinks about half in thickness after development. Besides, we have to calibrate range-energy relation because the density depends on the emulsion content of moisture. Therefore we use alpha-rays with monochromatic energy as calibration sources which were emitted from natural Radioisotope such as Thorium series and Uranium series in the emulsion. Technique which performs alpha-tracks measurement by image processing is being studied. In the E07 experiment at J-PARC, quick analysis is required for about alpha tracks on about 100 double- Λ hypernuclear events within a few years. At present, we are developing automated range measurement technique instead of traditional manual measurement. Alpha tracks are seen as black, bold lines in micrographs. Image processing program detects such lines and the positions, angles, ranges of them in micrographs.

  14. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  15. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  16. Tracking change over time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  17. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, David D.; Lockley, Martin G.

    1991-02-01

    The study of fossilized dinosaur remains, vertebrate paleontology is a well established discipline, but the discovery and rediscovery of numerous and varied dinosaur footprints and nest sites has spurred a renaissance in the associated field of ichnological research. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces is the first book ever to be devoted to this subject, and it represents the work of seventy noted dinosaur ichnologists. Contributors address the history of science and the relevance of dinosaur ichnology to the interpretation of dinosaur behaviour, paleoecology, paleoenvironments, and evolution. Several new preservation, conservation, and documentation techniques are also presented. The book is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, vertebrate zoology, geology, and paleoenvironmental analysis. The historical aspects of the book and the many site descriptions also make Dinosaur Tracks and Traces appealing to amateur fossil collectors and dinosaur enthusiasts.

  18. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  19. Tracking Online Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  20. Uncorrelated Track Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    continual series of uncorrelated tracks when gathering observations. The constants of the motion for simple two-body motion for a satellite orbiting the Earth ...of the Earth -Centered Rotating System, Ẑ-component of inertial angular momentum (Hk), and the time rate of change of the right ascension of the...3 2.1 Earth -Centered Coordinate Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 III. Integrals of Satellite Motion

  1. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  2. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  3. SOFIA tracking image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Charles R.; Gross, Michael A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) tracking camera simulator is a component of the Telescope Assembly Simulator (TASim). TASim is a software simulation of the telescope optics, mounting, and control software. Currently in its fifth major version, TASim is relied upon for telescope operator training, mission planning and rehearsal, and mission control and science instrument software development and testing. TASim has recently been extended for hardware-in-the-loop operation in support of telescope and camera hardware development and control and tracking software improvements. All three SOFIA optical tracking cameras are simulated, including the Focal Plane Imager (FPI), which has recently been upgraded to the status of a science instrument that can be used on its own or in parallel with one of the seven infrared science instruments. The simulation includes tracking camera image simulation of starfields based on the UCAC4 catalog at real-time rates of 4-20 frames per second. For its role in training and planning, it is important for the tracker image simulation to provide images with a realistic appearance and response to changes in operating parameters. For its role in tracker software improvements, it is vital to have realistic signal and noise levels and precise star positions. The design of the software simulation for precise subpixel starfield rendering (including radial distortion), realistic point-spread function as a function of focus, tilt, and collimation, and streaking due to telescope motion will be described. The calibration of the simulation for light sensitivity, dark and bias signal, and noise will also be presented

  4. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  5. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  6. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  7. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  9. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  11. Feature-aided tracking (FAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

    2004-08-01

    Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

  12. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  13. Cellular track model for study of heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1993-01-01

    Track theory is combined with a realistic model of a heavy ion beam to study the effects of nuclear fragmentation on cell survival and biological effectiveness. The effects of secondary reaction products are studied as a function of depth in a water column. Good agreement is found with experimental results for the survival of human T-l cells exposed to monoenergetic carbon, neon, and argon beams under aerobic and hypoxia conditions. The present calculation, which includes the effect of target fragmentation, is a significant improvement over an earlier calculation because of the use of a vastly improved beam model with no change in the track theory or cellular response parameters.

  14. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  15. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  16. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-01

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  17. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-31

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  18. Engineering cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of sensitive biocompatible particle track detectors has so far limited parallel detection of physical energy deposition and biological response. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg single crystals combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution limited by light diffraction. Here we report the development of next generation cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). Methods The biocompatibility of FNTDs was tested using six different cell lines, i.e. human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87), androgen independent prostate cancer (PC3), epidermoid cancer (A431) and murine (VmDk) glioma SMA-560. To evaluate cell adherence, viability and conformal coverage of the crystals different seeding densities and alternative coating with extracellular matrix (fibronectin) was tested. Carbon irradiation was performed in Bragg peak (initial 270.55 MeV u−1). A series of cell compartment specific fluorescence stains including nuclear (HOECHST), membrane (Glut-1), cytoplasm (Calcein AM, CM-DiI) were tested on Cell-Fit-HDs and a single CLSM was employed to co-detect the physical (crystal) as well as the biological (cell layer) information. Results The FNTD provides a biocompatible surface. Among the cells tested, A549 cells formed the most uniform, viable, tightly packed epithelial like monolayer. The ion track information was not compromised in Cell-Fit-HD as compared to the FNTD alone. Neither cell coating and culturing, nor additional staining procedures affected the properties of the FNTD surface to detect ion tracks. Standard immunofluorescence and live staining procedures could be employed to co-register cell biology and ion track information. Conclusions The Cell-Fit-Hybrid Detector system is a promising platform for a multitude of studies linking biological response to energy deposition at high level of optical microscopy

  19. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  20. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  1. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  2. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  3. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  4. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-19

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  5. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  6. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  7. Multiple collaborative kernel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhimin; Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying

    2007-07-01

    Those motion parameters that cannot be recovered from image measurements are unobservable in the visual dynamic system. This paper studies this important issue of singularity in the context of kernel-based tracking and presents a novel approach that is based on a motion field representation which employs redundant but sparsely correlated local motion parameters instead of compact but uncorrelated global ones. This approach makes it easy to design fully observable kernel-based motion estimators. This paper shows that these high-dimensional motion fields can be estimated efficiently by the collaboration among a set of simpler local kernel-based motion estimators, which makes the new approach very practical.

  8. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  9. Human detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengxian; Wei, Yaxun

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a method to segment moving human bodies. A self-adaptive background model is used to update the background image(so-called reference image). By calculating the Euclidean distance of corresponding points in the current and background image, we can check out the foreground objects. And the shadow can be detected and removed according to the characteristics of the shadow regions shown in HSV space. Finally, target tracking is implemented by calculating the relativity of color histogram between the moving areas in two succeeding images.

  10. Bolus tracking for improved metabolic imaging of hyperpolarised compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Markus; Koellisch, Ulrich; Gringeri, Concetta; Janich, Martin A.; Rancan, Giaime; Frank, Annette; Wiesinger, Florian; Menzel, Marion I.; Haase, Axel; Schulte, Rolf F.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation has enabled real-time metabolic imaging of pyruvate and its metabolites. Conventional imaging sequences rely on predefined settings and do not account for intersubject variations in biological parameters such as perfusion. We present a fully automatic real-time bolus tracking sequence for hyperpolarised substrates which starts the imaging acquisition at a defined point on the bolus curve. This reduces artefacts due to signal change and allows for a more efficient use of hyperpolarised magnetisation. For single time point imaging methods, bolus tracking enables a more reliable and consistent quantification of metabolic activity. An RF excitation with a small flip angle is used to obtain slice-selective pyruvate tracking information in rats. Moreover, in combination with a copolarised urea and pyruvate injection, spectrally selective tracking on urea allows obtaining localised bolus tracking information without depleting the pyruvate signal. Particularly with regard to clinical application, the bolus tracking technique could provide an important step towards a routine assessment protocol which removes operator dependencies and ensures comparable results.

  11. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  12. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  13. Variation of the track etch rates of alpha-particle trajectory in PADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Hegazy, T. M.; Seddik, U.; Morsy, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of etched tracks in solid-state nuclear track detectors is usually described by assuming an unequivocal correlation of the etch-rate ratio with the energy loss of charged particles. For alpha particles, this assumption could be verified within the scatter of the experimental data. In this article, the dependence of the depth (x) on the track etch rate (V-T) was determined experimentally by track length measurement. It is found that the track etch rate as a function of the depth within the detector follows the Bragg curve. The track etch rate has been found to be described by a generalization of the restricted energy loss, in good approximation along the trajectories of alpha particles.

  14. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  15. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  16. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  17. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Dennis; Fenton, Lori; Neakrase, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michael; Statella, Thiago; Whelley, Patrick; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Balme, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth's surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ˜1 m and ˜1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550-850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300-1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand

  18. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  19. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  1. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  2. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  4. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  5. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  6. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  7. A computer system to analyze showers in nuclear emulsions: Center Director's discretionary fund report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Berry, F. A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A system to rapidly digitize data from showers in nuclear emulsions is described. A TV camera views the emulsions though a microscope. The TV output is superimposed on the monitor of a minicomputer. The operator uses the computer's graphics capability to mark the positions of particle tracks. The coordinates of each track are stored on a disk. The computer then predicts the coordinates of each track through successive layers of emulsion. The operator, guided by the predictions, thus tracks and stores the development of the shower. The system provides a significant improvement over purely manual methods of recording shower development in nuclear emulsion stacks.

  8. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  9. 76 FR 6369 - Changes To Implement the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... implementation of the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I), providing fast examination for applicants desiring... examiners or supervisory patent examiners, specialized examiner training for fast track...

  10. Track-and-Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the tracks and trench marks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The rover can be seen to the lower left of the lander. The trench is visible to the upper left of the rover, which has traveled a total of 35.3 meters (116 feet) since leaving the lander on sol 7 (January 31, 2004). On sol 23 (February 16, 2004), the rover used one of its wheels to dig a trench measuring approximately 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep, 50 centimeters (20 inches) long, and 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide. This vertically projected image was created using a combination of images from the rover's navigation camera and hazard-avoidance cameras.

  11. Solar tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  12. Solar tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  13. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  14. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  15. The "mommy tenure track".

    PubMed

    Draznin, Julia

    2004-04-01

    For years women have been fighting for equity in the academic work place, but this acceptance comes at a price. Balancing work and family obligations have proven to be an awkward task where maximal satisfaction and gratification in both are not easily attained. Junior-level faculty have the arduous charge of being most productive and prolific exactly during their child-raising years. If our society wants to produce and maintain women professionals, then academic institutions have to be more generous and tolerant in the short-term for a long-term gain. The author proposes a "mommy tenure track" in which primary caregivers of infants are allowed to temporarily postpone their tenure clock. She also cites innovative initiatives being carried out at one institution to help women, including young mothers, with their academic careers and promotions.

  16. Intelligent tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, T. J.; Abruzzo, J.; Zagardo, V.; Shipley, J.; Kossa, L.

    1980-10-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report under a contract to investigate the design, test, and implementation of a set of algorithms to perform intelligent tracking and intelligent homing on FLIR and TV imagery. The system concept was described. The problem of target aspect determination in support of aimpoint selection was analyzed. Sequences of 875 line FLIR data were extracted from the data base and an example of aspect determination for a maneuvering target in the presence of obscurations was presented. An example was also presented for close in homing (less than 500 meters) and the emergence of interior features, target movement, and scale changes. Hardware implementation in terms of VLSI/VHSIC chips was analyzed.

  17. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  19. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  1. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  2. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  3. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  4. Retention Tracking Using Institutional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a sophisticated approach for tracking student cohorts from entry through departure within an institution. It describes how a researcher can create a student tracking model to perform longitudinal research on student cohorts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  5. Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This buyers guide provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Among the topics covered are developing a budget, choosing a site selection, choosing a track surface, developing working specifications, and selecting a contractor. Also explored is the question of…

  6. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  7. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  8. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-18

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  9. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  10. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  11. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  12. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  13. Teacher's Guide for Tracks. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David; And Others

    This teacher's guide suggests activities that provide opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Methods are explained for using sets of 52 Track Cards which show life-size drawings of tracks made by 14 animals; sets of 10 large Mystery Track Cards with life-size drawings of the prints of large mammals; and a Track Picture…

  14. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  15. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  16. NGSI: FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR A CYLINDER TRACKING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Branney, S.

    2012-06-06

    While nuclear suppliers currently track uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders in various ways, for their own purposes, industry practices vary significantly. The NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a 5-year program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF{sub 6} cylinders. As part of this effort, NGSI's multi-laboratory team has documented the 'life of a UF{sub 6} cylinder' and reviewed IAEA practices related to UF{sub 6} cylinders. Based on this foundation, this paper examines the functional requirements of a system that would uniquely identify and track UF{sub 6} cylinders. There are many considerations for establishing a potential tracking system. Some of these factors include the environmental conditions a cylinder may be expected to be exposed to, where cylinders may be particularly vulnerable to diversion, how such a system may be integrated into the existing flow of commerce, how proprietary data generated in the process may be protected, what a system may require in terms of the existing standard for UF{sub 6} cylinder manufacture or modifications to it and what the limiting technology factors may be. It is desirable that a tracking system should provide benefit to industry while imposing as few additional constraints as possible and still meeting IAEA safeguards objectives. This paper includes recommendations for this system and the analysis that generated them.

  17. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  18. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  19. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  20. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  2. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  3. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect.

  4. Tracking Human Faces in Real-Time,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    human-computer interactive applications such as lip-reading and gaze tracking. The principle in developing this system can be extended to other tracking problems such as tracking the human hand for gesture recognition .

  5. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  6. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  7. Communications and tracking technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on communications and tracking technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. The objective is to develop devices, components, and analytical methods to enhance and enable technology to meet space station evolutionary requirements for multiple access (proximity) communications, space-to-ground communications, and tracking as it pertains to rendezvous and docking as well as potential orbital debris warning systems. Topics covered include: optical communications and tracking; monolithic microwave integrated circuit systems; traveling wave tube technology; advanced modulation and coding; and advanced automation.

  8. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  9. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  10. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  11. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, Guido; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  12. Sun tracking systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems.

  13. The Automatic Library Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; Jones, Nicholas A; Hadri, Bilel

    2010-01-01

    A library tracking database has been developed and put into production at the National Institute for Computational Sciences and the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (both located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.) The purpose of the library tracking database is to track which libraries are used at link time on Cray XT5 Supercomputers. The database stores the libraries used at link time and also records the executables run in a batch job. With this data, many operationally important questions can be answered such as which libraries are most frequently used and which users are using deprecated libraries or applications. The infrastructure design and reporting mechanisms are presented along with collected production data.

  14. Visual object recognition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  15. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  16. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  17. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  18. Single-Molecule Tracking in Living Cells Using Single Quantum Dot Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the behavior of single molecules in living cells is very useful for understanding cellular events. Quantum dot probes are particularly promising tools for revealing how biological events occur at the single molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will introduce how single quantum dot applications are used for single molecule tracking. We will discuss how single quantum dot tracking has been used in several examples of complex biological processes, including membrane dynamics, neuronal function, selective transport mechanisms of the nuclear pore complex, and in vivo real-time observation. We also briefly discuss the prospects for single molecule tracking using advanced probes. PMID:22896768

  19. Fast neutron detection with coincidence counting of recoil tracks in CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengar, I.; Skvarč, J.; Ilić, R.

    2002-06-01

    Unpredictable background is often the major drawback in the assessment of low fluences of fast neutrons with solid state nuclear track detectors. The problem can be effectively solved by counting coincidence tracks in two detector foils that are in close contact during the irradiation. The detection of fast neutrons performed with a pair of CR-39 detector foils, subsequent chemical etching and evaluation of the etched tracks by an automatic track counting system was studied. After counting, only tracks produced by the same recoil nuclei in the surface layers of both detector foils were taken into account. In this way, the background due to objects that cannot be separated from tracks by an automatic counting system was drastically reduced. Emphasis was given to determining the properties of such a coincidence fast neutron detector based on utilisation of CR-39. The response of the coincidence detector was found to be 3×10 -5 tracks/neutron and is comparable with a detector based on counting tracks in a single foil of CR-39. The lower neutron detection limit was found to be 2×10 4 cm -2 with a counting area of 10 cm 2, and is two orders of magnitude lower than that obtained with a detector based on counting tracks in a single foil of CR-39.

  20. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  1. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    element on multi-layered Pd sample by deuterium permeation / H. Yamada ... [et al.]. Experimental observation and combined investigation of high-performance fusion of iron-region isotopes in optimal growing microbiological associations / V. I. Vysotskii ... [et al.]. Research into low-energy nuclear reactions in cathode sample solid with production of excess heat, stable and radioactive impurity nuclides / A. B. Karabut. Influence of parameters of the glow discharge on change of structure and the isotope composition of the cathode materials / I. B. Savvatimova and D. V. Gavritenkov. Elemental analysis of palladium electrodes after Pd/Pd light water critical electrolysis / Y. Toriyabe ... [et al.]. Progress on the study of isotopic composition in metallic thin films undergone to electrochemical loading of hydrogen / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. In situ accelerator analyses of palladium complex under deuterium permeation / A. Kitamura ... [et al.]. High-resolution mass spectrum for deuterium (hydrogen) gas permeating palladium film / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. ICP-MS analysis of electrodes and electrolytes after HNO[symbol]/H[symbol]O electrolysis / S. Taniguchi ... [et al.]. The Italy-Japan project - fundamental research on cold transmutation process for treatment of nuclear wastes / A. Takahashi, F. Celani and Y. Iwamura -- 4. Nuclear physics approach. Reproducible nuclear emissions from Pd/PdO:Dx heterostructure during controlled exothermic deuterium desorption / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:H[symbol] heterostructure / A. S. Roussetski ... [et al.]. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment / G. H. Miley ... [et al.]. Enhancement of first wall damage in ITER type TOKAMAK due to LENR effects / A. G. Lipson, G. H. Miley and H. Momota. Generation of DD-reactions in a ferroelectric KD

  2. RE-Powering Tracking Matrix

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The RE-Powering Renewable Energy project list tracks completed projects where renewable energy systems have been installed on contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites.This resource is for informational purposes only and may not be comprehensive.

  3. Map projections for satellite tracking.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    New map projections to be used for plotting successive satellite groundtracks show these tracks as straight lines. The map may be made conformal along any 2 parallels of latitude between the limits of latitude reached by the groundtrack, or the 'tracking limits'. If these parallels are equidistant from the Equator, they may both be made true to scale, and a cylindrical projection results. If these parallels are not equidistant from the Equator, only one may be made true to scale, and a conic projection results. The groundtracks generally have sharp breaks at either tracking limit. If the tracking limit is one of the parallels at which the map is conformal, there is no break in the groundtrack, and the conic projection may approach (but cannot become) an azimuthal projection.-Author

  4. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  5. Tracking the SSC test lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.T.; Douglas, D.R.; Forest, E.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic aperture and its determination emerged from the SSC reference design study as the single most important accelerator physics issue pertinent to the SSC. Beside the fundamental need of a finite dynamic aperture for any accelerator, it was considered to be a useful criterion for the magnet selection. An aperture workshop organized in November 1984 at LBL served the purpose to identify the various aspects of the aperture question and to organize the aperture task force accordingly. It was recognized that numerical models had to play an important role and the qualifications of several tracking codes were investigated. None of the existing codes could meet all of the criteria for an ideal tracking code and substantial program development became unavoidable. It was therefore decided to begin tracking SSC test lattices, which were provided by the aperture task force's lattice group and are described in an other paper to this conference, with existing tracking programs. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  7. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2004-12-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  8. The Physics of Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Toys can provide motivational contexts for learning and teaching about physics. A cheap car track provides an almost frictionless environment from which a quantitative study of conservation of energy and circular motion can be made.

  9. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  10. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  15. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay.

  16. Phase-field dithering for active catheter tracking.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, Charles L; Mallozzi, Richard P; Darrow, Robert D; Schmidt, Ehud J

    2010-05-01

    A strategy to increase the robustness of active MR tracking of microcoils in low signal-to-noise ratio conditions was developed and tested. The method employs dephasing magnetic field gradient pulses that are applied orthogonal to the frequency-encoding gradient pulse used in conventional point-source MR tracking. In subsequent acquisitions, the orthogonal dephasing gradient pulse is rotated while maintaining a perpendicular orientation with respect to the frequency-encoding gradient. The effect of the dephasing gradient is to apply a spatially dependent phase shift in directions perpendicular to the frequency-encoding gradient. Since the desired MR signal for robust MR tracking comes from the small volume of nuclear spins near the small detection coil, the desired signal is not dramatically altered by the dephasing gradient. Undesired MR signals arising from larger volumes (e.g., due to coupling with the body coil or surface coils), on the other hand, are dephased and reduced in signal intensity. Since the approach requires no a priori knowledge of the microcoil orientation with respect to the main magnetic field, data from several orthogonal dephasing gradients are acquired and analyzed in real time. One of several selection algorithms is employed to identify the "best" data for use in the coil localization algorithm. This approach was tested in flow phantoms and animal models, with several multiplexing schemes, including the Hadamard and zero-phase reference approaches. It was found to provide improved MR tracking of untuned microcoils. It also dramatically improved MR tracking robustness in low signal-to-noise-ratio conditions and permitted tracking of microcoils that were inductively coupled to the body coil.

  17. Detection and tracking of drones using advanced acoustic cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busset, Joël.; Perrodin, Florian; Wellig, Peter; Ott, Beat; Heutschi, Kurt; Rühl, Torben; Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Recent events of drones flying over city centers, official buildings and nuclear installations stressed the growing threat of uncontrolled drone proliferation and the lack of real countermeasure. Indeed, detecting and tracking them can be difficult with traditional techniques. A system to acoustically detect and track small moving objects, such as drones or ground robots, using acoustic cameras is presented. The described sensor, is completely passive, and composed of a 120-element microphone array and a video camera. The acoustic imaging algorithm determines in real-time the sound power level coming from all directions, using the phase of the sound signals. A tracking algorithm is then able to follow the sound sources. Additionally, a beamforming algorithm selectively extracts the sound coming from each tracked sound source. This extracted sound signal can be used to identify sound signatures and determine the type of object. The described techniques can detect and track any object that produces noise (engines, propellers, tires, etc). It is a good complementary approach to more traditional techniques such as (i) optical and infrared cameras, for which the object may only represent few pixels and may be hidden by the blooming of a bright background, and (ii) radar or other echo-localization techniques, suffering from the weakness of the echo signal coming back to the sensor. The distance of detection depends on the type (frequency range) and volume of the noise emitted by the object, and on the background noise of the environment. Detection range and resilience to background noise were tested in both, laboratory environments and outdoor conditions. It was determined that drones can be tracked up to 160 to 250 meters, depending on their type. Speech extraction was also experimentally investigated: the speech signal of a person being 80 to 100 meters away can be captured with acceptable speech intelligibility.

  18. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  19. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  20. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  1. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of...

  2. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  3. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  4. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  7. Teaching braille line tracking using stimulus fading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces.

  8. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  10. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  11. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  12. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  13. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  14. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  15. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  16. Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. [deep space network and spacecraft tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition (OTDA) and its two worldwide tracking network facilities, the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Deep Space Network, are described. Other topics discussed include the NASA communications network, the tracking and data relay satellite system, other OTDA tracking activities, and OTDA milestones.

  17. CMS tracking performance results from early LHC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2010-11-24

    The first LHC pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV were recorded by the CMS detector in December 2009. The trajectories of charged particles produced in the collisions were reconstructed using the all-silicon Tracker and their momenta were measured in the 3.8 T axial magnetic field. Results from the Tracker commissioning are presented including studies of timing, efficiency, signal-to-noise, resolution, and ionization energy. Reconstructed tracks are used to benchmark the performance in terms of track and vertex resolutions, reconstruction of decays, estimation of ionization energy loss, as well as identification of photon conversions, nuclear interactions, and heavy-flavour decays.

  18. NMR Spectra through the Eyes of a Student: Eye Tracking Applied to NMR Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Topczewski, Anna M.; Tang, Hui; Kendhammer, Lisa K.; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) plays a key role in introductory organic chemistry, spanning theory, concepts, and experimentation. Therefore, it is imperative that the instruction methods for NMR are both efficient and effective. By utilizing eye tracking equipment, the researchers were able to monitor how second-semester organic…

  19. Nuclear recoil measurements with the ARIS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Alden; ARIS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As direct dark matter searches become increasingly sensitive, it is important to fully characterize the target of the search. The goal of the Argon Recoil Ionization and Scintillation (ARIS) experiment is to quantify information related to the scintillation and ionization energy scale, quenching factor, ion recombination probability, and scintillation time response of nuclear recoils, as expected from WIMPs, in liquid argon. A time projection chamber with an active mass of 0.5 kg of liquid argon and capable of full 3D position reconstruction was exposed to an inverse kinematic neutron beam at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay in France. A scan of nuclear recoil energies was performed through coincidence with a set of neutron detectors to quantify properties of nuclear recoils in liquid argon at various electric fields. The difference in ionization and scintillation response with differing recoil track angle to the electric field was also studied. The preliminary results of the experiment will be presented.

  20. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  1. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  2. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation.more » In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.« less

  3. Rotationally Invariant Holographic Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, James L.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Gheen, Gregory; Johnston, Alan R.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-06-01

    A multi-channel holographic correlator has been constructed which can identify and track objects of a given shape across the input field independent of their in-plane rotation. This system, derived from the classic Vander Lugt correlator, incorporates a hololens to store an array of matched spatial filters (MSFs) on thermoplastic film. Each member of the MSF array is generated from a different incrementally rotated version of the training object. Rotational invariant tracking is achieved through superposition of the corresponding array of the correlations in the output plane. Real time tracking is accomplished by utilizing a liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) illuminated with a CRT to process video input signals. The system can be programmed to recognize different objects by recording the MSF array on re-usable thermoplastic film. Discussion of the system architecture and laboratory results are presented.

  4. Tracking the SSC test lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.T.; Douglas, D.R.; Forest, E.

    1985-10-01

    The dynamic aperture and its determination emerged from the SSC reference design study as the single most important accelerator physics issue pertinent to the SSC. Beside the fundamental need of a finite dynamic aperture for any accelerator, it was considered to be a useful criterion for the magnet selection. An aperture workshop organized in November 1984 at LBL served the purpose to identify the various aspects of the aperture question and to organize the aperture task force accordingly. It was recognized that numerical models had to play an important role and the qualifications of several tracking codes were investigated. None of the existing codes could meet all of the criteria for an ideal tracking code and substantial program development became unavoidable. It was therefore decided to begin tracking SSC test lattices.

  5. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  6. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  7. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  8. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  9. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  10. Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Asoke K.; Agarwal, Mahima; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Denèfle, Patrice P.

    2016-07-01

    It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency.

  11. Tracking errors in 2D multiple particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Anne; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Tracking errors due to particles moving in and out of the focal plane are a fundamental problem of multiple particle tracking microrheology. Here, we present a new approach to treat these errors so that a statistically significant number of particle trajectories with reasonable length are received, which is important for an unbiased analysis of multiple particle tracking data from inhomogeneous fluids. Starting from Crocker and Grier’s tracking algorithm, we identify particle displacements between subsequent images as artificial jumps; if this displacement deviates more than four standard deviations from the mean value, trajectories are terminated at such positions. In a further processing step, trajectories separated by a time gap Δ {τ\\text{max}} are merged based on an adaptive search radius criterion accounting for individual particle mobility. For a series of Newtonian fluids covering the viscosity range 6-1300 mPa s, this approach yields the correct viscosity but also results in a viscosity-independent number of trajectories equal to the average number of particles in an image with a minimum length covering at least two orders of magnitude in time. This allows for an unbiased characterization of heterogeneous fluids. For a Carbopol ETD 2050 solution we recover the expected broad variation of particle mobility. Consistent with the widely accepted structural model of highly swollen microgel particles suspended in a polymer solution, we find about 2/3 of the tracers are elastically trapped.

  12. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques.

  13. USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. USA Track & Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Track and Field, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    This book presents comprehensive, ready-to-apply information from 33 world-class coaches and experts about major track and field events for high school and college coaches. The volume features proven predictive testing procedures; detailed event-specific technique instruction; carefully crafted training programs; and preparation and performance…

  14. Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Asoke K.; Agarwal, Mahima; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Denèfle, Patrice P.

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency. PMID:27412732

  15. Enhancement of Particle Track Etch Rate in CR-39 by UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Micah; Ume, Rubab; McLean, James; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2015-11-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is effective for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched at elevated temperatures with NaOH, producing signal pits at the nuclear track sites that are measurable by an optical microscope. CR-39 pieces sometimes also exhibit etch-induced noise, either surface features not caused by nuclear particles. When CR-39 is exposed to high intensity UV light after nuclear irradiation with 5.4 MeV alpha particles and before etching, an increase in etch rates and pit diameters is observed, though UV exposure can also increase noise. We have determined that light from a low pressure mercury vapor lamp (predominantly wavelength 253.7 nm) increases etch rates and pit diameters while causing minimal background noise. Heating CR-39 to elevated temperatures (~80 °C) during UV exposure also improves the signal-to-noise ratio for this process. Surprisingly, initial data from CR-39 irradiated with 3.4 MeV protons and exposed to UV show reduced pit diameters. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  17. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  18. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  19. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  20. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  1. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  2. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  3. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  4. Long distance tracking of birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radio telemetry techniques to the long distance tracking of birds is discussed. The types of equipment developed and methods for attachment to a bird are described. The operating range of the radio transmitter receiver system is examined, and methods for acquiring and analyzing the data are explained.

  5. Tracking Sentence Planning and Production

    PubMed Central

    Bontempo, Daniel; McKedy, Whitney; Schmalzried, RaLynn; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess age differences in the costs of language planning and production. Methods. A controlled sentence production task was combined with digital pursuit rotor tracking. Participants were asked to track a moving target while formulating a sentence using specified nouns and verbs and to continue to track the moving target while producing their response. The length of the critical noun phrase (NP) as well as the type of verb provided were manipulated. Results. The analysis indicated that sentence planning was more costly than sentence production, and sentence planning costs increased when participants had to incorporate a long NP into their sentence. The long NPs also tended to be shifted to the end of the sentence, whereas short NPs tended to be positioned after the verb. Planning or producing responses with long NPs was especially difficult for older adults, although verb type and NP shift had similar costs for young and older adults. Discussion. Pursuit rotor tracking during controlled sentence production reveals the effects of aging on sentence planning and production. PMID:21060066

  6. Math on the Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Quincy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a math-assessment software has allowed his school to track the academic progress of its students. The author relates that in the first year that the software was deployed, schoolwide averages in terms of national standing on the math ITBS rose from the 42nd to 59th percentile. In addition, a significant…

  7. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  8. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  9. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  10. Fluorescent detection of single tracks of alpha particles using lithium fluoride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.

    2017-02-01

    Lithium fluoride single crystals were successfully used for fluorescent imaging of single tracks of alpha particles. This was realized with a standard wide-field fluorescent microscope equipped with a 100× objective. Alpha particles create F2 and F3+ color centers in LiF crystals. The subsequent illumination with the blue light (wavelength around 445 nm), excites these centers and produces fluorescence with a broad band peaked at 670 nm. The observed tracks of alpha particles have diameter of about 500 nm. Focusing of the microscope at different depths in a LiF crystal, enables imaging changes of shape and position of tracks, allowing for visualization of their paths. These encouraging results are the first step towards practical application of LiF as fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

  11. Effect of Track Potentials on the Movement of Secondary Electrons due to Irradiation of Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2017-02-01

    This paper quantitatively discusses the effect of positive nuclear track potentials on the motion of secondary electrons due to heavy-ion irradiation using a simulation model. This model reproduces the tendency of measurement of the number of secondary electrons. Using this model, physical phenomena can be treated closer to reality than those using the conventional models. Here, the track potential is defined as the potential formed from the electric field near the track of a heavy ion. This effect is expected to be given as functions of not only the mean paths (τ) between incident ion impact ionization events but also the average initial secondary electron energies. The results shown in this paper indicate that the effect of the track potential is mainly determined by τ.

  12. Advances in Molecular Imaging Strategies for In Vivo Tracking of Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Won; Gangadaran, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Tracking of immune cells in vivo is a crucial tool for development and optimization of cell-based therapy. Techniques for tracking immune cells have been applied widely for understanding the intrinsic behavior of immune cells and include non-radiation-based techniques such as optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiation-based techniques such as computerized tomography (CT), and nuclear imaging including single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Each modality has its own strengths and limitations. To overcome the limitations of each modality, multimodal imaging techniques involving two or more imaging modalities are actively applied. Multimodal techniques allow integration of the strengths of individual modalities. In this review, we discuss the strengths and limitations of currently available preclinical in vivo immune cell tracking techniques and summarize the value of immune cell tracking in the development and optimization of immune cell therapy for various diseases. PMID:27725934

  13. Customer service model for waste tracking at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M; Montoya, Andrew J; Ashbaugh, Andrew E

    2010-11-10

    The deployment of any new software system in a production facility will always face multiple hurtles in reaching a successful acceptance. However, a new waste tracking system was required at the plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where waste processing must be integrated to handle Special Nuclear Materials tracking requirements. Waste tracking systems can enhance the processing of waste in production facilities when the system is developed with a focus on customer service throughout the project life cycle. In March 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Technical Services (WTS) replaced the aging systems and infrastructure that were being used to support the plutonium processing facility. The Waste Technical Services (WTS) Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) Project Team, using the following customer service model, succeeded in its goal to meet all operational and regulatory requirements, making waste processing in the facility more efficient while partnering with the customer.

  14. A method to account for track overlap in CR-39 detectors.

    PubMed

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors are commonly used for the detection of indoor radon levels. However, despite numerous advantages, this technique still presents many unsolved problems. An important source of error is represented by the reduction in the detection efficiency due to overlapping tracks, which results in a sensible underestimation of the radon levels. This paper presents a new experimental procedure to address the effect of overlapping tracks by establishing a relationship between the detection efficiency and the number of detected tracks. Experimental data have been collected at the radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), at the ENEA centre in Casaccia, using CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys Ltd. It has been proved that the method, applied to the experimental settings of this study, gives reliable results up to 7607 kBq h m(-3). Finally, the method has been validated through a Monte Carlo simulation, exploring a wide range of radon exposure.

  15. TRIAC II. A MatLab code for track measurements from SSNT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiris, D. L.; Blekas, K.; Ioannides, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    A computer program named TRIAC II written in MATLAB and running with a friendly GUI has been developed for recognition and parameters measurements of particles' tracks from images of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The program, using image analysis tools, counts the number of tracks and depending on the current working mode classifies them according to their radii (Mode I—circular tracks) or their axis (Mode II—elliptical tracks), their mean intensity value (brightness) and their orientation. Images of the detectors' surfaces are input to the code, which generates text files as output, including the number of counted tracks with the associated track parameters. Hough transform techniques are used for the estimation of the number of tracks and their parameters, providing results even in cases of overlapping tracks. Finally, it is possible for the user to obtain informative histograms as well as output files for each image and/or group of images. Program summaryTitle of program:TRIAC II Catalogue identifier:ADZC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZC_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: Pentium III, 600 MHz Installations: MATLAB 7.0 Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows XP Programming language used:MATLAB Memory required to execute with typical data:256 MB No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:one Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:25 964 No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 4 354 510 Distribution format:tar.gz Additional comments: This program requires the MatLab Statistical toolbox and the Image Processing Toolbox to be installed. Nature of physical problem: Following the passage of a charged particle (protons and heavier) through a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a damage region is created, usually named latent

  16. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  17. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushpil, Svetlana; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    ALICE detector was constructed to study the properties of hot and dense hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions. During the second long LHC shutdown in 2019-2020, the collaboration plans to upgrade the current vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), in order to increase the reconstruction accuracy of secondary vertices and to lower the threshold of particle transverse momentum measurement. The upgrade strategy of ITS is based on the application of new Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The 50 μm thick chip consists of a single silicon die incorporating a 0.18 μm high-resistivity silicon epitaxial layer (sensor active volume) and matrix of charge collection diodes (pixels) with readout electronics. Radiation hardness of the upgraded ITS is one of the crucial moments in the overall performance of the system. A wide set of MAPS structures with different read-out circuits was produced and is being studied by the ALICE collaboration to optimize the pixel sensor functionality. An overview of the ALICE ITS upgrade and the expected performance improvement will be presented together with selected results from a campaign that includes several irradiation and beam tests.

  18. Improving the detection efficiency in nuclear emulsion trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D`Ambrosio, N.; Lellis, G. De; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Fini, R. A.; Galati, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Grella, G.; Hosseini, B.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Longhin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Montesi, M. C.; Paoloni, A.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roda, M.; Rosa, G.; Schembri, A.; Shchedrina, T.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stellacci, S. M.; Tenti, M.; Tioukov, V.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear emulsion films are a tracking device with unique space resolution. Their use in nowadays large-scale experiments relies on the availability of automated microscope operating at very high speed. In this paper we describe the features and the latest improvements of the European Scanning System, a last-generation automated microscope for emulsion scanning. In particular, we present a new method for the recovery of tracking inefficiencies. Stacks of double coated emulsion films have been exposed to a 10 GeV/c pion beam. Efficiencies as high as 98% have been achieved for minimum ionising particle tracks perpendicular to the emulsion films and of 93% for tracks with tan(θ) ≃ 0.8.

  19. Improved Tracking Of Square-Wave Subcarrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, William J.; Aguirre, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    Variance of phase error reduced. Report discusses application of "windowing" concept to improve ability of telemetry receiver to track phase of square-wave phase-modulation subcarrier signal. Concept based on setting phase-tracking signal at zero outside narrow time "windows", reducing noise energy in processed signal. Result is increase in signal-to-noise ratio in tracking loop with consequent increase in accuracy of tracking and reduction in number of errors in telemetric data.

  20. SNUMedinfo at TREC Web Track 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SNUMedinfo at TREC Web Track 2014 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SNUMedinfo team at the TREC Web track 2014. This is the first time we participate in the Web track. Rather than applying more sophisticated retrieval... Web track 2014 Sungbin Choi, Jinwook Choi Medical Informatics Laboratory, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea wakeup06

  1. More Durable Tracks for Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tie bars instead of threaded fasteners make track throwing less likely. Proposed undercarriage for tank or bulldozer has flanged edges to prevent rocks and other road debris from getting caught in track drive and damaging or casting off track. Improved track has no threaded fasteners to be loosened by road shock and vibration. Continuous chain of floating guide bars articulated at web junctions. Pins replace bolted connections. Guide bars and flanges on vehicle keep out stones.

  2. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  3. Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.

  4. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  5. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  6. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  7. Track Picture Book. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; And Others

    This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)

  8. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  9. 40 CFR 262.84 - Tracking document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exported by rail. (b) The tracking document must include all information required under § 262.83 (for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tracking document. 262.84 Section 262... Recovery within the OECD § 262.84 Tracking document. (a) All U.S. parties subject to the...

  10. Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview of the Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems support functions is given along with a description of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Deep Space Network. Preparations for upcoming missions, wideband communications, and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Systems are discussed.

  11. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part. ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  12. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  13. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  14. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  15. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  16. Characterizing Hurricane Tracks Using Multiple Statistical Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, K. L.; Emanuel, K.; Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    Historical tropical cyclone tracks reveal a wide range of shapes and speeds over different ocean basins. However, they have only been accurately recorded in the last few decades, limiting their representativeness to only a subset of possible tracks in a changing large-scale environment. Taking into account various climate conditions, synthetic tracks can be generated to produce a much larger sample of cyclone tracks to understand variability of cyclone activity and assess future changes. To evaluate how well the synthetic tracks capture the characteristics of the historical tracks, several statistical metrics have been developed to characterize and compare their shapes and movements. In one metric, the probability density functions of storm locations are estimated by modeling the position of the storms as a Markov chain. Another metric is constructed to capture the mutual information between two variables such as velocity and curvature. These metrics are then applied to the synthetic and historical tracks to determine if the latter are plausibly a subset of the former. Bootstrap sampling is used in applying the metrics to the synthetic tracks to accurately compare them with the historical tracks given the large sample size difference. If we confirm that the synthetic tracks capture the variability of the historical ones, high confidence intervals can be determined from the much larger set of synthetic tracks to look for highly unusual tracks and to assess their probability of occurrence.

  17. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    SciTech Connect

    Radle, James E; Archer, Daniel E; Carter, Robert J; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T; Britton Jr, Charles L; Lind, Randall F; Wright, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  18. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  19. Direct Production of Electron-Positron Pairs by 200-GeV/Nucleon Oxygen and Sulfur Ions in Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Eby, P. B.; Moon, K. H.; Parnell, T. A.; King, D. T.; Gregory, J. C.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of direct Coulomb electron-positron pair production have been made on the tracks of relativistic heavy ions in nuclear track emulsion. Tracks of 0(16) and S(32) at 200 GeV/nucleon were studied. The measured total cross sections and energy and emission angle distributions for the pair members are compared to theoretical predictions. The data are consistent with some recent calculations when knock-on electron contamination is accounted for.

  20. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  1. Making Tracks on Mars (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission. The rover traveled more than 3 kilometers (2 miles) to reach the 'Columbia Hills' pictured here. In this 360-degree view of the rolling martian terrain, its wheel tracks can be seen approaching from the northwest (right side of image).

    Spirit's navigation camera took the images that make up this mosaic on sols 210 and 213 (Aug. 5 and Aug. 8, 2004). The rover is now conducting scientific studies of the local geology on the 'Clovis' outcrop of the 'West Spur' region of the 'Columbia Hills.' The view is presented in a polar projection with geometrical seam correction. Scientists plan for Spirit to take a color panoramic image from this location.

  2. Making Tracks on Mars (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission. The rover traveled more than 3 kilometers (2 miles) to reach the 'Columbia Hills' pictured here. In this 360-degree view of the rolling martian terrain, its wheel tracks can be seen approaching from the northwest (right side of image).

    Spirit's navigation camera took the images that make up this mosaic on sols 210 and 213 (Aug. 5 and Aug. 8, 2004). The rover is now conducting scientific studies of the local geology on the 'Clovis' outcrop of the 'West Spur' region of the 'Columbia Hills.' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction. Scientists plan for Spirit to take a color panoramic image from this location.

  3. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  4. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O׳Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radiopurity required for this rare decay search.

  5. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  6. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  7. Discretization errors in particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmon, G.; Mamman, N.; Feingold, M.

    2007-03-01

    High precision video tracking of microscopic particles is limited by systematic and random errors. Systematic errors are partly due to the discretization process both in position and in intensity. We study the behavior of such errors in a simple tracking algorithm designed for the case of symmetric particles. This symmetry algorithm uses interpolation to estimate the value of the intensity at arbitrary points in the image plane. We show that the discretization error is composed of two parts: (1) the error due to the discretization of the intensity, bD and (2) that due to interpolation, bI. While bD behaves asymptotically like N-1 where N is the number of intensity gray levels, bI is small when using cubic spline interpolation.

  8. The fission track detector revisited: application to individual neutron dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Prêtre, S; Aroua, A; Boschung, M; Grecescu, M; Valley, J F; Wernli, C

    1996-08-01

    A system based on fission fragment tracks had previously been developed for individual neutron dosimetry. The dosimeter detects both fast neutrons by means of the 232Th(n,f) reaction, and thermal and albedo neutrons by means of the 235U(n,f) reaction. The fission tracks produced in a plastic foil are chemically etched and counted by spark discharges. The response of the dosimeter has recently been re-investigated in 36 different neutron fields: monoenergetic beams, reference fields near isotopic sources, and radiation fields encountered in a variety of situations inside nuclear power plants. The results obtained have been compared to those computed by convolution of the neutron spectra with the energy response functions of the dosimeters. In practical situations, it is essential to know the shape of the neutron spectrum, approximately at least, in order to perform an acceptably accurate dose evaluation. For that purpose, the neutron fields encountered inside nuclear power plants have been grouped into four categories, for which algorithms for dose evaluation have been developed. Concerning the neutron equivalent dose, the error associated with this approach does not exceed a factor of 2, a performance which is comparable to other detection systems used in the field of individual neutron dosimetry.

  9. Comparison of Pd/D co-deposition and DT neutron generated triple tracks observed in CR-39 detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Dea, J. Y.; Forsley, L. P. G.; Morey, M. S.; Tinsley, J. R.; Hurley, J. P.; Gordon, F. E.

    2010-08-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), such as CR-39, have been used to detect energetic charged particles and neutrons. Of the neutron and charged particle interactions that can occur in CR-39, the one that is the most easily identifiable is the carbon breakup reaction. The observation of a triple track, which appears as three alpha particle tracks breaking away from a center point, is diagnostic of the 12C(n, n')3α carbon breakup reaction. Such triple tracks have been observed in CR-39 detectors that have been used in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. In this communication, triple tracks in CR-39 detectors observed in Pd/D co-deposition experiments are compared with those generated upon exposure to a DT neutron source. It was found that both sets of tracks were indistinguishable. Both symmetric and asymmetric tracks were observed. Using linear energy transfer (LET) curves and track modeling, the energy of the neutron that created the triple track can be estimated.

  10. Low Earth Orbit Satellite Tracking Telescope Network: Collaborative Optical Tracking for Enhanced Space Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE TRACKING TELESCOPE NETWORK: COLLABORATIVE OPTICAL TRACKING FOR ENHANCED...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-200 LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE TRACKING TELESCOPE NETWORK: COLLABORATIVE OPTICAL...STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-200 LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITE TRACKING TELESCOPE NETWORK

  11. Hyperspectral-Augmented Target Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    I am able to overcome my weaknesses and take advantage of my strengths. Second, I extend my love to my wife, son, and mother -in-law for their uncondi...technology to enhance its capability to “track, record, and analyze the movement of every vehicle in a foreign city” [41]. 1.1 Problems with...configurations and ambiguous scenarios, which are used for determining the feasibility of the hyperspectral-augmented tracker. This chapter also analyzes and

  12. TREC 2013 Web Track Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-30

    relative to a provided baseline). Second, we based the 2013 Web track experiments on the new ClueWeb12 collection created by the Language Technologies...sophisticated stages of retrieval in their quest to improve result quality: from personalized and contextual re-ranking to automatic query reformulation ...B manual 0.045 0.058 0.038 6 Acknowledgements We thank Jamie Callan, David Pane and the Language Technologies Insti- tute at Carnegie Mellon

  13. An Indexed Bibliography on Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Scientific Research and Development. 0040 Ayres, T. J., & Hughes, P. (1986). Visual acuity with noise and music at 107 dbA. Journal of Auditory...V dysfunction, dysmetric, dyslexia, and dyspraxia. Academic Therapy , 12(1), 5-27. 0314 Franks, I.M. & Wilberg, R.B. (1984). Consistent reproduction...B. (1984). Eye tracking dysfunction in alzheimer -type dementia. Neurology, 34(1), 99-102. 0472 Iacono, W. G. (1978). Individual differences in smooth

  14. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process.

  15. Multitarget Tracking Using Optical Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    cellular automata ," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1058, 10-14 (1989). 9. R. M. Kuczewski, "Neural network approaches to multi-target tracking," Proc...024 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION’OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Ia. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS...UNCLASSIFIED 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY OF REPORT UNCLAS S I FIED/UNLIMITED Zb. DECLASSIFICATION IDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE

  16. Infrared tag and track technique

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Stone, Mark L.; Slater, John; Davidson, James R.

    2007-12-04

    A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

  17. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  18. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  19. Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jens B; Hogue, Ian B; Feric, Marina; Thiberge, Stephan Y; Sodeik, Beate; Brangwynne, Clifford P; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-10-20

    The nuclear chromatin structure confines the movement of large macromolecular complexes to interchromatin corrals. Herpesvirus capsids of approximately 125 nm assemble in the nucleoplasm and must reach the nuclear membranes for egress. Previous studies concluded that nuclear herpesvirus capsid motility is active, directed, and based on nuclear filamentous actin, suggesting that large nuclear complexes need metabolic energy to escape nuclear entrapment. However, this hypothesis has recently been challenged. Commonly used microscopy techniques do not allow the imaging of rapid nuclear particle motility with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we use a rotating, oblique light sheet, which we dubbed a ring-sheet, to image and track viral capsids with high temporal and spatial resolution. We do not find any evidence for directed transport. Instead, infection with different herpesviruses induced an enlargement of interchromatin domains and allowed particles to diffuse unrestricted over longer distances, thereby facilitating nuclear egress for a larger fraction of capsids.

  20. Automated Tracking of Drosophila Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Rubén; Macía-Vázquez, Germán; Zalama, Eduardo; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Perán, José-Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has become a model organism in the study of neurobiology and behavior patterns. The analysis of the way the fly moves and its behavior is of great scientific interest for research on aspects such as drug tolerance, aggression or ageing in humans. In this article, a procedure for detecting, identifying and tracking numerous specimens of Drosophila by means of computer vision-based sensing systems is presented. This procedure allows dynamic information about each specimen to be collected at each moment, and then for its behavior to be quantitatively characterized. The proposed algorithm operates in three main steps: a pre-processing step, a detection and segmentation step, and tracking shape. The pre-processing and segmentation steps allow some limits of the image acquisition system and some visual artifacts (such as shadows and reflections) to be dealt with. The improvements introduced in the tracking step allow the problems corresponding to identity loss and swaps, caused by the interaction between individual flies, to be solved efficiently. Thus, a robust method that compares favorably to other existing methods is obtained. PMID:26258779

  1. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  2. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  3. Subnanoradian, Groundbased Tracking of Spaceborne Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    Over the next few decades groundbased tracking of lasers on planetary spacecraft will supplement or replace tracking of radio transponders. This paper describes research on two candidate technologies for groundbased, angular, laser tracking: the infrared interferometer and the optical filled-aperture telescope. The motivation for infrared and optical tracking will be followed by a description of the current (10-50 nanoradian) and future (subnanororadian) stellar tracking demonstrations with the University of California-Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) and the University of California-San Diego Optical Ronchi Telescope.

  4. Nuclear stiffening and chromatin softening with progerin expression leads to an attenuated nuclear response to force.

    PubMed

    Booth, Elizabeth A; Spagnol, Stephen T; Alcoser, Turi A; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2015-08-28

    Progerin is a mutant form of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin A, and its expression results in the rare premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Patients with HGPS demonstrate several characteristic signs of aging including cardiovascular and skeletal dysfunction. Cells from HGPS patients show several nuclear abnormalities including aberrant morphology, nuclear stiffening and loss of epigenetic modifications including heterochromatin territories. However, it is unclear why these changes disproportionately impact mechanically-responsive tissues. Using micropipette aspiration, we show that nuclei in progerin-expressing cells are stiffer than control cells. Conversely, our particle tracking reveals the nuclear interior becomes more compliant in cells from HGPS patients or with progerin expression, as consistent with decreased chromatin condensation as shown previously. Additionally, we find the nuclear interior is less responsive to external mechanical force from shear or compression likely resulting from damped force propagation due to nucleoskeletal stiffening. Collectively our findings suggest that force is similarly transduced into the nuclear interior in normal cells. In HGPS cells a combination of a stiffened nucleoskeleton and softened nuclear interior leads to mechanical irregularities and dysfunction of mechanoresponsive tissues in HGPS patients.

  5. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  8. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  9. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  10. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  11. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  12. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  13. Consecutive pedestrian tracking in large scale space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jinpeng; Xu, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrian tracking is an important and meaningful part of the computer vision topic. Given the position of pedestrian in the first frame, our goal is to automatically determine the accurate position of the target pedestrian in every frame that follows. Current tracking methods show good performance in short-term tracking. However, there are still some open problems in real scenes, e.g. pedestrian re-identification under multi-camera surveillance and pedestrian tracking under occlusions. In our paper, we proposed an efficient method for consecutive tracking, which can deal with the challenging view changes and occlusions. Proposed tracker consists of short-time tracking mechanism and consecutive tracking mechanism. The consecutive tracking mechanism will be activated while the target pedestrian is under occlusion or changes dramatically in appearance. In consecutive tracking mechanism, proposed algorithm will detect the target pedestrian using a coarse but fast feature as first level classifier and a fine feature as the last level classifier. After regaining the accurate position of target pedestrian, the appearance model of the target pedestrian will be updated as historical information and the short-time tracking mechanism will be activated again to continue tracking the target pedestrian. Experimental results show that the proposed method can handle hard cases and achieve higher success rate than the current existing methods.

  14. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    small modular reactors and extend the lives and improve the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants. 40 Interdisciplinary MIT Study, The Future of Nuclear Power, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 79. 41 Gronlund, Lisbeth, David Lochbaum, and Edwin Lyman, Nuclear Power in a Warming World, Union of Concerned Scientists, December 2007. 42 Travis Madsen, Tony Dutzik, and Bernadette Del Chiaro, et al., Generating Failure: How Building Nuclear Power Plants

  15. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    of efforts to improve the safety of nuclear reactors that were started together with the USSR. These efforts are focused in particular on...characteristics of these reactors are quite encouraging. With their improved safety and low radiation effect on environment they ensure the possi...Nuclear Power [KYODO] 3 Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Reports Leak [KYODO] 3 NORTH KOREA Nuclear Weapons Capability Discussed by ROK Paper

  16. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  17. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  19. Optical memory system having track following

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, D.; LaBudde, E.V.

    1984-02-14

    A high density optical storage system is disclosed which employs a laser beam for reading data in a track on a rotating optical disk containing a large number of concentric tracks. Track following is provided using a galvanometer-controlled mirror in the path of the beam which is angularly deflected during track following in response to detected track deviations, whereby the beam is controlled to accurately follow the track. Provision is also made for detecting the angular position of the mirror. A linear motor responsive to the detected angular position moves the mirror in a direction which reduces the deflection required to be provided by the mirror in order to maintain the beam accurately following the track. The mirror is also controlled in response to the rate of change of the linear motor velocity for providing greater system stability.

  20. Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weixing; Ewing, Rodney C.; Wang Lumin; Sun Kai; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Fission tracks caused by the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U in minerals, as revealed by chemical etching, are extensively used to determine the age and thermal history of Earth's crust. Details of the structure and annealing of tracks at the atomic scale have remained elusive, as the original track is destroyed during chemical etching. By combining transmission electron microscopy with in situ heating, we demonstrate that fission tracks in fluorapatite are actually porous tubes, instead of having an amorphous core, as generally assumed. Direct observation shows thermally induced track fragmentation in fluoapatite, in clear contrast to the amorphous tracks in zircon, which gradually ''fade'' without fragmentation. Rayleigh instability and the thermal emission of vacancies control the annealing of porous fission tracks in fluorapatite.