Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear weapons policy

  1. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  2. Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sismanidis, R.D.

    1985-12-04

    This study examines Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies and focuses on the period since 1982. The section on nuclear weapons policies and capabilities discusses China`s land, sea, and airborne deterrent forces, the development of tactical nuclear weapons, and nuclear doctrine and policy. The section on arms control policy describes Beijing`s stance on disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control talks, the United States-Soviet space race, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. The conclusion examines the military and political objectives of nuclear weapons and arms control policies in China`s independent foreign policy.

  3. Post Cold War Nuclear Weapons Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    are unknown.”14 This instability threatens the success and future of the NPT. According to scholar Joseph F. Pilat , While the vision of a nuclear...for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, April 2007. 15 Joseph F. Pilat , “Nonproliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament, and ExtendedDeterrence

  4. Coping With Nuclear Weapons Policy: How Expert Do You Have To Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruina, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Points out that policy decisions about nuclear weapons evolve from politics, bureaucracy, and technology, indicating that intelligent people can learn enough about technology to make judgments about policy issues. Suggests, however, that much more thinking is necessary to arrive at a coherent perspective about what constitutes nuclear weapons…

  5. Coping With Nuclear Weapons Policy: How Expert Do You Have To Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruina, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Points out that policy decisions about nuclear weapons evolve from politics, bureaucracy, and technology, indicating that intelligent people can learn enough about technology to make judgments about policy issues. Suggests, however, that much more thinking is necessary to arrive at a coherent perspective about what constitutes nuclear weapons…

  6. The Continuing Environmental Threat of Nuclear Weapons: Integrated Policy Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Bardeen, Charles

    2007-05-01

    Humans have come to the realization that pollution of the atmosphere with gases and particles in the past 50 years is the dominant cause of atmospheric change. While land-use change can produce large regional effects, ozone depletion, global warming, and nuclear smoke all are human-driven problems that have actual or potential global adverse impacts on our fragile environment, each with severe consequences for humanity. These effects were, or would be, inadvertent and unplanned consequences of normal daily activities, the defense policies of many nations, and nuclear proliferation. Thus, we must seek ways of continuing our normal lives while protecting ourselves from environmental catastrophe.

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  8. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  9. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  10. The role of belief systems in shaping nuclear weapons policy preference and thinking in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Krasno, J.E.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study examines motivations behind the decisions of national leaders to pursue or not to pursue the development of nuclear weapons. The research, which builds upon work done in the field of Political Psychology, was conducted in Brazil and focuses on the role that belief systems play in shaping policy preferences and thinking by members of the Brazilian elite on nuclear issues. The data were gathered in Brazil through in-depth interviews and a questionnaire administered to members of the Brazilian elite who be- long to groups which have input in forming policy. Proliferation studies, generally, have concentrated on the acquisition of nuclear technology and have rarely studied motivations which contribute to the demand for these weapons. Research on beliefs and policy formation suggests that beliefs and values should be expected to play a role in shaping nuclear policy. The results show that beliefs about status, power, competition, and moral considerations do correlate very significantly with policy thinking on nuclear issues and therefore sustain the hypothesis of this study. However, the findings on worldview do not significantly correlate with nuclear policy thinking and therefore do not sustain the prevailing hypothesis on that relationship.

  11. Nuclear Weapon A Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    the weapon systems available. The nuclear changing strategies, from "massive retaliation, flexible response, counter force, counter value , mutual...technological advancement, communication, transportation and manpower resources. Last but not the least, the maintenance of national morale and motivation...crisis. This meant continuos control of nuclear weapons. The organizations designed to control such weapons have no doubt checks and balances and many 12

  12. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  13. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  14. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  15. Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

  16. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  17. Identification of nuclear weapons

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

    1987-04-10

    A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

  18. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  19. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  20. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  1. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  2. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  3. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: Changes in Policy and Force Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-27

    targets, nuclear forces, and civilian leadership sites in Russia.45 The Clinton Administration argued that the flexibility offered by this range of...reactors. These facilities, which were operated by a number of industrial contractors, included the Hanford site near Richland, WA; the Savannah... Hanford and Savannah River, in response to safety concerns. The Rocky Flats Plant, which produced the nuclear triggers, or “pits,” for nuclear weapons

  4. Nuclear weapons and international law

    SciTech Connect

    Pogany, I.

    1987-01-01

    Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  5. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  6. Nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.B.; Markusen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the section titles are: Is Hiroshima Our Text.; Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects; Can Nuclear War be Survived.; The Debate Over U.S. Strategic Nuclear Weapons Policy; and Costs of the Arms Race.

  7. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: Changes in Policy and Force Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-23

    nuclear forces, and civilian leadership sites in Russia.47 The Clinton Administration argued that the flexibility offered by this range of options...acquired the accuracy needed to attack many hardened sites in the former Soviet Union. and heavy bombers are known as strategic nuclear weapons; the short...contractors, included the Hanford site near Richland, WA; the Savannah River Site , near Aiken, SC; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, near Idaho Falls

  8. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  9. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  10. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  11. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Fieldhouse, R. )

    1991-05-01

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler.

  12. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-12-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.

  13. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  14. Limited war, limited autonomy: The state, domestic politics, and the evolution of U. S. nuclear weapons policy (Volumes 1 and 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Mlyn, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between state and society for the formation of US nuclear weapons policy. By looking at three case studies that cover the years 1960-1983, Mlyn, seeks to determine whether society and, in turn, domestic politics have been important for the formulation of US nuclear weapons policy. The theoretical approach, which applies the conceptual underpinnings of statism, draws on existing theory in American politics and international relations. The case studies are constructed from interviews with former government officials, archival research, and secondary sources. The substantive focus of the study is the relationship between declaratory policy and targeting policy. For much of the nuclear age, declaratory policy embraced mutual assured destruction (MAD) while actual targeting policy embraced war fighting, or the opposite of MAD. As the state moved toward a declaratory policy that embraced war fighting and limited nuclear options, it lost its autonomy from society in formulating nuclear weapons policy. This loss of autonomy coincided with a relative decline for the US vis a vis the Soviet Union in the overall strategic nuclear balance. The causes and consequences of this shift are explored.

  15. Recapitalizing Nuclear Weapons (Walker Paper, Number 8)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Information Warfare and later executive officer for the Direc- tor of Operations at Headquarters Air Mobility Command (AMC), Scott AFB, Illinois... Allison Mc- farlane posits that all WMD are not equal and urges caution in establishing US nuclear weapons policy against the generic term WMD.13...11 August 2004, 2–3. 13. Allison Mcfarlane, “All Weapons of Mass Destruction are not Equal,” MIT Center for International Studies, Audit of

  16. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  17. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  18. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  19. Interdicting a Nuclear-Weapons Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-04

    tyrant wing.” Shakespeare, The Phoenix and the Turtle Subject classifications: Government: defense, foreign policy; Military: targeting...Carlyle, E. Skroch, K. Wood. 2006. Anatomy of a project to produce a first nuclear weapon. Sci. & Global Security. 14 163-182. 4 December 2007 35

  20. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-19

    officials, including Foreign Minister Lavrov and Deputy Prime Minister Ryabkov, have indicated that it is too soon to move forward on negotiations...Sergei Lavrov , have stated that a future arms control agreement should also include limits on missile defenses, strategic-range weapons that carry...conventional warheads, and possibly weapons in space. Minister Lavrov stated, specifically, that it is impossible to discuss only one aspect of the

  1. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-14

    several Russian officials, including Foreign Minister Lavrov and Deputy Prime Minister Ryabkov, have indicated that it is too soon to move forward on... Lavrov , have stated that a future arms control agreement should also include limits on missile defenses, strategic-range weapons that carry conventional...warheads, and possibly weapons in space. Minister Lavrov stated, specifically, that it is impossible to discuss only one aspect of the problem at

  2. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  3. What Are Nuclear Weapons For?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2007-03-01

    Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

  4. Nuclear obligations: Nuremberg law, nuclear weapons, and protest

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons use and deployment and nonviolent anti-nuclear protests are evaluated. Use of nuclear weapons would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in both the Nuremberg Charter and Allied Control Council Law No. 10 and applied by the International Military Tribunal and other Nuremberg courts. Strategic and atomic bombing during World War 2 did not set a precedent for use of nuclear weapons. The consequentialist argument for World War 2 bombing fails and the bombing has also been repudiated by codification of the law of war in Protocol 1 to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The legality of deploying nuclear weapons as instruments of geopolitical policy is questionable when measured against the Nuremberg proscription of planning and preparation of aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity and the United Nations Charter's proscription of aggressive threat of force. While states' practice of deploying the weapons and the arms-control treaties that regulate but do not prohibit mere possession provide some support for legality, those treaties recognize the imperative of preventing nuclear war, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear-armed states to good-faith negotiation of nuclear disarmament.

  5. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K H

    2005-08-15

    Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile as well as the nuclear-weapons enterprise needs to continue to change to reflect this evolving role. Stockpile reductions in the early 1990s and the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), established after the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992, began this process of change. Further evolution is needed to address changing security environments, to enable further reductions in the number of stockpiled weapons, and to create a nuclear enterprise that is cost effective and sustainable for the long term. The SSP has successfully maintained the U.S. nuclear stockpile for more than a decade, since the end of nuclear testing. Current plans foresee maintaining warheads produced in the 1980s until about 2040. These warheads continue to age and they are expensive to refurbish. The current Life Extension Program plans for these legacy warheads are straining both the nuclear-weapons production and certification infrastructure making it difficult to respond rapidly to problems or changes in requirements. Furthermore, refurbishing and preserving Cold-War-era nuclear weapons requires refurbishing and preserving an infrastructure geared to support old technology. Stockpile Stewardship could continue this refurbishment approach, but an alternative approach could be considered that is more focused on sustainable technologies, and developing a more responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure. Guided by what we have learned from SSP during the last decade, the stewardship program can be evolved to address this increasing challenge using its computational and experimental tools and capabilities. This approach must start

  6. Uncrackable code for nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Mark

    2014-11-20

    Mark Hart, a scientist and engineer in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Defense Technologies Division, has developed a new approach for ensuring nuclear weapons and their components can't fall prey to unauthorized use. The beauty of his approach: Let the weapon protect itself. "Using the random process of nuclear radioactive decay is the gold standard of random number generators," said Mark Hart. "You’d have a better chance of winning both Mega Millions and Powerball on the same day than getting control of IUC-protected components."

  7. Uncrackable code for nuclear weapons

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Hart, a scientist and engineer in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Defense Technologies Division, has developed a new approach for ensuring nuclear weapons and their components can't fall prey to unauthorized use. The beauty of his approach: Let the weapon protect itself. "Using the random process of nuclear radioactive decay is the gold standard of random number generators," said Mark Hart. "You’d have a better chance of winning both Mega Millions and Powerball on the same day than getting control of IUC-protected components."

  8. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  9. The Forbidden Weapon - The Employment of Army Tactical Nuclear Weapons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    needs to retain a tactical nuclear weapons capability because TNW, if needed on the battlefield, can be delivered by Air Force or Navy systems . 14...delivery sys- tem. Secondly, remaining Army tactical nuclear weapons systems may be negotiated to reduced levels or relinquished in the not too distant...tactical nuclear weapons system by 1954 to provide the Army with a real- istic TNW capability. The Corporal surface-to-surfacE missile, with a seventy-five

  10. Living with Nuclear Weapons - Avoiding Nuclear War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    00 LIVING ’V1I4. NUCL EAR WEAPONS -AVOIDING NUCLEAR W~AR C. Pr~ston Niblack ..une -8 P-75-7 The RAND ",rporation Papers are issued by The RAND...necessarily shared by RAND or its research sponsors. The RAND Corporation. 1700 Main Street, P ) Bix 213t8, Santa Monica, CA 90406- � LIVING WITH NUCLEAR...is p"etty impressive. Still, nuclear weapons exist . and that alone is very womsome to many people. including to all of us here, because as long as they

  11. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-22

    Fast, reliable, and accurate communications are essential for nuclear weapon accident response operations. Moreover, securing adequate internal ...activities near the scene of a nuclear weapon accident to speed the flow of information to the public and the internal audience. Although it is 183...Departments and Agencies in a nuclear weapon accident. Inherent in this event are the relationships between international , national, State, and

  12. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    SciTech Connect

    Immele, John D; Wagner, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the

  13. The case for eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.V.

    1989-09-01

    The primary reasons for the elimination of NATO's BNW are two. First, BNW are superfluous for deterrence. Other weapons are better suited for that purpose. Second, and more important, any deployment of nuclear weapons in Western Europe necessarily involves three critical trade-offs: a trade-off between deterrence and reassurance in peacetime, a trade-off between deterrence and crisis stability in times of high political tension, and a trade-off between deterrence and controlled use in war. Whatever purpose BNW purportedly serve as deterrents come at a disproportionate cost to peacetime reassurance, crisis stability, and wartime control. The continued presence of BNW in Western Europe is hard to explain in rational terms; it is more readily explicable by organizational and political inertia. To see why continued inertia is dangerous, the author first examine briefly the military purposes that nuclear weapons allegedly serve for NATO - that is, what they are said to deter and how. Then, he examines the paradoxes in the logic of deterrence of conventional attack in Europe and, flowing from those paradoxes, the critical policy dilemmas posed by BNW. Next, and fundamental to the discussion, he raises the critical organizational and political predicaments that any coherent strategy for continued deployment of these weapons must overcome. Finally, he discusses the political ramifications of keeping these weapons in place.

  14. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: Changes in Policy and Force Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-10

    and to plan attacks against military targets, nuclear forces, and civilian leadership sites in Russia.45 The Clinton Administration argued that the...operated by a number of industrial contractors, included the Hanford site near Richland, WA; the Savannah River Site , near Aiken, SC; the Idaho...1940s and 1950s, so they were deteriorating significantly during the 1980s. In 1988, DOE closed the nuclear reactors at Hanford and Savannah River, in

  15. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  16. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    Command and Control Support System, which “enables robust Command and Control capability of all strategic assets with round the clock situational ...although then-President Musharraf claimed to be in firm control of the nuclear arsenal, she feared this control could weaken due to instability in the...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s

  17. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  18. Preventing Catastrophe: U.S. Policy Options for the Management of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Tlatelolco did for Argentina and Brazil. An even-handed policy toward both South Asian countries might have granted the U.S. the bona fides to serve as an...success was achieved only after a regional agreement, the Treaty of Tlatelolco , was put in place. There are three general reasons that current U.S

  19. US defense policy, US Air Force doctrine and strategic nuclear weapon systems, 1958-1964: the case of the Minuteman ICBM

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the efforts of the US Air Force during 1958-1964 to develop doctrine for strategic nuclear weapon systems. These years were characterized by rapid, extensive change in the technology of nuclear weapons delivery systems, centering in ICBMs replacing bombers as the chief vehicles. Simultaneously, national military strategy changed with the transfer of power from the Eisenhower to the Kennedy Administrations, shifting from reliance on overwhelming nuclear retaliation to emphasis on balanced conventional and nuclear forces. Against this background, the study poses the question: did the Air Force, when confronted with major changes in technology and national policy, develop doctrine for strategic nuclear weapon systems that was politically acceptable, technically feasible, and strategically sound. Using the development of the Minuteman ICBM as a case study, the study examines the evolution of Air Force doctrine and concludes that the Air Force did not, because of conceptual problems and bureaucratic exigencies, develop a doctrine adequate to the requirements of deterrence in the dawning era of solid-fuel ICBMs.

  20. Carrot, Stick, or Sledgehammer: U.S. Policy Options for North Korean Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    reported by Washington Post’s Bob Woodward from a summer 2002 interview quoted in The CQ Researcher, 13, no. 14, (11 April 2003), 324. 12 George Bush... memory aid to describe four potential explanations. North Korea may intend to blackmail the United States into providing security guarantees...some point, it can be assumed that the U.S. administration will want to change the music by shifting to a more coercive policy approach. During the

  1. Nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Heylin, M.

    1988-02-15

    The author examines the history of efforts to ban, or at least constrain, nuclear tests. The issue has been marked by shifts in attitude by the superpowers in recent times. The Reagan Administration sees a comprehensive test ban only as a very long-term goal for the U.S. The Soviets, on the other hand, have been pushing extremely hard lately for a ban on all testing. The author discusses the pros and cons of such a ban by examining the arguments of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nobel Laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, and Associate Director for Defense Systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory George H. Miller. Other issues that are discussed include verification, joint testing, and reliability. He concludes with a discussion of the future of the ban.

  2. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  3. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  4. Search for sanity: The politics of nuclear weapons and disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, P.; Rosenblum, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the political aspects of nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include nuclear deterrence, military strategy, the military-industrial complex, the nuclear balance, first strike, nuclear errors and accidents, treaty verification, survival, the economic impact of military spending, Western European peace movements, peace movements in Eastern Europe, the cold war, nuclear diplomacy, moral aspects, the defense budget, national security, foreign policy, proliferation, and nuclear disarmament.

  5. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  6. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    Thorium Energy Security Act of 2010. Authorizes regulations and demonstration projects for thorium -fueled reactors . Introduced March 3, 2010...include federal incentives for new commercial reactors , radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety...and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. Significant incentives for new commercial reactors were

  7. US changes course on nuclear-weapons strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    US President Barack Obama has signalled a new approach to nuclear-weapons policy that limits their use against other states and documents how the country will ensure the viability of existing stockpiles. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), which sets out the US's nuclear strategy over a 10-year period, also calls for a highly skilled workforce to ensure "the long-term safety, security and effectiveness of the nuclear arsenal and to support the full range of nuclear-security work".

  8. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  9. Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C. ); Kay, D.A. )

    1992-07-01

    UN inspectors discovered an electromagnetic isotope separation factory that put Iraq just 18-30 months away from having enough material for a bomb. They also found European centrifuge technology and plans for an implosion device. The inspections of Iraq mandated by the United Nations as a cease-fire condition at the end of the Gulf War in February 1991 have revealed a clandestine nuclear materials production and weapons design program of unexpected size and sophistication. The total value of that program, in terms of equipment and personnel deployed between 1981 and 1991, may be on the order of $5-10 billion. The program employed an estimated 7000 scientist and 20,000 workers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Controlling nuclear weapons: Democracy versus guardianship

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, R.

    1985-01-01

    This is not a new plan for arms control but an inquiry as to whether democratic institutions can cope with the major problems of public policy today. Robert Dahl points out that decisions on nuclear weapons (or disposal of nuclear waste, reactor safety or industrial pollution, to cite a few examples) are too complex and technical for the average citizen; yet if they are turned over to an elite of experts or ''wise men'' or guardians, there is no guarantee that those men will have the moral and other qualities needed to serve the public good-delegated power in these circumstances tends to become alienated power. Dahl has a partial answer: make use of the new communications technology to raise level of public knowledge and understanding.

  11. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  12. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  13. Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

  14. Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program Updated June 23, 2005 Jonathan Medalia Specialist in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade...23 JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00- 2005 to 00-00- 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead...Subcommittee, Strategic Forces and Nuclear Weapons Issues in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2006, Apr. 4, 2005 , pp. 15-16

  15. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave SE... 7 ; the Foreign Relations Committee held a hearing October 7 . It quickly became clear that the treaty was far short of the votes for approval...build new nuclear weapons, and abandon CRS-4 7 Physicians for Social Responsibility, “PSR: Bush Nuclear Weapons Plan Sets Stage for new Bombs

  16. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  17. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  18. Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, John; Acton, James M.

    2014-06-01

    A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Article p.497

  19. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  20. Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Burrows, A.S.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the political turmoil and economic hardship that beset these countries. The history of the British nuclear weapons program includes the most comprehensive collection of photos and specifications of British warheads and nuclear tests ever assembled in one publication. The role of the United States in the French nuclear weapons program is discussed. This is a comprehensive source for the mechanics and politics of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  1. Chinese tactical nuclear weapons. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The United States, Russia and Great Britain have retired all nonstrategic nuclear weapons. Surprisingly, China has not, China seems to value highly tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs). Most studies of China`s nuclear arsenal focus on strategic nuclear weapons. This focus could mislead those trying to understand PRC TNW strategy. The purpose of this thesis is to explain China`s TNW development. China`s nuclear arsenal evolution can be described in three phases. In the first phase, China developed a limited strategic nuclear deterrent. China`s arsenal was driven by threat. Technology supplanted threat as the dominant driver during the next phase. While conducting research to miniaturize strategic warheads, were developed. During the third phase, a reduced threat caused political leaders to restrain the nuclear program. The nuclear program reverted to its primary objective - building strategic weapons, causing TNW production to level off. This study explains the last two phases of TNW development. The research goals are twofold: to compare threat and technology, the primary motivations driving TNW production; and to examine the relationship between doctrine and development, describing how one influences the other. The conclusion offers U.S. foreign policy recommendations.

  2. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  3. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  4. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  5. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  6. Interdicting a Nuclear-Weapons Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    every fowl of tyrant wing. Shakespeare, The Phoenix and the Turtle 1. Introduction Sixty years after the United States detonated the first nuclear...Carlyle, E. Skroch, K. Wood. 2006. Anatomy of a project to produce a first nuclear weapon. Sci. Global Security 14 163–182. International Atomic

  7. Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

  8. Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W; Levy, Barry S

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. "Vertical" proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation--and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons--involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

  9. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  10. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  11. Is There Future Utility in Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Weapons Save Lives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    Barack H. Obama , President of the United States, (address, Prague, Czechoslavakia, 5 Apr 2009). 9 Michael Levi, On Nuclear Terrorism (Campbridge...MA: Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2007), 127. 10 Barack H. Obama , President of the United States, (address, Prague, Czechoslavakia, 5 Apr...Threat Initiative. “Nuclear Weapons Budget Overview.” http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/us-nuclear-weapons-budget-overview/. Obama , Barack H

  12. China's nuclear weapons strategy: tradition within evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of China's nuclear weapons strategy both in the vertical context of Chinese strategic tradition and the horizontal context of the nuclear strategies of today's major powers. It incorporates hitherto untapped Chinese sources from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It directs attention to core, rather than peripheral, issues such as nuclear-armor inventory and arms control. China's declaratory strategic doctrine is an insufficient guide to understanding China's nuclear strategy. Thorough examination of China's strategic nuclear force indicates early initiations of component programs under comprehensive planning. The strategy for weapons development aimed at catching up with, instead of following, the leaders by means of leapfrogging. It also aimed at simultaneous development of key component weapons programs to be integrated further downstream. China's pursuit of tactical nuclear capabilities started in the predetonation years and became more active in the post-Mao period. The study reached the following conclusions: China did have a nuclear strategy; China's nuclear strategy is distinct and cannot be categorized appropriately by any prepackaged Western term; and finally, China's nuclear strategy is best characterized as manifestations of Chinese strategic tradition.

  13. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  14. Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition

    PubMed Central

    Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

  15. What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

  16. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-05-09

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

  17. What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

  18. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  19. The nuclear weapons free world . We already live in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, R.

    We do live in a nuclear weapons free world, already. After a long debate about nuclear weapons the situation today is such that, officially, no governement is in favor of them. The reason is to be found in the strongest moral stigma on nuclear weapons. Moreover the vast majority of the most influencial people share this view.

  20. Nuclear weapon proliferation indicators and observables

    SciTech Connect

    Paternoster, Richard R

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses indicators and observables that might be present from various phases of a nuclear weapon development effort. The indicators themselves are accompanied by some general discussions of what is likely to be observable by inspection or sampling techniques. The areas discussed include nuclear materials production, materials fabrication, related technology development, testing, and scientific personnel. Brief discussions of on-site inspections, sampling techniques, and evasion of safeguards are also included.

  1. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Orient, J M

    1985-02-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness.

  2. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).29 The 5MWe reactor was again shut...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 05 MAY 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00...00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  3. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-13

    the Cold War, the enduring relevance of nuclear weapons has been the subject of immense debate with policy analysts proposing several alter-native...proponents offer the historical argument that “both sides were, in fact, deterred fairly early on during the Cold War” and that the massive buildup of...the United States, beginning with a short account of why America did not implement minimum deterrence during the Cold War. In the late 1950s

  4. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  5. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  6. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  7. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  8. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  9. What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2011-04-01

    Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

  10. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  11. Revitalizing the Nuclear Weapons Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    units failing Nuclear Operational Readiness Inspections ( NORI ). In assessing the Air Force, the Schlesinger Task Force found a cause for these...all of the time. For example, the Air Force unit involved in the “Bent Spear” incident in 2007 had passed their NORI about 16 months earlier.52

  12. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  13. The ``Nuclear Renaissance'' and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-05-01

    As interest grows around the world in nuclear power as an energy source that could help control greenhouse gas emissions, some have proclaimed the arrival of a ``nuclear renaissance.'' But can the increased risks of more nuclear power be managed? The political crisis surrounding Iran's pursuit of uranium enrichment has exposed weaknesses in the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Also, al Qaeda's declared interest in weapons of mass destruction raises the concern that terrorists could acquire nuclear weapons by stealing materials from poorly secured facilities. Growth of nuclear energy would require the construction of many additional uranium enrichment plants. And the generation of more spent nuclear fuel without a credible waste disposal strategy would increase political support for reprocessing, which separates large quantities of weapon-usable plutonium from spent fuel. There is little evidence that the various institutional arrangements and technical schemes proposed to mitigate the security risks of a major nuclear expansion would be effective. This talk will focus on the measures necessary to allow large-scale global growth of nuclear power without resulting in an unacceptably high risk of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism, and will discuss the feasibility of such measures. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.2

  14. The Drivers of Indias Nuclear Weapons Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    The two relevant factors behind India’s nuclear weapons program are political parties, specifically the BJP, and scientific organizations. The BJP...Despite the hopes of the political elites, increasing national pride failed to distract the people from more immediate issues and they voted...that exist between the two states, India is committed to creating a strong strategic arsenal as its only means of credibly deterring China from

  15. Physics in the Confrontation of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toevs, James

    2011-03-01

    Had the detonations on 9/11 involved nuclear explosives rather than jet fuel the number of deaths and the costs would have been multiplied by 100 or 1,000. This talk will briefly describe the nuclear threat and then focus on the technologies, both extant and evolving, for the detection and interdiction of clandestine trafficking of nuclear weapons and nuclear and radiological material. The methods vary from passive detection of heat, gamma radiation, neutrons, or other signatures from nuclear material, through radiological approaches to examine contents of vehicles and cargo containers, to active interrogation concepts that are under development. All of these methods have major physics components ranging from simple gamma ray detection as learned in a senior undergraduate lab to the latest ideas in muon production and acceleration.

  16. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  17. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  18. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  19. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  20. Non-strategic sea-based nuclear weapons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, V.; Maarten, J.

    1990-06-22

    This paper addresses the complex political and military issues surrounding deployment of Non-Strategic Sea-Based Nuclear Weapons. These include weapons designed for Nuclear Anti-Air and Anti-Submarine warfare, Nuclear Gravity bombs, and Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise missiles. Specifically, this study examines the serious arguments made for and against these weapons on military and political grounds. Following the discussion of specific pros and cons, three alternative approaches to dealing with these weapons are examined as the Navy's current positions.

  1. Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Their Purpose and Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Examination” as a part of Tactical Nuclear Weapons in NATO Schulte claims, “The most cited criteria [for TNWs] involve(s) a short range ( under the 500...Henri Jomini, The Art of War (Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 2007); Alfred T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660 - 1783 (Cosimo, Inc ...communism. Under the pseudonym X, Kennan declared, “there (could) never be on Moscow’s side any sincere assumption of a community of aims between the

  2. Abolition of nuclear weapons: Implications for U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T.S.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis analyzes the arguments concerning the abolition of nuclear weapons, specifically the feasibility and desirability of nuclear disarmament. Past attempts at nuclear disarmament and relevant international treaties and legal opinions also are discussed. The nuclear disarmament movement has grown considerably since the end of the Cold War. As the idea of abolishing nuclear weapons gains influence, it may have an increasing impact upon national security policy. Abolitionists argue that nuclear disarmament is both desirable and feasible. This thesis concludes that nuclear disarmament is not feasible and that abolitionist arguments for the desirability of nuclear disarmament are flawed. States will continue to maintain nuclear arsenals for the foreseeable future. It would be unwise and dangerous for the United States to pursue a policy of nuclear disarmament in the near term.

  3. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons—``mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while ``limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons—and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. ct.

  4. AIEDA/MOX program: Civil use of weapons-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, N.N.; Koudriatsev, E.G.; Poplavski, V.

    1996-12-31

    As part of its active commitment to nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, the French government is providing assistance in dismantling Russian nuclear weapons under the AIDA program. AIDA is the result of an agreement between the governments of France and the Russian Federation signed on November 12, 1992, to initiate cooperation for the safe elimination of Russian nuclear weapons and civil use of the nuclear materials removed from them.

  5. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  6. Cancer in People Exposed to Nuclear Weapons Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... and health benefits to eligible US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons workers (including employees, former employees, contractors and ... Compensation (DEEOIC). Accessed at www.dol.gov/owcp/energy on January 15, ... of a 1958 atmospheric nuclear weapons test. Am J Public Health . 1995;85: ...

  7. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  8. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  9. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  10. Doctors' attitudes on civil defence and nuclear weapon issues.

    PubMed

    Hunter-Brown, I H

    1989-01-01

    97 out of 219 doctors responded to a questionnaire on medical aspects of nuclear weapons. A majority of the respondents considered that the then-current civil defence planning was not a valuable use of National Health Service resources, and that an attack with nuclear weapons would cause a degree of suffering beyond the profession's capacity to treat; thought doctors should have a special voice on nuclear issues; and believed Britain should not be increasing its nuclear weapons, and that if expenditure on them were reduced, the savings should go on health. The high support for organizations like MAPW was gratifying.

  11. Strategic weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

  12. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-21

    nuclear weapons. Beginning in late 2002, North Korea ended an eight-year freeze on its plutonium production program, expelled international inspectors...2005 on denuclearization. Key components of the agreement include halting production at the Yongbyon nuclear complex and delivery of heavy fuel oil to...for those activities. Much still remains to be confirmed regarding North Korea’s nuclear weapons production capabilities and delivery systems

  13. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 5 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 6 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Nuclear Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  14. Stopping the emergence of nuclear weapon states in the Third World: An examination of the Iraq weapons inspection program. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.A.

    1993-01-31

    The end of the Gulf War and the implementation of United Nation (UN) resolutions uncovered an Iraqi multi-billion dollar nuclear weapons program. Iraq's ability to pursue this clandestine program for more than a decade, despite periodic inspections, suggest that the myriad of treaties and agreements designed to curb proliferation may be inadequate. Clearly more must be done to deter and counter the spread of these deadly weapon. The UN weapons inspections in Iraq provide insight into possible solutions to the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology in the developing world. This study examines the policy and operational aspects associated with an intrusive United Nations inspection program. In its final analysis, this paper suggests that an effective challenge inspection program is a necessary element in countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Further, it suggests that the UN, as the only internationally accepted enforcement organization, be fully engaged in nonproliferation issues and support the challenge inspection program.

  15. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  17. DoD Nuclear Weapons Personnel Reliability Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-27

    research and analysis related to nuclear weapons personnel reliability assurance. d. Ensures the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...or emergency situations. (3) Have good social adjustment, emotional stability, personal integrity, sound judgment, and allegiance to the United

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  19. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  20. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-26

    Sheet, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/missiles.asp; and Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role of Nuclear Weapons...continued) Pakistan, November 22, 2008; “Interview with President Asif Ali Zardari,” CNN Larry King Live, December 2, 2008...President Musharraf stated in November 2007 that Pakistan’s nuclear weapons are under “total custodial controls.”124 More recently, President Asif Ali

  1. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons and Missiles: Status and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-20

    produced enough plutonium for at least six nuclear weapons and tested a nuclear weapon with a yield of under 1 kiloton in October 2006. Pyongyang shut...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 20 FEB 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  2. Nuclear Weapons and Communication Studies: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the body of work inspired by the late Cold War period, where nuclear weapons briefly became a compelling object for communication scholars. Considers the prospects for nuclear communication scholarship in post-Cold War culture. Discusses "nuclear criticism" and issues regarding the bomb in communication. (SC)

  3. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  4. The Organization and Management of the Nuclear Weapons Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    findings summarized above are applicable to all the sites in the nuclear weapons complex, including headquarters, there were a number of interesting...on selected non- nuclear components Conduct pit surveillance and intrusive modification for reuse; fabricate pits Nevada Test Site (Bechtel Nevada...response and radiation-sensing activities PRODUCTION SITES Kansas City Plant (Allied Signal) Produce, procure non- nuclear components (electrical, electronic

  5. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  6. Nuclear Weapons and Communication Studies: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the body of work inspired by the late Cold War period, where nuclear weapons briefly became a compelling object for communication scholars. Considers the prospects for nuclear communication scholarship in post-Cold War culture. Discusses "nuclear criticism" and issues regarding the bomb in communication. (SC)

  7. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Controlling and eliminating nuclear-weapon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hippel, Frank

    2010-02-01

    Fissile material -- in practice plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) -- is the essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. Controlling and eliminating fissile material and the means of its production is therefore the common denominator for nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism. From a fundamentalist anti-nuclear-weapon perspective, the less fissile material there is and the fewer locations where it can be found, the safer a world we will have. A comprehensive fissile-material policy therefore would have the following elements: *Consolidation of all nuclear-weapon-usable materials at a minimum number of high-security sites; *A verified ban on the production of HEU and plutonium for weapons; *Minimization of non-weapon uses of HEU and plutonium; and *Elimination of all excess stocks of plutonium and HEU. There is activity on all these fronts but it is not comprehensive and not all aspects are being pursued vigorously or competently. It is therefore worthwhile to review the situation. )

  8. Nuclear Waste--Physics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahearne, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Managing and disposing of radioactive waste are major policy and financial issues in the United States and many other countries. Low-level waste sites, once thought to be possible in many states, remain fixed at the few sites that have been operating for decades. High-level waste remains at former nuclear weapons facilities and at nuclear power plants, and the DOE estimates a repository is unlikely before 2010, at the earliest. Physics and chemistry issues relate to criticality, plutonium loading in glass, leach rates, and diffusion. The public policy issues concern non-proliferation, states' rights, stakeholder participation, and nuclear power. Cleaning up the legacy of cold war driven nuclear weapons production is estimated to cost at least $250 billion and take three-quarters of a century. Some possible steps towards resolution of these issues will be described.

  9. The future of nuclear weapons: A Chinese perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zhihai

    1992-12-31

    China understands very well the importance of nuclear weapons because it is the only country in the world that was seriously threatened with nuclear attacks by the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1960s and the 1970s, respectively. The events of the late 1980s and early 1990s in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have fundamentally rocked the world. Most Eastern European countries have cast away their socialist regimes and are accepting Western-type democracy and market economies. Communist parties have been banned and old bureaucracies have been dismantled. The Warsaw Pact, which had existed as a symbol and unified military institution of the Eastern bloc, was quietly dissolved. The Soviet Union, the prime player of the Cold War and America`s main rival, suddenly disintegrated into fifteen independent states and no longer is a heavy-weight player in the world political arena. These developments have shaken the foundations of nuclear diplomacy and politics that have existed for forty years. The abrupt ending of the Cold War has left many questions about nuclear weapons that will not go away as easily as the war. What role, if any, will nuclear weapons play in this decade and early in the next century? Will nuclear weapons still be important in maintaining world peace as they have been during the Cold War ear? Or will nuclear weapons be a destabilizing factor in the new world order? 6 refs.

  10. Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-05

    ratify the NPT. The Soviet press has been cautious about publically condemning NPT hold-outs, usually avoiding naming Third World nations, though it is...fissionable fuel for nuclear weapons. Furthermore, Brazil has not signed the NPT. Moscow has bitterly condemned this "deal of the century." The Soviet press ...equipment sent to a nonnuclear state. Germany, of course, is. France, however, has anounced its intention to observe the safeguard Provisions of the NPT

  11. The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.

    1992-12-31

    The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

  12. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  13. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    tested a plutonium nuclear device in October 2006. U.S. officials have cited evidence that North Korea also operates a secret highly enriched...with Iran and Syria aimed at producing nuclear weapons. On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced that it had conducted a second nuclear test . On April...Korea’s Nuclear Test and Withdrawal from the Six Party Talks..........................................1 Bush Administration-North Korean Agreements

  14. Solid Phase Microextraction for the Analysis of Nuclear Weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M

    2001-06-01

    This document is a compendium of answers to commonly asked questions about solid phase microextraction as it relates to the analysis of nuclear weapons. We have also included a glossary of terms associated with this analytical method as well as pertinent weapons engineering terminology. Microextraction is a new collection technique being developed to nonintrusively sample chemicals from weapon headspace gases for subsequent analysis. The chemicals that are being targeted outgas from the high explosives and other organic materials used in the weapon assembly. This technique is therefore a valuable tool to: (1) remotely detect and assess the aging of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and, in some cases, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) organic materials; and (2) identify potential compatibility issues (i.e., materials interactions) that should be more carefully monitored during surveillance tear-downs. Microextraction is particularly attractive because of the practical constraints inherent to the weapon surveillance procedure. To remain transparent to other core surveillance activities and fall within nuclear safety guidelines, headspace analysis of the weapons requires a procedure that: (1) maintains ambient temperature conditions; (2) allows practical collection times of less than 20 min; (3) maintains the integrity of the weapon gas volume; (4) provides reproducible and quantitative results; and (5) can identify all possible targets.

  15. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  16. Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden, Comp.

    The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

  17. Nuclear Weapons and the Future: An "Unthinkable" Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    The author looks ahead 30 or 40 years to see what might come of the nuclear weapons predicament. As a minimal first step in the campaign against nuclear warfare, he suggests a unilateral and complete disarmament by the United States. (AM)

  18. Nuclear Weapons and the Future: An "Unthinkable" Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    The author looks ahead 30 or 40 years to see what might come of the nuclear weapons predicament. As a minimal first step in the campaign against nuclear warfare, he suggests a unilateral and complete disarmament by the United States. (AM)

  19. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  20. The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

  1. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-30

    Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007...for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  2. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    between 30 and 50 kilograms, enough for five to eight atomic weapons. After North Korea tested a nuclear device in October 2006, the six party talks...the plutonium reprocessing plant produced enough weapons grade plutonium for the production of several atomic bombs. North Korea tested an atomic...produces and tests atomic bombs, and the locations where North Korea stores plutonium and atomic bombs. The declaration also reportedly contains no

  3. Deterrence versus Preemption: Assessing U.S. Nuclear Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2003-03-19

    Since coming into office in 2001, the Bush administration has enacted a series of controversial policies designed to create a more robust and more usable nuclear arsenal. From requiring new nuclear strike capabilities (including against non-nuclear countries), to threatening preemptive attacks, to investing billions of dollars in rebuilding the nuclear weapons production complex, the administration is systematically strengthening the role nuclear weapons play in defending the United States and its interests around the world. This presentation examines those policies and the thinking that underlies them. It questions the effectiveness of the administration's approach and explores some of the unintended consequences vis-a-vis U.S. policy toward North Korea, Iraq, Pakistan, and others. Finally, it takes a detailed look at current efforts to develop a new low-yield earth-penetrating nuclear weapon to destroy hardened underground facilities, assessing the feasibility of such a device and the potential effects of its use.

  4. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  5. Off-Site Monitoring of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants for Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    weapons proliferation.Countries which cotild not previouwly develop or construct the uranium enrichment facilities required to produce weapon grade U...essentially unusable in a weapon;mormover, the phy- "cical separation of these isotopes is even more difficult than the enrich - Ur• fnt of uranium (ref 2...natural Uranium (ref 5:2),The Kr-85 releases from nuclear reac- "tore are insignificant compared to the releases from nuclear fuel repro- cessing plants

  6. Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures (NARP) Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    SUMMARY OF SPECIALIZED CAPABILITIES 20-1 G eneral ............................................................................. 20-1 20-2 Purpose...and Analysis Form ............................... 5-E-17 5-E-7 Weapons Accident Environmental Radiation Alpha Probe Data Form ................. 5-E-19...Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities, 13 Nov 88. (j) JCS Publication 1-03.6, Joint Reporting Structure Event/Incident Report , Nov 80. (k) TP 20-11

  7. Nuclear Weapon Effects Uncertainties in Tactical Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    wart - where battles were) and- numbers of weapons. After t.’e -cOhclusi6r: of -the war, a number of sistuations might prevail: T- -he interchange...Variability -to a lesser degree results from -the predict- koh of yx-ld- =based on cloud diamete.- -When- comparing the predictionv mod-ewi Th-FM- 3-12

  8. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  9. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  10. Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

    This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

  11. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  12. New approaches to nuclear proliferation policy.

    PubMed

    Nye, J S

    1992-05-29

    Nuclear proliferation is not one but a complex of problems. One relates to the collapse of the Soviet Union and its effect on the spread of nuclear weapons and knowledge. Second, Iraq's violation of its Non-Proliferation Treaty obligation has exposed certain weaknesses in the traditional regime of multilateral nonproliferation institutions and treaties. Third, Pakistan's achievement of a nuclear weapons capability in the late 1980s brings the postproliferation question to the forefront in South Asia. There is no single solution to this complex set of problems, but the beginning of wisdom is to build upon the successes of the past, add new policy procedures, and, above all, increase the priority given to the issue. Otherwise, we may be faced with the ironic outcome that the widely welcomed end of the Cold War may increase the prospect of nuclear use.

  13. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    SciTech Connect

    Juzaitis, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  14. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  15. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  16. Nuclear weapons in the 1990s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Van Oudenaren, J.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter explores on a country-by-country and region-by-region basis the factors that will influence the debates concerning nuclear weapons in both the nuclear and nonnuclear states. The recent political changes in Europe and longer-term developments such as the continuing diffusion of economic and technological power throughout the world are calling into question basic assumptions about the compatibility of the existing nuclear order with other aspects of the international system. Together the United States and the former Soviet Union possess over 95 percent of the nuclear warheads in existence, but only about 10 percent of world population and 35 percent of gross national product. France and Britain have large and growing nuclear arsenals, while Japan and Germany, both of which have larger populations and economies and exposed geopolitically, are barred from access to nuclear weapons. In the third world there is lingering resentment at the perceived efforts by the great powers to deny nuclear weapons to rising regional influentials in the case of important countries such as India, Israel, and South Africa. More fundamentally, there is uncertainty about the very identity of at least three of the five declared nuclear powers. France and Britain are engaged in a long-term process that could lead to full political union in a larger European Community. Meanwhile, the former Soviet Union has moved in the opposite direction and at a far more rapid pace. The August 1991 coup and its aftermath severely weakened central control in Moscow, leading to declarations of independence by the union republic. Nuclear weapons almost certainly will play less of a role in structuring a bipolar American-Russian competition, but they could well play a more dangerous and destabilizing role in the third world, as well as Japan, Germany, and other countries previously thought of as middle powers that are now assuming greater global importance. 5 refs.

  17. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  18. Students Behaving Badly: Policies on Weapons Violations in Florida Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy B.; Hall, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at existing aspects of written school violence policies (Codes of Student Conduct) across large, mid-size, and small school districts in Florida. The aim was to provide a clearer picture of how weapons are defined, and the consequences of their possession, use, or display. Two research areas were addressed: (1) What constitutes a…

  19. Students Behaving Badly: Policies on Weapons Violations in Florida Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Wendy B.; Hall, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at existing aspects of written school violence policies (Codes of Student Conduct) across large, mid-size, and small school districts in Florida. The aim was to provide a clearer picture of how weapons are defined, and the consequences of their possession, use, or display. Two research areas were addressed: (1) What constitutes a…

  20. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  1. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  2. The Future of the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Linton F.

    2007-03-01

    This paper will examine our plans for the future of the U.S. nuclear weapons program including efforts to ``transform'' the stockpile and supporting infrastructure. We proceed from the premise that the United States will need a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent for the foreseeable future. Moreover, the Stockpile Stewardship Program is working. Today's stockpile---comprised of legacy warheads left over from the Cold War---is safe and reliable. That said, we see increased risk, absent nuclear testing, in assuring the long-term safety and reliability of our current stockpile. Nor is today's nuclear weapons complex sufficiently ``responsive'' to fixing technical problems in the stockpile, or to potential adverse geopolitical change. Our task is to work to ensure that the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise, including the stockpile and supporting infrastructure, meets long-term national security needs. Our approach is to develop and field replacement warheads for the legacy stockpile---so-called Reliable Replacement Warheads (RRW)---as a means to transform both the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure.

  3. Integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and nuclear arms control to enable significant stockpile reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon M.; Pregenzer, Arian L.

    2010-11-01

    In his 2009 Prague speech and the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, President Barack Obama committed the United States to take concrete steps toward nuclear disarmament while maintaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear deterrent. There is an inherent tension between these two goals that is best addressed through improved integration of nuclear weapons objectives with nuclear arms control objectives. This article reviews historical examples of the interaction between the two sets of objectives, develops a framework for analyzing opportunities for future integration, and suggests specific ideas that could benefit the nuclear weapons enterprise as it undergoes transformation and that could make the future enterprise compatible with a variety of arms control futures.

  4. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    reprocessed enough separated plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27 The 5MWe reactor was again shut...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 DEC 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Nuclear nonproliferation policy issues in the 103rd Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Z.; Donnelly, W.H.

    1994-08-31

    Preventing the further proliferation of nuclear weapons has been a major goal of U.S. policy ever since the United States developed and used the atomic bomb against Japan in 1945. This goal has taken on new importance for U.S. national security in light of several post-Cold War events. One is the breakup of the Soviet Union; some of the new republics were reluctant to give up nuclear weapons stationed on their territory, and disorder in Russia raised questions about the safety and security of the former Soviet arsenal. The United States is providing assistance to prevent former Soviet nuclear weapons or the materials used to make them from falling into the wrong hands. Another post-Cold War nonproliferation event was Iraq`s success in clandestinely developing nuclear weapons despite being a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Third, North Korea apparently diverted plutonium to a secret bomb program, threatened to withdraw from the Treaty, and continues to block inspections. Other events tend to strengthen nonproliferation efforts. These include the agreement by Argentina and Brazil to allow inspection of their nuclear activities; South Africa`s joining the NPT after dismantling six nuclear weapons and agreeing to international inspection of all of its nuclear activities; France`s and China`s joining the Treaty as nuclear weapons states; and successful enforcement of nonproliferation commitments in Iraq.

  7. Nuclear Successor States of the Soviet Union, Nuclear Weapon and Sensitive Export Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    on Territory X X X X Nuclear Power Reactors X X X Nuclear Research Reactors X X X X Nuclear Weapons Design X Uranium Enrichment X Spent Fuel... nuclear power reactors . American inspectors will be allowed into Sverdlovsk-44 to verify that the HEU actually comes from dismantled warheads (see Nuclear ...fuel rod fabrication (Electrostal Machine Building Plant), Research reactors : Kurchatov Institute (5 kg HEU and 4 kg LEU) and Institute of Nuclear

  8. Nuclear weapons decision-making; an application of organization theory to the mini-nuke case

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing and developing normative theory responsive to the need for improving the quality of decision-making in the nuclear weapons policy-making. Against the background of a critical evaluation of various paradigms in the literature (systems analysis and opposed-systems designed, the bureaucratic politics model, and the cybernetic theory of decision) an attempt is made to design an alternative analytic framework based on the writings of numerous organization theorists such as Herbert Simon and Kenneth Arrow. The framework is applied to the case of mini-nukes, i.e., proposals in the mid-1970s to develop and deploy tens of thousands of very low-yield (sub-kiloton), miniaturized fission weapons in NATO. Heuristic case study identifies the type of study undertaken in the dissertation in contrast to the more familiar paradigmatic studies identified, for example, with the Harvard Weapons Project. Application of the analytic framework developed in the dissertation of the mini-nuke case resulted in an empirical understanding of why decision making concerning tactical nuclear weapons has been such a complex task and why force modernization issues in particular have been so controversial and lacking in policy resolution.

  9. History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Doctrine and a Path Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    During the Cold War, the United States considered a number of approaches for living in a world with nuclear weapons, including disarmament, preventive war, the incorporation of nuclear weapons into military strategy, passive and active defense, and deterrence. With the failure of early approaches to disarmament, and the rejection of preventive war against the Soviet Union (and later, China), deterrence became central to key nuclear relationships, though arms control continued to play an important role. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty made preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons another central component of U.S. policy. The Bush Administration has tried to devise a new policy for the post-Cold War period. Their approach has three salient pillars. First, it is characterized by an overall skepticism toward multilateral agreements, on the grounds that bad actors will not obey them, that agreements can lead to a false sense of security, and that such agreements are too often a way for the Lilliputians of the world to tie down Gulliver. The March 2005 U.S. National Defense Strategy declared that U.S. strength ``will continue to be challenged by those who employ a strategy of the weak, using international fora, judicial processes and terrorism.'' Second, the Bush Administration declared its intention to maintain a military dominance so great that other states simply would not try to catch up. The 2002 National Security Strategy states that ``Our forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military build-up in hopes of surpassing, or equaling, the power of the United States.'' Third, the 2002 National Security Strategy (reaffirmed by the 2006 National Security Strategy) moved preventive war (which the strategies called ``preemptive war'') to a central position, rather than deterrence and nonproliferation. In part this was because of the claim that certain ``rogue'' states, and terrorist groups, were not deterrable. This talk

  10. Nuclear Weapon Effects Calculations in the TACWAR Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-20

    DNA 4702F NUCLEAR WEAPON EFFECTS _" CALCULATIONS IN THE TACWAR CODE _ Systems, Science & Software, Inc. i t, The Atrium, Suite 202 277 S. Washington...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; - DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED.1 THIS WORK SPONSORED BY THE DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY1 " UNDER RDT&E RMSS CODE 836407046 V990AXNL12258 H25M0...Prepared forDD Director " - ! P DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY JUL 23 1979 Washington, D. C. 20305 L • _. ,, ; .,.. : = *- k - .. _i , m i z "D ’ - ’ ’F 3 m

  11. Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.

    1991-03-20

    This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)

  12. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-11

    Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with U.K.), February 23; Unicorn, August 30. NNSA’s FY2006 request stated that, for pit certification, “The...conducted a subcritical experiment, “ Krakatau ,” at the Nevada Test Site. 12/08/05 — The U.N. General Assembly adopted, 168-2, a resolution on nuclear

  13. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-16

    14; Oboe 9, June 7; Mario, August 29; Rocco, September 26; 2003: Piano, September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with U.K...experiment, “ Krakatau ,” at the Nevada Test Site. 12/08/05 — The U.N. General Assembly adopted, 168-2, a resolution on nuclear disarmament that, among other

  14. Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Hearing 99-937, 1986, pp. 167-168. 10 Ray Kidder, Stockpile Reliability and Nuclear Test Bans: Response to J.W...Brooks statement to Senate Armed Services Committee, Apr. 4, 2005, p. 3. 15 Letter from Norris Bradbury , J. Carson Mark, and Richard Garwin to

  15. Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-08

    2nd Session, Senate Hearing 99-937, 1986, pp. 167-168. 9 Ray Kidder, Stockpile Reliability and Nuclear Test Bans: Response to J.W. Rosengren’s Defense...margin of assurance. 14 Brooks statement to Senate Armed Services Committee, Apr. 4, 2005, p. 3. 15 Letter from Norris Bradbury , J. Carson Mark, and

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation, controls and US policy. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, R.E.

    1993-03-17

    The world has lived under a nuclear threat since the US used nuclear weapons in World War II. After the war, superpowers evolved that provided nuclear umbrellas to their alliances. The recent decline and breakup of the USSR was hailed by many as the notice that nuclear weapons could be greatly reduced and that the entire world would be a safer place. What has evolved, unfortunately, is a still dangerous and complex world where nations are scrambling for sovereignty, power and status with continued emphasis on nuclear weapons. The US is deeply involved in developing nonproliferation policy to encompass this new environment of a changed world structure and a new balance of power. This paper examines this problem in depth starting with the sheer magnitude of the problem and then delving into each of the more prominent nonproliferation controls measures. These measures are examined for advantages, disadvantages and applicability to US policy. The Iraq pursuit of nuclear weapons and the UN and US response and actions are examined as a case study to determine lessons learned for US policy. Finally, existing US policy is examined to allow suggestion of policy changes based on the paper research.

  17. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  18. Nuclear Weapon Yield Determination through Nano Indentation of Thermally Degraded Automobile Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    NUCLEAR WEAPON YIELD DETERMINATION THROUGH NANO INDENTATION OF THERMALLY DEGRADED AUTOMOBILE PAINT THESIS Michael Joseph Richards...NUCLEAR WEAPON YIELD DETERMINATION THROUGH NANO INDENATION OF THERMALLY DEGRADED AUTOMOBILE PAINT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...that has the potential to overcome these limitations relies on the change in automobile paint caused by the thermal pulse of the weapon. This work

  19. Nuclear Weapon Initiatives: Low-Yield R&D, Advanced Concepts, Earth Penetrators, Test Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    weapon-produced collateral effects . The current nuclear weapons stockpile, while possessing some limited ground penetration capability and lower ...RNEP bar use of the weapon? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Would RNEP have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation? . . 56 Will Targets Be...73 List of Figures Figure 1. Earth penetration reduces yield needed to destroy buried targets . . . . 45 Figure 2. Lower yield

  20. The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, S.

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

  1. The role of the weapons laboratory in nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.R. )

    1989-07-01

    The role of the Nuclear Systems/Surety Division and its relationship to the Air Force Weapons Laboratory are described. The Function and goals of the security section within that division, under basic DOD guidance, are considered. Reference is made to work on ballistic protection shrouds for Minuteman II and III and Air Force nuclear weapon shipping containers. BNL-TSO contributions to AFWL study projects are explained. This involvement has existed since 1984 in regard to security improvements for SAC alert aircraft. The work involves ballistic screening and development of a taxiway-gap cable vehicle barrier. Future activities may deal with alert system upgrades, access denial systems, security seals, comprehensive security analysis, and criteria development.

  2. Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.P.

    1994-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

  3. National Security to Nationalist Myth: Why Iran Wants Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    28 See what Scott Sagan notes is the “seminal text of neorealism,” Kenneth N. Waltz , Theory of International Politics...Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.” IAEA Information Circular. INFCIRC/140. Geneva: 22 April 1970. Waltz , Kenneth N. Theory of International...that includes both the new Iraqi government and Iran. A. BALANCE OF POWER AND MILITARY DOCTRINE: THE THEORY Neorealist theory predicates that

  4. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials estimates... Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock and key...Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download/attachments/748

  5. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile...and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock...Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080

  6. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    Service 2 nonproliferation experts insight into the command and control of the Pakistani arsenal and its on- site safety and security procedures,”3 but...1980s. Highly-enriched uranium ( HEU ) is one of two types of fissile material used in nuclear weapons; the other is plutonium. The country’s main...United States that it would produce only LEU ,12 U.S. and Pakistani officials who were in government in 1990 indicated during a 1994 meeting that

  7. Report of the President's Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The President established the Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management at the direction of the Congress to address fiscal accountability and discipline in the nation's nuclear weapons program. The Task Group was asked to ''examine the procedures used by DOD and DOE in establishing requirements for, and providing resources for, the research, development, testing, production, surveillance, and retirement of nuclear weapons,'' and to recommend any needed change in coordination, budgeting, or management procedures. The Task Group was also asked to address ''whether DOD should assume the responsibility for funding current DOE weapon activities and material production programs.'' The Task Group found that the present relationship between DOD and DOE for managing the nuclear weapons program is sound. Accordingly, the Task Group sought a process for improving the integrated determination of nuclear weapon requirements and the management of nuclear weapon production.

  8. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  10. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-10

    Arms Control Today Fact Sheet, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/missiles.asp; and Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role...Pakistan Against Use Of Nuclear Weapons: Zardari,” Associated Press of Pakistan, November 22, 2008; “Interview with President Asif Ali Zardari,” CNN...under “total custodial controls.”122 More recently, President Asif Ali Zardari told CNN December 2, 2008, that the country’s nuclear command and control

  11. Risk Assessment for Emergency Planning Related to Nuclear Weapons Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    Nuclea, Weapons Fixed Facilities," SAI/PL-83-3, Science Applications, Inc. (March 1983). 3) NUREG -0654/FEMA-REP-1 (Rev. 1), "Criteria for Preparation and...Evaluation of Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants." November 1980. 4) NUREG -0396, EPA 520/1-78-016...8217 December 1978. 5) "Reactor Safety Study: An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants," NUREG -75/014, WASH-1400, USNRC, October

  12. Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-06-01

    Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

  13. Nuclear weapons, proliferation, and terrorism: U.S. response in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    DeLawter, D.A.

    1998-11-01

    As the remaining superpower in the post-Cold War world, the US needs to re-evaluate its policy toward the growing threat to US national interests and the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), specifically nuclear devices, and their use by terrorist groups against US interests abroad. As the world reacts to the implosion of the former Soviet Union, there are increased numbers of nations and possibly terrorist groups trying to become players in the international arena. This study describes the ease of obtaining the scientific knowledge, plans, and materials to enable a terrorist`s construction of a nuclear device. It also analyzes motivation of terrorist groups, concluding that a nuclear weapon, capable of inflicting violence in the extreme, fulfills the terrorist`s goal of violence in support of a political agenda or to inspire radical change. Given the guidance from the national level, this study proposes a series of policy options available to the NCA for application in an aggressive counterproliferation policy. Finally, the US must rapidly reorganize its counterproliferation structure and methods to streamline a more aggressive approach that is recognized and feared by potential nuclear terrorists; augment current political efforts with a clearly defined counterproliferation military mission and associated doctrine.

  14. Tactical nuclear weapons in the post cold war era: Implications for the Operational Commander. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tunstall, S.

    1993-01-01

    The United States and the former Soviet Union have made and continue to make historic progress toward nuclear weapons disarmament. In 1991, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev decided to destroy or withdraw (FROM FORWARD-DEPLOYED UNITS) all land and sea-based tactical nuclear weapons. This paper examines why Regional CINCs must retain a substrategic nuclear weapons capability until substantial improvements are made in our anti-tactical missile defense systems. The threat of nuclear proliferation and the deterrent value of tactical nuclear weapons are discussed. The paper also addresses the issue of tactical nuclear weapons as a warfighting capability and concludes that Combatant Commanders won't need this capability once we improve our theater-based missile defense systems..... Tactical Nuclear Weapons in the Post Cold War Era: Implications for the Operational Commander.

  15. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  16. Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Issues in the 103rd Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    U-238) to neutrons in a nuclear reactor and then extracting the plutonium by chemical separation (called reprocessing). Weapons-grade U-235 is made by... nuclear reactors and reprocessing equipment for modern light water reactor technology which is somewhat less suited to making bombs. The deal would also...34Order Code IB91023 CS Isu Biie Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Issues in the 103rd Congress Aflpzved ±oz pu- releczu Updated August 31, 1994

  17. Human response to nuclear and advanced technology weapons effects. Final report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to help the system survivability analyst estimate hardness requirements for systems exposed to nuclear weapons and advanced technology weapons (ATWs). The system survivability analyst is often asked to make quick, order-of-magnitude estimates on the hardness requirements for existing or proposed systems based upon human responses to the effects of nuclear weapons and ATWs. The intent of this report is to identity the general range of human survivability to nuclear weapons and ATWs and to provide simple example calcuiations and scenarios that can give the reader rough estimates of the effects of these weapons. While high-powered microwave (HPM) and laser weapons are considered in this report, the main emphasis is on nuclear weapons and their ionizing radiation effects.

  18. Report of the Canberra Commission on the elimination of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-14

    The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, convened in November 1995 by the Government of Australia, says the threat of nuclear terrorism and political uncertainties in the post-Cold War world make it imperative that nuclear weapons should be abolished.

  19. Canberra Commission outlines steps to rid the world of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-14

    The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, convened in November 1995 by the Government of Australia, says the threat of nuclear terrorism and political uncertainties in the post-Cold War world make it imperative that nuclear weapons should be abolished.

  20. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  1. Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

    2007-01-01

    Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'.

  2. A Nuclear Energy Renaissance: Challenges to Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    high. In fact, the per kilowatt-hour production costs of nuclear energy produced electricity are the cheapest available (nuclear 1.76, coal 2.47...by burning fossil fuels, predominantly coal (49.9%) and natural gas (19.3%).11 Fossil fuel fired plants all over the world discharge about 800 tons of...resource: potable water . The Gulf (Persian) Cooperation Council nations, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and Morocco are all considering nuclear energy to power

  3. Survey of metal finishing capabilities in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.R.; Stoltz, R.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the metal finishing capabilities of the following design and production agencies in the Nuclear Weapon Complex: Allied Signal Aerospace Co. (AS), General Electric Neutron Device Division (GEND), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), EG G Mound Applied Technology (MD), EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RF), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL, A), Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, L) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Y-12). It defines the current status of electroplating and its allied processes at each of these agencies, the methods and procedures for handling waste, and the major environmental, safety, and health issues confronting metal finishing personnel.

  4. 2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

    2004-04-09

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for

  5. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-26

    production of nuclear fuel ,” which may be a reference to a uranium enrichment program. 4 On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced it had conducted a second...weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).29 The 5MWe reactor was again shut down in July 2007...a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 MAY 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED

  6. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 05 DEC 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea’s...separated plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).50 The 5MWe CRS-10 51...on denuclearization. Key components of the agreement include halting production at the Yongbyon nuclear complex and delivery of heavy fuel oil to

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property...

  12. Theft and Diversion of Special Nuclear Materials and Military Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-12

    7 II. Computed Probability per Year for Nuclear Diversion....... 10 III. Amount of U235 Compounds for One Critical Ms...15 IVo Probability of Success,for Making a Nuclear Weapon from UF6 . 19 V. Risk Assessments for Attempted Diversion of F....... 22 VIo Probability of...Richardson of the Nuclear Safety Division, is due special acknowledgment for their interest in the project, and for their financial aid in supporting

  13. Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Lakamp, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

  14. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates, but Opportunities Exist to Further Enhance Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    is responsible for the management and security of DOE’s nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation, and naval reactor programs. 3Department of...0.8 billion in NNSA funding for nuclear reactor design for the Navy’s Ohio-replacement submarine. Page 11 GAO-15-536 Nuclear Weapons... nuclear nonproliferation, and naval reactor programs. 28We have ongoing work examining these modernization efforts in more detail as part of our

  15. National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, B T; Juzaitis, R J

    2006-08-07

    and December of 2001 and continued in 2002 have proven useful in developing the methodology, and future workshops should prove useful in further refining this framework. Each laboratory developed an approach to certification with some differences in detailed implementation. The general methodology introduces specific quantitative indicators for assessing confidence in our nuclear weapon stockpile. The quantitative indicators are based upon performance margins for key operating characteristics and components of the system, and these are compared to uncertainties in these factors. These criteria can be summarized in a quantitative metric (for each such characteristic) expressed as: (i.e., confidence in warhead performance depends upon CR significantly exceeding unity for all these characteristics). These Confidence Ratios are proposed as a basis for guiding technical and programmatic decisions on stockpile actions. This methodology already has been deployed in certifying weapons undergoing current life extension programs or component remanufacture. The overall approach is an adaptation of standard engineering practice and lends itself to rigorous, quantitative, and explicit criteria for judging the robustness of weapon system and component performance at a detailed level. There are, of course, a number of approaches for assessing these Confidence Ratios. The general certification methodology was publicly presented for the first time to a meeting of Strategic Command SAG in January 2002 and met with general approval. At that meeting, the Laboratories committed to further refine and develop the methodology through the implementation process. This paper reflects the refinement and additional development to date. There will be even further refinement at a joint laboratory workshop later in FY03. A common certification methodology enables us to engage in peer reviews and evaluate nuclear weapon systems on the basis of explicit and objective metrics. The clarity provided by

  16. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  17. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  18. Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1991-04-01

    In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

  19. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  20. The Effects of Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons on Civil-Military Relations in India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. The daughter of a retired Indian military official, Dr. Ray has spent many years reading, writing, and conducting...nuclear minimalism.”11 For many Indian security experts, like K. Subhrahmanyam, “nuclear weapons were not weapons of war; they were political weapons...96 By early 1997 India’s chief of naval staff, ADM Vishnu Bhagwat, ordered a “technical audit” of the ATV project. Under Bhagwat’s leadership

  1. Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

  2. James B. Conant, nuclear weapons, and the cold war, 1945-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberg, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the impact of James B. Conant -- president of Harvard University, adviser to the U.S. government on atomic matters, national public figure -- on the transition period from the end of World War II to the crystallization of the Cold War with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. The dissertation delves into Conant's role in formulating U.S. policy on the international control of atomic weapons; his reaction to Cold War pressures on U.S. universities and education; his unsuccessful efforts to lessen official atomic secrecy; his evolving view of the Cold War and nuclear policy; and his part in the controversy over the decision to build the hydrogen bomb. Using newly-available sources, and going beyond the account provided in Conant's memoirs, the dissertation attempts to shed new light on an important figure of the early Cold War period whose actions influenced both U.S. public opinion and secret government policy.

  3. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  4. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  5. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  6. Teaching with the News: North Korea and Nuclear Weapons. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    In October 2002 North Korea admitted that it had been operating a secret nuclear weapons program in violation of international treaties and the 1994 Agreed Framework with the United States. North Korea also appeared to be taking steps to begin production of nuclear weapons and, according to U.S. officials, may have a missile that can hit…

  7. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  8. Teaching with the News: North Korea and Nuclear Weapons. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    In October 2002 North Korea admitted that it had been operating a secret nuclear weapons program in violation of international treaties and the 1994 Agreed Framework with the United States. North Korea also appeared to be taking steps to begin production of nuclear weapons and, according to U.S. officials, may have a missile that can hit…

  9. Shield optimization program: Part 4, Effects of neutron and gamma-ray radiations from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.S.; Johsnon, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.; Santoro, R.T.

    1989-03-01

    Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage in silicon based electronic components onboard a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for neutrons and gamma rays emanating from a nuclear weapon detonation in space. Results indicate dose levels to the sensitive components within the SBI weapon platform may exceed design limits if the weapon is detonated within a critical radius. For example, a 1962 Starfish detonation at a distance of 91.4 km from the SBI weapon platform generates a total dose in the central instrument bay of 964 rads(Si). The dose rate, /dot /gamma//, assuming a 40 nsec deposition time, is 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ rads(Si)/sec. All of the calculations were carried out for an unshielded SBI weapon platform to determine the radiation levels for which shielding must be designed to ensure survivability of the electronic systems. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Nuclear Weapon Systems Today: A Unit Curriculum for Liberal Arts Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Described is a unit of study on nuclear weapons from a course on nuclear technology. Provided are the elements of first strike attack designed for invoking students' interest and an explanation of each. (YP)

  11. Nuclear Weapon Systems Today: A Unit Curriculum for Liberal Arts Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Described is a unit of study on nuclear weapons from a course on nuclear technology. Provided are the elements of first strike attack designed for invoking students' interest and an explanation of each. (YP)

  12. The nuclear weapons inheritance project: student-to-student dialogues and interactive peer education in disarmament activism.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.

  13. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  14. Report of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    components of nuclear weapons other than fissile material such as tritium and non-nuclear components will need to be considered. To ensure that a nuclear...difficult and time-consuming as possible. Other components which play an important role in nuclear weapons such as tritium should also be subject to a...Canadian deuterium -uranium reactors of currently operating types or evolutionary adaptations of them, employing mixed-oxide fuel in a once-through

  15. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-02

    and security mechanism. The Six Party Agreement was negotiated following a North Korean nuclear test in October 2006, the imposition of sanctions...against North Korea by the United Nations Security Council, and mounting congressional criticism of Administration policy. The nuclear test signaled...in Macau — the object of U.S. financial sanctions since September 2005 because of Banco Delta’s involvement in North Korean criminal counterfeiting

  16. Survey of metal finishing capabilities in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.R.; Stoltz, R.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the metal finishing capabilities of the following design and production agencies in the Nuclear Weapon Complex: Allied Signal Aerospace Co. (AS), General Electric Neutron Device Division (GEND), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), EG&G Mound Applied Technology (MD), EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RF), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL, A), Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, L) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Y-12). It defines the current status of electroplating and its allied processes at each of these agencies, the methods and procedures for handling waste, and the major environmental, safety, and health issues confronting metal finishing personnel.

  17. The Meteorological Monitoring program at a former nuclear weapons plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Meteorological Monitoring program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is to provide meteorological information for use in assessing the transport, and diffusion, and deposition of effluent actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by plant operations. Achievement of this objective aids in protecting health and safety of the public, employees, and environment, and directly supports Emergency Response programs at RFP. Meteorological information supports the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, remediation activities, and emergency responses. As the mission of the plant changes from production of nuclear weapons parts to environmental cleanup and economic development, smaller releases resulting from remediation activities become more likely. These possible releases could result from airborne fugitive dust, evaporation from collection ponds, or grass fires.

  18. Environmental and health effects of the nuclear industry and nuclear weapons: a current evaluation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C J

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear weapons industry in the U.S. comprises nine major plants, supported by a network of subcontractors and grantee institutions. Weapons development progresses at the Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos Laboratories under the auspices of the University of California. Fissionable materials and tritium are produced at the Savannah River Plant (du Pont) or at Hanford. Reprocessing of plutonium and weapons grade uranium and manufacture of components are carried out at Rocky Flats (formerly Dow, now Rockwell Int.). Large amounts of radionuclides are generated or involved in operations at most of the nine plants. Internal reports of surveillance efforts by weapons plant personnel to monitor emissions of radioactive gases and particulates have now been released by several of the plants (in one case through litigation). Those reports document major releases of radioactive gases and particulates to the environment in the past, and continuing routine releases of some importance. Few investigations have been made of effects from these potent carcinogens in local populations. There have been several preliminary reports (Rocky Flats, Los Alamos and Savannah River) and one comprehensive report [Ambio 10: 176 (1981)]. Evidence of significantly increased rates of cancer of the more radiosensitive organs has been demonstrated. Adequate cancer registry and vital statistics data are essential for the comprehensive investigations of somatic and genetic effects which should be carried out around all nuclear installations near population centres.

  19. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    heavy bombers, air-launched cruise missiles, and ballistic -missile submarines. bDOE provides budget estimates for the nuclear weapons stockpile...Security Program ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile NC3 Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications NNSA National Nuclear Security...Administration SLBM Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile SSBN Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear ( ballistic missile submarine) This is a work

  20. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  1. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008. The opening of the repository is now scheduled for 2017 . This report will be updated as events...repository licensing process, according to DOE, nuclear waste shipments to Yucca Mountain could begin by 2017 . NRC issued the first nuclear reactor Early Site...contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum found only 15 deaths from those

  2. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  3. Proceedings: 17th Asilomar conference on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Meier, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the 1983 conference was to provide for the technical exchange of ideas relating to the science and technology of the immediate effects of nuclear weapon explosions. Separate abstracts were prepared for 39 of the papers.

  4. Race horses vs work horses: Competition between the nuclear weapons labs in the 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, S.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a discussion of the missions and research programs of Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and details the competition between the two nuclear weapons laboratories in the 1950's. (FI)

  5. Race horses vs work horses: Competition between the nuclear weapons labs in the 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, S.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides a discussion of the missions and research programs of Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and details the competition between the two nuclear weapons laboratories in the 1950`s. (FI)

  6. The nuclear-weapon states and article VI of the NPT

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.; Lockwood, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty rests on a basic bargain between the five declared nuclear-weapon states - the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China and 167 states that do not possess nuclear weapons. In addition, to the arms control and disarmaments commitments in Article VI, the parties pledge in the treaty`s pramble their determination to seek a comprehensive test ban (CTB) and express the understanding that in connection with the treaty on general and complete disarmament the parties should seek the cessation of manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stock piles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and means of their delivery. The author discusses the status of these agreements and the extent to which they have been fulfilled.

  7. Total Quality Management and nuclear weapons: A historian`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a significant management theme at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper discusses the historical roots of TQM at Los Alamos and how TQM has been used in the development of nuclear weapons.

  8. Source terms for plutonium aerosolization from nuclear weapon accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    The source term literature was reviewed to estimate aerosolized and respirable release fractions for accidents involving plutonium in high-explosive (HE) detonation and in fuel fires. For HE detonation, all estimates are based on the total amount of Pu. For fuel fires, all estimates are based on the amount of Pu oxidized. I based my estimates for HE detonation primarily upon the results from the Roller Coaster experiment. For hydrocarbon fuel fire oxidation of plutonium, I based lower bound values on laboratory experiments which represent accident scenarios with very little turbulence and updraft of a fire. Expected values for aerosolization were obtained from the Vixen A field tests, which represent a realistic case for modest turbulence and updraft, and for respirable fractions from some laboratory experiments involving large samples of Pu. Upper bound estimates for credible accidents are based on experiments involving combustion of molten plutonium droplets. In May of 1991 the DOE Pilot Safety Study Program established a group of experts to estimate the fractions of plutonium which would be aerosolized and respirable for certain nuclear weapon accident scenarios.

  9. Nuclear weapons. The balance of terror, the quest for peace

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a study from first principles of nuclear strategy and the balance of terror. This book addresses the most fundamental issues of our time - what is the balance of terror. How did it come to be. Is it necessary. How has it affected world politics. Will it keep the world at peace. Is it stable in an intrinsic and a dynamic sense. How real a threat is a first strike advantage. What can arms control agreements contribute. What should the objectives of such agreements be. How might a nuclear conflict begin. What would be the chance of containing such a conflict once begun. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the balance of terror. Are there any alternatives to a balance of terror, such as general or nuclear disarmament, which would be both attainable and preferable. If not, what can be done to make a better balance of terror. What are the main threats to stability. What should the West's policies be. What role is there for the independent nuclear deterrents of smaller countries. And how have recent developments such as the American 'star-wars' programme and the 'nuclear winter' hypothesis affected the answers to all these questions.

  10. Radioactive Tank Waste From the Past Production of Nuclear Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-03

    sites involved in the past production of nuclear weapons. Among these challenges are the management and disposal of radioactive waste stored in...underground tanks at sites in three states: Hanford in Washington, Savannah River in South Carolina, and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The...production of radioactive materials for nuclear weapons generated 53 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 tanks at Hanford , 37 million gallons

  11. Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A.; Hull, A.L.; Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G.

    1994-08-01

    The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

  12. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  13. Living with the Devil: Stability in the 21st Century World With or Without Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. iii Contents Page DISCLAIMER...weapon. Third, the temperatures in a nuclear explosion far exceed conventional detonations. The nuclear thermal energy is transmitted as both light...and heat. This thermal energy is capable of causing skin burns and starting fires. Finally, the nuclear explosion will produce a variety of

  14. [War and medicine in a culture of peace. 4. Synopsis of nuclear weapons].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E

    2002-02-01

    The nuclear weapons have a terrifying power of devastation. A civilian nuclear accident has its own dramatic consequences. Both situations are, however, totally distinct with regard to medical consequences. The Gulf war and Balkan war syndromes might be in part caused by uranium used in conventional amunitions. The risk of nuclear terrorism is an emerging eventuality.

  15. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  16. A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-02-15

    In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.

  17. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 2. Nuclear Weapons Effects and Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Basic information about nuclear weapons is presented so that their effects can be meaningfully related to the defensive countermeasures which will be most effective against them. Major topics include: (1) Explosive power of nuclear weapons, (2) Major effects of nuclear explosions, (3) Two basic types of nuclear explosions, (4) Contrast between air…

  18. Medical aspects of nuclear weapons and their effects on medical operations. Subcourse Med 447

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The subcourse is directed toward the medical effects of nuclear weapons; command guidance on irradiated personnel; medical management of mass casualties with a view toward minimizing manpower damage and preventing unnecessary loss of personnel capable of continuing their military mission; effective command, control, and employment of medical units in the post-attack environment; and actions to be taken by the military, in the case, specifically the medical units, in order to preclude and defend against the tremendous residual effects of nuclear warfare. The ability to perform under such conditions can be attained through effective command, control, and employment of the medical units after the nuclear explosion. The subcourse consists of 5 lessons and an examination. The lessons are: (1) Review of Nuclear Weapon Effects; (2) Ionizing Radiation Injury; (3) Comparative Effects of Nuclear Weapons; Residual Radiation Dose and Decay Calculations; and Management of Mass Casualties; (4) Command Guidance on Irradiated Personnel and Nuclear Accidents and Incidents; and (5) Medical Operations in Fallout.

  19. A Primer on U.S. Strategic Nuclear Policy

    SciTech Connect

    KUNSMAN, DAVID M.; LAWSON, DOUGLAS B.

    2001-01-01

    This primer presents a succinct summary of the evolution of U.S. nuclear deterrence policy from the initial development of nuclear weapons until the present day. This is not a definitive history but an introduction to deterrence policy for those with limited background in this area. The concept of deterrence is discussed in several ways--in a general description of deterrence theory, in an historical review of nuclear policy evolution, in a discussion of the future of deterrence, in historical examples of deterrence successes and failures, and in a review of significant contributors to the study of nuclear policy. The intent is to present an authoritative, unclassified account. To accomplish this, to the extent possible, primary source documents were located and utilized if they were available and declassified. These included unclassified Presidential nuclear policy guidance from the Presidential libraries, official JCS histories and State Department Foreign Relations histories. The writings of noted nuclear strategists and historians were also valuable resources for this primer on U.S. strategic nuclear policy.

  20. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Underground nuclear testing of U.S. nuclear weapons was halted by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 when he announced a moratorium. In 1993, the moratorium was extended by President Bill Clinton and, in 1995, a program of Stockpile Stewardship was put in its place. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Twenty years have passed since then. Over the same time, the average age of a nuclear weapon in the stockpile has increased from 6 years (1992) to nearly 29 years (2015). At its inception, achievement of the objectives of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) appeared possible but very difficult. The cost to design and construct several large facilities for precision experimentation in hydrodynamics and high energy density physics was large. The practical steps needed to move from computational platforms of less than 100 Mflops/sec to 10 Teraflops/sec and beyond were unknown. Today, most of the required facilities for SSP are in place and computational speed has been increased by more than six orders of magnitude. These, and the physicists and engineers in the complex of labs and plants within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) who put them in place, have been the basis for underpinning an annual decision, made by the weapons lab directors for each of the past 20 years, that resort to underground nuclear testing is not needed for maintaining confidence in the safety and reliability of the U.S stockpile. A key part of that decision has been annual assessment of the physical changes in stockpiled weapons. These weapons, quite simply, are systems that invariably and unstoppably age in the internal weapon environment of radioactive materials and complex interfaces of highly dissimilar organic and inorganic materials. Without an ongoing program to rebuild some components and replace other components to increase safety or security, i.e., life extending these weapons, either underground testing would again be

  1. Chinese attitudes toward nuclear weapons: China and the United States during the Korean War

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental Chinese attitudes related to nuclear disarmament and proliferation, civil defense against nuclear attack, and the likely repercussions of nuclear war were set during the Korean War. Chinese viewpoints were heavily influenced by Western writings on nuclear matters from 1945-1950 and were characterized by an integrated military, political, and psychological realism. Previous studies, failing to make use of relevant Chinese-language materials, have neglected this crucial formative period. Both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations considered using nuclear weapons in Korea and China and attempted to shape the political settlement of the war through nuclear threats. The Chinese reaction was notable for its efforts to counteract the effects of fear among its population. They acknowledged the unprecedented destructiveness, not the military decisiveness, of the weapons, but they adamantly denied that nuclear threats would cow them. Chinese propaganda stressed the Soviet deterrent and skillfully appealed to worldwide opposition to nuclear weapons, often utilizing Western spokesmen and playing upon the theme of US misuse of science. The Chinese considered a nuclear attack relatively unlikely but were prepared to absorb an attack and fight a war of long duration. In Korea both the terrain and the extensive tunneling by Chinese troops afforded significant protection from nuclear weapons.

  2. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-28

    repository to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008, with the repository to open by 2017 at the earliest. However, a substantial budget...waste to Yucca Mountain by 2017 , but the FY2008 funding reduction is likely to cause delays, according to program officials. NRC issued the first...who after the accident drank milk contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum

  3. Anatomy of a Project to Produce a First Nuclear Weapon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    example, if the proliferator acquires stolen, highly enriched uranium metal. INTRODUCTION This article documents the component tasks of a major industrial...three uranium - enrichment technologies. Within the limits of his resources, the proliferator wishes to minimize the completion time of his weapons...most six weapons per year); 2. Production of enrichment -plant feed material ( uranium hexafluoride, UF6) from yellowcake; 3. Uranium enrichment

  4. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    PubMed

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  5. Nuclear Weapons and Coercive Escalation in Regional Conflicts: Lessons from North Korea and Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    15 Victor A. Utgoff and Michael O. Wheeler. On Deterring and Defeating Attempts to Exploit a Nuclear Theory of Victory. Insitute for Defense...On Deterring and Defeating Attempts to Exploit a Nuclear Theory of Victory, 2013, 23. Joshua Rovner. “After Proliferation: Deterrence Theory and...After Proliferation: Deterrence Theory and Emerging Nuclear Powers,” 2012, 18. 25 Geller, “ Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence and Crisis Escalation,” 1990

  6. Controlling the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Institute of Peace, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this teaching guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence and spread of nuclear weapons; (2) to familiarize students with historic and contemporary measures to control nuclear proliferation and stimulate their thinking of potential strategies for doing so in the future; (3) to develop students' analytical…

  7. "Fat Man and Little Boy": The Cinematic Representation of Interests in the Nuclear Weapons Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the ironic "problems" of the 1989 Hollywood film "Fat Man and Little Boy" (portraying the construction of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II) to demonstrate the ideological operations of nuclear texts, and the role of the nuclear weapons organization as a symbolic form in cultural…

  8. "Fat Man and Little Boy": The Cinematic Representation of Interests in the Nuclear Weapons Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the ironic "problems" of the 1989 Hollywood film "Fat Man and Little Boy" (portraying the construction of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II) to demonstrate the ideological operations of nuclear texts, and the role of the nuclear weapons organization as a symbolic form in cultural…

  9. Controlling the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Institute of Peace, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this teaching guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence and spread of nuclear weapons; (2) to familiarize students with historic and contemporary measures to control nuclear proliferation and stimulate their thinking of potential strategies for doing so in the future; (3) to develop students' analytical…

  10. Smart Weapons - Can We Fold the Nuclear Umbrella

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-17

    However, as a weapon of mass destruction, they present unique doctrina ! problems. Doctrine must address not only their military utility, but their...connected to a power line or antenna, would burn out and impart a severe shock to anyone in contact with the collector. While the actual effects are

  11. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  12. First use of nuclear weapons: the constitutional role of a Congressional leadership committee

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Although the War Powers Act brought some constitutional order to the question of respective prerogatives of the legislative and executive branches of government, the Act is flawed in the matter of first use of nuclear weapons. The author reviews the Supreme Court decision in Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadna that the legislative veto was unconstitutional as it relates to the committee approval mechanism involved in the first-use proposal. He finds that neither the case nor the Constitution precludes the first-use proposal, then argues for the committee approval mechanism on the grounds that such an important decision should be shared. The urgency to fire nuclear weapons in retaliation for a nuclear attack is not present in a first-use scenario since conventional weapons would already be engaged. The Committee mechanism would involve Congress without jeopardizing speed and secrecy.

  13. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE`s weapons laboratories.

  14. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories.

  15. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  16. The nuclear present. A guide to recent books on nuclear war, weapons, the peace movement, and related issues, with a chronology of nuclear events, 1789-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Present brings the interested reader up-to-date on significant English-language books about nuclear weapons and related topics, identifying primarily important works of nuclear non-fiction that have come out since 1984. Each reference has a paragraph of comment about its subject and value. General organizational areas include the following: Reference Works; Nuclear weapons and Nuclear war (14 sub-headings including overviews, development, effects, tests, arms race, prospectives, legal considerations etc.); Strategy; proliferation; Stratigic Defense; Arms control and disarmament; ethical, pholosophical and religous perspectives; new paths to peace; periodic guide; the Chernobyl Disaster. An extensive Nuclear Chronology (1789-1991) written by the author allows a fairly detailed sense of the historical record of nuclear weapons, including testing, manufacture, use and movements for arms control and disarmament.

  17. Ethics for environmental health research: the case of the U.S. Nuclear weapons industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Exploitation of workers and communities based on class and race has profoundly influenced occupational and environmental health. During production and testing of nuclear weapons in the United States, class and race have affected exposures to radiation and other hazards as well as protection programs and monitoring of exposures. This situation has contributed to health disparities and has hindered advancement of research into the health effects of ionizing radiation and other exposures from nuclear weapons production. Organizing by workers and affected communities can bring about a better understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation as well as more ethical research practices.

  18. Nuclear Weapons and NATO, Analytical Survey of Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    PROLIFERATION (See also Appendixes) A. Weapons and Technology: East and West (Some Aspects). 1. Miscellaneous Aspects 2. Aircraft 3. Electronic Devices ...if the summer has stretched through autumn in the West, and drugged its subjects into winter hibernation, then the chills of energy crises, of...similar devices from being disrupted by the enemy. Modern armed forces have come to rely more and more on elec- tronic means for control, detection

  19. Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2011-05-01

    As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

  20. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  1. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  2. DISARMAMENT FAILURE AND WEAPONS LIMITATIONS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The American goal of complete nuclear disarmament is discussed. The major American proposals in the field of nuclear disarmament and limitations ...since 1946 are reviewed, and the causes for the failure of these proposals are examined. A policy of limitations on the use of nuclear weapons is suggested.

  3. Strategic plan for the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex Polymer Waste Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, W.E. Jr.

    1991-08-08

    This plan addresses the objectives and implementation strategy for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Polymer Waste Stream (PWS) program through FY 1996. The purpose of the plan is to develop a comprehensive hazard/waste minimization program for PWS projects. The overall focus of the strategy is directed toward hazard/waste minimization for PWS processes. This involves the elimination/minimization of processes and materials that result in potential exposure of the work force to hazardous materials during the production of nuclear weapons and pose a threat to the environment by the potential release of toxic or environmentally harmful materials. The Department of Energy established the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in August 1990. The WMMG was given the mission of establishing and coordinating a comprehensive program which would minimize waste and hazards in the production of weapons within the NWC.

  4. Pakistan’s Nuclear Proliferation Activities and the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission: U.S. Policy Constraints and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-16

    Pakistan no longer critical to U.S. regional security policy.15 India and Pakistan’s May 1998 Nuclear Tests and the Decline of Sanctions as a U.S... nuclear activities. A number of nonproliferation experts agree with the critical importance of keeping Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and materials out of...plans for an uranium enrichment facility, this is only one — albeit a critical one — of many steps required in the production of nuclear weapons

  5. The Dangers of Dualism as a World View in the Age of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groner, Cary

    1984-01-01

    People's conceptual ordering of the universe has traditionally taken the form of dualism, "good and evil" and "us against them." In this age of nuclear weapons, this is highly dangerous thinking. We must rid ourselves of nationalism and commit ourselves to peace in all our dealings. (CS)

  6. Warhead politics: Livermore and the competitive system of nuclear weapon design

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Sybil

    1995-06-01

    From the 1950s onward, US evolved a two-laboratory system to design, develop, and test nuclear weapons. LANL (New Mexico) dates from World War II. The founding in 1952 of LLNL in California effectively established the two-laboratory system. Despite essentially identical missions, LANL and LLNL adopted different strategies and approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. This thesis looks to their joint history for an explanation of this and consequent questions (how did the two-laboratory system originate and evolve? how did it function? what impact did it have on nuclear weapons development?) The incentives and constraints that shaped laboratory strategies and outputs was determined by military demand for nuclear weapons, an informal mandate against laboratory duplication, congressional support for competition, and Livermore`s role as the ``second lab.`` This thesis discusses the laboratories` role in the arms race, organizational strategies for coping with changing political environments, dynamics of technological innovation, and the leverage of policymakers over large organizations.

  7. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Weapon Effects Test, Evaluation, and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    scenario assessments , scripted gaming activities, and in field experiments involving operational resources. This scenario usage is discussed further in...HARDENING SYSTEMS AND ASSESSING COMPLIANCE – PAST AND PRESENT...The Hardening Process and Design Assessment ....................................32 5.3 Nuclear Weapon Effects Simulators

  8. The Dangers of Dualism as a World View in the Age of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groner, Cary

    1984-01-01

    People's conceptual ordering of the universe has traditionally taken the form of dualism, "good and evil" and "us against them." In this age of nuclear weapons, this is highly dangerous thinking. We must rid ourselves of nationalism and commit ourselves to peace in all our dealings. (CS)

  9. Argumentation in the Canadian House of Commons on the Issue of Nuclear Weapons for Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John Alfred

    The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 forced the Canadian House of Commons to consider whether Canadian forces in NORAD and NATO were effective without nuclear warheads on special weapons systems. This paper provides an overview of the debates and their milieu, identifies the issues involved, and analyzes the effects of the argumentation. The…

  10. Russian/US nuclear weapons labs share NDT technologies for emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    In December 1995 a team of NDT experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory travelled to the Russian city of Sarov, also known as Arzamas-16, to officially transfer to Russia NDT equipment--a mobile radiography system--built for use in nuclear emergency response. Previously, during the period August 29 through September 16, 1994, nine Russian nuclear weapons experts had been trained on the safe and effective use and maintenance of this NDT equipment, a mobile radiography capability, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The training occurred mainly at Los Alamos` Technical Area 8--where NDT in support of the US nuclear weapons program has taken place since the 1940s. The Russians came from the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the Russian Federal Nuclear Centers at Arzamas-165 (VNIIEF) and Chelyabinsk-70 (VNIITF).

  11. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  12. Ultra-high resolution mass separator--application to detection of nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, K; Eronen, T; Elomaa, V-V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kettunen, H; Kolhinen, V S; Laitinen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Toivonen, H; Turunen, J; Aystö, J

    2010-03-01

    A Penning trap-based purification process having a resolution of about 1 ppm is reported. In this context, we present for the first time a production method for the most complicated and crucially important nuclear weapons test signature, (133m)Xe. These pure xenon samples are required by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to standardize and calibrate the worldwide network of xenon detectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Future Role and Need for Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    overwhelming devastation and destruction nuclear weapons can render speaks directly to the ability to defeat adversaries. Nuclear force size and type are... Extroverted US versus Introverted Challenger Most future challengers the United States will face are likely to be introverted states. Introverted states are...not naturally more aggressive than Extroverted ones, but for the past half-century and for the foreseeable future, the Extroverted states (after

  14. Radiotactive Tank Waste from the Past Production of Nuclear Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    be updated as developments warrant. Background DOE is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contamination at sites involved... sites in three states: Hanford in Washington, Savannah River in South Carolina, and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The production of...radioactive materials for nuclear weapons generated 53 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 tanks at Hanford , 37 million gallons in 49 tanks at

  15. The Trilateral Force: The Atlantic Alliance and the Future of Nuclear Weapons Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-03

    weapons are enough? The concept of strategic stability is instructive here. 𔃺 Strategic stability is a central characteristic of a relationship in...ensure the efficacy of nuclear umbrellas The key qualitative characteristics of today’s nuclear force structure remain critical to tomorrow’s smaller...Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2009). 113 Leo Michel, "Construct a U.S.-U.K.-French ’ Entente Cordiale ’," Defense News

  16. Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-07-01

    2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

  17. Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

    1987-10-01

    This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

  18. Normative Factors in U.S. Nuclear Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    weapons in conflict. There exists large bodies of research and theories that attempt to explain the key variables that have prevented the use of...nuclear weapons in anger, and much research exists on how norms factor in to non-use. Some theorists argue that norms are highly explanatory in preventing ...indiscriminate nature, radiation effects, and so on,”25 which prevented policymakers from choosing nuclear arms over conventional weapons. This theory

  19. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  20. Nuclear Weapons. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better Reflect Funding Estimates and Technology Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    metal. Recovery extraction centrifugal contactors A process that uses solvent to extract uranium for purposes of purification. Agile machining A...Appropriations, U.S. Senate NUCLEAR WEAPONS National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Weapons: National Nuclear Security Administration’s Plans for Its Uranium Processing Facility Should Better

  1. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-12-31

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

  2. Effectiveness of United StatesLed Economic Sanctions as a Counterproliferation Tool Against Irans Nuclear Weapons Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    current need to enrich uranium to generate nuclear energy because of a 10-year Russian agreement to provide enriched uranium to Iran for its reactor at...UNITED STATES–LED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AS A COUNTERPROLIFERATION TOOL AGAINST IRAN’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAM by Joel S. Millwee December...LED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AS A COUNTERPROLIFERATION TOOL AGAINST IRAN’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel S. Millwee

  3. Office of Inspector General audit report on ``The U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to preserve the knowledge base needed to operate a downsized nuclear weapons complex``

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    Maintaining a credible nuclear deterrent is a cornerstone of US national security policy. The President has stated that the maintenance of a safe and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile is a supreme national interest. The Department of Energy`s (Department) Office of Defense Programs is charged with ensuring the safety, reliability, and performance of this stockpile. The Department must now rely on scientific understanding and expert judgment, rather than on nuclear testing and the development of new weapons, to predict, identify, and correct problems affecting the stockpile. The scientific understanding and judgment will be based on the knowledge created by the Department and its predecessor agencies throughout the history of the nuclear weapons program as well as such factors as nonnuclear testing and advanced computer modeling. To preserve the knowledge base, the Department must assemble, maintain, and assure user-friendly access to a comprehensive, well-organized archive of data, information, and knowledge regarding nuclear weapons. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Department had developed a program to preserve the knowledge base needed to operate a downsized nuclear weapons complex. In particular, the author assessed the Department`s efforts to preserve the data, information, and knowledge needed to ensure the vitality of the weapons complex.

  4. Indo-Pakistani nuclear issue: A US policy perspective. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    This thesis examines U.S. nonproliferation policy and the problem of nuclear proliferation in India and Pakistan. Its central hypothesis is that the end of the Cold War has created an opportunity to advance U.S. nonproliferation interests and work with both India and Pakistan to reduce the threat of a nuclear confrontation on the Indian Subcontinent. The thesis assesses both the motives for and the current status of the nuclear weapons programs in India and Pakistan. It also presents some plausible scenarios concerning future courses those programs could take. Finally, it presents a set of policy recommendations directed toward reducing Indo-Pakistani nuclear tensions and laying the foundations to make a future South Asian nuclear nonproliferation regime possible. Ultimately, this approach would create safer, more stable security arrangements for India and Pakistan and further reduce the threat from nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War world. United States, India, Pakistan, U.S.-Indian Relations, U.S.-Pakistan Relations, Nuclear Weapons, Nonproliferation, U.S. Foreign Policy.

  5. Joint DOD/DOE Nuclear Weapons Accident Exercise (NUWAX-79). After Action Report. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-24

    Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, 17 , Air Force Systems Command, USAF. iS Ŝ. Interservice Nuclear Weapon School , 3416th Technical...mpires 15 ERDA (5/15) 20 16 Army (3/7) 10 17 Navy (6/6) 12 18 USAF (15/25) 40 19 Interservice Nuclear 20 Weapons School (2/6) 8 21 DNA/FCDNA (3/0) 3 2...Interservice Nuclear Weapons School (INWS) Training Area, Kirtland 7 AFB (KAFB), NM (See Appendix B-1-1, KAFB Map.) 8 𔃻. Advantages. 9 I"a. Relative short

  6. Joint DoD/DoE Nuclear Weapons Accident Exercise (NUWAX-79). After Action Report. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-24

    Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, 17 , Air Force Systems Command, USAF. iS Ŝ. Interservice Nuclear Weapon School , 3416th Technical...15 ERDA (5/15) 20 16 Army (3/7) 10 17 Navy (6/6) 12 18 USAF (15/25) 40 19 Interservice Nuclear 20 Weapons School (2/6) 8 21 DNA/FCDNA (3/0) 3 2 Total...Interservice Nuclear Weapons School (INWS) Training Area, Kirtland 7 AFB (KAFB), NM (See Appendix B-1-1, KAFB Map.) 8 𔃻. Advantages. 9 I"a. Relative short

  7. The bishops and nuclear weapons: The catholic pastoral letter on war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a contribution to the Catholic debate over nuclear weapons, by an international relations scholar who teaches at a Catholic college. Dougherty is critical of the 1983 pastoral letter, arguing that it focuses too much on the dangers of nuclear war and the inadequacies of deterrence while giving insufficient attention to Soviet expansionism and the need for stable deterrence through a judicious mixture of military modernization and arms control. He is concerned by an increase in ''Catholic nuclear pacifism,'' fearing that the pastoral letter could become a theological rationalization for neo-isolationism in the United States. The European bishops, he notes, take a more moderate view.

  8. The Trilateral Force: The Atlantic Alliance and the Future of Nuclear Weapons Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    their strategic nuclear arsenals to 1,000 warheads with no more than 500 launchers without weakening security. 22 Deutch suggests the following force...weapon-states/?hpt=hp_t1. 22 Bruce Blair, et al., “Smaller and Safer,” Foreign Affairs 89, 5 (2010). 23 John Deutch , “A Nuclear Posture for Today...Littlefield. 2013. Deutch , J. “A Nuclear Posture for Today.” Foreign Affairs 84, 1. 2005. European Defense Agency: Long-Term Vision. 2006. Evans, G

  9. Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaffe, Michael David

    On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of

  10. The future of US nuclear weapons in a restructured world

    SciTech Connect

    Slocombe, W.B.

    1992-12-31

    The upheavals in the internal politics and in the international role of the former USSR have already profoundly changed the threats against which the United States and the West, generally, must make their security arrangements, and, particularly, their plans for nuclear forces. Changes in the USSR and in its role in central Europe are erasing both the general American-Soviet confrontation from which nuclear war could have emerged and the more specific threat of a sudden armor-led Soviet assault on Western Europe that could have posed for the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) the choice of defeat or quick nuclear escalation. Even in a dramatically transformed world there will continue to be international tensions, crises, and even wars in which US forces may participate, as the Persian Gulf war demonstrated. Despite the shadow that actual or potential third-country nuclear potential may cast over US military operations in such contexts, US nuclear capabilities will have a minimal role in most such security issues because their destructiveness is so disproportionate to what is likely to be at stake.

  11. Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

  12. Plutonium and uranium contamination in soils from former nuclear weapon test sites in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, D. P.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.

    2013-01-01

    The British government performed a number of nuclear weapon tests on Australian territory from 1952 through to 1963 with the cooperation of the Australian government. Nine fission bombs were detonated in South Australia at Emu Junction and Maralinga, and a further three fission weapons were detonated in the Monte Bello Islands off the coast of Western Australia. A number of soil samples were collected by the Australian Radiation Laboratories in 1972 and 1978 during field surveys at these nuclear weapon test sites. They were analysed by gamma spectrometry and, for a select few samples, by alpha spectrometry to measure the remaining activities of fission products, activation products and weapon materials. We have remeasured a number of these Montebello Islands and Emu Junction soil samples using the ANTARES AMS facility, ANSTO. These samples were analysed for plutonium and uranium isotopic ratios and isotopic concentrations. Very low 240Pu/239Pu ratios were measured at both sites (∼0.05 for Alpha Island and ∼0.02 for Emu Field), substantially below global fallout averages. Well correlated but widely varying 236U and plutonium concentrations were measured across both sites, but 233U did not correlate with these other isotopes and instead showed correlation with distance from ground zero, indicating in situ production in the soils.

  13. China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Benjamin Kang, “China Nuclear Halt May Stem From Deal,” Reuters, July 30, 1996; Robert Karniol, “Nuclear Blast Heralds A Chinese Moratorium,” Jane’s Defense...Leak,” New York Times, April 8, 1999. 12 FBI, “Statement by FBI Director Robert S. Mueller,” April 9, 2003; Katrina Leung Affidavit; James J. Smith...the appropriate congressional committees and the White House on April 21, 1999. Robert Walpole, the National Intelligence Officer for Strategic and

  14. Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-04-16

    A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

  15. Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

  16. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-05

    earlier than Bosworth; he testified that North Korean Foreign Ministry official, Lee Gun , stated that a peace agreement...September 24, 2008; and Yi Chong- chin , “DPRK official at energy aid talks comments on nuclear verification issue,” Yonhap News Agency, September 19...complete denuclearization. If these 51 Choe Sang- hun , “Tensions rise on Korean peninsula,” New

  17. Theater Nuclear Weapons in Europe: The Contemporary Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    usable,” such as the current feasibility studies of a “robust nuclear earth penetrator” or “ bunker buster ,” may enhance the capabilities of TNWs...Penetrator or “ bunker buster ,” may enhance the capabilities of TNWs, but will do little to alleviate the taboo against their use. From this...

  18. U.S. Nuclear Deterrence Policy: Do We Have it Right?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    the NPR. Low yield and bunker buster nuclear weapons have been introduced in our strategy as a means to combat terrorism. There are also new...weapons target list. Low yield and bunker buster weapons that are proposed in our strategy meet that definition. Low yield weapons may be less...applies to nuclear bunker buster weapons; a weapon that explodes under the ground with a lower atomic yield. This concept has obvious merits, the

  19. Weapons in Schools and Zero-Tolerance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph; Baughan, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Horrific events such as the fatal shooting of three high school students in Chardon, Ohio, in the winter of 2012 places tremendous pressure on state and local agencies to ensure that schools provide a safe and conducive learning environment for all students. To help curb school violence, schools have adopted zero-tolerance policies, which often…

  20. Weapons in Schools and Zero-Tolerance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph; Baughan, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Horrific events such as the fatal shooting of three high school students in Chardon, Ohio, in the winter of 2012 places tremendous pressure on state and local agencies to ensure that schools provide a safe and conducive learning environment for all students. To help curb school violence, schools have adopted zero-tolerance policies, which often…

  1. The glass bead game: nuclear tourism at the Australian weapon test sites.

    PubMed

    Roff, S R

    1998-01-01

    In mid-summer 1997, just as the United States National Cancer Institute was acknowledging that the nuclear bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site may ultimately cause up to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer in people who were living in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, the Australian authorities were mooting the possibility that the Maralinga test sites in South Australia should become a tourist attraction. Some Aboriginal tribal leaders welcomed this proposed use when the 20 million Pounds 'clean-up' being paid for by the United Kingdom government as some compensation for using the area for its weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s is completed. This paper surveys the attempts to clean up the site of UK nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s, not least by attempting to vitrify vast tracts of desert.

  2. Operation TEAPOT, 1955 Continental Nuclear Weapons Test Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    troop test involved 6 about 1,000 troops at Shot APPLE 2. The test of an Armored Task Force, RAZOR, was designed to demonstrate the capability of a...reinforced tank battalion to seize an objective immediately after a nuclear detonation. This project was sponsored by the Army Armored School of Fort Knox...Kentucky. Task Force RAZOR was composed of the following armored units: Camp Irwin, California * 723rd Tank Battalion Fort Hood, Texas * Company C

  3. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    such as thorium and uranium, is present everywhere, often in trace amounts. Cosmic rays generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain...radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which may contain thorium and uranium). Other radioactive...11 HEU that has been through a nuclear reactor picks up small quantities of U-232, which decays through intermediate steps to thallium-208, which

  4. Nuclear Weapons Materials Gone Missing: What Does History Teach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    provides a valuable analytical capability within the Army to address strategic and other issues in support of Army participation in national...Plant) – Waste (rough sample only) – DVessel inventory According to a Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board report from 1993, the input term was...usual rate of 5 percent. The NRC staff’s investiga- tion concluded that sloppy accounting was partly to blame, as well as the procedures to measure the

  5. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    other nuclear facilities, tracking materials at border crossings and choke points, screening maritime cargo containers, and examining actual or...generate low levels of neutrons. Some commercial goods contain radioactive material, such as ceramics (which may contain uranium) and kitty litter (which...alert individuals to the presence of elevated levels of radiation. They may use any of several types of detector material. They are lightweight and

  6. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-03

    North Korea by creating a bloc of governments demanding that North Korea accept CVID and willing to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. The...nuclear programs, both the plutonium program and the secret uranium enrichment program. This demand has become known as “ CVID .” The Administration stated...that it would discuss ways to improve U.S.- North Korean relations only after North Korea accepts CVID and takes concrete measures to implement it

  7. Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Strategy and Future Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    Command and General staff r«ii=^- r. T , Kansas 66027. general staff College, Fort Leavenworth, 𔄁- mSTRieuTION STATEMENT fo/ tt. S^i „^ <n moek ...34Tovrard Kucleax Self-Sufficfency in ^roVo^ Amy, riar. 1975, pp. 40-44,; *•» 10. Gormley, Dennis K., "NATO’s Tactical Nuclear Option: Tast, I^sent and

  8. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    tested a plutonium nuclear device in October 2006. U.S. officials have cited evidence that North Korea also operates a secret highly enriched...programs. It cited as the reason for its decision a statement approved by the United Nations Security Council criticizing North Korea’s test launch...the missile test violated Security Resolution 1718 of October 2006, which banned tests of long-range North Korean missiles. The statement called on

  9. Detection Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of Nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    accountability of both prompt and delayed neutrons depending on matrix used (pulsed beam), and the availability of both radiography and therapy accelerators...transport of nuclear weapons and radiological dispersion devices and the materials for their construction. These materials emit gamma rays or neutrons ...atmospheric, and cosmic ray induced gamma rays. The natural neutron background is mostly due to cosmic-ray interactions with the air, the ground and

  10. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  11. Impact Upon U.S. Security of a South African Nuclear Weapons Capability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    intimately linked to the teaching of political philosophy, which In turn is intimately linked to an extraordinarily conservative theology . With very few...Afrikaner hardliners were consoled in their belief that the government has the capacity to create a nuclear bomb, if not possessing the weapon...peoples. As explained above, this Is due to their difficult,indeed tragic history on the continent and to their staunch Old Testament theology

  12. Nuclear Weapons Security Crisis: What Does History Teach?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    happened just as the Reg- gan base was preparing for the fourth French nuclear test. Codenamed “Gerboise verte” (“ Green Jerboa”), this explosion of a...de Gaulle him- 34 self.28 Standard procedure was that a green light was given by the Elysée, and that the Reggan authorities decided on the exact day...twice to hasten the test, obviously, accord- ing to him, for political reasons.53 In normal times, only one “ green light” was needed from the Elysée

  13. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    Material Report 2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 7 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 8 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile...said that the arsenal is safe and has adequate checks and balances.41 Similarly, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David... University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download/attachments/748/Brief_22finalised.pdf 49 Alex Wagner, “U.S

  14. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  15. Nuclear weapons tests and short-term effects on atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. J.; Krueger, A. J.; Prabhakara, C.; Hilsenrath, E.

    1974-01-01

    Observations made when Nimbus 4 passed over a nuclear cloud about three hours after the bomb exploded are presented. Infrared and BUV measurements indicated that the atmospheric ozone level in the area of cloud was significantly less than in areas directly north and south of the cloud. It is noted, however, that it is not possible to state definitively that the ozone depletion was caused by nitrogen oxides released in the nuclear weapons test, and that further observations must be made to clarify the situation.

  16. Nuclear weapons tests and short-term effects on atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. J.; Krueger, A. J.; Prabhakara, C.; Hilsenrath, E.

    1974-01-01

    Observations made when Nimbus 4 passed over a nuclear cloud about three hours after the bomb exploded are presented. Infrared and BUV measurements indicated that the atmospheric ozone level in the area of cloud was significantly less than in areas directly north and south of the cloud. It is noted, however, that it is not possible to state definitively that the ozone depletion was caused by nitrogen oxides released in the nuclear weapons test, and that further observations must be made to clarify the situation.

  17. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  18. Nuclear Weapons: NNSA Needs to Establish a Cost and Schedule Baseline for Manufacturing a Critical Nuclear Weapon Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    MOX mixed-oxide NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration PF-4 Plutonium Facility-4 building RRW Reliable Replacement Warhead TA-50...disassembles legacy pits and removes and oxidizes the plutonium, which can be used as a feed metal for the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel polishing activities...Facility at the Savannah River Site. MOX fuel polishing This program purifies plutonium from the ARIES project to specifications that would allow direct

  19. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is...

  20. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  1. The Plutonium Transition from Nuclear Weapons to Crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-03-14

    With the end of the ''Cold War'' thousands of nuclear warheads are being dismantled. The National Academy of Sciences termed this growing stockpile of plutonium and highly enriched uranium ''a clear and present danger'' to international security. DOE/MD selected a duel approach to plutonium disposition--burning MOX fuel in existing reactors and immobilization in a ceramic matrix surrounded by HLW glass. MOX material will be pits and clean metal. The challenges come with materials that will be transferred to Immobilization--these range from engineered materials to residues containing < 30% Pu. Impurity knowledge range from guesses to actual data. During packaging, sites will flag ''out of the ordinary'' containers for characterized. If the process history is lost, characterization cost will escalate rapidly. After two step blending and ceramic precursor addition, cold press and sintering will form 0.5-kg ceramic pucks containing {le}50 g Pu. Pucks will be sealed in cans, placed into magazines, then into HLW canisters; these canisters will be filled with HLW glass prior to being transported to the HLW repository. The Immobilization Program must interface with DP, EM, RW, and NN. Overlaid on top of these interfaces are the negotiations with the Russians.

  2. North Korea's nuclear weapons program:verification priorities and new challenges.

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Duk-ho

    2003-12-01

    A comprehensive settlement of the North Korean nuclear issue may involve military, economic, political, and diplomatic components, many of which will require verification to ensure reciprocal implementation. This paper sets out potential verification methodologies that might address a wide range of objectives. The inspection requirements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency form the foundation, first as defined at the time of the Agreed Framework in 1994, and now as modified by the events since revelation of the North Korean uranium enrichment program in October 2002. In addition, refreezing the reprocessing facility and 5 MWe reactor, taking possession of possible weapons components and destroying weaponization capabilities add many new verification tasks. The paper also considers several measures for the short-term freezing of the North's nuclear weapon program during the process of negotiations, should that process be protracted. New inspection technologies and monitoring tools are applicable to North Korean facilities and may offer improved approaches over those envisioned just a few years ago. These are noted, and potential bilateral and regional verification regimes are examined.

  3. International perceptions of US nuclear policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Elizabeth A. (Georgetown Universtiy, Washington, DC)

    2006-02-01

    The report presents a summary of international perceptions and beliefs about US nuclear policy, focusing on four countries--China, Iran, Pakistan and Germany--chosen because they span the spectrum of states with which the United States has relationships. A paradox is pointed out: that although the goal of US nuclear policy is to make the United States and its allies safer through a policy of deterrence, international perceptions of US nuclear policy may actually be making the US less safe by eroding its soft power and global leadership position. Broadly held perceptions include a pattern of US hypocrisy and double standards--one set for the US and its allies, and another set for all others. Importantly, the US nuclear posture is not seen in a vacuum, but as one piece of the United States behavior on the world stage. Because of this, the potential direct side effects of any negative international perceptions of US nuclear policy can be somewhat mitigated, dependent on other US policies and actions. The more indirect and long term relation of US nuclear policy to US international reputation and soft power, however, matters immensely to successful multilateral and proactive engagement on other pressing global issues.

  4. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

  5. Weapons and hope

    SciTech Connect

    Dyson, F.

    1984-01-01

    The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

  6. Reconstruction of external dose from beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin.

    PubMed

    Barss, Neil M; Weitz, Ronald L

    2006-10-01

    In response to requests from the Department of Veterans Affairs, a methodology was developed to assess the external dose accrued by personnel in the vicinity of beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin. This methodology has been applied in support of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) Program implemented by the Department of Defense. As required by the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 32, Part 218 and Title 38, Part 3.311), the NTPR Program must evaluate radiological hazards from nuclear testing activities that include alpha particle, beta particle, neutron, and photon emissions from radionuclides. Prior to the development of this methodology, only photon and neutron radiations were explicitly quantified for external dose assessments in this program. Alpha radiation of external origin presents no risk for biological effects due to external dose potential to skin tissue because of the particle's very limited range. However, beta particles are sufficiently penetrating to have such potential. Methods are provided to quantify ionizing radiation doses to the skin and lens of the eye from beta radiation sources of nuclear weapon origin located external to the body. This formulation allows the estimation of beta dose from a film badge (gamma) dose or from an equivalent reconstructed gamma dose.

  7. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  8. Russia’s Nuclear Weapons Dilemma: A Cooperative Approach to International Security in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Vladislav Zubok , "Tyranny of the Weak: Russia’s New Foreign Policy," World Policy Journal 9, no. 2 (1992): 203-205. 57 support for economic reform. They...8217 Views of the Soviet Army." Problems of Communism 37, no. 3-4 (May-August 1988): 110-116. Zubok , Vladislav . "Tyranny of the Weak: Russia’s New Foreign Policy." World Policy Journal 9, no. 2 (1992): i91-217. ...republics. 15 Kurt M . Campbell et al., Soviet Nuclear Fission: Control of the Nuclear Arsenal in a Disintegrating Soviet Union

  9. Nuclear Deterrence: Strong Policy is Needed for Effective Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    hypersonic boost glide vehicles to penetrate ballistic missile defense systems (p. 10-12). Finally, Russian nuclear scientists have discussed their...weapons such as missiles with multiple independently retargeted reentry vehicles (MIRVs) and mobile ICBMs.96 The NPR does advocate this position,97...have backed up this doctrine by developing and deploying advanced new strategic delivery vehicles and nuclear weapons, affirmed by statements from

  10. The Army Before Last: Military Transformation and the Impact of Nuclear Weapons on the US Army During the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    deterrent rather than increasing investment in nuclear weapons and delivery systems .9 This thinking was based on the Army’s belief that nuclear weapons...War .................................................. 21 Table 2. US Army Cannon Delivery System (Nuclear Capable)....................... 42 Table 3...US Army Rocket & Missile Systems 1953-1991................................. 43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  11. Navajos and National Nuclear Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of nuclear development in New Mexico, notes the cumulative detrimental effect on the Navajo Nation, and emphasizes federal inaction regarding health and safety standards and regulation in the nuclear power industry. Journal availability: see RC 503 522. (SB)

  12. Navajos and National Nuclear Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of nuclear development in New Mexico, notes the cumulative detrimental effect on the Navajo Nation, and emphasizes federal inaction regarding health and safety standards and regulation in the nuclear power industry. Journal availability: see RC 503 522. (SB)

  13. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  14. Lifetime predictions for alumina ceramics used in nuclear weapons stockpile components

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Monroe, S.L.; Newton, C.

    1997-09-01

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in non-nuclear components in the weapons stockpile including neutron tubes, firing sets, radar, strong link and weak link assemblies, batteries, and current/voltage stacks. Ceramics also perform critical functions in electronics, passively as insulators and actively as resistors and capacitors. Glass and ceramic seals also provide hermetic electrical feedthroughs in connectors for many weapons components. The primary goal of the ceramic material lifetime prediction program is to provide the enhanced surveillance program with the capability to specify the reliability and lifetimes of glass and ceramic-containing components under conditions typical of the stockpile environment. The authors have studied the reliability and subcritical crack growth (SCG) behavior of 94% alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which is likely the most common ceramic in the stockpile. Measurements have been made on aluminas manufactured by four war reserve qualified vendors (Coors, Wesgo, AlSiMag, and Diamonite). These materials are expected to be representative of typical product obtained from vendors who have supplied alumina for weapons components during the past several decades.

  15. AAAS Assessment of the Role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, C. Bruce

    2007-03-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a study of the role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex during the latter part of 2006. As the Chair of that study I will report our principal findings and recommendations. Our conclusions are based on the experience and knowledge of the committee members, the information available in numerous reports and related analyses, and on presentations and discussions with DOE/NNSA officials, staff members from the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and others with special expertise and perspectives.

  16. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  17. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  18. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    DOE PAGES

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; ...

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. Wemore » find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.« less

  19. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  20. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-21

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  1. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Khun, Vuthy Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  2. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  3. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    PubMed

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Reisman, A.; Turpen, E.

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  5. Los Alamos neutron science center nuclear weapons stewardship and unique national scientific capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kurt F

    2010-12-15

    This presentation gives an overview of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its contributions to science and the nuclear weapons program. LANSCE is made of multiple experimental facilities (the Lujan Center, the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), the Ultra-Cold Neutron facility (UCN), the proton Radiography facility (pRad) and the Isotope Production Facility (IPF)) served by the its kilometer long linear accelerator. Several research areas are supported, including materials and bioscience, nuclear science, materials dynamics, irradiation response and medical isotope production. LANSCE is a national user facility that supports researchers worldwide. The LANSCE Risk Mitigation program is currently in progress to update critical accelerator equipment to help extend the lifetime of LANSCE as a key user facility. The Associate Directorate of Business Sciences (ADBS) plays an important role in the continued success of LANSCE. This includes key procurement support, human resource support, technical writing support, and training support. LANSCE is also the foundation of the future signature facility MARIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes).

  6. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  7. Barriers and solutions in implementing occupational health and safety services at a large nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Takaro, T K; Ertell, K; Salazar, M K; Beaudet, N; Stover, B; Hagopian, A; Omenn, G; Barnhart, S

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest nuclear weapons sites. The enormous changes experienced by Hanford over the last several years, as its mission has shifted from weapons production to cleanup, has profoundly affected its occupational health and safety services. Innovative programs and new initiatives hold promise for a safer workplace for the thousands of workers at Hanford and other DOE sites. However, occupational health and safety professionals continue to face multiple organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. A major problem identified during this review was the lack of coordination of onsite services. Because each health and safety program operates independently (albeit with the guidance of the Richland field operations office), many services are duplicative and the health and safety system is fragmented. The fragmentation is compounded by the lack of centralized data repositories for demographic and exposure data. Innovative measures such as a questionnaire-driven Employee Job Task Analysis linked to medical examinations has allowed the site to move from the inefficient and potentially dangerous administrative medical monitoring assignment to defensible risk-based assignments and could serve as a framework for improving centralized data management and service delivery.

  8. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  9. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS"…

  10. Strategy-Policy Mismatch: How the U.S. Army Can Help Close Gaps in Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    acquired nuclear weapons. Testing has continued. Black markets trade in nuclear secrets and materials. Terrorists are determined to buy, build, or steal...Defense Budget Priorities and Choices: Fiscal Year 2014, Washington, D.C., April 2013a, p. 29. 23 The scenario combinations that were tested are detailed...hundreds of casualties in a single attack. North Korea could almost certainly inflict tens of thou- 22 Jonathan Medalia, North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test

  11. Nuclear Policy and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…

  12. Nuclear waste policy and politics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.J.

    1989-12-31

    The nation`s nuclear waste problem began in 1955 but did not draw widespread public attention until the early 1970s. It was then that the old Atomic Energy commission got in trouble by prematurely designating a site in Lyons, Kansas, as its first nuclear waste repository. This and several other false starts, coupled with the growing environmental and anti-nuclear movements, thrust the issue to the forefront of national consciousness. in the meantime, growing quantities of waste were accumulating at nuclear power plants across the country, creating mounting pressure for action. Congress acted in 1982 and again in 1987. Its 1987 decision was decisive: stop the nationwide search for a disposal site, and focus all efforts on Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Despite the clear Congressional mandate, the program is again bogged down in controversy, internal conflicts, and bureaucracy. Its future depends on a solution to these problems. And the solution involves charting some new and innovative paths around political and technical mine fields.

  13. Nuclear Policy and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…

  14. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. ); Robison, W.L. )

    1991-05-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. This document is the bibliography.

  15. User’s Guide and History of ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil) as a Nuclear Weapons Effect Simulation Explosive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-31

    continue the combustion process . This, afterburning leads to longer duration blast waves and higher impulses. Some thoughts again were given to the use...and use of ANFO as a nuclear weapons blast , cratering, and ground shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full scale target...FACTORS 4 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 9 LIST OF TABLES 15 .i Section 1 A HISTORY OF THE USE O0 ANFO FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS BLAST AND SHOCK SIMULATION 17 1.1

  16. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  17. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  18. IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE NUCLEAR DEAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    Force Base, Alabama. iv Abstract The nuclear agreement between the (P5+1) countries and Iran is a recognition by the international community to...put Iran back as before the 1979 revolution. However, the infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will...determining what Iran foreign policy would be after the nuclear deal. The paper will present an argument about the possible actions that Iran can

  19. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion... DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a) To...

  20. 32 CFR 223.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion... DEFENSE UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION (DOD UCNI) § 223.4 Policy. It is DoD policy: (a) To...

  1. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    PubMed

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Report of the Secretary of Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Management. Phase II: Review of the DoD Nuclear Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    8 William Broad and David Sanger , “Restraints Fray and Risks Grow as Nuclear Club Gains Members,” New York...Broad, William and David Sanger . “Restraints Fray and Risks Grow as Nuclear Club Gains Members,” New York Times, Oct. 15, 2006. Brown, Harold. “New...Area Secretary of Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Management Director of Analysis Mrs. Margaret R. Munson Executive Fellow

  3. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

  4. The spread of nuclear-weapon-free zones: Building a new nuclear bargain

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Z.S.

    1996-02-01

    The United States (US), France and Britain took a small step in the direction of nuclear disarmament when they announced they would ratify the protocols of the Treaty of Rarotonga, also called the South Pacific nuclear-free-zone treaty. The author examines the protocols of this treaty and the implications for its adoption.

  5. Nuclear weapons, the end of the cold war, and the future of the international system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    The collapse of empires, the overthrow of dynasties, the outbreak of plagues, the onset of revolutions, and even the improvement of the human condition itself - all of these are categories of events, which means that they have happened before and will almost certainly happen again. There are very few occurrences of which it can be said that nothing like them has ever taken place; but surely what took place in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, qualifies as such as occurrence. The first test explosion of an atomic bomb, together with the actual use of that weapon three weeks later against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was as sharp a break from the past as any in all of history. Theory had intersected reality to produce a weapon that was regarded at the time as unlike any other that had ever been invented, and that is still so regarded today, almost half a century later. The result, it now appears, has been a fundamental, and possibly permanent, change in human behavior. `The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking,` Albert Einstein wrote in 1946, `and thus we drift toward unparalleled catastrophe.` Einstein would have been as surprised as anyone else who lived through the early Cold War years had he known that Nagasaki would be the last occasion upon which atomic weapons would be used in anger for at least the next four and one-half decades, despite the fact that the great geopolitical rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union would drag on throughout that length of time. History is full of unexpected developments, but few have been as completely unexpected as that the great powers would produce some 70,000 nuclear weapons between the end of World War II and the present day, without a single one of them having been used. Perfecting the ultimate instrument of war had made the ancient institution of war, for the first time in history, obsolete. Or so it would appear. 23 refs.

  6. Guadalajara accord between Brazil and Argentina: A tentative step toward the nuclear-weapons-free Latin America envisioned by the treaty of TLATELOLCO. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.X.

    1991-12-01

    In 1967, the Treaty of Tlatelolco declared Latin America to be a nuclear weapons free zone, but this goal remains unfulfilled. Argentina and Brazil, the Latin America nations most capable of building nuclear weapons, refuse to comply with the treaty. Argentine and Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons from the 1970s to the late 1980s. The emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s encouraged the gradual denuclearization of weapons research in these nations. In July 1991, the presidents of Argentina and Brazil signed an accord in Guadalajara, Mexico, each promising to end the development of nuclear weapons. The risks of nuclear proliferation may be reduced because of this agreement. The Guadalajara Accord offers hope that nuclear proliferation in Latin America can be slowed and perhaps stopped. The establishment of civilian control over the military and the reduction in the belligerent rivalry between Argentina and Brazil are central factors in ending the quest for nuclear weapons. The firm commitment of these civilian leaders to pursue only peaceful nuclear activities is a positive sign. The adoption of IAEA full scope safeguards in Argentina and Brazil will be the best guarantee for a nuclear weapons free Latin America.

  7. Canada’s Prime Ministers and the Nuclear Weapons Venture, from Uncle Louis to Dief, 1948 to 1963

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    AND SCIENCE Military History by MATHIEU PRIMEAU, MAJOR, CANADIAN ARMY MSc, Cranfield University, Hermitage, Berkshire, United Kingdom...14. ABSTRACT The fact that Canada possessed nuclear weapons and operationalized their use for a significant period of its recent history is...upbringings, and animated by very different personalities and leadership abilities, both had a very personal and profound impact on the operationalization

  8. Plutonium segregation in glassy aerodynamic fallout from a nuclear weapon test

    DOE PAGES

    Holliday, K. S.; Dierken, J. M.; Monroe, M. L.; ...

    2017-01-11

    Our study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. We interrogated a sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens in order to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers. Furthermore, high concentrations of plutonium were never associated with several endmember compositions and concentrated with the so-called mafic glass endmember. Our result suggests thatmore » it is the physical characteristics of the compositional endmembers and not the chemical characteristics of the individual component elements that govern the un-burnt plutonium distribution with respect to major element composition in fallout.« less

  9. A Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosure For Use Within A Nuclear Weapons Monitoring Regime

    SciTech Connect

    White, Helen; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Allen, Keir; Benz, Jacob M.; McOmish, Sarah; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2012-10-01

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Treaty Accountable Items, with emphasis on a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access a Treaty Accountable Item, or secure authenticated monitoring equipment. In 2011, the collaboration presented a paper at the INMM annual conference held in Palm Desert, CA titled “Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre”, which discussed the concept of integrating optical fibres into TIEs for use as a passive tamper indicating mechanism. This paper provides an update on the Fibre Optic based TIE and introduces a second passive TIE concept based on the use of Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate) (PMMA). Concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication, and unique identification will be discussed.

  10. Plutonium segregation in glassy aerodynamic fallout from a nuclear weapon test.

    PubMed

    Holliday, K S; Dierken, J M; Monroe, M L; Fitzgerald, M A; Marks, N E; Gostic, R C; Knight, K B; Czerwinski, K R; Hutcheon, I D; McClory, J W

    2017-02-14

    This study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. A sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens were interrogated to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers. Furthermore, high concentrations of plutonium were never associated with several endmember compositions and concentrated with the so-called mafic glass endmember. This result suggests that it is the physical characteristics of the compositional endmembers and not the chemical characteristics of the individual component elements that govern the un-burnt plutonium distribution with respect to major element composition in fallout.

  11. Vertical migration studies of 137Cs from nuclear weapons fallout and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Almgren, S; Isaksson, M

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration of (137)Cs originating from nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) and the Chernobyl accident has been studied at 33 sampling sites in western Sweden. An attempt to describe the present depth distribution with a solution to the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with a pulse-like fallout event as the initial condition was made. A sum of two CDEs describing the NWF and Chernobyl debris was fitted to the actual depth profiles measured by soil sampling. The fitted depth profiles were used to correct in situ measurements for the actual depth distribution, showing good agreement with the accumulated activities in soil samples. As expected, the vertical migration was very slow and most caesium was still present in the upper soil layers. The ranges of the apparent convection velocity, v, and apparent diffusion coefficient, D, were between 0 and 0.35 cm/year and 0.06 and 2.63 cm(2)/year, respectively.

  12. Physical and Mathematical Description of Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.K.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.

    1997-09-26

    This report describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with the new Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor with three input channels: (1) the 252Cf source ionization chamber (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel for active measurements. An intuitive and physical description of the various functions is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the fill five channel capability is used, the number of functions increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new NWIS processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures including multiplicities and frequency analysis signatures. Data from measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt 0/0, 235U) metai casting for storage are presented to illustrate the various time and frequency analysis parameters.

  13. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  14. Low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease among workers at a nuclear weapons research and development facility.

    PubMed

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R

    2010-06-01

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  15. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations.

  16. Editing Tips for Technical Publications in the Joint Nuclear Weapons Publication System (JNWPS)

    SciTech Connect

    ALLEN, TARA S.

    2002-12-01

    These editing tips contain helpful suggestions to assist writers who are writing, editing, and publishing technical publications in the JNWPS. The suggestions clarify some of the most common writing problems and requirements of two publications used in the JNWPS: ''DOE-DTRA TP 1-1, Joint Nuclear Weapons Publications System Operating Procedures, Specifications, and Standards, and United States Government Printing Office Style Manual''. Topics include requirements for abbreviations, formats for drafts, layouts of illustrations and tables, appropriate wording for interim changes, guidance for creating a list of effective pages, how to insert and delete pages and paragraphs, referencing other technical publications, use of revision bars, requirements for safety precautions, use of hyphens, and how to place warnings, cautions, and notes. Also included are a writer's checklist, samples of draft title pages, and a section of helpful tips for the writers who use the department's desktop publishing software program, Adobe{reg_sign} FrameMaker{reg_sign}.

  17. Physical and mathematical description of Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Mattingly, J.K.

    1997-09-26

    This report describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with the new Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor with three input channels: (1) the {sup 252}Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel for active measurements. An intuitive and physical description of the various functions is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five channel capability is used, the number of functions increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new NWIS processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures including multiplicities and frequency analysis signatures. Data from measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt%, {sup 235}U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate the various time and frequency analysis parameters.

  18. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  19. An estimate of Sandia resources for underground nuclear weapons effects testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, Thomas M.; Zeuch, David Henry

    2003-11-01

    We conducted a study of the time and resources that would be required for Sandia National Laboratories to once again perform nuclear weapons effects experiments of the sort that it did in the past. The study is predicated on the assumptions that if underground nuclear weapons effects testing (UG/NWET) is ever resumed, (1) a brief series of tests (i.e., 2-3) would be done, and (2) all required resources other than those specific to SNL experiments would be provided by others. The questions that we sought to answer were: (1) What experiments would SNL want to do and why? (2) How much would they cost? (3) How long would they take to field? To answer these questions, we convened panels of subject matter experts first to identify five experiments representative of those that SNL has done in the past, and then to determine the costs and timelines to design, fabricate and field each of them. We found that it would cost $76M to $84M to do all five experiments, including 164 to 174 FTEs to conduct all five experiments in a single test. Planning and expenditures for some of the experiments needed to start as early as 5.5 years prior to zero-day, and some work would continue up to 2 years beyond the event. Using experienced personnel as mentors, SNL could probably field such experiments within the next five years. However, beyond that time frame, loss of personnel would place us in the position of essentially starting over.

  20. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Janeen Denise

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  1. Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear War and the Health Professions: Curriculum Development in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Christine K.; McCally, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a 10-week course entitled Medical Consequences of Nuclear War, offered to medical and nursing students at the Oregon Health Sciences University. Other curriculum models and teaching materials are also discussed. (SK)

  2. Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear War and the Health Professions: Curriculum Development in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Christine K.; McCally, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a 10-week course entitled Medical Consequences of Nuclear War, offered to medical and nursing students at the Oregon Health Sciences University. Other curriculum models and teaching materials are also discussed. (SK)

  3. You have no right to make me think about this--the de-legitimation of current nuclear policies among key American elites

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R.G.

    1982-11-16

    Until fairly recently, most segments of the American public, particularly our various elites, supported American nuclear policy, namely the maintenance of large and expanding nuclear stockpiles, the official foreswearing of the use of these weapons in a strategic first-strike, and the policy of threatening retaliation for Soviet nuclear attacks in war, by nuclear attacks on enemy cities and military centers. There is increasing evidence that this support is rapidly eroding; especially among key American elites. This is shown through increasingly vocal dissatisfaction with the continued growth and modernization of the nuclear stockpile; and second, in the dawning awareness of a discrepancy between our official policy of no first-strike and contingency plans to employ first-strike tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a Warsaw Pact attack upon Western Europe. Concerns have surfaced here due both to distaste at the growing size of our nuclear arsenal and the perception that we have not been altogether honest in our official stance of a no first-strike with nuclear weapons. Increasing numbers of Americans are coming to see our nuclear policy as inconsistent, senseless, and, most significantly, immoral, and therefore support a nuclear freeze.

  4. Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination.

    PubMed

    Knoph, Jan T; Westerdahl, Kristina S

    2006-01-01

    Half-heartedly acknowledged by the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union ran the world's largest offensive program for biological weapons, breaching the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Russia criminalized biological weapons in 1993 only to decriminalize them in 1996, but in 2003 president Putin partly recriminalized them. None of these changes were declared within the Convention. Several well-known official statements, when reviewed in their context, turned out to admit to neither an offensive program nor a breach of the Convention. Thus, the Russian biological weapons policy is more ambiguous than usually depicted, and various policy shapers can be discerned.

  5. Waste is a Terrible Thing to Mind: Perspectives on the Cleanup of the United States Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodde, David

    1997-03-01

    For the 50 years of the Cold War, the United States nuclear arsenal was the cornerstone of our national security. These weapons were designed, manufactured, and armed with fissionable materials in an industrial complex that, at its peak, included about 16 major facilities and vast tracts of land in Nevada, Idaho, Washington, and South Carolina. Included among these are such well-known sites as the Savannah River Plant, the Hanford, Oak Ridge, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Cold War, that "long twilight struggle" in the evocative phrase of John Kennedy, left little time and few resources for understanding and managing the environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production. At the same time, perceptions of the special nature of the atom led to a concentration of governance in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Thus, external feedback for the managers of the complex was heavily filtered. But the imperatives of the Cold War have waned, and our understanding of the implications for the environment and the health and safety of workers has grown. By 1995 the Department of Energy (DoE) had spent about 23 billion in identifying and characterizing its waste, managing it, and assessing the actions needed to clean up the 120 sites in 36 states. Yet the majority of the task appeared ahead. Estimates made in 1995 suggested a total cost ranging from 200-350 billion and a time to complete of 75 years. If these were true, the cleanup of the weapons complex would become the largest civil works project in the history of humankind. Over the past year or so, the DoE program has shifted its focus from studies to actual cleanup. A strategic plan has been proposed that would accomplish most of the needed work over ten years at a cost of about $85 billion. At the same time, the Department is proposing to transfer oversight to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the states. This Invited

  6. The ephemeral and the enduring: Trajectories of disappearance for the scientific objects of American Cold War nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Here, the historical material culture produced by American Cold War nuclear weapons testing includes objects of scientific inquiry that can be generally categorized as being either ephemeral or enduring. Objects deemed to be ephemeral were of a less substantial nature, being impermanent and expendable in a nuclear test, while enduring objects were by nature more durable and long-lasting. Although all of these objects were ultimately subject to disappearance, the processes by which they were transformed, degraded, or destroyed prior to their disappearing differ. Drawing principally upon archaeological theory, this paper proposes a functional dichotomy for categorizing and studying the historical trajectories of nuclear weapons testing technoscience artifacts. In examining the transformation patterns of steel towers and concrete blockhouses in particular, it explores an associated loss of scientific method that accompanies a science object's disappearance.

  7. The ephemeral and the enduring: Trajectories of disappearance for the scientific objects of American Cold War nuclear weapons testing

    DOE PAGES

    Hanson, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Here, the historical material culture produced by American Cold War nuclear weapons testing includes objects of scientific inquiry that can be generally categorized as being either ephemeral or enduring. Objects deemed to be ephemeral were of a less substantial nature, being impermanent and expendable in a nuclear test, while enduring objects were by nature more durable and long-lasting. Although all of these objects were ultimately subject to disappearance, the processes by which they were transformed, degraded, or destroyed prior to their disappearing differ. Drawing principally upon archaeological theory, this paper proposes a functional dichotomy for categorizing and studying the historicalmore » trajectories of nuclear weapons testing technoscience artifacts. In examining the transformation patterns of steel towers and concrete blockhouses in particular, it explores an associated loss of scientific method that accompanies a science object's disappearance.« less

  8. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-29

    Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development Anthony Andrews Specialist in Industrial Engineering and Infrastructure Policy Resources, Science...separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. In the early stage of commercial nuclear power, reprocessing was thought essential...to supplying nuclear fuel. Federally sponsored breeder reactor development included research into advanced reprocessing technology. Several

  9. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  10. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  11. U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Programs, activities to support the safe, secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.

    1993-12-31

    In September 1991 President Bush announced sweeping cuts in the US nuclear weapon stockpile as well as changes in deployment to remove significant numbers of weapons from alert status and to return to the US for storage many weapons formerly based abroad in US sites. In October 1991 President Gorbachev announced similar moves for the Soviet Union. Even though the Gorbachev announcement represented a substantial step forward in reducing tension between the US and the Soviet Union, the US continued to be concerned about the deteriorating situation in the Soviet Union and the prospects for internal stability. As a result, in November 1991 the Administration began talks with the Soviets in a number of areas including field disablement of nuclear weapons to prevent unauthorized use, emergency response in the event of a weapons accident, and command and control of nuclear weapons. The Nunn-Lugar legislation assured assistance to the Soviet Union in the safe, secure dismantlement (SSD) of weapons to implement the Gorbachev commitment and in the development of measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting and collaborating with the Department of Defense (DOD) in several areas due to the DOE responsibilities for developing, assembling, and dismantling US warheads and as the custodian of the nuclear materials stockpile. Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, controls the nuclear weapons of the Former Soviet Union. Thus, DOE`s nuclear weapon and nuclear materials expertise are being applied particularly to Russia. However, the DOE is also providing assistance to Belarus and is prepared to assist Ukraine and Kazakhstan as well if agreements can be reached. In this paper, the DOE SSD activities in support of DOD as the US Executive Agent will be discussed. Two areas will not be covered, namely, DOD activities and the purchase of highly enriched uranium.

  12. Damage to structures by pyroclastic flows and surges, inferred from nuclear weapons effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.

    1998-12-01

    In order to define the risk from explosive eruptions, one must constrain both the probability of explosive events and the effects, or consequences, of those events. This paper focuses on the effects of pyroclastic flows and surges (here termed `pyroclastic density currents', or PDCs) on buildings, infrastructure elements, and to some extent on vehicles. PDCs impart a lateral force to such structures in the form of dynamic pressure, which depends on the bulk density of the PDC (which in turn depends mainly on particle concentration) and its velocity. For reasonable ranges of particle concentration (10 -3 to 0.5) and velocities (10 to 300 m/s), dynamic pressure on the upstream face of a structure ranges from ˜0.1 kPa to 10 4 kPa. Lateral loads ranging up to about 100 kPa were produced during nuclear weapons tests in the 1940s and 1950s that were designed to study the effects of such loading on a variety of structures for civil defense and emergency response purposes in the event of nuclear war. Although considerable simplifications are involved, the data from these weapon tests provide useful analog information for understanding the effects of PDCs. I reviewed data from the nuclear tests, describing the expected damage from different loadings. Tables are provided that define the response of different structural elements (e.g., windows, framing, walls) and whole structures to loading in probabilistic terms, which in principle account for variations in construction quality, orientation, and other factors. Finally, damage documented from historical eruptions at Mt. Lamington (1951), Herculaneum (AD 79 Vesuvius eruption), and St. Pierre (1902 Mt. Pelee eruption) is reviewed. Damage patterns, combined with estimates of velocity, provide an independent estimate of particle concentration in the PDCs. Details of structural damage should be recorded and mapped around future eruptions in order to help refine this aspect of consequence analysis. Another fruitful approach would

  13. Prediction of ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests as it relates to siting of a nuclear waste storage facility at NTS and compatibility with the weapons test program

    SciTech Connect

    Vortman, L.J. III

    1980-04-01

    This report assumes reasonable criteria for NRC licensing of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Nevada Test Site where it would be exposed to ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests. Prediction equations and their standard deviations have been determined from measurements on a number of nuclear weapons tests. The effect of various independent parameters on standard deviation is discussed. That the data sample is sufficiently large is shown by the fact that additional data have little effect on the standard deviation. It is also shown that coupling effects can be separated out of the other contributions to the standard deviation. An example, based on certain licensing assumptions, shows that it should be possible to have a nuclear waste storage facility in the vicinity of Timber Mountain which would be compatible with a 700 kt weapons test in the Buckboard Area if the facility were designed to withstand a peak vector acceleration of 0.75 g. The prediction equation is a log-log linear equation which predicts acceleration as a function of yield of an explosion and the distance from it.

  14. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  15. Cancer mortality risk among military participants of a 1958 atmospheric nuclear weapons test.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K K; Kang, H K; Dalager, N A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine if Navy veterans who participated in an atmospheric nuclear test in 1958 were at increased risk of death from certain cancers. METHODS. Cancer mortality risk of 8554 Navy veterans who participated in an atmospheric nuclear test in the Pacific was compared with that of 14,625 Navy veterans who did not participate in any test. Radiation dosage information was obtained from film badges for 88% of the test participants. RESULTS. The median radiation dose for the test participants was 388 mrem (3.88 millisieverts [mSv]). Among participants who received the highest radiation dose (> 1000 mrem, or 10 mSv), an increased mortality risk for all causes (relative risk [RR] = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.45), all cancers (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.96), and liver cancer (RR = 6.42; 95% CI = 1.17, 35.3) was observed. The risk for cancer of the digestive organs was elevated among test participants (rate ratio = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.04) but with no significant dose-response trend. Many of the cancers of a priori interest were not significantly elevated in the overall test participant group or in the group that received the highest radiation dose. CONCLUSIONS. Most of the cancers suspected of being radiogenic were not significantly elevated among the test participants. Nevertheless, increased risks for certain cancers cannot be ruled out at this time. Veterans who participated in the nuclear weapons tests should continue to be monitored. PMID:7702116

  16. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  17. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  18. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  19. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  20. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L. ); Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. )

    1991-04-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. Primary sources of information in preparing this bibliography were bibliographies on Oceania, citations in published papers, CIS Index and Abstracts, Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Research Abstracts, numerous bibliographies on radiation ecology, and suggestions by many individuals whom we contacted. One goal in this bibliography is to include complete documentation of the source of congressional reports and other government-related publications. In addition, page numbers for material in this bibliography are provided in parentheses when the subject matter of a book or document is not restricted to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  1. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  2. Pakistan’s Nuclear Proliferation Activities and the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission: U.S. Policy Constraints and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-25

    longer critical to U.S. regional security policy.15 India and Pakistan’s May 1998 Nuclear Tests and the Decline of Sanctions as a U.S. Nonproliferation...strained relations to a critical regional ally, but they put the U.S. Government once again at a disadvantage in dealing with Pakistan’s nuclear ...activities. A number of nonproliferation experts agree with the critical importance of keeping Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and materials out of the reach of

  3. The American atom: A documentary history of nuclear policies from the discovery of fission to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.C.; Cantelon, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    In selecting these historical documents the authors have applied three general tests: first, does the document help tell the story of the development of American nuclear policy in a nontechnical way; second, is the source primary rather than secondary, written by an actor in the drama rather than by a member of the audience; third, does the document provide coverage of the major chapters in the story. The Manhattan Project was America's $2 billion secret project to build an atomic bomb. Many documents associated with the project have come to light only in recent years. In Section II they use the letters of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the recently declassified minutes of policy committees to tell the story of how the bomb was designed and built and how the decision was made to drop the first uranium and plutonium devices on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. How did a weapon of war become the key to a peacetime industry. In considering atomic energy after World War II, they focus in Section III on the legislative enabling acts that established the Atomic Energy Commission, the short-lived dream of international control of nuclear weapons under the Baruch Plan, and the ''atoms for peace'' program of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. By 1954 the highly classified work on nuclear weapons paralleled a new development of nuclear energy and power reactors. Knowledge was shared with both private industry and other countries. The fruits of this program are considered in the later section on nuclear power.

  4. Graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  5. A graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Haaland, C M

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  6. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-02-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

  7. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  8. The assessment of radiation exposures in Native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Frohmberg, E; Goble, R; Sanchez, V; Quigley, D

    2000-02-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Sedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

  9. Military Participants at U.S. Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing— Methodology for Estimating Dose and Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Till, John E.; Beck, Harold L.; Aanenson, Jill W.; Grogan, Helen A.; Mohler, H. Justin; Mohler, S. Shawn; Voillequé, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Methods were developed to calculate individual estimates of exposure and dose with associated uncertainties for a sub-cohort (1,857) of 115,329 military veterans who participated in at least one of seven series of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests or the TRINITY shot carried out by the United States. The tests were conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds and the Nevada Test Site. Dose estimates to specific organs will be used in an epidemiological study to investigate leukemia and male breast cancer. Previous doses had been estimated for the purpose of compensation and were generally high-sided to favor the veteran's claim for compensation in accordance with public law. Recent efforts by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to digitize the historical records supporting the veterans’ compensation assessments make it possible to calculate doses and associated uncertainties. Our approach builds upon available film badge dosimetry and other measurement data recorded at the time of the tests and incorporates detailed scenarios of exposure for each veteran based on personal, unit, and other available historical records. Film badge results were available for approximately 25% of the individuals, and these results assisted greatly in reconstructing doses to unbadged persons and in developing distributions of dose among military units. This article presents the methodology developed to estimate doses for selected cancer cases and a 1% random sample of the total cohort of veterans under study. PMID:24758578

  10. Risk-Based Decision Process for Accelerated Closure of a Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.; Norland, R. L.; DiSalvo, R.; Anderson, M.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly 40 years of nuclear weapons production at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Site) resulted in contamination of soil and underground systems and structures with hazardous substances, including plutonium, uranium and hazardous waste constituents. The Site was placed on the National Priority List in 1989. There are more than 370 Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSSs) at RFETS. Accelerated cleanup and closure of RFETS is being achieved through implementation and refinement of a regulatory framework that fosters programmatic and technical innovations: (1) extensive use of ''accelerated actions'' to remediate IHSSs, (2) development of a risk-based screening process that triggers and helps define the scope of accelerated actions consistent with the final remedial action objectives for the Site, (3) use of field instrumentation for real time data collection, (4) a data management system that renders near real time field data assessment, and (5) a regulatory agency consultative process to facilitate timely decisions. This paper presents the process and interim results for these aspects of the accelerated closure program applied to Environmental Restoration activities at the Site.

  11. Containment and safety review for the Mighty Oak Nuclear Weapon Effects Test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    On the morning of April 10, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a nuclear weapons effects test, Mighty Oak, 1300 feet below the surface of Rainier Mesa in the T tunnel complex. From the standpoint of containment, there was no accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere whatsoever. All radioactivity was contained within the tunnel complex until April 16 when the first controlled purging of the tunnel took place. Mighty Oak purging resulted in a known amount of radioactive noble gases being released in a controlled manner to the atmosphere. The maximum dose any person would have received standing in the open, downwind, for the entire period of purging, would have been 0.27 microrem. From the standpoint of data recovery, Mighty Oak was successful. Approximately 85% of the data from prime test objectives was recovered; however, only 70% of the overall data was recovered. Most equipment - experiment, diagnostic, and construction - within the tunnel complex was lost. This loss occurred as a result of high temperature and radiation. Other passive experiments and data were recovered. Loss of normally recoverable and reusable equipment was approximately 32 million dollars.

  12. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura Schmidt

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  13. Interim Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on the Survivability of Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapon Effects (NWE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    major platforms for High Altitude EMP ( HEMP ) protection, and the Navy implemented a requirements review process. United States Strategic Command...Army improving process for independent review of survivability – Air Force committing resources for testing major platforms for HEMP protection...battlespaces where nuclear weapons are threatening or are being employed. The most likely case(s) are use of nuclear weapons by others. Although

  14. Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, R.L.

    1988-04-02

    The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events indicate that the Soviet Union has parted from the original intent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and of the International Atomic Energy Association nuclear safeguards and has begun assisting nations that are not participants of the non-proliferation regime. While not specifically calling for a revision of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, the Soviet Union has unilaterally assisted in the spread of nuclear technology to nations that have refused to become members of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This assistance is examined in the context of the overall Soviet nuclear nonproliferation policy or simply placing political goals above that of international agreements is examined. The paper concludes that the Soviet Union will use nuclear technology as a tool to further its strategic goals.

  15. The use of SIMS and SEM for the characterization of individual particles with a matrix originating from a nuclear weapon.

    PubMed

    Ranebo, Ylva; Eriksson, Mats; Tamborini, Gabriele; Niagolova, Nedialka; Bildstein, Olivier; Betti, Maria

    2007-06-01

    The application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for characterization of mixed plutonium and uranium particles from nuclear weapons material is presented. The particles originated from the so-called Thule accident in Greenland in 1968. Morphological properties have been studied by SEM and two groups were identified: a "popcorn" structure and a spongy structure. The same technique, coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, showed a heterogeneous composition of Pu and U in the surface layers of the particles. The SIMS depth profiles revealed a varying isotopic composition indicating a heterogeneous mixture of Pu and U in the original nuclear weapons material itself. The depth distributions agree with synchrotron-radiation-based mu-XRF (X-ray fluorescence microprobe) measurements on the particle (Eriksson, M., Wegryzynek, D., Simon, R., & Chinea-Cano, E., in prep.) when a SIMS relative sensitivity factor for Pu to U of 6 is assumed. Different SIMS identified isotopic ratio groups are presented, and the influence of interferences in the Pu and U mass range are estimated. The study found that the materials are a mixture of highly enriched 235U (235U:238U ratio from 0.96 to 1.4) and so-called weapons grade Pu (240Pu:239Pu ratio from 0.028 to 0.059) and confirms earlier work reported in the literature.

  16. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  17. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  18. Tacit Knowledge Involvement in the Production of Nuclear Weapons: A Critical Component of a Credible US Nuclear Deterrent in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    form of the National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) at LLNL, the Dual-Axis Hydrodynamic Radiographic Test (DAHRT) Facility at LANL and the Z Machine at...not work, this knowledge adds little to sustaining capacity to design or build a nuclear weapon. Interestingly while the NIF and ASCI have...the novelty of the NIF wears off that the SSMP will not be stimulating. Further, it is hard to entice young scientists to remain at the laboratory

  19. Scientific impacts on nuclear strategic policy: Dangers and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeny, Spurgeon M.

    1988-12-01

    Nuclear weapons have revolutionized warfare, making a mutual capability for assured destruction a fact of life and mutual assured deterrence the underlying nuclear strategy of the superpowers. The program to find a technical solution to the threat of nuclear weapons by creating an impervious defense is fatally flawed by failure to consider responses available to a sophisticated adversary at much lower cost. Responses could involve: exploiting vulnerabilities; increased firepower; technical innovation; and circumvention. Efforts to achieve strategic defense would in fact increase risk of nuclear war by stimulating the nuclear arms race since history demonstrates neither side will allow its deterrent force to be seriously degraded. Defenses would increase instability in times of a crisis. Science has also reduced the risk of nuclear war by making possible improved control and safety of nuclear forces and predictability of US/Soviet relations, verifiability of arms control agreements, and survivable strategic systems. Science can be a tool for good or evil; mankind must be its masters not its slaves.

  20. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  1. Making weapons, talking peace

    SciTech Connect

    York, H.F.

    1988-04-01

    A nuclear physicist and adviser to four Presidents, the author reflects on the development of nuclear weapons, the creation of a new lab to rival Los Alamos and the negotiation of the elusive comprehensive test ban treaty.

  2. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  3. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  4. Policy Considerations Affecting Nuclear Forces Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    programs. Among the major weapons programs that are funded are: the AMX close air support plane ($ 51 million); the Centauro main battle tank ($20 million...Lire Dollars AMIX 66,000 mihllion 51 million Centauro Tank 26,000 Million 20 million Tornado A/C 26,000 million 20 mnillion Army Utility Helos 20

  5. Difficulties in Determining If Nuclear Training of Foreigners Contributes to Weapons Proliferation. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Appropriations.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) conclusion that it is impossible to determine the contribution of U.S. nuclear training of foreigners to the spread of nuclear weapons is presented. The GAO position is that there is no way to ascertain the true intentions of foreign nationals being trained or the motivations of their countries. Issues…

  6. Difficulties in Determining If Nuclear Training of Foreigners Contributes to Weapons Proliferation. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Appropriations.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) conclusion that it is impossible to determine the contribution of U.S. nuclear training of foreigners to the spread of nuclear weapons is presented. The GAO position is that there is no way to ascertain the true intentions of foreign nationals being trained or the motivations of their countries. Issues…

  7. Nuclear Weapons: NNSA Has a New Approach to Managing the B61-12 Life Extension, but a Constrained Schedule and Other Risks Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    warheads. Weapons that do not have these interface requirements, such as gravity bombs and atomic demolition munitions (now retired and dismantled...components. In 2010, they began an LEP to consolidate four versions of a legacy nuclear weapon, the B61 bomb , into a bomb called the B61-12 (see...Force Integrated Master Schedule BIMS Boeing Integrated Master Schedule B61 bomb B61 legacy bomb CD critical decision Cost Guide GAO Cost

  8. Forging a Framework to Improve the Emergency Management Community’s Ability to Respond to a Nuclear or Radiological Weapons Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    WEAPONS AND THEIR EFFECTS Nuclear weapons have only been used twice on civilian populations: in Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Japan, in August 1945. Well...Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the...of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for

  9. Use of Lasers to Study the Impact of Fractionation and Condensation on the Toxicity of Nuclear Weapon Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Vidnovic III, T; Bradley, K S; Debonnel, C S; Dipeso, G; Fournier, K; Karpenko, V P; Tobin, M

    2005-04-01

    An experimental concept has been developed to collect data to aid in the refinement of simulation programs designed to predict the fallout effects arising from surface and shallowly buried nuclear weapon detonations. These experiments, called the Condensation Debris Experiments (CDE), are intended to study the condensation/fractionation of material that is liberated following an initial deposition of laser energy onto a small, characterized target. The CDE effort also encompasses target development and material studies as well as supporting computational efforts studying radiation hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and relevant neutron activation processes (not discussed here).

  10. A tool for site restoration planning following a nuclear weapons accident: Part 2, Developing a site restoration strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe a process for developing site restoration strategies following a nuclear weapons accident, and demonstrate how to carry out this process using actual data from a military exercise. The exercise that I will be discussing is the Survey Response Force Exercise conducted in Savanna, Illinois in July 1986. It is called SRFX-86 for short. While a site restoration analysis using the SRP was conducted during the exercise, the present analysis is somewhat different in that it contains illustrations of some of the recent revisions and enhancements to the SRP. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. R.; Cecil, L. D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.

    2004-08-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 × 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 × 105, 5.4 × 105 and 0.7 × 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified.

  13. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    PubMed Central

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-01-01

    Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss

  14. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack--examples from four American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-02-28

    The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss of command-and-control, mass

  15. What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P. )

    1993-12-01

    In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy is a result of Kim Jong Il's attempt to maintain the loyalty and obeisance of the elite. The article describes the political and economic factors which lead to North Korea's confrontation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and then discusses North Korea's immediate nuclear strategy.

  16. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  17. National Defense University's Influence on U.S. National Security Policy: Case Study about the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation touches on a series of events leading to an aspect of United States public policy dealing with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). After exploring the literature that describes the understanding of public policy, this paper uses the case study method to understand why and how a single research center and a particular set of…

  18. National Defense University's Influence on U.S. National Security Policy: Case Study about the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation touches on a series of events leading to an aspect of United States public policy dealing with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). After exploring the literature that describes the understanding of public policy, this paper uses the case study method to understand why and how a single research center and a particular set of…

  19. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise: A Strategic Past and Unknown Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-25

    Co. Power plant: Eight Pratt & Whitney engines TF33-P-3/103 turbofan Thrust: Each engine up to 17,000 pounds Wingspan: 185 feet (56.4 meters...weapons became a fundamental basis of US national defense strategy and power projection, but a failure to adapt to the post-Cold War era has left the...14 Root Cause of Failures

  20. The Role of the Geographic Combatant Commander in Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    weapons gave such a clear offensive advantage to their possessors, inspections , and prohibitions against their possible production from civilian...States and North Korea crafted a bilateral agreement which basically consisted of North Korea remaining in the NPT and submitting to IAEA inspections ...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  1. Risk of beryllium sensitization in a low-exposed former nuclear weapons cohort from the Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, Marek A; Leonard, Stephanie A; Sanderson, Wayne T; Hartley, Patrick G; Sprince, Nancy L; Fuortes, Laurence J

    2011-03-01

    The nuclear weapons industry has long been known as a source of beryllium exposure. A total of 1,004 former workers from a nuclear weapons assembly site in the Midwest were screened for sensitization to beryllium (BeS). The screenings were part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Former Worker Program established in 1996. Twenty-three (2.3%) workers were found sensitized to beryllium and this prevalence was comparable to other DOE sites. Occasional, direct exposure to beryllium through machining and grinding of copper-beryllium (Cu-Be) 2% alloy tools was found to increase the risk of sensitization compared to background exposure (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.04-14.03) with a statistically significant trend (P = 0.03) revealing that particular jobs are associated with sensitization. Exposure potential in this study was estimated based on job titles and not personal exposure information. These results confirm the need to screen workers using beryllium alloy tools in other industries and for consideration of altering work practices. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  3. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  4. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of sup 14 C in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, K.; Togari, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagatsu, T. )

    1990-08-01

    The {sup 14}C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for {sup 14}C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The {sup 14}C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The {sup 14}C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the {sup 14}C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of {sup 14}C in the tooth collagen {sup 14}C of human beings.

  5. The emerging nuclear suppliers: some guidelines for policy (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Lewis A.

    1988-04-01

    Lewis A. Dunn, a former Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and now a senior analyst with Science Applications International Corporation, looks to the future to offer "The Emerging Nuclear Suppliers: Some Guidelines for Policy ." Mr. Dunn notes that although most emerging suppliers are cautious, many are not party to existing nonproliferation treaties. He calls upon the nonproliferation community to continue the present policy of not supporting unsafeguarded nuclear activities. He suggests that the nonproliferation community work within existing standards and infrastructures of nuclear suppliers to convince emerging supplier nations of the merits of nuclear export control.

  6. Iran’s Growing Nuclear Weapons Program: A Catalyst for Regional Instability in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-10

    Iran," The Washington Post, November 10, 1992, p. 1. 66. Timmerman, p. 62. 67. Anne Gieks and Gerald Segal, China and the Arms Trade, St. Martin’s...Weapons," ROA National Security Report (January 1993). Gieks, Anne, and Gerald Segal. China and the Arms Trade. New York: St. Martains Press, New...1980. Goodman, David S.G., and Gerald Segal. China In the Nineties: Crisis Management and Beyond. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. 1991

  7. Nuclear Weapons: DOD Assessed the Need for Each Leg of the Strategic Triad and Considered Other Reductions to Nuclear Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    assessed the need for each leg of the strategic triad in support of the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review and considered other reductions to nuclear forces...contribution to stability, and the ability of the nuclear-capable bombers to visibly forward deploy. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report states...alternative strategic force structures in preparation for the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review. DOD officials also told GAO that the department had assessed

  8. Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N

    2007-02-05

    The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.

  9. A perspective on public concerns about exposure to fallout from the production and testing of nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, F Owen; Apostoaei, A Iulian; Thomas, Brian A

    2002-05-01

    Exposures of the American public occurred nationwide from the testing of nuclear weapons in the United States, the Pacific, and the former Soviet Union. After decades of diminished public awareness on the subject of health risks resulting from exposure to fallout, the release of the National Cancer Institute's 1997 report on nationwide exposure to 131I from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has led to renewed interest. Public requests for information are focused on individual and family health problems, the right to credible and full disclosure of information, and the need for medical care and assistance for exposure-related health problems. Public concerns have been raised regarding: (a) the lack of information on the potential health risks from exposure to all biologically significant radionuclides in fallout; (b) the lack of independent oversight that includes public participation; (c) governmental portrayal of exposures averaged over very large segments of the population without identification of much larger values for individuals or population subgroups likely to be at highest risk; and (d) a governmental response to known or suspected human exposures that consumes large periods of time and devotes considerable funding to various research-related activities before serious consideration is given to addressing health care responsibilities to exposed individuals. To some extent, these complaints and concerns are rooted in the legacy of government secrecy surrounding the development and testing of nuclear weapons, public distrust of government sources of information about radiation exposures and health risks, and the imposition of past exposures without informed consent. Members of the public participating in the oversight of dose reconstruction projects and epidemiologic studies are requesting information on the total impact from all relevant sources of exposure at each site that might contribute significantly to an individual's risk, including exposure to local

  10. Environmental restoration at the KCP: Quality science with a view toward the future. [Remedial action at a plant manufacturing non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. . Kansas City Div.); Korte, N. )

    1992-07-01

    The Kansas City Plan-E (KCP), built in 1942, is currently operated by Allied-Signal for the Department of Energy (DOE). The KCP manufactures non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons. Throughout the production history of the KCP, waste material has been generated and hazardous spills have occurred. In 1983, the DOE and Allied-Signal began a concerted effort to clean-up all hazardous waste sites at the KCP. This paper briefly discusses the history of the environmental restoration effort at the KCP before and after a RCRA order on Consent Agreement was signed with the Environmental Protection Agency, the successes of the program, problems encountered, and a vision for the future of environmental restoration at the KCP.

  11. Nuclear, biological, and chemical training in the U.S. Army Reserves: mitigating psychological consequences of weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Knudson, G B

    2001-12-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their associated delivery systems pose a major threat to the national security of the United States. The Department of Defense is pursuing a number of activities to counter paramilitary and terrorist threats from nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) agents. These efforts include supporting, training, and equipping the U.S. Army Reserves (USAR) for the medical management of physical injuries and psychological trauma resulting from the use of NBC weapons both in the United States and overseas. The USAR will play an important role in responding to a WMD incident because most of the Army's support assets are in the USAR. The USAR is training to perform its mission in an NBC-contaminated environment by engaging in realistic WMD exercises using state-of-the-art protective equipment and medical support. Realistic training builds confidence in medical defenses and in NBC protective equipment. This translates into accomplishing the mission while minimizing the psychological and physical casualties in an NBC-contaminated battlefield or in support of a WMD terrorist incident.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Over the Next Decade: Causes, Warning Signs, and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    events that might drive new countries to pursue nuclear weapons; the indicators and cautionary signs that can provide early warning that a country is...cautionary signs can be identified to provide early warning that a country is trying to obtain nuclear weapons*and projecting ahead 10 years, what are the...there are many technical warning signs that can be tracked by governmental as well as non-governmental analysts to gain awareness of the early steps of a

  13. The Soviet Union and Nuclear Proliferation: Policy at a Crossroads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-02

    blackmarket . 5. Joseph L. Nogee, Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy, US Army War College Monograph, 1980, p. 20. 6. Nogee, pp. 3-8. 7. Nogee, p. 3. 8...is an example of clandestine trade ongoing in the nuclear blackmarket . Pakistan obtained the expertise to build a bomb from agents in West Germany

  14. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  15. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  16. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  17. Nuclear arms race technologies in the 1990s The case of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1988-12-15

    India and Pakistan continue to inch towards a capability to produce nuclear weapons, with India having the stronger industrial base of the two to supply the necessary nuclear materials. This trend challenges U.S. policy to discourage the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons. After providing background on the production of nuclear weapons materials, this paper briefly describes the nuclear industrial bases of India and Pakistan; reason for and against their acquisition of nuclear weapons, and related U.S. response; and suggests some options for action and for study.

  18. NMCSSC Simulation for the Assessment of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (SATAN II). System Description. Change 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    option, by a tar,-ct-type factor similar to that "described in the section on acquisition probabilities. 22 REPQoIT04 (Fire Retort) (continued) Print Field ...of decision) 67 CH-3 i REPORT 04 (Fire Report) (continued) Print Field V-Number Item Description 29 V25 RPPERS Weapon system (1/Ground, 2/Air, 3/ADM...that define the field of operationa are defined by their’ right and left front and right and Sleft rear coordinates. These coordinates are those

  19. Does the United States Need to Develop a New Nuclear Earth Penetrating Weapon?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-06

    the aging B53, a ‘ bunker - buster ’ weapon that produced a great yield. The B61-11s physics package was not altered; rather nonnuclear components were...Senate Committee on Armed Services (Hambling 2002, 1). According to Andrea Widener’s 13 November 2002 Contra Costa Times article, “ Bunker Buster Bomb...article entitled “USA Expedites Chem-Bio Bunker - Buster Project.” The concept involves 300 lb (136kg) of a two-stage reactive and pelletised mix of

  20. S. 1576: This Act may be cited as the Global Nuclear Weapons Material Control Act, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 26, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would help stop the spread of nuclear weapons by controlling the production of nuclear weapons material. The materials refer to highly enriched uranium and plutonium, both of which are no longer being produced by the US. This bill urges the President to negotiate an agreement with the USSR on cooperative mutual inspection measures to assure that the USSR joins the US in ending production of nuclear weapons material and to pursue discussions on the technical requirements for implementing verified dismantlement of nuclear warheads and safeguarded reuse or permanent disposal of the nuclear materials. The Secretary of Energy is responsible for demonstrating by October, 1995, technical capabilities for: the verifiable dismantlement of nuclear warheads at existing facilities and the disposal of nuclear weapons material. Funds are appropriated for these purposes.