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Sample records for nucleocapsid protein-rna decameric

  1. Identification of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein-RNA Binding Inhibitors Using a High-Throughput Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential anti-viral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug screening assay and tested 26,424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of FDA approved drugs, drug-like molecules and natural products extracts we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry. PMID:22644268

  2. The respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex forms a left-handed helical nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Saskia E; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Galloux, Marie; Loney, Colin; Conner, Edward; Eléouët, Jean-François; Rey, Félix A; Bhella, David

    2013-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen. Its nucleocapsid (NC), which comprises the negative sense RNA viral genome coated by the viral nucleoprotein N, is a critical assembly that serves as template for both mRNA synthesis and genome replication. We have previously described the X-ray structure of an NC-like structure: a decameric ring formed of N-RNA that mimics one turn of the helical NC. In the absence of experimental data we had hypothesized that the NC helix would be right-handed, as the N-N contacts in the ring appeared to more easily adapt to that conformation. We now unambiguously show that the RSV NC is a left-handed helix. We further show that the contacts in the ring can be distorted to maintain key N-N-protein interactions in a left-handed helix, and discuss the implications of the resulting atomic model of the helical NC for viral replication and transcription.

  3. Form-determining functions in Sindbis virus nucleocapsids: nucleosomelike organization of the nucleocapsid.

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, K M; Brown, D T

    1989-01-01

    Purified intact Sindbis virus nucleocapsids were treated at different pH values or with various concentrations of divalent cations, cation chelators, salt, or formamide. The resulting structures were examined by velocity sedimentation, electron microscopy, and protein-protein cross-linking. Changes in each of the test conditions led to alterations in the sedimentation profile of treated nucleocapsids. Appropriate concentrations of formamide or divalent cations generated beaded strandlike structures similar in morphology to those generated from adenovirus cores and nucleosomes. The capsid protein and RNA remained associated with each other at NaCl concentrations less than or equal to 1 M or after treatment of the structures with alkaline pH up to and including pH 10.7. Protein and RNA were dissociated by salt concentrations of greater than 1 M, suggesting that the arginine-rich, amino-terminal portion of the capsid protein is responsible for binding the RNA. Protein-protein cross-linking also indicated that the capsid proteins remained associated in small aggregates under some of the conditions that caused dissociation of the nucleocapsid and suggested the presence of more than one type of protein-protein interaction in the nucleocapsids. Collectively, these data suggest that, like histones and adenovirus core proteins, the Sindbis virus capsid protein serves to package segments of the genome into nucleoprotein beads which are capable of interacting with each other to form the nucleocapsid structure. Images PMID:2911124

  4. Vaccinia virions deficient in transcription enzymes lack a nucleocapsid

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Baron D.H.; Moussatche, Nissin; Kelley, Karen; Kang, Byung-Ho; Condit, Richard C.

    2012-12-05

    The poxvirus virion contains an inner tubular nucleocapsid structure. The nucleocapsid is apparently labile to conventional electron microscopy fixation procedures and has therefore been largely ignored for decades. Advancements in electron microscopy sample preparation, notably high pressure freezing, better preserve the nucleocapsid structure. Using high pressure freezing and electron microscopy, we have compared the virion structures of wt virus and mutant viruses known to be deficient in packaging of viral transcription enzymes. We show that the mutant viruses lack a defined nucleocapsid. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleocapsid contains the viral DNA genome complexed with viral transcription enzymes and structural proteins. The studies open the door to further investigation of the composition and ultrastructure of the poxvirus nucleocapsid.

  5. Metal binding to the HIV nucleocapsid peptide.

    PubMed

    McLendon, G; Hull, H; Larkin, K; Chang, W

    1999-04-01

    Co(II) and Zn(II) binding constants have been measured for binding to the HIV-1 nucleocapsid N-terminal metal binding domain (residues 1-18), using competition titration methods and monitoring Co(II) binding by visible absorbance spectroscopy. Enthalpies for binding were directly measured by isothermal titration colorimetry. The results are compared with recent studies of related systems, including a study of Zn(II) binding by the full length protein.

  6. Quantitative investigation of murine cytomegalovirus nucleocapsid interaction.

    PubMed

    Buser, Christopher; Fleischer, Frank; Mertens, Thomas; Michel, Detlef; Schmidt, Volker; Walther, Paul

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we quantitatively investigate the role of the M97 protein for viral morphogenesis in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-infected fibroblast cells. For this purpose, a statistical analysis is performed for the spatial distribution of nuclear B-capsids (devoid of DNA, containing the scaffold) and C-capsids (filled with DNA). Cell nuclei infected with either wild-type or an M97 deletion mutant were compared. Univariate and multivariate point process characteristics (like Ripley's K-function, the L-function and the nearest neighbour distance distribution function) are investigated in order to describe and quantify the effects that the deletion of M97 causes to the process of DNA packaging into nucleocapsids. The estimation of the function L(r) -r reveals that with respect to the wild type there is an increased frequency of point pairs at a very short distance (less than approximately 100 nm) for both the B-capsids as well as for the C-capsids. For the M97 deletion mutant type this is no longer true. Here only the C-capsids show such a clustering behaviour, whereas for B-capsids it is almost nonexistant. Estimations of functionals such as the nearest neighbour distance distribution function confirmed these results. Thereby, a quantification is provided for the effect that the deletion of M97 leads to a loss of typical nucleocapsid clustering in MCMV-infected nuclei. PMID:17910700

  7. Conformational maturation of measles virus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gombart, A F; Hirano, A; Wong, T C

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained a polyclonal antiserum, N-BE, against the denatured, amino-terminal half of the measles virus (MV) nucleocapsid (N) protein and a monoclonal antibody (MAb), N46, which recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the same region. Amino acid residues 23 to 239 were required and sufficient for the formation of the conformational epitope. Using these antibodies, we show that the N protein of MV is synthesized as a relatively unfolded protein which first appears in the free-protein pool. This nascent N protein undergoes a conformational change into a more folded mature form. This change does not require the participation of other viral proteins or genomic RNA. The mature N protein does not accumulate in the free-protein pool but is quickly and selectively incorporated into the viral nucleocapsids. The mature N protein is a target for interaction with the phosphoprotein (P protein) of MV. This interaction interferes with the recognition of the N protein by the N46 MAb. This suggests that the association with the P protein may mask the binding site for the N46 MAb or that it induces a conformational change in the N protein. Images PMID:7685410

  8. Template-Based Modeling of Protein-RNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinfang; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-RNA complexes formed by specific recognition between RNA and RNA-binding proteins play an important role in biological processes. More than a thousand of such proteins in human are curated and many novel RNA-binding proteins are to be discovered. Due to limitations of experimental approaches, computational techniques are needed for characterization of protein-RNA interactions. Although much progress has been made, adequate methodologies reliably providing atomic resolution structural details are still lacking. Although protein-RNA free docking approaches proved to be useful, in general, the template-based approaches provide higher quality of predictions. Templates are key to building a high quality model. Sequence/structure relationships were studied based on a representative set of binary protein-RNA complexes from PDB. Several approaches were tested for pairwise target/template alignment. The analysis revealed a transition point between random and correct binding modes. The results showed that structural alignment is better than sequence alignment in identifying good templates, suitable for generating protein-RNA complexes close to the native structure, and outperforms free docking, successfully predicting complexes where the free docking fails, including cases of significant conformational change upon binding. A template-based protein-RNA interaction modeling protocol PRIME was developed and benchmarked on a representative set of complexes. PMID:27662342

  9. Heterogeneity in Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, Christy

    2009-03-01

    Time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) chaperone activity as compared to that of the HIV-1 NC protein. HTLV-1 NC contains two zinc fingers with each having a CCHC binding motif similar to HIV-1 NC. HIV-1 NC is required for recognition and packaging of the viral RNA and is also a nucleic acid chaperone protein that facilitates nucleic acid restructuring during reverse transcription. Because of similarities in structures between the two retroviruses, we have used single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer to investigate the chaperoning activity of HTLV-1 NC protein. The results indicate that HTLV-1 NC protein induces structural changes by opening the transactivation response (TAR)-DNA hairpin to an even greater extent than HIV-1 NC. However, unlike HIV-1 NC, HTLV-1 NC does not chaperone the strand-transfer reaction involving TAR-DNA. These results suggest that despite its effective destabilization capability, HTLV-1 NC is not as effective at overall chaperone function as is its HIV-1 counterpart.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of decameric and monomeric forms of C49S mutant thioredoxin-dependent AhpC from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Supangat; Seo, Kyung Hye; Furqoni, Ahmad; Kwon, Young-Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-05-01

    Decameric and monomeric forms of recombinant C49S mutant AhpC from H. pylori have been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 2.25 Å, respectively. Cys49Ser mutant Helicobacter pylori alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (C49S HpAhpC) was purified under reducing conditions in monomeric and decameric forms. The monomeric form was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 140.7, c = 189.5 Å, β = 127°, and contained 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. A crystal of the decameric form was obtained by the microbatch crystallization method and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, b = 417.5, c = 95.6 Å. The structure of the monomeric form of C49S HpAhpC has been solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  11. Structure of a bacterial virus DNA-injection protein complex reveals a decameric assembly with a constricted molecular channel

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Haiyan; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Lin, Zihan; Liang, Lingfei; Lynn, Anna Y.; Varnado, Brittany; Weiss, Thomas M.; Tang, Liang; Schuch, Raymond

    2016-02-16

    The multi-layered cell envelope structure of Gram-negative bacteria represents significant physical and chemical barriers for short-tailed phages to inject phage DNA into the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a DNA-injection protein of bacteriophage Sf6, gp12, forms a 465-kDa, decameric assembly in vitro. The electron microscopic structure of the gp12 assembly shows a ~150-Å, mushroom-like architecture consisting of a crown domain and a tube-like domain, which embraces a 25-Å-wide channel that could precisely accommodate dsDNA. The constricted channel suggests that gp12 mediates rapid, uni-directional injection of phage DNA into host cells by providing a molecular conduit for DNA translocation. Themore » assembly exhibits a 10-fold symmetry, which may be a common feature among DNA-injection proteins of P22-like phages and may suggest a symmetry mismatch with respect to the 6-fold symmetric phage tail. As a result, the gp12 monomer is highly flexible in solution, supporting a mechanism for translocation of the protein through the conduit of the phage tail toward the host cell envelope, where it assembles into a DNA-injection device.« less

  12. Structure of a Bacterial Virus DNA-Injection Protein Complex Reveals a Decameric Assembly with a Constricted Molecular Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiyan; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Lin, Zihan; Liang, Lingfei; Lynn, Anna Y.; Varnado, Brittany; Weiss, Thomas M.; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The multi-layered cell envelope structure of Gram-negative bacteria represents significant physical and chemical barriers for short-tailed phages to inject phage DNA into the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a DNA-injection protein of bacteriophage Sf6, gp12, forms a 465-kDa, decameric assembly in vitro. The electron microscopic structure of the gp12 assembly shows a ~150-Å, mushroom-like architecture consisting of a crown domain and a tube-like domain, which embraces a 25-Å-wide channel that could precisely accommodate dsDNA. The constricted channel suggests that gp12 mediates rapid, uni-directional injection of phage DNA into host cells by providing a molecular conduit for DNA translocation. The assembly exhibits a 10-fold symmetry, which may be a common feature among DNA-injection proteins of P22-like phages and may suggest a symmetry mismatch with respect to the 6-fold symmetric phage tail. The gp12 monomer is highly flexible in solution, supporting a mechanism for translocation of the protein through the conduit of the phage tail toward the host cell envelope, where it assembles into a DNA-injection device. PMID:26882199

  13. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the small polymerase cofactor, P

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Todd J.; Luo, Ming

    2009-10-05

    The negative-strand RNA viruses (NSRVs) are unique because their nucleocapsid, not the naked RNA, is the active template for transcription and replication. The viral polymerase of nonsegmented NSRVs contains a large polymerase catalytic subunit (L) and a nonenzymatic cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). Insight into how P delivers the polymerase complex to the nucleocapsid has long been pursued by reverse genetics and biochemical approaches. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of P of vesicular stomatitis virus, a prototypic nonsegmented NSRV, bound to nucleocapsid-like particles. P binds primarily to the C-terminal lobe of 2 adjacent N proteins within the nucleocapsid. This binding mode is exclusive to the nucleocapsid, not the nucleocapsid (N) protein in other existing forms. Localization of phosphorylation sites within P and their proximity to the RNA cavity give insight into how the L protein might be oriented to access the RNA template.

  14. Formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds and properties of the single histidine and cysteine residues in each subunit relative to the decameric structure of cyanase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P M; Korte, J J; Holcomb, T A; Cho, Y G; Son, C M; Sung, Y C

    1994-05-27

    Reaction of the single cysteine residue in each subunit of cyanase with certain SH reagents gives an active decameric derivative that dissociates reversibly to an inactive dimer derivative (Anderson, P. M., Johnson, W. V., Korte, J. J., Xiong, X., Sung, Y.-c., and Fuchs, J. A. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5674-5680). Reaction of mixed disulfide dimer derivatives of cyanase with dithiothreitol at 0 degree C results in formation of a disulfide bond between the subunits in the dimer. The disulfide dimer was inactive and did not associate to a decamer; the intersubunit disulfide bond could not be formed when the dimers were associated as a decamer. The two SH groups apparently are in close proximity to each other in the dissociated dimer but not when the dimer is associated to a decamer. Substitution of glycine for the cysteine residue or of tyrosine, asparagine, glycine, valine, or leucine for the single histidine residue in each subunit gave mutant enzymes that were active. However, H113N, H113Y, and C83G were unstable at low temperature and/or ionic strength, dissociating reversibly to an inactive dimer. Efficient reassociation required the presence of bicarbonate or cyanate analog. The results are consistent with a proposed single site per subunit model explaining apparent half-site binding of substrates and the requirement of decameric structure for activity.

  15. An alphavirus temperature-sensitive capsid mutant reveals stages of nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yan Kielian, Margaret

    2015-10-15

    Alphaviruses have a nucleocapsid core composed of the RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral lattice of capsid protein. An insertion after position 186 in the capsid protein produced a strongly temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Even when the structural proteins were synthesized at the permissive temperature (28 °C), subsequent incubation of the cells at the non-permissive temperature (37 °C) dramatically decreased mutant capsid protein stability and particle assembly. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids in mutant-infected cells cultured at the permissive temperature, but these nucleocapsids were not stable to sucrose gradient separation. In contrast, nucleocapsids isolated from mutant virus particles had similar stability to that of wildtype virus. Our data support a model in which cytoplasmic nucleocapsids go through a maturation step during packaging into virus particles. The insertion site lies in the interface between capsid proteins in the assembled nucleocapsid, suggesting the region where such a stabilizing transition occurs. - Highlights: • We characterize an alphavirus capsid insertion mutation. • These capsid mutants are highly temperature sensitive for growth. • The insertion affects nucleocapsid stability. • Results suggest that the nucleocapsid is stabilized during virus budding.

  16. Tandem repeats of the extracellular domain of Matrix 2 influenza protein exposed in Brucella lumazine synthase decameric carrier molecule induce protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Zylberman, Vanesa; Ghersi, Giselle; Boado, Lorena; Palacios, Carlos; Goldbaum, Fernando; Mattion, Nora

    2013-01-21

    The antigenic variation of influenza virus represents a major prevention problem. However, the ectodomain of the protein Matrix 2 (M2e) is nearly invariant in all human influenza A strains and has been considered as a promising candidate for a broadly protective vaccine because antibodies to M2e are protective in animal models. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Brucella abortus lumazine synthase protein (BLS), a highly immunogenic decameric protein, as a carrier of the M2e peptide. Chimeric proteins generated by the fusion of one or four in tandem copies of M2e to BLS were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and assembled in decameric subunits similarly to the wild type BLS enzyme, as demonstrated by the comparative circular dichroism spectra and size exclusion chromatography and static light scattering analysis. The M2e peptides were stably exposed at the ten N-terminal ends of each BLS molecule. Immunization of mice with purified chimeras carrying only one M2e (BLS-M2e) copy elicited a significant humoral immune response with the addition of different adjuvants. The fusion of four in tandem copies of the M2e peptide (BLS-4M2e) resulted in similar levels of humoral immune response but in the absence of adjuvant. Survival of mice challenged with live influenza virus was 100% after vaccination with BLS-4M2e adjuvanted with Iscomatrix(®) (P<0.001) and 80% when adjuvanted with alum (P<0.01), while the chimera alone protected 60% of the animals (P<0.05). The approach described in this study is intended as a contribution to the generation of universal influenza immunogens, through a simple production and purification process and using safe carriers that might eventually avoid the use of strong adjuvants. PMID:23246552

  17. Tandem repeats of the extracellular domain of Matrix 2 influenza protein exposed in Brucella lumazine synthase decameric carrier molecule induce protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Zylberman, Vanesa; Ghersi, Giselle; Boado, Lorena; Palacios, Carlos; Goldbaum, Fernando; Mattion, Nora

    2013-01-21

    The antigenic variation of influenza virus represents a major prevention problem. However, the ectodomain of the protein Matrix 2 (M2e) is nearly invariant in all human influenza A strains and has been considered as a promising candidate for a broadly protective vaccine because antibodies to M2e are protective in animal models. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Brucella abortus lumazine synthase protein (BLS), a highly immunogenic decameric protein, as a carrier of the M2e peptide. Chimeric proteins generated by the fusion of one or four in tandem copies of M2e to BLS were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and assembled in decameric subunits similarly to the wild type BLS enzyme, as demonstrated by the comparative circular dichroism spectra and size exclusion chromatography and static light scattering analysis. The M2e peptides were stably exposed at the ten N-terminal ends of each BLS molecule. Immunization of mice with purified chimeras carrying only one M2e (BLS-M2e) copy elicited a significant humoral immune response with the addition of different adjuvants. The fusion of four in tandem copies of the M2e peptide (BLS-4M2e) resulted in similar levels of humoral immune response but in the absence of adjuvant. Survival of mice challenged with live influenza virus was 100% after vaccination with BLS-4M2e adjuvanted with Iscomatrix(®) (P<0.001) and 80% when adjuvanted with alum (P<0.01), while the chimera alone protected 60% of the animals (P<0.05). The approach described in this study is intended as a contribution to the generation of universal influenza immunogens, through a simple production and purification process and using safe carriers that might eventually avoid the use of strong adjuvants.

  18. Quantifying sequence and structural features of protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Songling; Yamashita, Kazuo; Amada, Karlou Mar; Standley, Daron M

    2014-09-01

    Increasing awareness of the importance of protein-RNA interactions has motivated many approaches to predict residue-level RNA binding sites in proteins based on sequence or structural characteristics. Sequence-based predictors are usually high in sensitivity but low in specificity; conversely structure-based predictors tend to have high specificity, but lower sensitivity. Here we quantified the contribution of both sequence- and structure-based features as indicators of RNA-binding propensity using a machine-learning approach. In order to capture structural information for proteins without a known structure, we used homology modeling to extract the relevant structural features. Several novel and modified features enhanced the accuracy of residue-level RNA-binding propensity beyond what has been reported previously, including by meta-prediction servers. These features include: hidden Markov model-based evolutionary conservation, surface deformations based on the Laplacian norm formalism, and relative solvent accessibility partitioned into backbone and side chain contributions. We constructed a web server called aaRNA that implements the proposed method and demonstrate its use in identifying putative RNA binding sites. PMID:25063293

  19. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Human Coronavirus NL63

    PubMed Central

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV. PMID:25700263

  20. The nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV.

  1. Measles virus nucleocapsid protein protects rats from encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bankamp, B; Brinckmann, U G; Reich, A; Niewiesk, S; ter Meulen, V; Liebert, U G

    1991-01-01

    Lewis rats immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the nucleocapsid (N) protein of measles virus were protected from encephalitis when subsequently challenged by intracerebral infection with neurotropic measles virus. Immunized rats revealed polyvalent antibodies to the N protein of measles virus in the absence of any neutralizing antibodies as well as an N protein-specific proliferative lymphocyte response. Depletion of CD8+ T lymphocytes did not abrogate the protective potential of the N protein-specific cell-mediated immune response in rats, while protection could be adoptively transferred with N protein-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results indicate that a CD4+ cell-mediated immune response specific for the N protein of measles virus is sufficient to control measles virus infections of the central nervous system. Images PMID:1825854

  2. Trafficking motifs in the SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Reed, Mark L.; Hiscox, Julian A. . E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

    2007-07-13

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is involved in virus replication and modulation of cell processes. In this latter respect control may in part be achieved through the sub-cellular localisation of the protein. N protein predominately localises in the cytoplasm (the site of virus replication and assembly) but also in the nucleus/nucleolus. Using a combination of live-cell and confocal microscopy coupled to mutagenesis we identified a cryptic nucleolar localisation signal in the central part of the N protein. In addition, based on structural comparison to the avian coronavirus N protein, a nuclear export signal was identified in the C-terminal region of the protein.

  3. Quantitative analysis of protein-RNA interactions by gel mobility shift

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Sean P.; Recht, Michael I.; Williamson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The gel mobility shift assay is routinely used to visualize protein-RNA interactions. Its power resides in the ability to resolve free from bound RNA with high resolution in a gel matrix. In this chapter, we review the quantitative application of this approach to elucidate thermodynamic properties of protein-RNA complexes. Assay designs for titration, competition, and stoichiometry experiments are presented for two unrelated model complexes. PMID:18982286

  4. Sequences of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein involved in binding to nucleocapsids.

    PubMed

    Kaptur, P E; Rhodes, R B; Lyles, D S

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the physical structure of the nucleocapsid-M protein complex of vesicular stomatitis virus by analysis of nucleocapsid binding by wild-type and mutant M proteins and by limited proteolysis. We used the temperature-sensitive M protein mutant tsO23 and six temperature-stable revertants of tsO23 to test the effect of sequence changes on M protein binding to the nucleocapsid as a function of NaCl concentration. The results showed that M proteins from wild-type, mutant, and three of the revertant viruses had similar NaCl titration curves, while the curve for M proteins from the other three revertants differed significantly. The altered NaCl dependence of M protein was correlated with a single amino acid substitution from Phe to Leu at position 111 compared with the original temperature-sensitive mutant and was not correlated with a substitution of Gly to Glu at position 21 in tsO23 and the revertants. To determine whether protease cleavage sites in the M protein were protected by interaction with the nucleocapsid, nucleocapsid-M protein complexes were subjected to limited proteolysis with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. The initial trypsin and chymotrypsin cleavage sites, located after amino acids 19 and 20, respectively, were as accessible to proteases when M protein was bound to the nucleocapsid as when it was purified, indicating that this region of the protein does not interact directly with the nucleocapsid. Furthermore, trypsin or chymotrypsin treatment released the M protein fragments from the nucleocapsid, presumably due to conformational changes following proteolysis. V8 protease cleaved the M protein at position 34 or 50, producing two distinct fragments. The M protein fragment produced by V8 protease cleavage at position 34 remained associated with the nucleocapsid, while the fragment produced by cleavage at position 50 was released from the nucleocapsid. These results suggest that the

  5. PRI-Modeler: extracting RNA structural elements from PDB files of protein-RNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsook; Nepal, Chirag

    2007-05-01

    A complete understanding of protein and RNA structures and their interactions is important for determining the binding sites in protein-RNA complexes. Computational approaches exist for identifying secondary structural elements in proteins from atomic coordinates. However, similar methods have not been developed for RNA, due in part to the very limited structural data so far available. We have developed a set of algorithms for extracting and visualizing secondary and tertiary structures of RNA and for analyzing protein-RNA complexes. These algorithms have been implemented in a web-based program called PRI-Modeler (protein-RNA interaction modeler). Given one or more protein data bank files of protein-RNA complexes, PRI-Modeler analyzes the conformation of the RNA, calculates the hydrogen bond (H bond) and van der Waals interactions between amino acids and nucleotides, extracts secondary and tertiary RNA structure elements, and identifies the patterns of interactions between the proteins and RNAs. This paper presents PRI-Modeler and its application to the hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions in the most representative set of protein-RNA complexes. The analysis reveals several interesting interaction patterns at various levels. The information provided by PRI-Modeler should prove useful for determining the binding sites in protein-RNA complexes. PRI-Modeler is accessible at http://wilab.inha.ac.kr/primodeler/, and supplementary materials are available in the analysis results section at http://wilab.inha.ac.kr/primodeler/.

  6. An improved high pressure freezing and freeze substitution method to preserve the labile vaccinia virus nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Desyree Murta; Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, high pressure freezing and freeze substitution have been widely used for electron microscopy to reveal viral and cellular structures that are difficult to preserve. Vaccinia virus, a member of the Poxviridae family, presents one of the most complex viral structures. The classical view of vaccinia virus structure consists of an envelope surrounding a biconcave core, with a lateral body in each concavity of the core. This classical view was challenged by Peters and Muller (1963), who demonstrated the presence of a folded tubular structure inside the virus core and stated the difficulty in visualizing this structure, possibly because it is labile and cannot be preserved by conventional sample preparation. Therefore, this tubular structure, now called the nucleocapsid, has been mostly neglected over the years. Earlier studies were able to preserve the nucleocapsid, but with low efficiency. In this study, we report the protocol (and troubleshooting) that resulted in preservation of the highest numbers of nucleocapsids in several independent preparations. Using this protocol, we were able to demonstrate an interdependence between the formation of the virus core wall and the nucleocapsid, leading to the hypothesis that an interaction exists between the major protein constituents of these compartments, A3 (core wall) and L4 (nucleocapsid). Our results show that high pressure freezing and freeze substitution can be used in more in-depth studies concerning the nucleocapsid structure and function.

  7. FastRNABindR: Fast and Accurate Prediction of Protein-RNA Interface Residues

    PubMed Central

    EL-Manzalawy, Yasser; Abbas, Mostafa; Malluhi, Qutaibah; Honavar, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, and replication and assembly of many viruses are mediated by RNA-protein interactions. However, experimental determination of the structures of protein-RNA complexes is expensive and technically challenging. Hence, a number of computational tools have been developed for predicting protein-RNA interfaces. Some of the state-of-the-art protein-RNA interface predictors rely on position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based encoding of the protein sequences. The computational efforts needed for generating PSSMs severely limits the practical utility of protein-RNA interface prediction servers. In this work, we experiment with two approaches, random sampling and sequence similarity reduction, for extracting a representative reference database of protein sequences from more than 50 million protein sequences in UniRef100. Our results suggest that random sampled databases produce better PSSM profiles (in terms of the number of hits used to generate the profile and the distance of the generated profile to the corresponding profile generated using the entire UniRef100 data as well as the accuracy of the machine learning classifier trained using these profiles). Based on our results, we developed FastRNABindR, an improved version of RNABindR for predicting protein-RNA interface residues using PSSM profiles generated using 1% of the UniRef100 sequences sampled uniformly at random. To the best of our knowledge, FastRNABindR is the only protein-RNA interface residue prediction online server that requires generation of PSSM profiles for query sequences and accepts hundreds of protein sequences per submission. Our approach for determining the optimal BLAST database for a protein-RNA interface residue classification task has the potential of substantially speeding up, and hence increasing the practical utility of, other amino acid sequence based predictors of protein-protein and protein

  8. FastRNABindR: Fast and Accurate Prediction of Protein-RNA Interface Residues.

    PubMed

    El-Manzalawy, Yasser; Abbas, Mostafa; Malluhi, Qutaibah; Honavar, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, and replication and assembly of many viruses are mediated by RNA-protein interactions. However, experimental determination of the structures of protein-RNA complexes is expensive and technically challenging. Hence, a number of computational tools have been developed for predicting protein-RNA interfaces. Some of the state-of-the-art protein-RNA interface predictors rely on position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based encoding of the protein sequences. The computational efforts needed for generating PSSMs severely limits the practical utility of protein-RNA interface prediction servers. In this work, we experiment with two approaches, random sampling and sequence similarity reduction, for extracting a representative reference database of protein sequences from more than 50 million protein sequences in UniRef100. Our results suggest that random sampled databases produce better PSSM profiles (in terms of the number of hits used to generate the profile and the distance of the generated profile to the corresponding profile generated using the entire UniRef100 data as well as the accuracy of the machine learning classifier trained using these profiles). Based on our results, we developed FastRNABindR, an improved version of RNABindR for predicting protein-RNA interface residues using PSSM profiles generated using 1% of the UniRef100 sequences sampled uniformly at random. To the best of our knowledge, FastRNABindR is the only protein-RNA interface residue prediction online server that requires generation of PSSM profiles for query sequences and accepts hundreds of protein sequences per submission. Our approach for determining the optimal BLAST database for a protein-RNA interface residue classification task has the potential of substantially speeding up, and hence increasing the practical utility of, other amino acid sequence based predictors of protein-protein and protein

  9. PRince: a web server for structural and physicochemical analysis of protein-RNA interface.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Mishra, Abhishek; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a web server, PRince, which analyzes the structural features and physicochemical properties of the protein-RNA interface. Users need to submit a PDB file containing the atomic coordinates of both the protein and the RNA molecules in complex form (in '.pdb' format). They should also mention the chain identifiers of interacting protein and RNA molecules. The size of the protein-RNA interface is estimated by measuring the solvent accessible surface area buried in contact. For a given protein-RNA complex, PRince calculates structural, physicochemical and hydration properties of the interacting surfaces. All these parameters generated by the server are presented in a tabular format. The interacting surfaces can also be visualized with software plug-in like Jmol. In addition, the output files containing the list of the atomic coordinates of the interacting protein, RNA and interface water molecules can be downloaded. The parameters generated by PRince are novel, and users can correlate them with the experimentally determined biophysical and biochemical parameters for better understanding the specificity of the protein-RNA recognition process. This server will be continuously upgraded to include more parameters. PRince is publicly accessible and free for use. Available at http://www.facweb.iitkgp.ernet.in/~rbahadur/prince/home.html.

  10. Complex interactions of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein with oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert J; Fivash, Matthew J; Stephen, Andrew G; Hagan, Nathan A; Shenoy, Shilpa R; Medaglia, Maxine V; Smith, Lindsey R; Worthy, Karen M; Simpson, John T; Shoemaker, Robert; McNitt, Karen L; Johnson, Donald G; Hixson, Catherine V; Gorelick, Robert J; Fabris, Daniele; Henderson, Louis E; Rein, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein is a small, basic protein containing two retroviral zinc fingers. It is a highly active nucleic acid chaperone; because of this activity, it plays a crucial role in virus replication as a cofactor during reverse transcription, and is probably important in other steps of the replication cycle as well. We previously reported that NC binds with high-affinity to the repeating sequence d(TG)n. We have now analyzed the interaction between NC and d(TG)4 in considerable detail, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ), fluorescence anisotropy (FA), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS). Our results show that the interactions between these two molecules are surprisngly complex: while the K(d) for binding of a single d(TG)4 molecule to NC is only approximately 5 nM in 150 mM NaCl, a single NC molecule is capable of interacting with more than one d(TG)4 molecule, and conversely, more than one NC molecule can bind to a single d(TG)4 molecule. The strengths of these additional binding reactions are quantitated. The implications of this multivalency for the functions of NC in virus replication are discussed.

  11. Construction of murine coronavirus mutants containing interspecies chimeric nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, D; Koetzner, C A; McMahon, T; Zhu, Y; Masters, P S

    1995-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination was used to construct mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) mutants containing chimeric nucleocapsid (N) protein genes in which segments of the bovine coronavirus N gene were substituted in place of their corresponding MHV sequences. This defined portions of the two N proteins that, despite evolutionary divergence, have remained functionally equivalent. These regions included most of the centrally located RNA-binding domain and two putative spacers that link the three domains of the N protein. By contrast, the amino terminus of N, the acidic carboxy-terminal domain, and a serine- and arginine-rich segment of the central domain could not be transferred from bovine coronavirus to MHV, presumably because these parts of the molecule participate in protein-protein interactions that are specific for each virus (or, possibly, each host). Our results demonstrate that targeted recombination can be used to make extensive substitutions in the coronavirus genome and can generate recombinants that could not otherwise be made between two viruses separated by a species barrier. The implications of these findings for N protein structure and function as well as for coronavirus RNA recombination are discussed. PMID:7636993

  12. Specific interaction between coronavirus leader RNA and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Stohlman, S.A.; Baric, R.S.; Nelson, G.N.; Soe, L.H.; Welter, L.M.; Deans, R.J.

    1988-11-01

    Northwestern blot analysis in the presence of competitor RNA was used to examine the interaction between the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid protein (N) and virus-specific RNAs. The authors accompanying article demonstrates that anti-N monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated all seven MHV-specific RNAs as well as the small leader-containing RNAs from infected cells. In this article the authors report that a Northwestern blotting protocol using radiolabeled viral RNAs in the presence of host cell competitor RNA can be used to demonstrate a high-affinity interaction between the MHV N protein and the virus-specific RNAs. Further, RNA probes prepared by in vitro transcription were used to define the sequences that participate in such high-affinity binding. A specific interaction occurs between the N protein and sequences contained with the leader RNA which is conserved at the 5' end of all MHV RNAs. They have further defined the binding sites to the area of nucleotides 56 to 65 at the 3' end of the leader RNA and suggest that this interaction may play an important role in the discontinuous nonprocessive RNA transcriptional process unique to coronaviruses.

  13. Low stability of nucleocapsid protein in SARS virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulong; Wu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yihua; Li, Bing; Zhou, Hao; Yuan, Guiyong; Fu, Yan; Luo, Yongzhang

    2004-08-31

    The nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is one of the major virion structural proteins of a newly identified coronavirus, which has been confirmed as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The major function of N protein is to assemble the RNA of coronavirus. In the present study, the gene encoding the N protein was cloned and the protein was expressed, purified, and refolded as shown by (1)H NMR measurement. The maximal Trp emission wavelength occurs near 331 nm, suggesting substantial burial of Trp residues. Circular dichroism measurements indicate that N protein contains little alpha-helical structure. Acid titration shows that N protein begins to unfold near pH 5 and is fully denatured near pH 2.7, and the acid unfolding process is reversible. The physical and chemical properties of N protein indicate that its stability is low. N protein is denatured reversibly at pH 7.4 either by urea (with C(m) of 2.77 M and m value of 2.74 kcal mol(-1) M(-1)) or GdmCl (with C(m) of 1.46 M and m value of 4.50 kcal mol(-1) M(-1)). In the heat-induced denaturation in phosphate-buffered saline buffer, N-protein starts to unfold at 35 degrees C and is completely denatured at 55 degrees C, where SARS virus was also reported to be inactivated. We propose that the low stability of N protein may be critical for the stability and function of SARS virus.

  14. Protein-RNA Complexes and Efficient Automatic Docking: Expanding RosettaDock Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot-Gaudeffroy, Adrien; Froidevaux, Christine; Azé, Jérôme; Bernauer, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Protein-RNA complexes provide a wide range of essential functions in the cell. Their atomic experimental structure solving, despite essential to the understanding of these functions, is often difficult and expensive. Docking approaches that have been developed for proteins are often challenging to adapt for RNA because of its inherent flexibility and the structural data available being relatively scarce. In this study we adapted the RosettaDock protocol for protein-RNA complexes both at the nucleotide and atomic levels. Using a genetic algorithm-based strategy, and a non-redundant protein-RNA dataset, we derived a RosettaDock scoring scheme able not only to discriminate but also score efficiently docking decoys. The approach proved to be both efficient and robust for generating and identifying suitable structures when applied to two protein-RNA docking benchmarks in both bound and unbound settings. It also compares well to existing strategies. This is the first approach that currently offers a multi-level optimized scoring approach integrated in a full docking suite, leading the way to adaptive fully flexible strategies. PMID:25268579

  15. Protein-RNA complexes and efficient automatic docking: expanding RosettaDock possibilities.

    PubMed

    Guilhot-Gaudeffroy, Adrien; Froidevaux, Christine; Azé, Jérôme; Bernauer, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Protein-RNA complexes provide a wide range of essential functions in the cell. Their atomic experimental structure solving, despite essential to the understanding of these functions, is often difficult and expensive. Docking approaches that have been developed for proteins are often challenging to adapt for RNA because of its inherent flexibility and the structural data available being relatively scarce. In this study we adapted the RosettaDock protocol for protein-RNA complexes both at the nucleotide and atomic levels. Using a genetic algorithm-based strategy, and a non-redundant protein-RNA dataset, we derived a RosettaDock scoring scheme able not only to discriminate but also score efficiently docking decoys. The approach proved to be both efficient and robust for generating and identifying suitable structures when applied to two protein-RNA docking benchmarks in both bound and unbound settings. It also compares well to existing strategies. This is the first approach that currently offers a multi-level optimized scoring approach integrated in a full docking suite, leading the way to adaptive fully flexible strategies.

  16. Protein-RNA complexes and efficient automatic docking: expanding RosettaDock possibilities.

    PubMed

    Guilhot-Gaudeffroy, Adrien; Froidevaux, Christine; Azé, Jérôme; Bernauer, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Protein-RNA complexes provide a wide range of essential functions in the cell. Their atomic experimental structure solving, despite essential to the understanding of these functions, is often difficult and expensive. Docking approaches that have been developed for proteins are often challenging to adapt for RNA because of its inherent flexibility and the structural data available being relatively scarce. In this study we adapted the RosettaDock protocol for protein-RNA complexes both at the nucleotide and atomic levels. Using a genetic algorithm-based strategy, and a non-redundant protein-RNA dataset, we derived a RosettaDock scoring scheme able not only to discriminate but also score efficiently docking decoys. The approach proved to be both efficient and robust for generating and identifying suitable structures when applied to two protein-RNA docking benchmarks in both bound and unbound settings. It also compares well to existing strategies. This is the first approach that currently offers a multi-level optimized scoring approach integrated in a full docking suite, leading the way to adaptive fully flexible strategies. PMID:25268579

  17. Some physico-chemical properties of the rigid form of the Sendai virus nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    Repanovici, R; Hristova, M; Popa, L M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of some dissociation agents (SDS, beta-mercaptoethanol, urea, EDTA) on the rigid form of the Sendai virus nucleocapsid was studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of lytic mixture (1% SDS, 2% beta-mercaptoethanol, 5 M urea, for 2 min at 100 degrees C) revealed two types of polypeptide subunits (mol. wts. 46,000 and 14,000), as well as the dissociation in the presence of 0.1% SDS only. The EDTA treatment leads to a disorganization of the protein part (10(-2) M) or of the nucleocapsid structure (5 x 10(-2) M). PMID:2556836

  18. Trichoplusia ni Kinesin-1 Associates with Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Is Required for Production of Budded Virus

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Siddhartha; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism by which nucleocapsids of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) egress from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, leading to the formation of budded virus (BV), is not known. AC141 is a nucleocapsid-associated protein required for BV egress and has previously been shown to be associated with β-tubulin. In addition, AC141 and VP39 were previously shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging to interact directly with the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-1 light chain (KLC) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. These results suggested that microtubule transport systems may be involved in baculovirus nucleocapsid egress and BV formation. In this study, we investigated the role of lepidopteran microtubule transport using coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, yeast two-hybrid, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) analyses. We show that nucleocapsid AC141 associates with the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni KLC and kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization. Kinesin-1, AC141, and microtubules colocalized predominantly at the plasma membrane. In addition, the nucleocapsid proteins VP39, FP25, and BV/ODV-C42 were also coimmunoprecipitated with T. ni KLC. Direct analysis of the role of T. ni kinesin-1 by downregulation of KLC by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in BV production. Nucleocapsids labeled with VP39 fused with three copies of the mCherry fluorescent protein also colocalized with microtubules. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed no evidence of a direct interaction between kinesin-1 and AC141 or VP39, suggesting that either other nucleocapsid proteins or adaptor proteins may be required. These results further support the conclusion that microtubule transport is required for AcMNPV BV formation. IMPORTANCE In two key processes of the replication cycle of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), nucleocapsids are

  19. Estimation of Relative Protein-RNA Binding Strengths from Fluctuations in the Bound State.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Zhaleh; Guzman, Irisbel; Baek, Jung-Un Julia; Gruebele, Martin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-09-13

    Protein-RNA complexes are increasingly important in our understanding of cell signaling, metabolism, and transcription. Electrostatic interactions play dominant role in stabilizing such complexes. Using conventional computational approaches, very long simulations of both bound and unbound states are required to obtain accurate estimates of complex dissociation constants (Kd). Here, we derive a simple formula that offers an alternative approach based on the theory of fluctuations. Our method extracts a strong correlate to experimental Kd values using short molecular dynamics simulations of the bound complex only. To test our method, we compared the computed relative Kd values to our experimentally measured values for the U1A-Stem Loop 2 (SL2) RNA complex, which is one of the most-studied protein-RNA complexes. Additionally we also included several experimental values from the literature, to enlarge the data set. We obtain a correlation of r = 0.93 between theoretical and measured estimates of Kd values of the mutated U1A protein-RNA complexes relative to the wild type dissociation constant. The proposed method increases the efficiency of relative Kd values estimation for multiple protein mutants, allowing its applicability to protein engineering projects. PMID:27529183

  20. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Ying; Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Qihan

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  1. Expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rebecca J; Kelley, Karen L; Maruniak, James E; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Barrett, Tom; Manire, Charles A; Romero, Carlos H

    2010-07-14

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was expressed from a baculovirus (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis to be about 57 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. These NLPs were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. Purified DMV-N protein was used as antigen in an indirect ELISA (iELISA) and shown to react with rabbit and human antisera to measles virus (MV) and dog sera with antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV). The iELISA was used for the demonstration of morbillivirus antibodies in the serum of cetaceans and manatees, showing potential as a serological tool for the mass screening of morbillivirus antibodies in marine mammals. PMID:20005643

  2. Identification of in vivo-interacting domains of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Kelley R; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2009-07-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N), together with the large, positive-strand RNA viral genome, forms a helically symmetric nucleocapsid. This ribonucleoprotein structure becomes packaged into virions through association with the carboxy-terminal endodomain of the membrane protein (M), which is the principal constituent of the virion envelope. Previous work with the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) has shown that a major determinant of the N-M interaction maps to the carboxy-terminal domain 3 of the N protein. To explore other domain interactions of the MHV N protein, we expressed a series of segments of the MHV N protein as fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP) during the course of viral infection. We found that two of these GFP-N-domain fusion proteins were selectively packaged into virions as the result of tight binding to the N protein in the viral nucleocapsid, in a manner that did not involve association with either M protein or RNA. The nature of each type of binding was further explored through genetic analysis. Our results defined two strongly interacting regions of the N protein. One is the same domain 3 that is critical for M protein recognition during assembly. The other is domain N1b, which corresponds to the N-terminal domain that has been structurally characterized in detail for two other coronaviruses, infectious bronchitis virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

  3. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus PK-1 is essential for nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Changyong; Li, Min; Dai, Xuejuan; Zhao, Shuling; Hou, Yanling; Zhang, Yongli; Lan, Dandan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Xinwen

    2013-09-01

    PK-1 (Ac10) is a baculovirus-encoded serine/threonine kinase and its function is unclear. Our results showed that a pk-1 knockout AcMNPV failed to produce infectious progeny, while the pk-1 repair virus could rescue this defect. qPCR analysis demonstrated that pk-1 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Analysis of the repaired recombinants with truncated pk-1 mutants demonstrated that the catalytic domain of protein kinases of PK-1 was essential to viral infectivity. Moreover, those PK-1 mutants that could rescue the infectious BV production defect exhibited kinase activity in vitro. Therefore, it is suggested that the kinase activity of PK-1 is essential in regulating viral propagation. Electron microscopy revealed that pk-1 deletion affected the formation of normal nucleocapsids. Masses of electron-lucent tubular structures were present in cell transfected with pk-1 knockout bacmid. Therefore, PK-1 appears to phosphorylate some viral or cellular proteins that are essential for DNA packaging to regulate nucleocapsid assembly. - Highlights: • A pk-1 knockout AcMNPV failed to produce infectious progeny. • The pk-1 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. • The catalytic domain of protein kinases (PKc) of PK-1 was essential to viral infectivity. • The kinase activity of PK-1 is essential in regulating viral propagation. • PK-1 appears to phosphorylate some viral proteins that are essential for DNA packaging to regulate nucleocapsid assembly.

  4. Cation-pi interactions at non-redundant protein--RNA interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honggucun; Li, Chunhua; Yang, Feng; Su, Jiguo; Tan, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Cunxin

    2014-07-01

    Cation-pi interactions have proved to be important in proteins and protein-ligand complexes. Here, cation-pi interactions are analyzed for 282 non-redundant protein-RNA interfaces. The statistical results show that this kind of interactions exists in 65% of the interfaces. The four RNA bases are ranked as Gua>Ade>Ura>Cyt according to their propensity to participate in cation-pi interactions. The corresponding ranking for the involved amino acid residues is: Arg>Lys>Asn>Gln. The same trends are obtained based on the empirical energy calculation. The Arg-Gua pairs have the greatest stability and are also most frequently observed. The number of cation-pi pairs involving unpaired bases is 2.5 times as many as those involving paired bases. Hence, cation-pi interactions show sequence and structural specificities. For the bicyclic bases, Gua and Ade, their 5-atom rings participate in cation-pi interactions somewhat more than the 6-atom rings, with percentages of 54 and 46%, respectively, which is due to the higher cation-pi participation proportion (63%) of 5-atom rings in the paired bases. These results give a general view of cation-pi interactions at protein-RNA interfaces and are helpful in understanding the specific recognition between protein and RNA. PMID:25108327

  5. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering for Structural Biology of Protein-RNA Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with the applications of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the structural study of protein-RNA complexes in solution. After a brief historical introduction, the basic theory and practical requirements (e.g., sample state) for SANS experiments will be treated. Next, model-free parameters, such as the molecular mass and the radius of gyration, which can be obtained without a priori structural information, will be introduced. A more detailed section on the specific properties of SANS (with respect to its sister technique, small-angle X-ray scattering), and their implications on possibilities and limits of model building and interpretation will be discussed with a focus on protein-RNA systems. A practical illustration of the information content of SANS data will be given by applying ab initio modeling to a tRNA-synthetase system of known high-resolution structure. Finally, two present state-of-the-art examples that combine SANS data with complementary structural biology techniques (NMR and crystallography) will be presented and possible future developments and applications will be discussed.

  6. Synthesis of human parainfluenza virus 2 nucleocapsid protein in yeast as nucleocapsid-like particles and investigation of its antigenic structure.

    PubMed

    Bulavaitė, Aistė; Lasickienė, Rita; Vaitiekaitė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Kęstutis; Žvirblienė, Aurelija

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system for the production of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) nucleocapsid (N) protein in the form of nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) and to characterize its antigenic structure. The gene encoding HPIV2 N amino acid (aa) sequence RefSeq NP_598401.1 was cloned into the galactose-inducible S. cerevisiae expression vector and its high-level expression was achieved. However, this recombinant HPIV2 N protein did not form NLPs. The PCR mutagenesis was carried out to change the encoded aa residues to the ones conserved across HPIV2 isolates. Synthesis of the modified proteins in yeast demonstrated that the single aa substitution NP_598401.1:p.D331V was sufficient for the self-assembly of NLPs. The significance of certain aa residues in this position was confirmed by analysing HPIV2 N protein structure models. To characterize the antigenic structure of NLP-forming HPIV2 N protein, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated. The majority of the MAbs raised against the recombinant NLPs recognized HPIV2-infected cells suggesting the antigenic similarity between the recombinant and virus-derived HPIV2 N protein. Fine epitope mapping revealed the C-terminal part (aa 386-504) as the main antigenic region of the HPIV2 N protein. In conclusion, the current study provides new data on the impact of HPIV2 N protein sequence variants on the NLP self-assembly and demonstrates an efficient production of recombinant HPIV2 N protein in the form of NLPs. PMID:26821928

  7. Structure of a low-population binding intermediate in protein-RNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bardaro, Michael F.; Aprile, Francesco A.; Varani, Gabriele; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) and its cognate transactivation response element (TAR) RNA transactivates viral transcription and represents a paradigm for the widespread occurrence of conformational rearrangements in protein-RNA recognition. Although the structures of free and bound forms of TAR are well characterized, the conformations of the intermediates in the binding process are still unknown. By determining the free energy landscape of the complex using NMR residual dipolar couplings in replica-averaged metadynamics simulations, we observe two low-population intermediates. We then rationally design two mutants, one in the protein and another in the RNA, that weaken specific nonnative interactions that stabilize one of the intermediates. By using surface plasmon resonance, we show that these mutations lower the release rate of Tat, as predicted. These results identify the structure of an intermediate for RNA-protein binding and illustrate a general strategy to achieve this goal with high resolution. PMID:27286828

  8. Recoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for synthetic biology by rational protein-RNA engineering.

    PubMed

    Hadd, Andrew; Perona, John J

    2014-12-19

    We have taken a rational approach to redesigning the amino acid binding and aminoacyl-tRNA pairing specificities of bacterial glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. The four-stage engineering incorporates generalizable design principles and improves the pairing efficiency of noncognate glutamate with tRNA(Gln) by over 10(5)-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. Better optimized designs of the protein-RNA complex include substantial reengineering of the globular core region of the tRNA, demonstrating a role for specific tRNA nucleotides in specifying the identity of the genetically encoded amino acid. Principles emerging from this engineering effort open new prospects for combining rational and genetic selection approaches to design novel aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that ligate noncanonical amino acids onto tRNAs. This will facilitate reconstruction of the cellular translation apparatus for applications in synthetic biology. PMID:25310879

  9. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  10. Structure-based analysis of protein-RNA interactions using the program ENTANGLE.

    PubMed

    Allers, J; Shamoo, Y

    2001-08-01

    Until recently, drawing general conclusions about RNA recognition by proteins has been hindered by the paucity of high-resolution structures. We have analyzed 45 PDB entries of protein-RNA complexes to explore the underlying chemical principles governing both specific and non-sequence specific binding. To facilitate the analysis, we have constructed a database of interactions using ENTANGLE, a JAVA-based program that uses available structural models in their PDB format and searches for appropriate hydrogen bonding, stacking, electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. The resulting database of interactions reveals correlations that suggest the basis for the discrimination of RNA from DNA and for base-specific recognition. The data illustrate both major and minor interaction strategies employed by families of proteins such as tRNA synthetases, ribosomal proteins, or RNA recognition motifs with their RNA targets. Perhaps most surprisingly, specific RNA recognition appears to be mediated largely by interactions of amide and carbonyl groups in the protein backbone with the edge of the RNA base. In cases where a base accepts a proton, the dominant amino acid donor is arginine, whereas in cases where the base donates a proton, the predominant acceptor is the backbone carbonyl group, not a side-chain group. This is in marked contrast to DNA-protein interactions, which are governed predominantly by amino acid side-chain interactions with functional groups that are presented in the accessible major groove. RNA recognition often proceeds through loops, bulges, kinks and other irregular structures that permit use of all the RNA functional groups and this is seen throughout the protein-RNA interaction database.

  11. Role of V protein RNA binding in inhibition of measles virus minigenome replication.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christopher L; Witko, Susan E; Kotash, Cheryl; Lin, Shuo L; Sidhu, Mohinder S; Udem, Stephen A

    2006-04-25

    Measles virus V protein represses genome replication through a poorly understood mechanism, which led us to investigate whether V protein might be an RNA-binding modulatory factor. Recombinant V protein, expressed from transfected HEp-2 cells or E. coli, formed protein-RNA complexes with poly-guanosine (poly-G) or poly-U linked to agarose beads. RNA binding was not exclusive to ribonucleotide homopolymers as complex formation between V protein and an RNA molecule equivalent to the 3' terminal 107 bases of the measles virus genome was observed with an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The interaction with poly-G was used to further examine the RNA binding properties of V demonstrating that protein-RNA complex formation was dependent upon the unique Cys-rich carboxy terminus, a region also required to induce maximal repression of minireplicon-encoded reporter gene expression in transient assays. Surprisingly, two mutant proteins that contained Cys-to-Ala substitutions in the C-terminus were found to retain their ability to bind poly-G binding and repress minireplicon reporter gene expression indicating that neither activity was dependent on the integrity of all 7 C-terminal Cys residues. Additional genetic analysis revealed that amino acids 238-266 were necessary for efficient RNA binding and overlapped with residues (238-278) required for maximal repression induced by the C-terminal domain. In addition, a 10 amino acid deletion was identified (residues 238-247) that blocked RNA binding and repression indicating that these two activities were related.

  12. Computationally predicting protein-RNA interactions using only positive and unlabeled examples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhanzhan; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong

    2015-06-01

    Protein-RNA interactions (PRIs) are considerably important in a wide variety of cellular processes, ranging from transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression to the active defense of host against virus. With the development of high throughput technology, large amounts of PRI information is available for computationally predicting unknown PRIs. In recent years, a number of computational methods for predicting PRIs have been developed in the literature, which usually artificially construct negative samples based on verified nonredundant datasets of PRIs to train classifiers. However, such negative samples are not real negative samples, some even may be unknown positive samples. Consequently, the classifiers trained with such training datasets cannot achieve satisfactory prediction performance. In this paper, we propose a novel method PRIPU that employs biased-support vector machine (SVM) for predicting Protein-RNA Interactions using only Positive and Unlabeled examples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that predicts PRIs using only positive and unlabeled samples. We first collect known PRIs as our benchmark datasets and extract sequence-based features to represent each PRI. To reduce the dimension of feature vectors for lowering computational cost, we select a subset of features by a filter-based feature selection method. Then, biased-SVM is employed to train prediction models with different PRI datasets. To evaluate the new method, we also propose a new performance measure called explicit positive recall (EPR), which is specifically suitable for the task of learning positive and unlabeled data. Experimental results over three datasets show that our method not only outperforms four existing methods, but also is able to predict unknown PRIs. Source code, datasets and related documents of PRIPU are available at: http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/pripu.htm . PMID:25790785

  13. Predicting protein-RNA interaction amino acids using random forest based on submodularity subset selection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Lin; Fan, Yong-Xian; Yan, Junchi

    2014-11-13

    Protein-RNA interaction plays a very crucial role in many biological processes, such as protein synthesis, transcription and post-transcription of gene expression and pathogenesis of disease. Especially RNAs always function through binding to proteins. Identification of binding interface region is especially useful for cellular pathways analysis and drug design. In this study, we proposed a novel approach for binding sites identification in proteins, which not only integrates local features and global features from protein sequence directly, but also constructed a balanced training dataset using sub-sampling based on submodularity subset selection. Firstly we extracted local features and global features from protein sequence, such as evolution information and molecule weight. Secondly, the number of non-interaction sites is much more than interaction sites, which leads to a sample imbalance problem, and hence biased machine learning model with preference to non-interaction sites. To better resolve this problem, instead of previous randomly sub-sampling over-represented non-interaction sites, a novel sampling approach based on submodularity subset selection was employed, which can select more representative data subset. Finally random forest were trained on optimally selected training subsets to predict interaction sites. Our result showed that our proposed method is very promising for predicting protein-RNA interaction residues, it achieved an accuracy of 0.863, which is better than other state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it also indicated the extracted global features have very strong discriminate ability for identifying interaction residues from random forest feature importance analysis.

  14. Virions and intracellular nucleocapsids produced during mixed heterotypic influenza infection of MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sklyanskaya, E.I.; Varich, N.L.; Amvrosieva, T.V.; Kaverin, N.V.

    1985-02-01

    Phenotypically mixed virus yields, obtained by coinfection of MDCK cells with influenza A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses, contained both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 NP proteins, as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified /sup 14/C-amino acids-labeled virus. Virions were lysed with 0.6 M KCl-Triton X-100 buffer, and nucleocapsids were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against NP protein of influenza A virus. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitate revealed NP protein of A/WSN/33 but not of B/Lee/40 virus. However, in similar experiments with the lysates of doubly infected cells, the band of B/Lee/40 NP protein was revealed in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of the immunoprecipitates. In an attempt to analyze the RNA content of the immune complexes, the authors absorbed the lysates of doubly infected (/sup 3/H)uridine-labeled cells with protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus covered with antibodies against the NP protein of influenza A virus. RNA extracted from the immune complexes contained genomic RNA segments of both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses. In control samples containing an artificial mixture of cell lysates separately infected with each virus, the analysis revealed homologous components (i.e., A/WSN/33 NP protein or RNA segments) in the immune complexes. The results suggest the presence of phenotypically mixed nucleocapsids in the cells doubly infected with influenza A and B viruses; in the course of the virion formation, the nucleocapsids lacking the heterologous NP protein are selected.

  15. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-07-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were /sup 14/C-protein hydrolysate, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and (/sup 14/C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (/sup 14/C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules.

  16. Single-molecule Study of Nucleocapsid Protein Chaperoned DNA Hairpin Structural Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yining; Cosa, Gonzalo; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Landes, Christy; Makarov, Dmitrii; Barbara, Paul; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2006-03-01

    In HIV-1 reverse transcription, the nucleocapsid protein, NC, induces secondary structure fluctuations in the transactivation response (TAR) region of DNA and RNA hairpins. Time resolved single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to study NC chaperoned secondary fluctuations of DNA hairpins. The experiments reveal that the NC induced secondary fluctuations are limited to the terminal stems, and the mechanism for the fluctuations is complex. The dynamic processes occur over a wide time range, i.e. ˜5 to >250 milliseconds and involve long-lived intermediates. The dynamic role of DNA loop regions and NC binding/dissociation events are discussed.

  17. Characterization of nucleocapsid binding by the measles virus and mumps virus phosphoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Richard L; Baase, Walter A; Gay, Leslie S

    2004-08-01

    We report an analysis of the interaction between the P protein and the RNA-associated N protein (N-RNA) for both measles and mumps viruses with proteins produced in a bacterial expression system. During this study, we verified that the C-terminal tail of the N protein is not required for nucleocapsid formation. For both measles and mumps virus N, truncated proteins encompassing amino acids 1 to 375 assemble into nucleocapsid-like particles within the bacterial cell. For measles virus N, the binding site for the P protein maps to residues 477 to 505 within the tail of the molecule, a sequence relatively conserved among the morbilliviruses. For mumps virus N, a binding site for the P protein maps to the assembly domain of N (residues 1 to 398), while no strong binding of the P protein to the tail of N was detected. These results suggest that the site of attachment for the polymerase varies among the paramyxoviruses. Pulldown experiments demonstrate that the last 50 amino acids of both measles virus and mumps virus P (measles virus P, 457 to 507; mumps virus P, 343 to 391) by themselves constitute the nucleocapsid-binding domain (NBD). Spectroscopic studies show that the NBD is predominantly alpha-helical in both viruses. However, only in measles virus P is the NBD stable and folded, having a lesser degree of tertiary organization in mumps virus P. With isothermal titration calorimetry, we demonstrate that the measles virus P NBD binds to residues 477 to 505 of measles virus N with 1:1 stoichiometry. The dissociation constant (K(d)) was determined to be 13 microM at 20 degrees C and 35 microM at 37 degrees C. Our data are consistent with a model in which an alpha-helical nucleocapsid binding domain, located at the C terminus of P, is responsible for tethering the viral polymerase to its template yet also suggest that, in detail, polymerase binding in morbilliviruses and rubulaviruses differs significantly.

  18. Analysis of the nucleocapsid gene brings new insights to the classification of Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, William M; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M

    2014-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America. Hantaviruses are currently classified into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. However, a new taxonomic system was proposed recently to classify Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, which are divided currently into three phylogenetic clades corresponding to Andes, Laguna Negra, and Rio Mamore. Analyzing complete nucleocapsid gene sequences of all Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, we propose the addition of a new clade and a fourth group to the already established Andes clade, allowing a better classification of the Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

  19. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  20. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-12-05

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP}) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP} could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  1. Antibody study in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene-immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, B; Li, X Y; Zhu, T; Yuan, L; Hu, J P; Chen, J; Gao, W; Ren, W Z

    2015-01-01

    The gene for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of canine distemper virus was cloned into the pMD-18T vector, and positive recombinant plasmids were obtained by enzyme digestion and sequencing. After digestion by both EcoRI and KpnI, the plasmid was directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA; the positive clone pcDNA-N was screened by electrophoresis and then transfected into COS-7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis results showed that the canine distemper virus N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of transfected COS-7 cells. After emulsification in Freund's adjuvant, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-N was injected into the abdominal cavity of 8-week-old BABL/c mice, with the pcDNA original vector used as a negative control. Mice were immunized 3 times every 2 weeks. The blood of immunized mice was drawn 2 weeks after completing the immunizations to measure titer levels. The antibody titer in the pcDNA-N test was 10(1.62 ± 0.164), while in the control group this value was 10(0.52 ± 0.56), indicating that specific humoral immunity was induced in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein-immunized mice. PMID:25966074

  2. Nucleocapsid assembly in pneumoviruses is regulated by conformational switching of the N protein

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Max; Bertinelli, Mattia; Leyrat, Cédric; Paesen, Guido C; Saraiva de Oliveira, Laura Freitas; Huiskonen, Juha T; Grimes, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Non-segmented, (-)RNA viruses cause serious human diseases. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), an emerging pathogen of this order of viruses (Mononegavirales) is one of the main causes of respiratory tract illness in children. To help elucidate the assembly mechanism of the nucleocapsid (the viral RNA genome packaged by the nucleoprotein N) we present crystallographic structures of HMPV N in its assembled RNA-bound state and in a monomeric state, bound to the polymerase cofactor P. Our structures reveal molecular details of how P inhibits the self-assembly of N and how N transitions between the RNA-free and RNA-bound conformational state. Notably, we observe a role for the C-terminal extension of N in directly preventing premature uptake of RNA by folding into the RNA-binding cleft. Our structures suggest a common mechanism of how the growth of the nucleocapsid is orchestrated, and highlight an interaction site representing an important target for antivirals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12627.001 PMID:26880565

  3. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Zhaofei; Wu, Wenbi; Li, Lingling; Yuan, Meijin; Pan, Lijing; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2008-12-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP)) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP) could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  4. A plant viral coat protein RNA binding consensus sequence contains a crucial arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Ansel-McKinney, P; Scott, S W; Swanson, M; Ge, X; Gehrke, L

    1996-01-01

    A defining feature of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarviruses [type virus: tobacco streak virus (TSV)] is that, in addition to genomic RNAs, viral coat protein is required to establish infection in plants. AMV and TSV coat proteins, which share little primary amino acid sequence identity, are functionally interchangeable in RNA binding and initiation of infection. The lysine-rich amino-terminal RNA binding domain of the AMV coat protein lacks previously identified RNA binding motifs. Here, the AMV coat protein RNA binding domain is shown to contain a single arginine whose specific side chain and position are crucial for RNA binding. In addition, the putative RNA binding domain of two ilarvirus coat proteins, TSV and citrus variegation virus, is identified and also shown to contain a crucial arginine. AMV and ilarvirus coat protein sequence alignment centering on the key arginine revealed a new RNA binding consensus sequence. This consensus may explain in part why heterologous viral RNA-coat protein mixtures are infectious. Images PMID:8890181

  5. The impact of CRISPR repeat sequence on structures of a Cas6 protein-RNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruiying; Zheng, Han; Preamplume, Gan; Shao, Yaming; Li, Hong

    2012-03-15

    The repeat-associated mysterious proteins (RAMPs) comprise the most abundant family of proteins involved in prokaryotic immunity against invading genetic elements conferred by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system. Cas6 is one of the first characterized RAMP proteins and is a key enzyme required for CRISPR RNA maturation. Despite a strong structural homology with other RAMP proteins that bind hairpin RNA, Cas6 distinctly recognizes single-stranded RNA. Previous structural and biochemical studies show that Cas6 captures the 5' end while cleaving the 3' end of the CRISPR RNA. Here, we describe three structures and complementary biochemical analysis of a noncatalytic Cas6 homolog from Pyrococcus horikoshii bound to CRISPR repeat RNA of different sequences. Our study confirms the specificity of the Cas6 protein for single-stranded RNA and further reveals the importance of the bases at Positions 5-7 in Cas6-RNA interactions. Substitutions of these bases result in structural changes in the protein-RNA complex including its oligomerization state.

  6. RNA and Nucleocapsid Are Dispensable for Mature HIV-1 Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Simone; Flemming, Annica; Anders-Össwein, Maria; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is released from infected cells in an immature, noninfectious form in which the structural polyprotein Gag is arranged in a hexameric lattice, forming an incomplete spherical shell. Maturation to the infectious form is mediated by the viral protease, which cleaves Gag at five sites, releasing the CA (capsid) protein, which forms a conical capsid encasing the condensed RNA genome. The pathway of this structural rearrangement is currently not understood, and it is unclear how cone assembly is initiated. RNA represents an integral structural component of retroviruses, and the viral nucleoprotein core has previously been proposed to nucleate mature capsid assembly. We addressed this hypothesis by replacing the RNA-binding NC (nucleocapsid) domain of HIV-1 Gag and the adjacent spacer peptide 2 (SP2) by a leucine zipper (LZ) protein-protein interaction domain [Gag(LZ)] in the viral context. We found that Gag(LZ)-carrying virus [HIV(LZ)] was efficiently released and viral polyproteins were proteolytically processed, though with reduced efficiency. Cryo-electron tomography revealed that the particles lacked a condensed nucleoprotein and contained an increased proportion of aberrant core morphologies caused either by the absence of RNA or by altered Gag processing. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of HIV(LZ) particles contained mature capsids with the wild-type morphology. These results clearly demonstrate that the nucleoprotein complex is dispensable as a nucleator for mature HIV-1 capsid assembly in the viral context. IMPORTANCE Formation of a closed conical capsid encasing the viral RNA genome is essential for HIV-1 infectivity. It is currently unclear what viral components initiate and regulate the formation of the capsid during virus morphogenesis, but it has been proposed that the ribonucleoprotein complex plays a role. To test this, we prepared virus-like particles lacking the viral nucleocapsid protein and

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of the Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Barr, J. N.; Edwards, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. This paper describes the expression, purification and crystallization of full-length CCHFV nucleocapsid (N) protein and the collection of a 2.1 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data set using synchrotron radiation. Crystals of the CCHFV N protein belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 150.38, b = 72.06, c = 101.23 Å, β = 110.70° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Circular-dichroism analysis provided insight into the secondary structure, whilst gel-filtration analysis revealed possible oligomeric states of the N protein. Structural determination is ongoing. PMID:22691790

  8. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein localizes efficiently to the nucleus and nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung Lee; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Eun Soo; You, Ji Chang

    2016-05-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) is an essential viral protein containing two highly conserved retroviral-type zinc finger (ZF) motifs, which functions in multiple stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Although a number of functions for NC either in its mature form or as a domain of Gag have been revealed, little is known about the intracellular localization of NC and, moreover, its role in Gag protein trafficking. Here, we have investigated various forms of HIV-1 NC protein for its cellular localization and found that the NC has a strong nuclear and nucleolar localization activity. The linker region, composed of a stretch of basic amino acids between the two ZF motifs, was necessary and sufficient for the activity.

  9. A NEW ROLE FOR HIV NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN IN MODULATING THE SPECIFICITY OF PLUS STRAND PRIMING

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Deena T.; DeStefano, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study indicates a new role for HIV nucleocapsid protein (NC) in modulating the specificity of plus strand priming. RNase H cleavage by reverse transcriptase (RT) during minus strand synthesis gives rise to RNA fragments that could potentially be used as primers for synthesis of the plus strand, leading to the initiation of priming from multiple points as has been observed for other retroviruses. For HIV, the central and 3′ polypurine tracts (PPTs) are the major sites of plus strand initiation. Using reconstituted in vitro assays, results showed that NC greatly reduced the efficiency of extension of non-PPT RNA primers, but not PPT. Experiments mimicking HIV replication showed that RT generated and used both PPT and non-PPT RNAs to initiate “plus strand” synthesis, but non-PPT usage was strongly inhibited by NC. The results support a role for NC in specifying primer usage during plus strand synthesis. PMID:18632127

  10. Translational inactivation of RNA function: discrimination against a subset of genomic transcripts during HBV nucleocapsid assembly.

    PubMed

    Nassal, M; Junker-Niepmann, M; Schaller, H

    1990-12-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HVB) is the prototype member of the hepadnaviridae, a family of small enveloped DNA viruses that replicate by reverse transcription. Assembly of replication-competent HBV nucleocapsids is based on specific interactions between the core protein, the product(s) of the P gene, and the RNA pregenome, which is marked for encapsidation by containing a sequence near its 5' end that acts in cis as an encapsidation signal. However, HBV produces several additional, almost identical, genomic transcripts that also bear the encapsidation sequence, but that are not encapsidated. The mechanism underlying this selection process has remained mysterious. Here we demonstrate that translating 80S ribosomes (but not scanning 40S ribosomal subunits) advancing into the encapsidation signal prevent its functioning. This finding reveals translational modulation of RNA function as a further regulatory mechanism employed by hepadnaviruses to utilize efficiently the restricted coding capacity of their extremely compact genome. PMID:2261646

  11. Self-Assembly of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid-like Particles: Kinetics and RNA Sequence Dependence.

    PubMed

    Milles, Sigrid; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Communie, Guillaume; Maurin, Damien; Schoehn, Guy; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Blackledge, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Measles virus RNA genomes are packaged into helical nucleocapsids (NCs), comprising thousands of nucleo-proteins (N) that bind the entire genome. N-RNA provides the template for replication and transcription by the viral polymerase and is a promising target for viral inhibition. Elucidation of mechanisms regulating this process has been severely hampered by the inability to controllably assemble NCs. Here, we demonstrate self-organization of N into NC-like particles in vitro upon addition of RNA, providing a simple and versatile tool for investigating assembly. Real-time NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy reveals biphasic assembly kinetics. Remarkably, assembly depends strongly on the RNA-sequence, with the genomic 5' end and poly-Adenine sequences assembling efficiently, while sequences such as poly-Uracil are incompetent for NC formation. This observation has important consequences for understanding the assembly process.

  12. Modulation of apoptosis and immune signaling pathways by the Hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ontiveros, Steven J.; Li Qianjun; Jonsson, Colleen B.

    2010-06-05

    Herein, we show a direct relationship between the Hantaan virus (HTNV) nucleocapsid (N) protein and the modulation of apoptosis. We observed an increase in caspase-7 and -8, but not -9 in cells expressing HTNV N protein mutants lacking amino acids 270-330. Similar results were observed for the New World hantavirus, Andes virus. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) was sequestered in the cytoplasm after tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) stimulation in cells expressing HTNV N protein. Further, TNFR stimulated cells expressing HTNV N protein inhibited caspase activation. In contrast, cells expressing N protein truncations lacking the region from amino acids 270-330 were unable to inhibit nuclear import of NF-kappaB and the mutants also triggered caspase activity. These results suggest that the HTNV circumvents host antiviral signaling and apoptotic response mediated by the TNFR pathway through host interactions with the N protein.

  13. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein localizes efficiently to the nucleus and nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung Lee; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Eun Soo; You, Ji Chang

    2016-05-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) is an essential viral protein containing two highly conserved retroviral-type zinc finger (ZF) motifs, which functions in multiple stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Although a number of functions for NC either in its mature form or as a domain of Gag have been revealed, little is known about the intracellular localization of NC and, moreover, its role in Gag protein trafficking. Here, we have investigated various forms of HIV-1 NC protein for its cellular localization and found that the NC has a strong nuclear and nucleolar localization activity. The linker region, composed of a stretch of basic amino acids between the two ZF motifs, was necessary and sufficient for the activity. PMID:26967976

  14. The RNA-binding properties and domain of Rice stripe virus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuling; Xue, Yanan; Hao, Jiahui; Liang, Changyong

    2015-10-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NP) of rice stripe virus (RSV) encapsidates viral genomic RNAs to form virion. The binding of NP with RNA is essential for the formation of virus particle. In this study, the binding specificity of RSV NP to RNA and the domains within the NP that mediate this interaction were investigated by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Northwestern blot analysis. The results demonstrated that RSV NP was able to bind to all synthetic RNAs and DNAs without sequence specificity. Using a series of truncated NPs expressed in E. coli and synthetic peptides, we mapped the RNA-binding domain of NP to the central region from amino acid residues 201-232. Further alanine substitution analysis revealed that Lys(206), Lys(207), Lys(220), and Tyr(221) in the RNA-binding domain were essential for NP to bind with RNA.

  15. Replicative RNA synthesis and nucleocapsid assembly in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected permeable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Condra, J H; Lazzarini, R A

    1980-01-01

    A permeable-cell system has been developed to study the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. When vesicular stomatitis virus-infected BHK cells were permeabilized by lysolecithin treatment, they incorporated nucleoside triphosphates into RNA and amino acids into proteins at nearly normal rates. The viral mRNA's synthesized appeared normal in polarity, size distribution, and polyadenylation, and all five viral proteins were synthesized. Replication of the viral genome proceeded, and full-length RNA strands were synthesized in amounts and polarities resembling those found in intact cells. These full-length RNAs associated with viral N proteins to form RNase-resistant nucleocapsids of normal buoyant density. Permeable cells appear to represent ideal hosts for studying vesicular stomatitis virus replication since they closely mimic in vivo conditions while retaining much of the experimental flexibility of current in vitro systems. Images PMID:6257927

  16. Relationship between the intrahepatic expression of 'e' and 'c' epitopes of the nucleocapsid protein of hepatitis B virus and viraemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ballaré, M; Lavarini, C; Brunetto, M R; Petruzzelli, E; Dovis, M; Molino, G; Bonino, F

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between hepatitis B viraemia and intrahepatic HBV nucleocapsid proteins (HBcAg and HBeAg) was studied in 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B. Monoclonal antibodies (MoABs) were obtained in BALB/c mice primed with recombinant HBV nucleocapsid proteins. Four MoABs reacting with recombinant proteins gave positive results in competitive assays. Two reacted as anti-HBc and two as anti-HBe. One of them showed a strong affinity for the cytoplasmic, membrane-bound antigen (P23e) of infected hepatocytes while the latter showed a higher specificity for serum HBeAg than for the intrahepatic antigen. Anti-HBc MoABs had a staining capacity for liver cell nuclei comparable with that of polyclonal antibodies. Overall the anti-HBc MoABs stained the liver cell nuclei in 86% of cases, while anti-HBe MoABs stained in 58% of cases. The hepatocyte cytoplasm was stained by anti-HBc MoABs and anti-HBe MoABs in 64% and 72% of cases respectively. Not one of 12 control liver biopsies was stained. Viraemia (HBV-DNA) was measured by dot blot hybridization and was correlated with the number of hepatocytes containing the nucleocapsid antigen. The highest levels of HBV-DNA (greater than 10(8) genomes/ml) were detected in patients with prevalent nuclear staining while the lowest ones were observed in those with prevalent cytoplasmic expression of this antigen. The application of anti-HBV-nucleocapsid MoABs in diagnostics requires careful scrutiny since some are specific for the circulating antigen while others show a higher affinity for the intrahepatic antigen. PMID:2467769

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Configurational Space Sampled by HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Using Solution NMR, X-ray Scattering and Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Lalit; Schwieters, Charles D; Grishaev, Alexander; Clore, G Marius

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic-acid-related events in the HIV-1 replication cycle are mediated by nucleocapsid, a small protein comprising two zinc knuckles connected by a short flexible linker and flanked by disordered termini. Combining experimental NMR residual dipolar couplings, solution X-ray scattering and protein engineering with ensemble simulated annealing, we obtain a quantitative description of the configurational space sampled by the two zinc knuckles, the linker and disordered termini in the absence of nucleic acids. We first compute the conformational ensemble (with an optimal size of three members) of an engineered nucleocapsid construct lacking the N- and C-termini that satisfies the experimental restraints, and then validate this ensemble, as well as characterize the disordered termini, using the experimental data from the full-length nucleocapsid construct. The experimental and computational strategy is generally applicable to multidomain proteins. Differential flexibility within the linker results in asymmetric motion of the zinc knuckles which may explain their functionally distinct roles despite high sequence identity. One of the configurations (populated at a level of ≈40 %) closely resembles that observed in various ligand-bound forms, providing evidence for conformational selection and a mechanistic link between protein dynamics and function.

  18. Detection of measles virus nucleocapsid transcripts in circulating blood cells from patients with Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S V; Singer, F R; Mallette, L; Roodman, G D

    1996-11-01

    Paget disease of bone is characterized by abnormalities in all phases of bone remodeling, but the fundamental cellular abnormality resides in the osteoclast (OCL). Osteoclasts in bone involved by Paget disease contain viral-like nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions that react with antibodies directed against paramyxovirus nucleocapsid proteins, such as measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or canine distemper virus. However, the identity of the virus or the mechanisms responsible for its persistence or pathologic role in Paget disease is unclear. Furthermore, although Paget disease persists for many years, it remains a highly localized process with new lesions rarely if ever developing in previously unaffected bones. Since osteoclasts are formed by fusion of mononuclear precursors derived from colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM), the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor, we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to determine if CFU-GM, more differentiated osteoclast precursors, and peripheral blood cells derived from CFU-GM express measles virus nucleocapsid (MV-N) transcripts. We found that osteoclast precursors, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells, express MV transcripts in 9 of 13 patients. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified products confirmed nucleotide identity of MV-N transcripts expressed in peripheral blood and bone marrow-derived cells from the same patient. In contrast, MV-N transcripts were not detected in OCL precursors or the peripheral blood from 10 normal subjects. In situ hybridization studies using 35S-labeled antisense riboprobes to MV-N transcripts further confirmed the expression of MV transcripts in these cells. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified product from one of these patients also identified a novel mutation that converted lysine441 to glutamic acid441 in the MV-N transcript. These data demonstrate that OCL precursors and circulating peripheral blood cells also express MV

  19. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Y.; Kaluarachchi, K.; Giedroc, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    Retroviral nucleocapsid proteins (NCPs) are CCHC-type zinc finger proteins that mediate virion RNA binding activities associated with retrovirus assembly and genomic RNA encapsidation. Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), a type D retrovirus, encodes a 96-amino acid nucleocapsid protein, which contains two Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (CCHC) zinc fingers connected by an unusually long 15-amino acid linker. Homonuclear, two-dimensional sensitivity-enhanced 15N-1H, three-dimensional 15N-1H, and triple resonance NMR spectroscopy have been used to determine the solution structure and residue-specific backbone dynamics of the structured core domain of MPMV NCP containing residues 21-80. Structure calculations and spectral density mapping of N-H bond vector mobility reveal that MPMV NCP 21-80 is best described as two independently folded, rotationally uncorrelated globular domains connected by a seven-residue flexible linker consisting of residues 42-48. The N-terminal CCHC zinc finger domain (residues 24-37) appears to adopt a fold like that described previously for HIV-1 NCP; however, residues within this domain and the immediately adjacent linker region (residues 38-41) are characterized by extensive conformational averaging on the micros-ms time scale at 25 degrees C. In contrast to other NCPs, residues 49-77, which includes the C-terminal CCHC zinc-finger (residues 53-66), comprise a well-folded globular domain with the Val49-Pro-Gly-Leu52 sequence and C-terminal tail residues 67-77 characterized by amide proton exchange properties and 15N R1, R2, and (1H-15N) NOE values indistinguishable to residues in the core C-terminal finger. Twelve refined structural models of MPMV NCP residues 49-80 (pairwise backbone RMSD of 0.77 A) reveal that the side chains of the conserved Pro50 and Trp62 are in van der Waals contact with one another. Residues 70-73 in the C-terminal tail adopt a reverse turn-like structure. Ile77 is involved in extensive van der Waals contact with the core

  20. Dithiothreitol (DTT) Acts as a Specific, UV-inducible Cross-linker in Elucidation of Protein-RNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Uzma; Richter, Florian M; Hofele, Romina; Kramer, Katharina; Sachsenberg, Timo; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Lenz, Christof; Urlaub, Henning

    2015-12-01

    Protein-RNA cross-linking by UV irradiation at 254 nm wavelength has been established as an unbiased method to identify proteins in direct contact with RNA, and has been successfully applied to investigate the spatial arrangement of protein and RNA in large macromolecular assemblies, e.g. ribonucleoprotein-complex particles (RNPs). The mass spectrometric analysis of such peptide-RNA cross-links provides high resolution structural data to the point of mapping protein-RNA interactions to specific peptides or even amino acids. However, the approach suffers from the low yield of cross-linking products, which can be addressed by improving enrichment and analysis methods. In the present article, we introduce dithiothreitol (DTT) as a potent protein-RNA cross-linker. In order to evaluate the efficiency and specificity of DTT, we used two systems, a small synthetic peptide from smB protein incubated with U1 snRNA oligonucleotide and native ribonucleoprotein complexes from S. cerevisiae. Our results unambiguously show that DTT covalently participates in cysteine-uracil crosslinks, which is observable as a mass increment of 151.9966 Da (C(4)H(8)S(2)O(2)) upon mass spectrometric analysis. DTT presents advantages for cross-linking of cysteine containing regions of proteins. This is evidenced by comparison to experiments where (tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) is used as reducing agent, and significantly less cross-links encompassing cysteine residues are found. We further propose insertion of DTT between the cysteine and uracil reactive sites as the most probable structure of the cross-linking products.

  1. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    York, Ashley; Kutluay, Sebla B; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  2. Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Antonio; Tanner, Sian J.; Walter, Cheryl T.; Dent, Kyle C.; Shepherd, Dale A.; Wu, Weining; Matthews, Susan V.; Hiscox, Julian A.; Green, Todd J.; Luo, Ming; Elliott, Richard M.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Ranson, Neil A.; Barr, John N.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    All orthobunyaviruses possess three genome segments of single-stranded negative sense RNA that are encapsidated with the virus-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which is uncharacterized at high resolution. We report the crystal structure of both the Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) N–RNA complex and the unbound Schmallenberg virus (SBV) N protein, at resolutions of 3.20 and 2.75 Å, respectively. Both N proteins crystallized as ring-like tetramers and exhibit a high degree of structural similarity despite classification into different orthobunyavirus serogroups. The structures represent a new RNA-binding protein fold. BUNV N possesses a positively charged groove into which RNA is deeply sequestered, with the bases facing away from the solvent. This location is highly inaccessible, implying that RNA polymerization and other critical base pairing events in the virus life cycle require RNP disassembly. Mutational analysis of N protein supports a correlation between structure and function. Comparison between these crystal structures and electron microscopy images of both soluble tetramers and authentic RNPs suggests the N protein does not bind RNA as a repeating monomer; thus, it represents a newly described architecture for bunyavirus RNP assembly, with implications for many other segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. PMID:23595147

  3. FRET-based assay to screen inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal K.; Przybilla, Frédéric; Restle, Tobias; Godet, Julien; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    During HIV-1 reverse transcription, the single-stranded RNA genome is converted into proviral double stranded DNA by Reverse Transcriptase (RT) within a reverse transcription complex composed of the genomic RNA and a number of HIV-1 encoded proteins, including the nucleocapsid protein NCp7. Here, we developed a one-step and one-pot RT polymerization assay. In this in vitro assay, RT polymerization is monitored in real-time by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) using a commercially available doubly-labeled primer/template DNA. The assay can monitor and quantify RT polymerization activity as well as its promotion by NCp7. Z-factor values as high as 0.89 were obtained, indicating that the assay is suitable for high-throughput drug screening. Using Nevirapine and AZT as prototypical RT inhibitors, reliable IC50 values were obtained from the changes in the RT polymerization kinetics. Interestingly, the assay can also detect NCp7 inhibitors, making it suitable for high-throughput screening of drugs targeting RT, NCp7 or simultaneously, both proteins. PMID:26762982

  4. Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Puumala virus subtype Bavaria, characterization and diagnostic use of its recombinant nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Kindler, Eveline; Emmerich, Petra; Esser, Jutta; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Wölfel, Roman; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Groschup, Martin H; Dobler, Gerhard; Pfeffer, Martin; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G; Essbauer, Sandra S

    2011-10-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant hantavirus species in Germany causing large numbers of mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). During an outbreak in South-East Germany in 2004 a novel PUUV subtype designated Bavaria was identified as the causative agent of HFRS in humans [1]. Here we present a molecular characterization of this PUUV strain by investigating novel partial and almost entire nucleocapsid (N) protein-encoding small (S-) segment sequences and partial medium (M-) segment sequences from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) trapped in Lower Bavaria during 2004 and 2005. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed their classification as subtype Bavaria, which is further subdivided into four geographical clusters. The entire N protein, harbouring an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag, of the Bavarian strain was produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed a slightly different reactivity with N-specific monoclonal antibodies, compared to the yeast-expressed N protein of the PUUV strain Vranica/Hällnäs. Endpoint titration of human sera from different parts of Germany and from Finland revealed only very slight differences in the diagnostic value of the different recombinant proteins. Based on the novel N antigen indirect and monoclonal antibody capture IgG-ELISAs were established. By using serum panels from Germany and Finland their validation demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity. In summary, our investigations demonstrated the Bavarian PUUV strain to be genetically divergent from other PUUV strains and the potential of its N protein for diagnostic applications.

  6. Conformational and nucleic acid binding studies on the synthetic nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Surovoy, A; Dannull, J; Moelling, K; Jung, G

    1993-01-01

    A 55 residue peptide corresponding to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 (NCp7) containing two zinc binding domains as well as three truncated peptides were synthesized by Fmoc-based solid phase synthesis using the fragment condensation approach. Circular dichroism (CD) data support a conformational model in trifluoroethanol/buffer solution consisting of two helical segments at the chain ends with two Zn-modules in the center of the molecule. CD titration experiments show that the synthetic protein binds two equivalents of Zn2+ stoichiometrically, and the Zn2+ induced conformational changes are completely reversible by addition of EDTA. NCp7 and its S-acetamidomethylated analog (NCp7-Acm), devoid of the zinc co-ordination centers, exhibit preferential binding to RNA with a Kd = approximately 10(-9) M irrespective of the cysteine modification as determined by filter binding assays. The binding affinity of the NCp7 protein to single-stranded DNA is lower than to RNA. Binding to double-stranded DNA is lower than to ssDNA. The NCp7-Acm protein exhibits reduced single-stranded DNA binding affinity compared to the unmodified protein. Nucleic acid binding analyses with the fragments of NCp7 protein suggest that two basic amino acid stretches are involved in RNA binding of the NCp7.

  7. Identification of a high affinity nucleocapsid protein binding element from the bovine leukemia virus genome.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, F Zehra; Babalola, Kathlene; Summers, Michael F

    2013-02-01

    Retroviral genome recognition is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the virally encoded Gag polyprotein and cognate RNA packaging elements that, for most retroviruses, appear to reside primarily within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the genome. Recent studies suggest that a major packaging determinant of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a member of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)/BLV family and a non-primate animal model for HTLV-induced leukemogenesis, resides within the gag open reading frame. We have prepared and purified the recombinant BLV NC protein and conducted electrophoretic mobility shift and isothermal titration calorimetry studies with RNA fragments corresponding to these proposed packaging elements. The gag-derived RNAs did not exhibit significant affinity for NC, suggesting an alternate role in packaging. However, an 83-nucleotide fragment of the 5'-UTR that resides just upstream of the gag start codon binds NC stoichiometrically and with high affinity (K(d)=136±21 nM). These nucleotides were predicted to form tandem hairpin structures, and studies with smaller fragments indicate that the NC binding site resides exclusively within the distal hairpin (residues G369-U399, K(d)=67±8 nM at physiological ionic strength). Unlike all other structurally characterized retroviral NC binding RNAs, this fragment is not expected to contain exposed guanosines, suggesting that RNA binding may be mediated by a previously uncharacterized mechanism.

  8. HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Proteins as Molecular Chaperones for Tetramolecular Antiparallel G-Quadruplex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Tran, Phong Lan Thao; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Gorelick, Robert J.; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins (NCps) facilitate remodeling of nucleic acids to fold thermodynamically stable conformations, and thus called nucleic acid chaperones. To date only little is known on the stoichiometry, NCp-NCp interactions, chaperone activity on G-quadruplex formation, and so on. We report here the direct and real-time analysis on such properties of proteolytic intermediate NCp15 and mature NCp7 using DNA origami. The protein particles were found to predominantly exist in monomeric form, while dimeric and multimeric forms were also observed both in free solution and bound to the quadruplex structure. The formation and the dissociation events of the G-quadruplexes were well documented in real-time and the intermediate-like states were also visualized. We anticipate that this pioneering study will strengthen our understanding on the chaperone activity of HIV-1 proteins which in turn will be helpful for the drug design based on G-quadruplex and also for the development of drugs against AIDS. PMID:24224650

  9. Sequence analysis of measles virus nucleocapsid transcripts in patients with Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, William E; Reddy, Sakamuri V; Bruder, Jan M; Cundy, Tim; Cornish, Jillian; Singer, Frederick R; Roodman, G David

    2002-01-01

    It has been debated for almost 30 years whether Paget's disease of bone results from paramyxoviral infection of osteoclasts (OCs). Paramyxoviral-like nuclear inclusions are found in OCs from patients with Paget's disease, and measles virus (MV) or canine distemper virus (CDV) messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts have been detected by in situ hybridization in bone cells from pagetic lesions. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies have shown the presence of several paramyxoviral species in OCs from patients with Paget's disease. However, others have been unable to detect paramyxoviral transcripts in bone samples from patients with Paget's disease or marrow cultures from involved sites of patients with Paget's disease. Furthermore, no one has been able to isolate an infectious virus from pagetic bone samples or marrow cells from patients with Paget's disease, and a full-length viral gene has not been sequenced from pagetic samples. In this study, we have obtained the full-length sequence for the MV nucleocapsid (MVNP) gene in bone marrow from an involved site from a patient with Paget's disease and more than 700 base pairs (bps) of MVNP sequence in 3 other patients with Paget's disease. These sequences were undetectable in four normal marrow samples studied simultaneously. The sequences from the patients contained multiple mutations that differed from the Edmonston strain MVNP gene. These findings are consistent with the presence of a chronic MV infection in affected sites from these patients with Paget's disease.

  10. Insights into the mechanisms of RNA secondary structure destabilization by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Belfetmi, Anissa; Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Sleiman, Dona; Morellet, Nelly; Lescop, Ewen; Maskri, Ouerdia; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The mature HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) plays a key role in reverse transcription facilitating the two obligatory strand transfers. Several properties contribute to its efficient chaperon activity: preferential binding to single-stranded regions, nucleic acid aggregation, helix destabilization, and rapid dissociation from nucleic acids. However, little is known about the relationships between these different properties, which are complicated by the ability of the protein to recognize particular HIV-1 stem-loops, such as SL1, SL2, and SL3, with high affinity and without destabilizing them. These latter properties are important in the context of genome packaging, during which NC is part of the Gag precursor. We used NMR to investigate destabilization of the full-length TAR (trans activating response element) RNA by NC, which is involved in the first strand transfer step of reverse transcription. NC was used at a low protein:nucleotide (nt) ratio of 1:59 in these experiments. NMR data for the imino protons of TAR identified most of the base pairs destabilized by NC. These base pairs were adjacent to the loops in the upper part of the TAR hairpin rather than randomly distributed. Gel retardation assays showed that conversion from the initial TAR-cTAR complex to the fully annealed form occurred much more slowly at the 1:59 ratio than at the higher ratios classically used. Nevertheless, NC significantly accelerated the formation of the initial complex at a ratio of 1:59.

  11. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  12. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gene ac81 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Wang, Jinwen; Deng, Riqiang; Wang, Xunzhang

    2016-08-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly pathogenic Baculoviridae that targets insects, whose core gene, ac81, has an unknown function. To determine the role of ac81 in the life cycle of AcMNPV, an ac81-knockout (Ac-81KO-GP) was constructed through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. We determined that no budded virions were produced in Ac-81KO-GP-transfected Sf9 cells, while there was no effect on viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed that occlusion-derived virions (ODVs) envelopment and the subsequent embedding of virions into occlusion bodies (OBs) were aborted due to ac81 deletion. Interestingly, confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Ac81 was predominantly localized to the ring zone of nuclei during the late phase of infection. In addition, Ac81 was localized to the mature and premature ODVs in virus-infected cells within the ring zone as revealed by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) analysis. Furthermore, we determined that Ac81 contained a functional hydrophobic transmembrane (TM) domain, whose deletion resulted in a phenotype similar to that of Ac-81KO-GP. These results suggest that Ac81 might be a TM protein that played an important role in nucleocapsid envelopment. PMID:27212683

  13. Comparative anti-infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) activity of (-)-pinene: effect on nucleocapsid (N) protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwei; Wu, Nan; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2011-01-25

    In the present study, anti-IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) activities of (-)-pinenes were studied by MTT assay, as well as docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The CC₅₀ values of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were above 10 mM. And the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations (TD₀) of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were determined as 7.88 ± 0.06 and 6.09 ± 0.31 mM, respectively. The two compounds were found to inhibit IBV with an IC₅₀ of 0.98 ± 0.25 and 1.32 ± 0.11 mM. The MTT assay showed that the inhibitions of (-)-pinenes against IBV appear to occur moderately before entering the cell but are much stronger occur after penetration of the virus into the cell. Molecular simulations indicated that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene specifically interact with the active site which is located at the N terminus of phosphorylated nucleocapsid (N) protein, with the former being more potent than the latter. The binding energies of them are -36.83 and -35.59 kcal mol-1, respectively. Results presented here may suggest that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene possess anti-IBV properties, and therefore are a potential source of anti-IBV ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. HIV-1 matrix protein repositioning in nucleocapsid region fails to confer virus-like particle assembly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Shiu-Mei; Tseng, Ying-Tzu; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2008-08-15

    The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is similar to nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in its propensity for self-interaction and association with RNA. Here we report on our finding that replacing MA with NC results in the production of wild type (wt)-level RNA and virus-like particles (VLPs). In contrast, constructs containing MA as a substitute for NC are markedly defective in VLP production and form virions with lower densities than wt, even though their RNA content is over 50% that of wt level. We also noted that a DeltaMN mutant lacking both MA and NC produces a relatively higher amount of VLPs than those in which MA was substituted for NC. Although DeltaMN contains approximately 30% the RNA of wt, it still exhibits virion densities equal (or very similar) to those of wt. The data suggest that neither NC nor RNA are major virion density determinants. Furthermore, we noted that NC(ZIP)--a NC replacement with a leucine zipper dimerization motif--produces VLPs as efficiently as wt. However, the markedly reduced assembly efficiency of NC(ZIP) is associated with the formation of VLPs with densities slightly lower than those of wt following MA removal, suggesting that (a) MA is required to help the inserted leucine zipper motif perform efficient Gag multimerization, and (b) MA plays a role in the virus assembly process. PMID:18550141

  15. Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein exhibits a metal-dependent DNA-specific endonucleolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Szczepek, Michal; Bokelmann, Marcel; Heinemann, Patrick; Raftery, Martin J; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV-N) has a DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Upon incubation of SNV-N with DNA in the presence of magnesium or manganese, we observed DNA digestion in sequence-unspecific manner. In contrast, RNA was not affected under the same conditions. Moreover, pre-treatment of SNV-N with RNase before DNA cleavage increased the endonucleolytic activity. Structure-based protein fold prediction using known structures from the PDB database revealed that Asp residues in positions 88 and 103 of SNV-N show sequence similarity with the active site of the restriction endonuclease HindIII. Crystal structure of HindIII predicts that residues Asp93 and Asp108 are essential for coordination of the metal ions required for HindIII DNA cleavage. Therefore, we hypothesized that homologous residues in SNV-N, Asp88 and Asp103, may have a similar function. Replacing Asp88 and Asp103 by alanine led to an SNV-N protein almost completely abrogated for endonuclease activity. PMID:27261891

  16. Characterization of Mapuera virus: structure, proteins and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Henderson, G W; Laird, C; Dermott, E; Rima, B K

    1995-10-01

    The molecular biology of Mapuera virus was studied at both the protein and nucleic acid levels. Seven virus-encoded proteins were detected in infected Vero cells. The sizes and characteristics of each of the proteins determined from various radiolabelling experiments allowed preliminary identification of the proteins as the large (L; 190 kDa), haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN; 74 kDa), nucleocapsid (N; 66 kDa), fusion (F0; 63 kDa), phosphoprotein (P; 49 kDa), matrix (M; 43 kDa) and non-structural (V; 35 kDa) proteins. Western blot analysis showed that the HN, N and P proteins were major antigens recognized in the mouse. A cDNA library of total virus-infected cellular mRNA was created and screening of the library resulted in the detection of cDNA sequences representing the N mRNA transcript of Mapuera virus. The N mRNA sequence determined from the clones was 1731 nt in length and contained an ORF that encoded 537 amino acids, the complete 3' untranslated region and part of the 5' non-coding region. The calculated M(r) of the N protein was 59 kDa, which is close to the 66 kDa protein observed by SDS-PAGE. PMID:7595354

  17. Identification of a binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, K; Zambrano, N; Baldwin, E T; Shapiro, B A; Erickson, J W; Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M; Appella, E

    1993-06-01

    The nucleocapsid (NC) protein NCp7 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for encapsidation of the virus genome, RNA dimerization, and primer tRNA annealing in vitro. Here we present evidence from gel mobility-shift experiments indicating that NCp7 binds specifically to an RNA sequence. Two complexes were identified in native gels. The more slowly migrating complex contained two RNA molecules and one peptide, while the more rapidly migrating one is composed of one RNA and one peptide. Further, mutational analysis of the RNA shows that the predicted stem and loop structure of stem-loop 1 plays a critical role. Our results show that NCp7 binds to a unique RNA structure within the psi region; in addition, this structure is necessary for RNA dimerization. We propose that NCp7 binds to the RNA via a direct interaction of one zinc-binding motif to stem-loop 1 followed by binding of the other zinc-binding motif to stem-loop 1, stem-loop 2, or the linker region of the second RNA molecule, forming a bridge between the two RNAs. PMID:8506369

  18. Kinetic analysis of the effect of HIV nucleocapsid protein (NCp) on internal strand transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Raja, A; DeStefano, J J

    1999-04-20

    The mechanism of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) catalyzed strand transfer synthesis (i.e., switching of the primer to a new template) from internal regions on RNA templates in the presence and absence of HIV nucleocapsid protein (NCp) was investigated. Two different systems each consisting of DNA-primed RNA donor (on which primer extension initiated) and acceptor (to which DNAs initiated on the donor could transfer) templates were used to determine kinetic parameters of strand transfer. The donor and acceptor shared an internal region of homology where homologous strand transfer could occur. The rate of strand transfer at various acceptor concentrations was determined by monitoring the production of transfer products over time. These rates were used to construct Lineweaver-Burk plots. In each system, NCp increased the Vmax about 3-fold while the Km for acceptor template was decreased severalfold. NCp's effects on RT extension ranged from no effect to inhibition depending on the primer-template used. The lowered Km shows that NCp increases the affinity of the acceptor template for the transferring DNA. Vmax increases despite the inhibition of RT extension. The increased Vmax implies a stimulatory mechanism that cannot be mimicked by high acceptor concentrations. Therefore, NCp does not act by merely increasing the effective concentration of nucleic acids.

  19. Specific zinc-finger architecture required for HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein's nucleic acid chaperone function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark C.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) is a nucleic acid chaperone that facilitates the rearrangement of nucleic acid secondary structure during reverse transcription. HIV-1 NC contains two CCHC-type zinc binding domains. Here, we use optical tweezers to stretch single λ-DNA molecules through the helix-to-coil transition in the presence of wild-type and several mutant forms of HIV-1 NC with altered zinc-finger domains. Although all forms of NC lowered the cooperativity of the DNA helix–coil transition, subtle changes in the zinc-finger structures reduced NC's effect on the transition. The change in cooperativity of the DNA helix–coil transition correlates strongly with in vitro nucleic acid chaperone activity measurements and in vivo HIV-1 replication studies using the same NC mutants. Moreover, Moloney murine leukemia virus NC, which contains a single zinc finger, had little effect on transition cooperativity. These results suggest that a specific two-zinc-finger architecture is required to destabilize nucleic acids for optimal chaperone activity during reverse transcription in complex retroviruses such as HIV-1. PMID:12084921

  20. Advances in targeting nucleocapsid-nucleic acid interactions in HIV-1 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Divita; Torbett, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing challenge of HIV-1 treatment resistance in patients creates a need for the development of new antiretroviral inhibitors. The HIV nucleocapsid (NC) protein is a potential therapeutic target. NC is necessary for viral RNA packaging and in the early stages of viral infection. The high level of NC amino acid conservation among all HIV-1 clades suggests a low tolerance for mutations. Thus, NC mutations that could arise during inhibitor treatment to provide resistance may render the virus less fit. Disruption of NC function provides a unique opportunity to strongly dampen replication at multiple points during the viral life cycle with a single inhibitor. Although NC exhibits desirable features for a potential antiviral target, the structural flexibility, size, and the presence of two zinc fingers makes small molecule targeting of NC a challenging task. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in strategies to develop inhibitors of NC function and present a perspective on potential novel approaches that may help to overcome some of the current challenges in the field. PMID:25026536

  1. Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Mutant Particles Lacking Viral RNA Encapsidate Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Mirro, Jane; Nagashima, Kunio; Harvin, Demetria; Rein, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A single retroviral protein, termed Gag, is sufficient for assembly of retrovirus-like particles in mammalian cells. Gag normally selects the genomic RNA of the virus with high specificity; the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag plays a crucial role in this selection process. However, encapsidation of the viral RNA is completely unnecessary for particle assembly. We previously showed that mutant murine leukemia virus (MuLV) particles that lack viral RNA because of a deletion in the cis-acting packaging signal (“Ψ”) in the genomic RNA compensate for the loss of the viral RNA by incorporating cellular mRNA. The RNA in wild-type and Ψ− particles was also found to be necessary for virion core structure. In the present work, we explored the role of RNA in MuLV particles that lack genomic RNA because of mutations in the NC domain of Gag. Using a fluorescent dye assay, we observed that NC mutant particles contain the same amount of RNA that wild-type virions do. Surprisingly enough, these particles contained large amounts of rRNAs. Furthermore, ribosomal proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and ribosomes were observed inside the particles by electron microscopy. The biological significance of the presence of ribosomes in NC mutant particles lacking genomic RNA is discussed. PMID:12388701

  2. Vaccinia virus protein A3 is required for the production of normal immature virions and for the encapsidation of the nucleocapsid protein L4.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Desyree Murta; Moussatche, Nissin; McFadden, Baron B D; Nielsen, Casey Paulasue; D'Costa, Susan M; Condit, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Maturation of the vaccinia virion is an intricate process that results in the organization of the viroplasm contained in immature virions into the lateral bodies, core wall and nucleocapsid observed in the mature particles. It is unclear how this organization takes place and studies with mutants are indispensable in understanding this process. By characterizing an inducible mutant in the A3L gene, we revealed that A3, an inner core wall protein, is important for formation of normal immature viruses and also for the correct localization of L4, a nucleocapsid protein. L4 did not accumulate in the viral factories in the absence of A3 and was not encapsidated in the particles that do not contain A3. These data strengthen our previously suggested hypothesis that A3 and L4 interact and that this interaction is critical for proper formation of the core wall and nucleocapsid.

  3. Vaccinia virus protein A3 is required for the production of normal immature virions and for the encapsidation of the nucleocapsid protein L4

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Desyree Murta; Moussatche, Nissin; McFadden, Baron D.; Nielsen, Casey Paulasue; D’Costa, Susan M.; Condit, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Maturation of the vaccinia virion is an intricate process that results in the organization of the viroplasm contained in immature virions into the lateral bodies, core wall and nucleocapsid observed in the mature particles. It is unclear how this organization takes place and studies with mutants are indispensable in understanding this process. By characterizing an inducible mutant in the A3L gene, we revealed that A3, an inner core wall protein, is important for formation of normal immature viruses and also for the correct localization of L4, a nucleocapsid protein. L4 did not accumulate in the viral factories in the absence of A3 and was not encapsidated in the particles that do not contain A3. These data strengthen our previously suggested hypothesis that A3 and L4 interact and that this interaction is critical for proper formation of the core wall and nucleocapsid. PMID:25765002

  4. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Li; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  5. Characterization of the inhibition mechanism of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein chaperone activities by methylated oligoribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Avilov, Sergiy V; Boudier, Christian; Gottikh, Marina; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Mély, Yves

    2012-02-01

    Since currently available therapies against HIV/AIDS still show important drawbacks, the development of novel anti-HIV treatments is a key issue. We recently characterized methylated oligoribonucleotides (mONs) that extensively inhibit HIV-1 replication in primary T cells at nanomolar concentrations. The mONs were shown to target both HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and the nucleocapsid protein (NC), which is an essential partner of RT during viral DNA synthesis. To further understand the mechanism of such mONs, we studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence-based techniques their NC binding properties and ability to inhibit the nucleic acid chaperone properties of NC. Notably, we investigated the ability of mONs to inhibit the NC-induced destabilization of the HIV-1 cTAR (complementary DNA sequence to TAR [transactivation response element]) stem-loop and the NC-promoted cTAR annealing to its complementary sequence, required at the early stage of HIV-1 viral DNA synthesis. Moreover, we compared the activity of the mONs to that of a number of modified and nonmodified oligonucleotides. Results show that the mONs inhibit NC by a competitive mechanism whereby the mONs tightly bind the NC peptide, mainly through nonelectrostatic interactions with the hydrophobic platform at the top of the NC zinc fingers. Taken together, these results favor the notion that the mONs impair the process of the RT-directed viral DNA synthesis by sequestering NC molecules, thus preventing the chaperoning of viral DNA synthesis by NC. These findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis for NC inhibition by mONs, which could be used for the rational design of antiretroviral compounds targeting HIV-1 NC protein.

  6. Probing the RNA binding surface of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Okaine, Stephen; McPike, Mark P; Lin, Yong; Borer, Philip N

    2013-05-14

    The highly conserved nucleocapsid protein domain in HIV-1 recognizes and binds SL3 in genomic RNA. In this work, we used the structure of the NCp7-SL3 RNA complex to guide the construction of 16 NCp7 mutants to probe the RNA binding surface of the protein [De Guzman, R. N., et al. (1998) Science 279, 384-388]. Thirteen residues with functional or structural significance were mutated individually to Ala (Asn(5), Phe(6), Val(13), Phe(16), Asn(17), Gly(19), Glu(21), Ile(24), Gln(45), Met(46), Gly(22), Pro(31), and Gly(40)), and three salt bridge switch mutants exchanged Lys and Glu (Lys(14)-Glu(21), Lys(33)-Glu(42), and Lys(38)-Glu(51)). Dissociation constants (Kd) determined by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to compare affinities of SL3 for the variant proteins to that for the wild type. The F16A (Phe(16) to Ala) variant showed a 25-fold reduction in affinity, consistent with a loss of organized structure in f1, the protein's first zinc finger. I24A, Q45A, and M46A reduced affinity by 2-5-fold; these residues occupy nearly equivalent positions in f1 and f2. E21A increased affinity by 3-fold, perhaps because of the mutant's increased net positive charge. Among the salt bridge switch mutants, only K14E/E21K in f1 caused a substantial change in affinity (5-fold reduction), binding SL3 with a biphasic binding isotherm. Aside from these six variants, most of the mutations studied have relatively minor effects on the stability of the complex. We conclude that many side chain interactions in the wild-type complex contribute little to stability or can be compensated by new contacts in the mutants.

  7. The Andes Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Directs Basal Endothelial Cell Permeability by Activating RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunova, Elena E.; Simons, Matthew J.; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) predominantly infects microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) and nonlytically causes an acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In HPS patients, virtually every pulmonary MEC is infected, MECs are enlarged, and infection results in vascular leakage and highly lethal pulmonary edema. We observed that MECs infected with the ANDV hantavirus or expressing the ANDV nucleocapsid (N) protein showed increased size and permeability by activating the Rheb and RhoA GTPases. Expression of ANDV N in MECs increased cell size by preventing tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) repression of Rheb-mTOR-pS6K. N selectively bound the TSC2 N terminus (1 to 1403) within a complex containing TSC2/TSC1/TBC1D7, and endogenous TSC2 reciprocally coprecipitated N protein from ANDV-infected MECs. TSCs normally restrict RhoA-induced MEC permeability, and we found that ANDV infection or N protein expression constitutively activated RhoA. This suggests that the ANDV N protein alone is sufficient to activate signaling pathways that control MEC size and permeability. Further, RhoA small interfering RNA, dominant-negative RhoA(N19), and the RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors fasudil and Y27632 dramatically reduced the permeability of ANDV-infected MECs by 80 to 90%. Fasudil also reduced the bradykinin-directed permeability of ANDV and Hantaan virus-infected MECs to control levels. These findings demonstrate that ANDV activation of RhoA causes MEC permeability and reveal a potential edemagenic mechanism for ANDV to constitutively inhibit the basal barrier integrity of infected MECs. The central importance of RhoA activation in MEC permeability further suggests therapeutically targeting RhoA, TSCs, and Rac1 as potential means of resolving capillary leakage during hantavirus infections. PMID:27795403

  8. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Qualley, Dominic F. Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  9. Nucleocapsid Protein: A Desirable Target for Future Therapies Against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mattia; Kovalenko, Lesia; Lyonnais, Sébastien; Antaki, Danny; Torbett, Bruce E; Botta, Maurizio; Mirambeau, Gilles; Mély, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The currently available anti-HIV-1 therapeutics is highly beneficial to infected patients. However, clinical failures occur as a result of the ability of HIV-1 to rapidly mutate. One approach to overcome drug resistance is to target HIV-1 proteins that are highly conserved among phylogenetically distant viral strains and currently not targeted by available therapies. In this respect, the nucleocapsid (NC) protein, a zinc finger protein, is particularly attractive, as it is highly conserved and plays a central role in virus replication, mainly by interacting with nucleic acids. The compelling rationale for considering NC as a viable drug target is illustrated by the fact that point mutants of this protein lead to noninfectious viruses and by the inability to select viruses resistant to a first generation of anti-NC drugs. In our review, we discuss the most relevant properties and functions of NC, as well as recent developments of small molecules targeting NC. Zinc ejectors show strong antiviral activity, but are endowed with a low therapeutic index due to their lack of specificity, which has resulted in toxicity. Currently, they are mainly being investigated for use as topical microbicides. Greater specificity may be achieved by using non-covalent NC inhibitors (NCIs) targeting the hydrophobic platform at the top of the zinc fingers or key nucleic acid partners of NC. Within the last few years, innovative methodologies have been developed to identify NCIs. Though the antiviral activity of the identified NCIs needs still to be improved, these compounds strongly support the druggability of NC and pave the way for future structure-based design and optimization of efficient NCIs. PMID:25749978

  10. Osteoclasts expressing the measles virus nucleocapsid gene display a pagetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, N; Reddy, S V; Menaa, C; Anderson, D; Roodman, G D

    2000-03-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) in Paget's disease are markedly increased in number and size, have increased numbers of nuclei per multinucleated cell, and demonstrate increased resorption capacity and increased sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active form of vitamin D. These cells also contain nuclear inclusions, reminiscent of those seen in paramyxovirus-infected cells, which cross-react with antibodies to measles virus nucleocapsid (MVNP) antigen. To elucidate the role of MV in the abnormal OCL phenotype of Paget's disease, we transduced normal OCL precursors with retroviral vectors expressing MVNP and the MV matrix (MVM) genes. The transduced cells were then cultured with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) for14 or 21 days to induce formation of OCL-like multinucleated cells. The MVNP-transduced cells formed increased numbers of multinucleated cells, which contained many more nuclei and had increased resorption capacity compared with multinucleated cells derived from empty vector-transduced (EV-transduced) and MVM-transduced or normal bone marrow cells. Furthermore, MVNP-transduced cells showed increased sensitivity to 1, 25-(OH)(2)D(3), and formed OCLs at concentrations of 1, 25-(OH)(2)D(3) that were 1 log lower than that required for normal, EV-transduced, or MVM-transduced cells. These results demonstrate that expression of the MVNP gene in normal OCL precursors stimulates OCL formation and induces OCLs that express a phenotype similar to that of pagetic OCLs. These results support a potential pathophysiologic role for MV infection in the abnormal OCL activity and morphology that are characteristic of pagetic OCLs.

  11. Characterization of the Interaction between Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein (N) and Ribosomal Protein S19 (RPS19)*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erdong; Haque, Absarul; Rimmer, Mary Ashley; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Sheema, Sheema; Little, Alex; Mir, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the Bunyaviridae family, are negative-stranded emerging RNA viruses and category A pathogens that cause serious illness when transmitted to humans through aerosolized excreta of infected rodent hosts. Hantaviruses have evolved a novel translation initiation mechanism, operated by nucleocapsid protein (N), which preferentially facilitates the translation of viral mRNAs. N binds to the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), a structural component of the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In addition, N also binds to both the viral mRNA 5′ cap and a highly conserved triplet repeat sequence of the viral mRNA 5′ UTR. The simultaneous binding of N at both the terminal cap and the 5′ UTR favors ribosome loading on viral transcripts during translation initiation. We characterized the binding between N and RPS19 and demonstrate the role of the N-RPS19 interaction in N-mediated translation initiation mechanism. We show that N specifically binds to RPS19 with high affinity and a binding stoichiometry of 1:1. The N-RPS19 interaction is an enthalpy-driven process. RPS19 undergoes a conformational change after binding to N. Using T7 RNA polymerase, we synthesized the hantavirus S segment mRNA, which matches the transcript generated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in cells. We show that the N-RPS19 interaction plays a critical role in the translation of this mRNA both in cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Our results demonstrate that the N-mediated translation initiation mechanism, which lures the host translation machinery for the preferential translation of viral transcripts, primarily depends on the N-RPS19 interaction. We suggest that the N-RPS19 interaction is a novel target to shut down the N-mediated translation strategy and hence virus replication in cells. PMID:21296889

  12. Structure of the Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein reveals another architecture for RNA encapsidation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Donald D.; Piper, Mary E.; Gerrard, Sonja R.; Smith, Janet L.

    2010-07-13

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a negative-sense RNA virus (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) that infects livestock and humans and is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Like all negative-sense viruses, the segmented RNA genome of RVFV is encapsidated by a nucleocapsid protein (N). The 1.93-{angstrom} crystal structure of RVFV N and electron micrographs of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) reveal an encapsidated genome of substantially different organization than in other negative-sense RNA virus families. The RNP polymer, viewed in electron micrographs of both virus RNP and RNP reconstituted from purified N with a defined RNA, has an extended structure without helical symmetry. N-RNA species of {approx}100-kDa apparent molecular weight and heterogeneous composition were obtained by exhaustive ribonuclease treatment of virus RNP, by recombinant expression of N, and by reconstitution from purified N and an RNA oligomer. RNA-free N, obtained by denaturation and refolding, has a novel all-helical fold that is compact and well ordered at both the N and C termini. Unlike N of other negative-sense RNA viruses, RVFV N has no positively charged surface cleft for RNA binding and no protruding termini or loops to stabilize a defined N-RNA oligomer or RNP helix. A potential protein interaction site was identified in a conserved hydrophobic pocket. The nonhelical appearance of phlebovirus RNP, the heterogeneous {approx}100-kDa N-RNA multimer, and the N fold differ substantially from the RNP and N of other negative-sense RNA virus families and provide valuable insights into the structure of the encapsidated phlebovirus genome.

  13. Investigating the Cellular Distribution and Interactions of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein by Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Halina; Taha, Nedal; Boutant, Emmanuel; Richert, Ludovic; Khatter, Heena; Klaholz, Bruno; Rondé, Philippe; Réal, Eléonore; de Rocquigny, Hugues; Mély, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) of the Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers. About 2000 NCp7 molecules coat the genomic RNA in the HIV-1 virion. After infection of a target cell, the viral core enters into the cytoplasm, where NCp7 chaperones the reverse transcription of the genomic RNA into the proviral DNA. As a consequence of their much lower affinity for double-stranded DNA as compared to single-stranded RNAs, NCp7 molecules are thought to be released in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of infected cells in the late steps of reverse transcription. Yet, little is known on the cellular distribution of the released NCp7 molecules and on their possible interactions with cell components. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify potential cellular partners of NCp7 and to monitor its intracellular distribution and dynamics by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy, and raster imaging correlation spectroscopy. HeLa cells transfected with eGFP-labeled NCp7 were used as a model system. We found that NCp7-eGFP localizes mainly in the cytoplasm and the nucleoli, where it binds to cellular RNAs, and notably to ribosomal RNAs which are the most abundant. The binding of NCp7 to ribosomes was further substantiated by the intracellular co-diffusion of NCp7 with the ribosomal protein 26, a component of the large ribosomal subunit. Finally, gradient centrifugation experiments demonstrate a direct association of NCp7 with purified 80S ribosomes. Thus, our data suggest that NCp7 molecules released in newly infected cells may primarily bind to ribosomes, where they may exert a new potential role in HIV-1 infection. PMID:25723396

  14. Generation of replication-competent hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Seifer, M; Hamatake, R; Bifano, M; Standring, D N

    1998-04-01

    The double-stranded DNA genome of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and related hepadnaviruses is reverse transcribed from a pregenomic RNA by a viral polymerase (Pol) harboring both priming and RNA- and DNA-dependent elongation activities. Although hepadnavirus replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsids, or cores, biochemical systems for analyzing this reaction are currently limited to unencapsidated Pols expressed in heterologous systems. Here, we describe cis and trans classes of replicative HBV cores, produced in the recombinant baculovirus system via coexpression of HBV core and Pol proteins from either a single RNA (i.e., in cis) or two distinct RNAs (in trans). Upon isolation from insect cells, cis and trans cores contained Pol-linked HBV minus-strand DNA with 5' ends mapping to the authentic elongation origin DR1 and also plus-strand DNA species. Only trans cores, however, were highly active for the de novo priming and reverse transcription of authentic HBV minus strands in in vitro endogenous polymerase assays. This reaction strictly required HBV Pol but not the epsilon stem-loop element, although the presence of one epsilon, or better, two epsilons, enhanced minus-strand synthesis up to 10-fold. Compared to unencapsidated Pol enzymes, encapsidated Pol appeared to be (i) highly processive, able to extend minus-strand DNAs of 400 nucleotides from DR1 in vitro, and (ii) more active for HBV plus-strand synthesis. These observations suggest possible contributions to the replication process from the HBV core protein. These novel core reagents should facilitate the analysis of HBV replication in its natural environment, the interior of the capsid, and also fuel the development of new anti-HBV drug screens.

  15. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antigen Detection Using Monoclonal Antibodies to the Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Aiko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Kurosu, Takeshi; Egawa, Kazutaka; Suda, Yuto; Singh, Harpal; Nomachi, Taro; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Ando, Katsuyuki; Kida, Kouji; Kan, Miki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease with a high case fatality rate, and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS is endemic to China, South Korea, and Japan. The viral RNA level in sera of patients with SFTS is known to be strongly associated with outcomes. Virological SFTS diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity are required in disease endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated novel monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein and developed a sandwich antigen (Ag)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of N protein of SFTSV using MAb and polyclonal antibody as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The Ag-capture system was capable of detecting at least 350–1220 TCID50/100 μl/well from the culture supernatants of various SFTSV strains. The efficacy of the Ag-capture ELISA in SFTS diagnosis was evaluated using serum samples collected from patients suspected of having SFTS in Japan. All 24 serum samples (100%) containing high copy numbers of viral RNA (>105 copies/ml) showed a positive reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA, whereas 12 out of 15 serum samples (80%) containing low copy numbers of viral RNA (<105 copies/ml) showed a negative reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA. Among these Ag-capture ELISA-negative 12 samples, 9 (75%) were positive for IgG antibodies against SFTSV. Conclusions The newly developed Ag-capture ELISA is useful for SFTS diagnosis in acute phase patients with high levels of viremia. PMID:27045364

  16. A versatile building block: the structures and functions of negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuna; Guo, Yu; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-12-01

    Nucleocapsid protein (NPs) of negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) viruses function in different stages of viral replication, transcription, and maturation. Structural investigations show that -ssRNA viruses that encode NPs preliminarily serve as structural building blocks that encapsidate and protect the viral genomic RNA and mediate the interaction between genomic RNA and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, recent structural results have revealed other biological functions of -ssRNA viruses that extend our understanding of the versatile roles of virally encoded NPs. PMID:23136065

  17. Resolving Individual Components in Protein-RNA Complexes Using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of protein-RNA complexes has developed into an efficient and economical approach for determining low-resolution shapes of particles in solution. Here, we demonstrate a mutliphase volumetric modeling approach capable of resolving individual components within a low-resolution shape. Through three case studies, we describe the SAXS data collecting strategies, premodeling analysis, and computational methods required for deconstructing complexes into their respective components. This chapter presents an approach using the programs ScÅtter and MONSA and custom scripts for averaging and aligning of multiple independent modeling runs. The method can image small (7kDa) masses within the context of complex and is capable of visualizing ligand-induced conformational changes. Nevertheless, computational algorithms are not without error, and we describe specific considerations during SAXS data reduction and modeling to mitigate possible false positives.

  18. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BmP95 plays an essential role in budded virus production and nucleocapsid assembly.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xingwei; Shen, Yunwang; Yang, Rui; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) BmP95 is a highly conserved gene that is found in all of the baculovirus genomes sequenced to date and is also found in nudiviruses. To investigate the role of BmP95 in virus infection in vitro, a BmP95 deletion virus (vBmP95-De) was generated by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis indicated that the BmP95 deletion bacmid led to a defect in production of infectious budded virus (BV). However, deletion of BmP95 did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that masses of aberrant tubular structures were present in cells transfected with the BmP95 deletion bacmid, indicating that deletion of BmP95 affected assembly of the nucleocapsid. This defect could be rescued by insertion of full-length BmP95 into the polyhedrin locus of the BmP95-knockout bacmid but not the N-terminal domain of BmP95. Together, these results showed that full-length BmP95 is essential for BV production and is required for nucleocapsid assembly.

  19. Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein to psi-RNA-SL3.

    PubMed

    Shubsda, M F; Kirk, C A; Goodisman, J; Dabrowiak, J C

    2000-10-30

    The interaction of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7, from the pNL4-3 isolate of HIV-1, with psi-RNA-SL3, with the sequence 5'-GGACUAGCGGAGGCUAGUCC, was studied using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. Two kinds of experiments were performed, using buffered solutions of radiolabeled RNA and unlabeled protein. In the 'dilution' experiments, the total RNA concentration, RT, was varied for a series of solutions, but kept equal to the total protein concentration, PT, In the 'titration' experiments, solutions having RT constant but with varying PT were analyzed. The solutions were electrophoresed and the autoradiographic spot intensities, proportional to the amounts of the different species present, were measured. The intensities were fit to a number of equilibrium models, differing in species stoichiometries, by finding the best values of the binding constants. It was shown that NCp7 protein and SL3 RNA combine to form at least two complexes. When PT is below approximately 10 microM, a complex that contains two RNAs and one protein forms. Increasing PT to approximately 100 microM causes the 2:1 complex to oligomerize, forming a species having eight RNAs and four proteins. For the dilution experiments, run at 5 degrees C at an ionic strength of 31 mM, we found K1 for the 2:1 complex is approximately 10(11) M(-2) and K2 for the 8:4 complex is approximately 10(16) M(-3). The titration experiments returned K1 approximately 10(7) M(-2) (poorly determined) and K2 approximately 10(19) M(-3). The analysis was complicated by the loss of RNA at higher protein concentrations, due to formation of an insoluble species containing both RNA and protein, which does not enter the gel. Correcting for this changes the calculated values of equilibrium constants, but not the molecularities determined by our analysis. The observation that a small complex can oligomerize to form a larger species is consistent with the fact that NCp7 organizes and condenses the genome in the virus particle.

  20. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Coronaviruses Acts as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lei; Wang, Haiying; Ji, Yanxi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Shan; Huang, Xingyu; Wang, Zidao; Qin, Lei; Tien, Po; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of eukaryotic posttranscriptional gene silencing that functions in antiviral immunity in plants, nematodes, and insects. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi also plays a role in antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells. To combat RNAi-mediated antiviral responses, many viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR) to facilitate their replication. VSRs have been widely studied for plant and insect viruses, but only a few have been defined for mammalian viruses currently. We identified a novel VSR from coronaviruses, a group of medically important mammalian viruses including Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and showed that the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of coronaviruses suppresses RNAi triggered by either short hairpin RNAs or small interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is closely related to SARS-CoV in the family Coronaviridae and was used as a coronavirus replication model. The replication of MHV increased when the N proteins were expressed in trans, while knockdown of Dicer1 or Ago2 transcripts facilitated the MHV replication in mammalian cells. These results support the hypothesis that RNAi is a part of the antiviral immunity responses in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE RNAi has been well known to play important antiviral roles from plants to invertebrates. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi is also involved in antiviral response in mammalian cells. An important indication for RNAi-mediated antiviral activity in mammals is the fact that a number of mammalian viruses encode potent suppressors of RNA silencing. Our results demonstrate that coronavirus N protein could function as a VSR through its double-stranded RNA binding activity. Mutational analysis of N protein allowed us to find out the critical residues for the VSR activity. Using the MHV-A59 as the coronavirus replication model, we showed that ectopic

  1. Identification of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ac93 as a core gene and its requirement for intranuclear microvesicle formation and nuclear egress of nucleocapsids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meijin; Huang, Zhenqiu; Wei, Denghui; Hu, Zhaoyang; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf93 (ac93) is a highly conserved uncharacterized gene that is found in all of the sequenced baculovirus genomes except for Culex nigripalpus NPV. In this report, using bioinformatics analyses, ac93 and odv-e25 (ac94) were identified as baculovirus core genes and thus p33-ac93-odv-e25 represent a cluster of core genes. To investigate the role of ac93 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac93 knockout AcMNPV bacmid was constructed via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that the AcMNPV ac93 knockout did not spread by infection, and titration assays confirmed a defect in budded virus (BV) production. However, deletion of ac93 did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that ac93 was required for the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus and the formation of intranuclear microvesicles, which are precursor structures of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) envelopes. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that Ac93 was concentrated toward the cytoplasmic membrane in the cytoplasm and in the nuclear ring zone in the nucleus. Western blot analyses showed that Ac93 was associated with both nucleocapsid and envelope fractions of BV, but only the nucleocapsid fraction of ODV. Our results suggest that ac93, although not previously recognized as a core gene, is one that plays an essential role in the formation of the ODV envelope and the egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus.

  2. Bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with Paget's disease contain measles virus nucleocapsid messenger ribonucleic acid that has mutations in a specific region of the sequence.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S V; Singer, F R; Roodman, G D

    1995-07-01

    Ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and in situ hybridization studies have suggested that paramyxoviruses, such as measles virus (MV), are present in Pagetic osteoclasts and may contribute to the abnormality in osteoclast function. However, little additional information is known about potential viruses present in Pagetic osteoclasts. As there are increased numbers of osteoclast precursors among the marrow mononuclear cells of Paget's patients, we used the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to amplify the nucleocapsid sequence of MV from freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells to examine the potential role of these viruses in cells in the osteoclast lineage. We detected MV nucleocapsid transcripts in 5 of 6 individual Paget's patients' marrow samples. MV transcripts were not detected in marrow samples from 10 normal subjects. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed that 1 patient had the same sequence as the Edmonston strain of MV. The remaining 4 patients had point mutations clustered between position 1360-1371 base pairs. Two of the patients exhibited identical mutations at this region. In total, 3 different point mutations were identified that resulted in amino acid substitutions. These data show that 1) unlike those from normal subjects, marrow mononuclear cells from Paget's patients express MV nucleocapsid messenger ribonucleic acid; and 2) mutations of a specific region of the MV nucleocapsid gene were present in 4 of 5 patients and suggest a persistent MV infection in Pagetic osteoclast precursors. These data further suggest that osteoclasts are infected by fusion with infected precursors.

  3. Molecular basis for the wide range of affinity found in Csr/Rsm protein-RNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Duss, Olivier; Michel, Erich; Diarra dit Konté, Nana; Schubert, Mario; Allain, Frédéric H-T

    2014-04-01

    The carbon storage regulator/regulator of secondary metabolism (Csr/Rsm) type of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) is widespread throughout bacteria and acts by sequestering the global translation repressor protein CsrA/RsmE from the ribosome binding site of a subset of mRNAs. Although we have previously described the molecular basis of a high affinity RNA target bound to RsmE, it remains unknown how other lower affinity targets are recognized by the same protein. Here, we have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structures of five separate GGA binding motifs of the sRNA RsmZ of Pseudomonas fluorescens in complex with RsmE. The structures explain how the variation of sequence and structural context of the GGA binding motifs modulate the binding affinity for RsmE by five orders of magnitude (∼10 nM to ∼3 mM, Kd). Furthermore, we see that conformational adaptation of protein side-chains and RNA enable recognition of different RNA sequences by the same protein contributing to binding affinity without conferring specificity. Overall, our findings illustrate how the variability in the Csr/Rsm protein-RNA recognition allows a fine-tuning of the competition between mRNAs and sRNAs for the CsrA/RsmE protein.

  4. A key role for the carboxy-terminal tail of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in coordination of genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lili; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) exhibits highly selective packaging of its genomic positive-stranded RNA into assembled virions, despite the presence in infected cells of a large excess of subgenomic viral mRNAs. One component of this selectivity is the MHV packaging signal (PS), an RNA structure found only in genomic RNA and not in subgenomic RNAs. It was previously shown that a major determinant of PS recognition is the second of the two RNA-binding domains of the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. We have now found that PS recognition additionally depends upon a segment of the carboxy-terminal tail (domain N3) of the N protein. Since domain N3 is also the region of N protein that interacts with the membrane (M) protein, this finding suggests a mechanism by which selective genome packaging is accomplished, through the coupling of genome encapsidation to virion assembly.

  5. Identification of functionally important negatively charged residues in the carboxy end of mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandhya; Bednar, Valerie; Blount, Andrew; Hogue, Brenda G

    2006-05-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a multifunctional viral gene product that encapsidates the RNA genome and also plays some as yet not fully defined role in viral RNA replication and/or transcription. A number of conserved negatively charged amino acids are located within domain III in the carboxy end of all coronavirus N proteins. Previous studies suggested that the negatively charged residues are involved in virus assembly by mediating interaction between the membrane (M) protein carboxy tail and nucleocapsids. To determine the importance of these negatively charged residues, a series of alanine and other charged-residue substitutions were introduced in place of those in the N gene within a mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 infectious clone. Aspartic acid residues 440 and 441 were identified as functionally important. Viruses could not be isolated when both residues were replaced by positively charged amino acids. When either amino acid was replaced by a positively charged residue or both were changed to alanine, viruses were recovered that contained second-site changes within N, but not in the M or envelope protein. The compensatory role of the new changes was confirmed by the construction of new viruses. A few viruses were recovered that retained the D441-to-arginine change and no compensatory changes. These viruses exhibited a small-plaque phenotype and produced significantly less virus. Overall, results from our analysis of a large panel of plaque-purified recovered viruses indicate that the negatively charged residues at positions 440 and 441 are key residues that appear to be involved in virus assembly. PMID:16611893

  6. Structure-based virtual screening and experimental validation of the discovery of inhibitors targeted towards the human coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-ke; Jeyachandran, Sivakamavalli; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Shing-Yen; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Ming; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocapsid protein (NP), an essential RNA-binding viral protein in human coronavirus (CoV)-infected cells, is required for the replication and transcription of viral RNA. Recent studies suggested that human CoV NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. Based on this aspect, structure-based virtual screening targeting nucleocapsid protein (NP) was performed to identify good chemical starting points for medicinal chemistry. The present study utilized structure-based virtual screening against human CoV-OC43 using the Zinc database, which is performed through docking with varying precisions and computational intensities to identify eight potential compounds. The chosen potential leads were further validated experimentally using biophysical means. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that one among the potential leads, 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino) quinoxaline-5,8-dione (small-compound H3), exhibited a significant decrease of RNA-binding capacity of NP by more than 20%. The loss of binding activity was manifested as a 20% decrease in the minimum on-rate accompanied with a 70% increase in the maximum off-rate. Fluorescence titration and X-ray crystallography studies indicated that H3 antagonizes the binding between HCoV-OC43 NP and RNA by interacting with the N-terminal domain of the NP. Our findings provide insight into the development of new therapeutics that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the HCoV. The discovery of the new compound would be an impetus to design novel NP inhibitors against human CoV.

  7. Measles virus nucleocapsid transcript expression is not restricted to the osteoclast lineage in patients with Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S V; Menaa, C; Singer, F R; Cundy, T; Cornish, J; Whyte, M P; Roodman, G D

    1999-10-01

    Abundant evidence supports a viral etiology for Paget's disease of bone (PD), however, an infectious virus has not been isolated from PD patients. Thus, it is unclear how the virus is maintained for the many years that the disease persists in patients. We considered if a primitive multipotential hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which is self-renewing, passes the virus to its differentiated progeny and serves as a reservoir for the pathogen. If a primitive stem cell harbored measles virus (MV), then other hematopoietic lineages derived from this stem cell in PD patients should also express MV transcripts. Therefore, because the human hematopoietic stem cell has not been clearly identified or isolated in large numbers, we isolated RNA from highly purified erythroid and multipotential hematopoietic progenitors that are the precursors for erythroid, granulocyte, megakaryocyte and macrophages (CFU-GEMM), and used RT-PCR to determine if MV nucleocapsid transcripts were present. MV transcripts were detected in PD patients in early erythroid (BFU-E) and more primitive multipotential myeloid progenitors (CFU-GEMM). Nonhematopoietic stromal cells from PD patients did not express MV transcripts. The expression of MV transcripts in erythroid progenitors was further confirmed by in situ hybridization using antisense riboprobes to MV nucleocapsid transcripts. Thus, our findings suggest that the pluripotent HSCs may be a potential reservoir for the virus. We propose that when HSCs, which contain MV, divide they produce a second HSC that serves as a reservoir for the virus and also transmit the virus to their more differentiated progeny in the erythroid and myeloid lineages. This mechanism would permit a defective virus to persist in HSCs of PD patients for many years, since HSCs are usually in G0 phase, and then be transmitted to more differentiated cells. This model further suggests that a mature complete virus that affects cell function could only act pathogenetically in the

  8. A major determinant for membrane protein interaction localizes to the carboxy-terminal domain of the mouse coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Kelley R; Kuo, Lili; Koetzner, Cheri A; Ye, Rong; Hsue, Bilan; Masters, Paul S

    2005-11-01

    The two major constituents of coronavirus virions are the membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The M protein is anchored in the viral envelope by three transmembrane segments flanked by a short amino-terminal ectodomain and a large carboxy-terminal endodomain. The M endodomain interacts with the viral nucleocapsid, which consists of the positive-strand RNA genome helically encapsidated by N protein monomers. In previous work with the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a highly defective M protein mutant, MDelta2, was constructed. This mutant contained a 2-amino-acid carboxy-terminal truncation of the M protein. Analysis of second-site revertants of MDelta2 revealed mutations in the carboxy-terminal region of the N protein that compensated for the defect in the M protein. To seek further genetic evidence corroborating this interaction, we generated a comprehensive set of clustered charged-to-alanine mutants in the carboxy-terminal domain 3 of N protein. One of these mutants, CCA4, had a highly defective phenotype similar to that of MDelta2. Transfer of the CCA4 mutation into a partially diploid MHV genome showed that CCA4 was a loss-of-function mutation rather than a dominant-negative mutation. Analysis of multiple second-site revertants of CCA4 revealed mutations in both the M protein and the N protein that could compensate for the original lesion in N. These data more precisely define the region of the N protein that interacts with the M protein. Further, we found that fusion of domain 3 of the N protein to the carboxy terminus of a heterologous protein caused it to be incorporated into MHV virions.

  9. Nucleocapsid Gene-Mediated Transgenic Resistance Provides Protection Against Tomato spotted wilt virus Epidemics in the Field.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; Culbreath, A K; Csinos, A S; Pappu, H R; Rufty, R C; Daub, M E

    2000-02-01

    ABSTRACT Transformation of plants with the nucleocapsid (N) gene of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) provides resistance to disease development; however, information is lacking on the response of plants to natural inoculum in the field. Three tobacco cultivars were transformed with the N gene of a dahlia isolate of TSWV (TSWV-D), and plants were evaluated over several generations in the greenhouse. The resistant phenotype was more frequently observed in 'Burley 21' than in 'KY-14' or 'K-326', but highly resistant 'Burley 21' transgenic lines were resistant to only 44% of the heterologous TSWV isolates tested. Advanced generation (R(3) and R(4)) transgenic resistant lines of 'Burley 21' and a 'K-326' F(1) hybrid containing the N genes of two TSWV isolates were evaluated in the field near Tifton, GA, where TSWV is endemic. Disease development was monitored by symptom expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Whereas incidence of TSWV infection in 'Burley 21' susceptible controls was 20% in 1996 and 62% in 1997, the mean incidence in transgenic lines was reduced to 4 and 31%, respectively. Three transgenic 'Burley 21' lines were identified that had significantly lower incidence of disease than susceptible controls over the two years of the study. In addition, the rate of disease increase at the onset of the 1997 epidemic was reduced for all the 'Burley 21' transgenic lines compared with the susceptible controls. The 'K-326' F(1) hybrid was as susceptible as the 'K-326' nontransformed control. ELISA analysis demonstrated that symptomless plants from the most resistant 'Burley 21' transgenic lines accumulated detectable nucleocapsid protein, whereas symptomless plants from more susceptible lines did not. We conclude that transgenic resistance to TSWV is effective in reducing incidence of the disease in the field, and that accumulation of transgene protein may be important in broad-spectrum resistance. PMID:18944602

  10. SPOT-Seq-RNA: predicting protein-RNA complex structure and RNA-binding function by fold recognition and binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuedong; Zhao, Huiying; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in RNA metabolism and post-transcriptional regulation. Computational methods have been developed separately for prediction of RBPs and RNA-binding residues by machine-learning techniques and prediction of protein-RNA complex structures by rigid or semiflexible structure-to-structure docking. Here, we describe a template-based technique called SPOT-Seq-RNA that integrates prediction of RBPs, RNA-binding residues, and protein-RNA complex structures into a single package. This integration is achieved by combining template-based structure-prediction software, SPARKS X, with binding affinity prediction software, DRNA. This tool yields reasonable sensitivity (46 %) and high precision (84 %) for an independent test set of 215 RBPs and 5,766 non-RBPs. SPOT-Seq-RNA is computationally efficient for genome-scale prediction of RBPs and protein-RNA complex structures. Its application to human genome study has revealed a similar sensitivity and ability to uncover hundreds of novel RBPs beyond simple homology. The online server and downloadable version of SPOT-Seq-RNA are available at http://sparks-lab.org/server/SPOT-Seq-RNA/.

  11. Label-Free Protein-RNA Interactome Analysis Identifies Khsrp Signaling Downstream of the p38/Mk2 Kinase Complex as a Critical Modulator of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Anna; Riabinska, Arina; Thelen, Lisa; Peifer, Martin; Leeser, Uschi; Nuernberg, Peter; Altmueller, Janine; Gaestel, Matthias; Dieterich, Christoph; Reinhardt, H. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a key role for RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in genome stability programs. Additionally, recent developments in RNA sequencing technologies, as well as mass-spectrometry techniques, have greatly expanded our knowledge on protein-RNA interactions. We here use full transcriptome sequencing and label-free LC/MS/MS to identify global changes in protein-RNA interactions in response to etoposide-induced genotoxic stress. We show that RBPs have distinct binding patterns in response to genotoxic stress and that inactivation of the RBP regulator module, p38/MK2, can affect the entire spectrum of protein-RNA interactions that take place in response to stress. In addition to validating the role of known RBPs like Srsf1, Srsf2, Elavl1 in the genotoxic stress response, we add a new collection of RBPs to the DNA damage response. We identify Khsrp as a highly regulated RBP in response to genotoxic stress and further validate its role as a driver of the G1/S transition through the suppression of Cdkn1aP21 transcripts. Finally, we identify KHSRP as an indicator of overall survival, as well as disease free survival in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:25993413

  12. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

  13. A protein ballet around the viral genome orchestrated by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase leads to an architectural switch: from nucleocapsid-condensed RNA to Vpr-bridged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lyonnais, Sébastien; Gorelick, Robert J.; Heniche-Boukhalfa, Fatima; Bouaziz, Serge; Parissi, Vincent; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Restle, Tobias; Gatell, Jose Maria; Le Cam, Eric; Mirambeau, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV-1 reverse transcription is achieved in the newly infected cell before viral DNA (vDNA) nuclear import. Reverse transcriptase (RT) has previously been shown to function as a molecular motor, dismantling the nucleocapsid complex that binds the viral genome as soon as plus-strand DNA synthesis initiates. We first propose a detailed model of this dismantling in close relationship with the sequential conversion from RNA to double-stranded (ds) DNA, focusing on the nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). The HIV-1 DNA-containing preintegration complex (PIC) resulting from completion of reverse transcription is translocated through the nuclear pore. The PIC nucleoprotein architecture is poorly understood but contains at least two HIV-1 proteins initially from the virion core, namely Integrase (IN) and the viral protein r (Vpr). We next present a set of electron micrographs supporting that Vpr behaves as a DNA architectural protein, initiating multiple DNA bridges over more than 500 base pairs (bp). These complexes are shown to interact with NCp7 bound to single-stranded nucleic acid regions that are thought to maintain IN binding during dsDNA synthesis, concurrently with nucleocapsid complex dismantling. This unexpected binding of Vpr conveniently leads to a compacted but filamentous folding of the vDNA that should favor its nuclear import. Finally, nucleocapsid-like aggregates engaged in dsDNA synthesis appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope. More generally, this article highlights unique possibilities offered by in vitro reconstitution approaches combined with macromolecular imaging to gain insights into the mechanisms that alter the nucleoprotein architecture of the HIV-1 genome, ultimately enabling its insertion into the nuclear chromatin. PMID:23017337

  14. Sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Machupo virus: close relationship with another South American pathogenic arenavirus, Junín.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C M; Wilson, S M; Clegg, J C

    1992-01-01

    The sequence of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of Machupo virus (causative agent of Bolivian haemorrhagic fever) has been determined, and used to infer a phylogenetic relationship to other arenaviruses. The relationship of the virus to Junín and Tacaribe viruses, together with previous demonstrations of antigenic similarity and cross-protection by heterologous viruses, suggest that vaccines developed against Argentine haemorrhagic fever might also be effective against the Bolivian disease.

  15. The ϕ6 Cystovirus Protein P7 Becomes Accessible to Antibodies in the Transcribing Nucleocapsid: A Probe for Viral Structural Elements

    PubMed Central

    Alimova, Alexandra; Wei, Hui; Katz, Al; Spatz, Linda; Gottlieb, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Protein P7 is a component of the cystovirus viral polymerase complex. In the unpackaged procapsid, the protein is situated in close proximity to the viral directed RNA polymerase, P2. Cryo-electron microscopy difference maps from the species ϕ6 procapsid have demonstrated that P7 and P2 likely interact prior to viral RNA packaging. The location of P7 in the post-packaged nucleocapsid (NC) remains unknown. P7 may translocate closer to the five-fold axis of a filled procapsid but this has not been directly visualized. We propose that monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) can be selected that serve as probe- reagents for viral assembly and structure. A set of Mabs have been isolated that recognize and bind to the ϕ6 P7. The antibody set contains five unique Mabs, four of which recognize a linear epitope and one which recognizes a conformational epitope. The four unique Mabs that recognize a linear epitope display restricted utilization of Vκ and VH genes. The restricted genetic range among 4 of the 5 antibodies implies that the antibody repertoire is limited. The limitation could be the consequence of a paucity of exposed antigenic sites on the ϕ6 P7 surface. It is further demonstrated that within ϕ6 nucleocapsids that are primed for early-phase transcription, P7 is partially accessible to the Mabs, indicating that the nucleocapsid shell (protein P8) has undergone partial disassembly exposing the protein’s antigenic sites. PMID:25799314

  16. An Eriophyid Mite-Transmitted Plant Virus Contains Eight Genomic RNA Segments with Unusual Heterogeneity in the Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    McMechan, Anthony J.; Wosula, Everlyne N.; Wegulo, Stephen N.; Graybosch, Robert A.; French, Roy; Hein, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eriophyid mite-transmitted, multipartite, negative-sense RNA plant viruses with membrane-bound spherical virions are classified in the genus Emaravirus. We report here that the eriophyid mite-transmitted Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), an Emaravirus, contains eight genomic RNA segments, the most in a known negative-sense RNA plant virus. Remarkably, two RNA 3 consensus sequences, encoding the nucleocapsid protein, were found with 12.5% sequence divergence, while no heterogeneity was observed in the consensus sequences of additional genomic RNA segments. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, nucleocapsid, and P4 proteins of WMoV exhibited limited sequence homology with the orthologous proteins of other emaraviruses, while proteins encoded by additional genomic RNA segments displayed no significant homology with proteins reported in GenBank, suggesting that the genus Emaravirus evolved further with a divergent octapartite genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that WMoV formed an evolutionary link between members of the Emaravirus genus and the family Bunyaviridae. Furthermore, genomic-length virus- and virus-complementary (vc)-sense strands of all WMoV genomic RNAs accumulated asymmetrically in infected wheat, with 10- to 20-fold more virus-sense genomic RNAs than vc-sense RNAs. These data further confirm the octapartite negative-sense polarity of the WMoV genome. In WMoV-infected wheat, subgenomic-length mRNAs of vc sense were detected for genomic RNAs 3, 4, 7, and 8 but not for other RNA species, suggesting that the open reading frames present in the complementary sense of genomic RNAs are expressed through subgenomic- or near-genomic-length vc-sense mRNAs. IMPORTANCE Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), an Emaravirus, is the causal agent of High Plains disease of wheat and maize. In this study, we demonstrated that the genome of WMoV comprises eight negative-sense RNA segments with an unusual sequence polymorphism in an RNA encoding the nucleocapsid

  17. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Antagonizes Beta Interferon Production by Sequestering the Interaction between IRF3 and TBK1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhen; Jing, Huiyuan; Zeng, Songlin; Wang, Dang; Liu, Lianzeng; Zhang, Huan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes lethal watery diarrhea in piglets and results in large economic losses in many Asian and European countries. A large-scale outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in China in 2010, and the virus emerged in the United States in 2013 and spread rapidly, posing significant economic and public health concerns. Previous studies have shown that PEDV infection inhibits the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN), and viral papain-like protease 2 has been identified as an IFN antagonist. In this study, we found that the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein also inhibits Sendai virus-induced IFN-β production, IFN-stimulated gene expression, and activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB. We also found that N protein significantly impedes the activation of the IFN-β promoter stimulated by TBK1 or its upstream molecules (RIG-I, MDA5, IPS-1, and TRAF3) but does not counteract its activation by IRF3. A detailed analysis revealed that the PEDV N protein targets TBK1 by direct interaction and that this binding sequesters the association between TBK1 and IRF3, which in turn inhibits both IRF3 activation and type I IFN production. Together, our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by PEDV to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity. IMPORTANCE PEDV has received increasing attention since the emergence of a PEDV variant in China and the United States. Here, we identify nucleocapsid (N) protein as a novel PEDV-encoded interferon (IFN) antagonist and demonstrate that N protein antagonizes IFN production by sequestering the interaction between IRF3 and TBK1, a critical step in type I IFN signaling. This adds another layer of complexity to the immune evasion strategies evolved by this economically important viral pathogen. An understanding of its immune evasion mechanism may direct us to novel therapeutic targets and more effective

  18. The humoral immune response to recombinant nucleocapsid antigen of canine distemper virus in dogs vaccinated with attenuated distemper virus or DNA encoding the nucleocapsid of wild-type virus.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M E; Cherpillod, P; Koch, A; Zurbriggen, R; Bruckner, L; Wittek, R; Zurbriggen, A

    2001-06-01

    This study compared the humoral immune response against the nucleocapsid-(N) protein of canine distemper virus (CDV) of dogs vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine against parvo-, adeno-, and parainfluenza virus and leptospira combined with either the attenuated CDV Onderstepoort strain (n = 15) or an expression plasmid containing the N-gene of CDV (n = 30). The vaccinations were applied intramuscularly three times at 2-week intervals beginning at the age of 6 weeks. None of the pre-immune sera recognized the recombinant N-protein, confirming the lack of maternal antibodies at this age. Immunization with DNA vaccine for CDV resulted in positive serum N-specific IgG response. However, their IgG (and IgA) titres were lower than those of CDV-vaccinated dogs. Likewise, DNA-vaccinated dogs did not show an IgM peak. There was no increase in N-specific serum IgE titres in either group. Serum titres to the other multivalent vaccine components were similar in both groups. PMID:11475904

  19. The Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus ac54 Gene Is Crucial for Localization of the Major Capsid Protein VP39 at the Site of Nucleocapsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhanwen; Zhong, Ling; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Wenbi; Yuan, Meijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Baculovirus DNAs are synthesized and inserted into preformed capsids to form nucleocapsids at a site in the infected cell nucleus, termed the virogenic stroma. Nucleocapsid assembly of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) requires the major capsid protein VP39 and nine minor capsid proteins, including VP1054. However, how VP1054 participates in nucleocapsid assembly remains elusive. In this study, the VP1054-encoding gene (ac54) was deleted to generate the ac54-knockout AcMNPV (vAc54KO). In vAc54KO-transfected cells, nucleocapsid assembly was disrupted, leading to the formation of abnormally elongated capsid structures. Interestingly, unlike cells transfected with AcMNPV mutants lacking other minor capsid proteins, in which capsid structures were distributed within the virogenic stroma, ac54 ablation resulted in a distinctive location of capsid structures and VP39 at the periphery of the nucleus. The altered distribution pattern of capsid structures was also observed in cells transfected with AcMNPV lacking BV/ODV-C42 or in cytochalasin d-treated AcMNPV-infected cells. BV/ODV-C42, along with PP78/83, has been shown to promote nuclear filamentous actin (F-actin) formation, which is another requisite for nucleocapsid assembly. Immunofluorescence using phalloidin indicated that the formation and distribution of nuclear F-actin were not affected by ac54 deletion. However, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that BV/ODV-C42, PP78/83, and 38K failed to integrate into capsid structures in the absence of VP1054, and immunoprecipitation further demonstrated that in transient expression assays, VP1054 interacted with BV/ODV-C42 and VP80 but not VP39. Our findings suggest that VP1054 plays an important role in the transport of capsid proteins to the nucleocapsid assembly site prior to the process of nucleocapsid assembly. IMPORTANCE Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses whose replication occurs within the host nucleus. The localization of

  20. Avian retroviral RNA encapsidation: reexamination of functional 5' RNA sequences and the role of nucleocapsid Cys-His motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, R; Hajjar, A M; Linial, M L

    1993-01-01

    RNA packaging signals (psi) from the 5' ends of murine and avian retroviral genomes have previously been shown to direct encapsidation of heterologous mRNA into the retroviral virion. The avian 5' packaging region has now been further characterized, and we have defined a 270-nucleotide sequence, A psi, which is sufficient to direct packaging of heterologous RNA. Identification of the A psi sequence suggests that several retroviral cis-acting sequences contained in psi+ (the primer binding site, the putative dimer linkage sequence, and the splice donor site) are dispensable for specific RNA encapsidation. Subgenomic env mRNA is not efficiently encapsidated into particles, even though the A psi sequence is present in this RNA. In contrast, spliced heterologous psi-containing RNA is packaged into virions as efficiently as unspliced species; thus splicing per se is not responsible for the failure of env mRNA to be encapsidated. We also found that an avian retroviral mutant deleted for both nucleocapsid Cys-His boxes retains the capacity to encapsidate RNA containing psi sequences, although this RNA is unstable and is thus difficult to detect in mature particles. Electron microscopy reveals that virions produced by this mutant lack a condensed core, which may allow the RNA to be accessible to nucleases. Images PMID:8380070

  1. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein based single serum dilution ELISA for the detection of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sunil K; Kamble, Nitin M; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Khulape, Sagar A; Reddy, M R; Mohan, C Madhan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is ubiquitous and highly contagious disease of poultry, with profound effect on commercial poultry production. For effective control of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), quick and specific diagnosis is of utmost importance. In this study, the virus was isolated from clinical samples from India and the full length nucleocapsid (N) gene was amplified, cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. The purified recombinant N protein based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for IBV to measure specific antibody in the sera of chickens. A total of 310 chicken sera samples were tested using the commercial IDEXX kit along with the assay developed. A linear correlation was obtained between predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to construct a standard curve from which an equation was derived which confirmed their correlation. The developed equation was then used to extrapolate predicated ELISA antibody titer from corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution. The assay proved to be specific (95.8%) and sensitive (96.8%) when compared to the commercial IDEXX ELISA test.

  2. Requirements for nucleocapsid-mediated regulation of reverse transcription during the late steps of HIV-1 assembly

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Pierre-Jean; Chamontin, Célia; de Rocquigny, Hugues; Bernacchi, Serena; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Mougel, Marylène

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 is a retrovirus replicating within cells by reverse transcribing its genomic RNA (gRNA) into DNA. Within cells, virus assembly requires the structural Gag proteins with few accessory proteins, notably the viral infectivity factor (Vif) and two copies of gRNA as well as cellular factors to converge to the plasma membrane. In this process, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag binds to the packaging signal of gRNA which consists of a series of stem-loops (SL1-SL3) ensuring gRNA selection and packaging into virions. Interestingly, mutating NC activates a late-occurring reverse transcription (RT) step in producer cells, leading to the release of DNA-containing HIV-1 particles. In order to decipher the molecular mechanism regulating this late RT, we explored the role of several key partners of NC, such as Vif, gRNA and the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G that restricts HIV-1 infection by targeting the RT. By studying combinations of deletions of these putative players, we revealed that NC, SL1-SL3 and in lesser extent Vif, but not APOBEC3G, interplay regulates the late RT. PMID:27273064

  3. Induced degradation of Tat by nucleocapsid (NC) via the proteasome pathway and its effect on HIV transcription.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Won; Lee, Seong-Wook; Myung, Heejoon

    2013-04-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates transcriptional transactivation. The nucleocapsid protein NC of HIV-1 is a component of virion and plays a key role in genome packaging. Herein, we have demonstrated the interaction between NC and Tat by means of a yeast two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization analysis. We observed that the level of Tat was significantly reduced in the presence of NC. But NC did not affect mRNA expression level of Tat. The level of Tat in the presence of NC was increased by treating cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The ubiquitination state of Tat was not seen to increase in the presence of NC, suggesting the proteasomal degradation was independent of ubiquitination. Lowered level of Tat in the presence of NC led to a decrease in Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation. PMID:23611845

  4. Induced Degradation of Tat by Nucleocapsid (NC) via the Proteasome Pathway and Its Effect on HIV Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Won; Lee, Seong-Wook; Myung, Heejoon

    2013-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates transcriptional transactivation. The nucleocapsid protein NC of HIV-1 is a component of virion and plays a key role in genome packaging. Herein, we have demonstrated the interaction between NC and Tat by means of a yeast two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization analysis. We observed that the level of Tat was significantly reduced in the presence of NC. But NC did not affect mRNA expression level of Tat. The level of Tat in the presence of NC was increased by treating cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The ubiquitination state of Tat was not seen to increase in the presence of NC, suggesting the proteasomal degradation was independent of ubiquitination. Lowered level of Tat in the presence of NC led to a decrease in Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation. PMID:23611845

  5. Characterization of Two Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Linker Region and Carboxyl Terminal Domain of Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunnuan; Shi, Hongyan; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Feng, Li

    2016-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleocapsid (N) protein plays important roles in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The present study provides the first description of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (5E8 and 3D7) directed against the TGEV N protein linker region (LKR) and carboxyl terminal domain (CTD). The mAbs 5E8 and 3D7 reacted with native N protein in western blotting and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Two linear epitopes, 189SVEQAVLAALKKLG202 and 246VTRFYGARSSSA257, located in the LKR and CTD of TGEV N protein, respectively, were identified after truncating the protein and applying a peptide scanning technique. Using mAb 5E8, we observed that the N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm during TGEV replication and that the protein could be immunoprecipitated from TGEV-infected PK-15 cells. The mAb 5E8 can be applied for different approaches to diagnosis of TGEV infection. In addition, the antibodies represent useful tools for investigating the antigenic properties of the N protein. PMID:27689694

  6. HIV-1 nucleocapsid and ESCRT-component Tsg101 interplay prevents HIV from turning into a DNA-containing virus

    PubMed Central

    Chamontin, Célia; Rassam, Patrice; Ferrer, Mireia; Racine, Pierre-Jean; Neyret, Aymeric; Lainé, Sébastien; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1, the agent of the AIDS pandemic, is an RNA virus that reverse transcribes its RNA genome (gRNA) into DNA, shortly after its entry into cells. Within cells, retroviral assembly requires thousands of structural Gag proteins and two copies of gRNA as well as cellular factors, which converge to the plasma membrane in a finely regulated timeline. In this process, the nucleocapsid domain of Gag (GagNC) ensures gRNA selection and packaging into virions. Subsequent budding and virus release require the recruitment of the cellular ESCRT machinery. Interestingly, mutating GagNC results into the release of DNA-containing viruses, by promo-ting reverse transcription (RTion) prior to virus release, through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we explored the biogenesis of these DNA-containing particles, combining live-cell total internal-reflection fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy, trans-complementation assays and biochemical characterization of viral particles. Our results reveal that DNA virus production is the consequence of budding defects associated with Gag aggregation at the plasma membrane and deficiency in the recruitment of Tsg101, a key ESCRT-I component. Indeed, targeting Tsg101 to virus assembly sites restores budding, restricts RTion and favors RNA packaging into viruses. Altogether, our results highlight the role of GagNC in the spatiotemporal control of RTion, via an ESCRT-I-dependent mechanism. PMID:25488808

  7. Deletion of a Cys-His motif from the Alpharetrovirus nucleocapsid domain reveals late domain mutant-like budding defects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun-Gyung; Linial, Maxine L. . E-mail: mlinial@fhcrc.org

    2006-03-30

    The Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag polyprotein is the only protein required for virus assembly and release. We previously found that deletion of either one of the two Cys-His (CH) motifs in the RSV nucleocapsid (NC) protein did not abrogate Gag-Gag interactions, RNA binding, or packaging but greatly reduced virus production (E-G. Lee, A. Alidina et al., J. Virol. 77: 2010-2020, 2003). In this report, we have further investigated the effects of mutations in the CH motifs on virus assembly and release. Precise deletion of either CH motif, without affecting surrounding basic residues, reduced virus production by approximately 10-fold, similar to levels seen for late (L) domain mutants. Strikingly, transmission electron microscopy revealed that virions of both {delta}CH1 and {delta}CH2 mutants were assembled normally at the plasma membrane but were arrested in budding. Virus particles remained tethered to the membrane or to each other, reminiscent of L domain mutants, although the release defect appears to be independent of the L domain functions. Therefore, two CH motifs are likely to be required for budding independent of a requirement for either Gag-Gag interactions or RNA packaging.

  8. Requirements for nucleocapsid-mediated regulation of reverse transcription during the late steps of HIV-1 assembly.

    PubMed

    Racine, Pierre-Jean; Chamontin, Célia; de Rocquigny, Hugues; Bernacchi, Serena; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Mougel, Marylène

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 is a retrovirus replicating within cells by reverse transcribing its genomic RNA (gRNA) into DNA. Within cells, virus assembly requires the structural Gag proteins with few accessory proteins, notably the viral infectivity factor (Vif) and two copies of gRNA as well as cellular factors to converge to the plasma membrane. In this process, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag binds to the packaging signal of gRNA which consists of a series of stem-loops (SL1-SL3) ensuring gRNA selection and packaging into virions. Interestingly, mutating NC activates a late-occurring reverse transcription (RT) step in producer cells, leading to the release of DNA-containing HIV-1 particles. In order to decipher the molecular mechanism regulating this late RT, we explored the role of several key partners of NC, such as Vif, gRNA and the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G that restricts HIV-1 infection by targeting the RT. By studying combinations of deletions of these putative players, we revealed that NC, SL1-SL3 and in lesser extent Vif, but not APOBEC3G, interplay regulates the late RT. PMID:27273064

  9. Cloning and expression of a codon-optimized gene encoding the influenza A virus nucleocapsid protein in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Suebwongsa, Namfon; Panya, Marutpong; Namwat, Wises; Sookprasert, Saovaluk; Redruello, Begoña; Mayo, Baltasar; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2013-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species are envisioned as promising vehicles for the mucosal delivery of therapeutic and prophylactic molecules, including the development of oral vaccines. In this study, we report on the expression of a synthetic nucleocapsid (NP) gene of influenza A virus in Lactobacillus casei. The NP gene was re-designed based on the tRNA pool and the codon usage preference of L. casei BL23. The codon-optimized NP gene was then cloned and expressed in L. casei RCEID02 under the control of a constitutive promoter, that of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene. The synthetic NP gene was further expressed in L. casei EM116 under the control of an inducible promoter, that of the structural gene of nisin (nisA) from Lactococcus lactis. Based on Western blot analysis, the specific protein band of NP, with a molecular mass of 56.0 kDa, was clearly detected in both expression systems. Thus, our study demonstrates the success of expressing a codon-optimized influenza A viral gene in L. casei. The suitability of the recombinant LAB strains for immunization purposes is currently under evaluation. PMID:24400527

  10. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Su, Mingjun; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Geng, Yufei; Yao, Shuang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-react with antisera against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine group A rotavirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine circovirus-2, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed 100% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity of the rPDCoV-N-ELISA based on samples of known status (n=62). Analyses of field samples (n=319) using the rPDCoV-N-ELISA indicated that 11.59% of samples were positive for antibodies against PDCoV. These data demonstrated that the rPDCoV-N-ELISA can be used for epidemiological investigations of PDCoV and that PDCoV had a low serum prevalence in pig population in Heilongjiang province, northeast China. PMID:26668175

  11. Structure and Function Analysis of Nucleocapsid Protein of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Interacting with RNA Using Homology Modeling*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Feng, Zhike; Wu, Jianyan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Min; Wang, Bi; Mao, Xiang; Tao, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) plays key roles in assembling genomic RNA into ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which serves as a template for both viral gene transcription and genome replication. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of how TSWV N interacts with genomic RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that TSWV N protein forms a range of higher ordered oligomers. Analysis of the RNA binding behavior of N protein revealed that no specific oligomer binds to RNA preferentially, instead each type of N oligomer is able to bind RNA. To better characterize the structure and function of N protein interacting with RNA, we constructed homology models of TSWV N and N-RNA complexes. Based on these homology models, we demonstrated that the positively charged and polar amino acids in its predicted surface cleft of TSWV N are critical for RNA binding. Moreover, by N-RNA homology modeling, we found that the RNA component is deeply embedded in the predicted protein cleft; consistently, TSWV N-RNA complexes are relatively resistant to digestion by RNase. Collectively, using homology modeling, we determined the RNA binding sites on N and found a new protective feature for N protein. Our findings also provide novel insights into the molecular details of the interaction of TSWV N with RNA components. PMID:25540203

  12. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to turkey coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Mohamed; Loa, Chien Chang; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-06-01

    Nucleocapsid (N) protein gene of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) was expressed in a prokaryotic system and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody to TCoV. Anti-TCoV hyperimmune turkey serum and normal turkey serum were used as positive or negative controls for optimization of the ELISA. Goat anti-turkey IgG (H+L) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used as detector antibody. Three hundred and twenty two turkey sera from the field were used to evaluate the performance of ELISA and determine the cut-off point of ELISA. The established ELISA was also examined with serum samples obtained from turkeys experimentally infected with TCoV. Those serum samples were collected at various time intervals from 1 to 63 days post-infection. The optimum conditions for differentiation between anti-TCoV hyperimmune serum and normal turkey serum were recombinant TCoV N protein concentration at 20 μg/ml, serum dilution at 1:800, and conjugate dilution at 1:10,000. Of the 322 sera from the field, 101 were positive for TCoV by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA relative to IFA test were 86.0% and 96.8%, respectively, using the optimum cut-off point of 0.2 as determined by logistic regression method. Reactivity of anti-rotavirus, anti-reovirus, anti-adenovirus, or anti-enterovirus antibodies with the recombinant N protein coated on the ELISA plates was not detected. These results indicated that the established antibody-capture ELISA in conjunction with recombinant TCoV N protein as the coating protein can be utilized for detection of antibodies to TCoV in turkey flocks.

  13. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  14. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anwesha; York, Danielle; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Summers, Michael F

    2005-03-15

    All retroviruses package two copies of their genomes during virus assembly, both of which are required for strand transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription. Genome packaging is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of assembling Gag polyproteins and an RNA packaging signal, located near the 5' end of the genome, called Psi. We recently discovered that the NC protein of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) can bind with high affinity to conserved UCUG elements within the MLV packaging signal [D'Souza, V., and Summers, M. F. (2004) Nature 431, 586-590]. Selective binding to dimeric RNA is regulated by a conformational RNA switch, in which the UCUG elements are sequestered by base pairing in the monomeric RNA and do not bind NC, but become exposed for NC binding upon dimerization. Dimerization-dependent structural changes occur in other regions of the Psi-site, exposing guanosine-containing segments that might also bind NC. Here we demonstrate that short RNAs containing three such sequences, ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG, can bind NC with significant affinity (K(d) = 94-315 nM). Titration experiments with oligoribonucleotides of varying lengths and compositions, combined with NMR-based structural studies, reveal that binding is strictly dependent on the presence of an unpaired guanosine, and that relative binding affinities can vary by more than 1 order of magnitude depending on the nature of the three upstream nucleotides. Binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute significantly to binding. Our findings extend a previously published model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA.

  15. Identification by high throughput screening of small compounds inhibiting the nucleic acid destabilization activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Shvadchak, Volodymyr; Sanglier, Sarah; Rocle, Sandrine; Villa, Pascal; Haiech, Jacques; Hibert, Marcel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Mély, Yves; de Rocquigny, Hugues

    2009-07-01

    Due to its highly conserved zinc fingers and its nucleic acid chaperone properties which are critical for HIV-1 replication, the nucleocapsid protein (NC) constitutes a major target in AIDS therapy. Different families of molecules targeting NC zinc fingers and/or inhibiting the binding of NC with its target nucleic acids have been developed. However, their limited specificity and their cellular toxicity prompted us to develop a screening assay to target molecules able to inhibit NC chaperone properties, and more specifically the initial NC-promoted destabilization of the nucleic acid secondary structure. Since this destabilization is critically dependent on the properly folded fingers, the developed assay is thought to be highly specific. The assay was based on the use of cTAR DNA, a stem-loop sequence complementary to the transactivation response element, doubly labelled at its 5' and 3' ends by a rhodamine 6G fluorophore and a fluorescence quencher, respectively. Addition of NC(12-55), a peptide corresponding to the zinc finger domain of NC, to this doubly-labelled cTAR, led to a partial melting of the cTAR stem, which increases the distance between the two labels and thus, restores the rhodamine 6G fluorescence. Thus, positive hits were detected through the decrease of rhodamine 6G fluorescence. An "in-house" chemical library of 4800 molecules was screened and five compounds with IC(50) values in the micromolar range have been selected. The hits were shown by mass spectrometry and fluorescence anisotropy titration to prevent binding of NC(12-55) to cTAR through direct interaction with the NC folded fingers, but without promoting zinc ejection. These non-zinc ejecting NC binders are a new series of anti-NC molecules that could be used to rationally design molecules with potential anti-viral activities.

  16. Solution structure of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp3a and determinants of the interaction with MHV nucleocapsid (N) protein.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Giedroc, David P

    2013-03-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that infect a variety of vertebrate hosts. The CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein contains two structurally independent RNA binding domains, designated the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the dimeric C-terminal domain (CTD), joined by a charged linker region rich in serine and arginine residues (SR-rich linker). An important goal in unraveling N function is to molecularly characterize N-protein interactions. Recent genetic evidence suggests that N interacts with nsp3a, a component of the viral replicase. Here we present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp3a and show, using isothermal titration calorimetry, that MHV N219, an N construct that extends into the SR-rich linker (residues 60 to 219), binds cognate nsp3a with high affinity (equilibrium association constant [K(a)], [1.4 ± 0.3] × 10(6) M(-1)). In contrast, neither N197, an N construct containing only the folded NTD (residues 60 to 197), nor the CTD dimer (residues 260 to 380) binds nsp3a with detectable affinity. This indicates that the key nsp3a binding determinants localize to the SR-rich linker, a finding consistent with those of reverse genetics studies. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis reveals that the N-terminal region of an MHV N SR-rich linker peptide (residues 198 to 230) binds to the acidic face of MHV nsp3a containing the acidic α2 helix with an affinity (expressed as K(a)) of 8.1 × 10(3) M(-1). These studies reveal that the SR-rich linker of MHV N is necessary but not sufficient to maintain this high-affinity binding to N.

  17. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay.

  18. Nucleocapsid Protein Annealing of a Primer-Template Enhances (+)-Strand DNA Synthesis and Fidelity by HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiae; Roberts, Anne; Yuan, Hua; Xiong, Yong; Anderson, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires reverse transcriptase (RT) and HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) for proper viral replication. HIV-1 NCp7 has been shown to enhance various steps in reverse transcription including tRNA initiation and strand transfer which may be mediated through interactions with RT as well as RNA and DNA oligonucleotides. With the use of DNA oligonucleotides, we have examined the interaction of NCp7 with RT and the kinetics of reverse transcription during (+)-strand synthesis with an NCp7-facilitated annealed primer-template. Using a pre-steady state kinetics approach, the NCp7-annealed primer-template has a substantial increase (3-7 fold) in the rate of incorporation (kpol) by RT as compared to heat annealed primer-template with single nucleotide incorporation. There was also a 2-fold increase in the binding affinity constant (Kd) of the nucleotide. These differences in kpol and Kd were not through direct interactions between HIV-1 RT and NCp7. When examining extension by RT, the data suggests that the NCp7-annealed primer-template facilitates the formation of a longer product more quickly compared to the heat annealed primer-template. This enhancement in rate is mediated through interactions with NCp7’s zinc fingers and N-terminal domain and nucleic acids. The NCp7-annealed primer-template also enhances the fidelity of RT (3-fold) by slowing the rate of incorporation of an incorrect nucleotide. Taken together, this study elucidates a new role of NCp7 by facilitating DNA-directed DNA synthesis during reverse transcription by HIV-1 RT that may translate into enhanced viral fitness and offers an avenue to exploit for targeted therapeutic intervention against HIV. PMID:22210155

  19. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  20. Mutagenesis and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the fusion peptide of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus F protein.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Manli; Yin, Feifei; Deng, Fei; Liu, Maili; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2008-08-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into cells is normally mediated by fusion between viral and cellular membranes, in which the fusion peptide plays a crucial role. The fusion peptides of group II nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) F proteins are quite conserved, with a hydrophobic region located at the N terminal of the F(1) fragment. For this report, we used mutagenesis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study the structure and function of the fusion peptide of the Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid NPV (HearNPV) F protein (HaF). Five mutations in the fusion peptide of HaF, N(1)G, N(1)L, I(2)N, G(3)L, and D(11)L, were generated separately, and the mutated f genes were transformed into the f-null HearNPV bacmid. The mutations N(1)L, I(2)N, and D(11)L were found to completely abolish the ability of the recombinant bacmids to produce infectious budded virus, while the mutations N(1)G and G(3)L did not. The low-pH-induced envelope fusion assay demonstrated that the N(1)G substitution increased the fusogenicity of HaF, while the G(3)L substitution reduced its fusogenicity. NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of a synthetic fusion peptide of HaF in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles at pH 5.0. The fusion peptide appeared to be an amphiphilic structure composed of a flexible coil in the N terminus from N(1) to N(5), a 3(10)-helix from F(6) to G(8), a turn at S(9), and a regular alpha-helix from V(10) to D(19). The data provide the first NMR structure of a baculovirus fusion peptide and allow us to further understand the relationship of structure and function of the fusion peptide.

  1. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay. PMID:26196500

  2. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  3. Studies on the mechanism of inactivation of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 with 2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Byrd, J Calvin; Hara, Toshiaki; Srivastava, Pratibha; Mazur, Sharlyn J; Stahl, Stephen J; Inman, John K; Appella, Ettore; Omichinski, James G; Legault, Pascale

    2005-04-21

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a small basic protein with two CysCysHisCys zinc-binding domains that specifically recognizes the Psi-site of the viral RNA. NCp7 plays a number of crucial roles in the viral lifecycle, including reverse transcription and RNA encapsidation. Several classes of potential anti-HIV compounds have been designed to inactivate NCp7 through zinc ejection, including a special class of thioester compounds. We have investigated the mechanism of action of two N-substituted-S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide compounds (compounds 1 and 2) that target NCp7. UV/Visible spectroscopy studies demonstrated that both thioesters were able to eject metal from NCp7. NMR and mass spectroscopy studies showed that the thioester compounds specifically ejected zinc from the carboxyl-terminal zinc-binding domain of NCp7 by covalent modification of Cys(39). Exposure of NCp7 to compounds 1 and 2 destroyed its ability to specifically bind RNA, whereas NCp7 already bound to RNA was protected from zinc ejection by the thioesters. The thiol component of the thioesters (compound 3, 2-mercaptobenzoyl-beta-alaninamide) did not eject zinc from NCp7, but when compound 3 was incubated with acetyl CoA prior to incubation with NCp7, we observed extensive metal ejection. Thus, the thiol released by the reaction of compounds 1 and 2 could be re-acylated in vivo by acyl CoA to form a new thioester compound that is able to react with NCp7. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of thioester compounds, which is important for future design of anti-HIV-1 compounds that target NCp7. PMID:15828823

  4. Zinc Finger Structures in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleocapsid Protein Facilitate Efficient Minus- and Plus-Strand Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianhui; Wu, Tiyun; Anderson, Jada; Kane, Bradley F.; Johnson, Donald G.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Henderson, Louis E.; Levin, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has two zinc fingers, each containing the invariant metal ion binding residues CCHC. Recent reports indicate that mutations in the CCHC motifs are deleterious for reverse transcription in vivo. To identify reverse transcriptase (RT) reactions affected by such changes, we have probed zinc finger functions in NC-dependent RT-catalyzed HIV-1 minus- and plus-strand transfer model systems. Our approach was to examine the activities of wild-type NC and a mutant in which all six cysteine residues were replaced by serine (SSHS NC); this mutation severely disrupts zinc coordination. We find that the zinc fingers contribute to the role of NC in complete tRNA primer removal from minus-strand DNA during plus-strand transfer. Annealing of the primer binding site sequences in plus-strand strong-stop DNA [(+) SSDNA] to its complement in minus-strand acceptor DNA is not dependent on NC zinc fingers. In contrast, the rate of annealing of the complementary R regions in (−) SSDNA and 3′ viral RNA during minus-strand transfer is approximately eightfold lower when SSHS NC is used in place of wild-type NC. Moreover, unlike wild-type NC, SSHS NC has only a small stimulatory effect on minus-strand transfer and is essentially unable to block TAR-induced self-priming from (−) SSDNA. Our results strongly suggest that NC zinc finger structures are needed to unfold highly structured RNA and DNA strand transfer intermediates. Thus, it appears that in these cases, zinc finger interactions are important components of NC nucleic acid chaperone activity. PMID:10982342

  5. A Chrysodeixis chalcites Single-Nucleocapsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population from the Canary Islands Is Genotypically Structured To Maximize Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Alexandra; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Muñoz, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A Chrysodeixis chalcites single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus wild-type isolate from the Canary Islands, Spain, named ChchSNPV-TF1 (ChchTF1-wt), appears to have great potential as the basis for a biological insecticide for control of the pest. An improved understanding of the genotypic structure of this wild-type strain population should facilitate the selection of genotypes for inclusion in a bioinsecticidal product. Eight genetically distinct genotypes were cloned in vitro: ChchTF1-A to ChchTF1-H. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis confirmed that ChchTF1-A accounted for 36% of the genotypes in the wild-type population. In bioassays, ChchTF1-wt occlusion bodies (OBs) were significantly more pathogenic than any of the component single-genotype OBs, indicating that genotype interactions were likely responsible for the pathogenicity phenotype of wild-type OBs. However, the wild-type population was slower killing and produced higher OB yields than any of the single genotypes alone. These results strongly suggested that the ChchTF1-wt population is structured to maximize its transmission efficiency. Experimental OB mixtures and cooccluded genotype mixtures containing the most abundant and the rarest genotypes, at frequencies similar to those at which they were isolated, revealed a mutualistic interaction that restored the pathogenicity of OBs. In OB and cooccluded mixtures containing only the most abundant genotypes, ChchTF1-ABC, OB pathogenicity was even greater than that of wild-type OBs. The ChchTF1-ABC cooccluded mixture killed larvae 33 h faster than the wild-type population and remained genotypically and biologically stable throughout five successive passages in vivo. In conclusion, the ChchTF1-ABC mixture shows great potential as the active ingredient of a bioinsecticide to control C. chalcites in the Canary Islands. PMID:24096419

  6. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein: mRNA sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Amann, V L; Lerch, R A; Anderson, K; Wertz, G W

    1992-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the nucleocapsid (N) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus, strain 391-2, was determined. Recombinant vectors containing a cDNA of the complete N gene were constructed, and expression of the N protein in eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using two different vector systems. The BRS virus N mRNA was 1197 nucleotides in length, exclusive of poly(A), and had a single major open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 391 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 42.6K. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the BRS virus N gene were compared to those of human respiratory syncytial (HRS) virus strains A2 and 18537, and to BRS virus strain A51908. The level of nucleic acid identity between the N mRNA of BRS virus 391-2 and both HRS virus subtypes was 80 to 81%, whereas the identity between the two BRS virus strains was 97%. A 93 to 94% level of identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of the N protein of BRS virus 391-2 and the corresponding sequences of the two HRS virus strains. The two BRS virus N proteins differed in amino acid sequence at only three positions. Recombinant BRS virus N protein was expressed using two different vector systems: in cells from a plasmid using the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase expression system or from a recombinant vaccinia virus. N proteins synthesized by the two vector systems migrated with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of authentic BRS virus N protein, and were precipitated by anti-BRS virus antibodies.

  7. A phenyl-thiadiazolylidene-amine derivative ejects zinc from retroviral nucleocapsid zinc fingers and inactivates HIV virions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through mucosal transmission may be prevented by using topically applied agents that block HIV transmission from one individual to another. Therefore, virucidal agents that inactivate HIV virions may be used as a component in topical microbicides. Results Here, we have identified 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-ylideneamine (WDO-217) as a low-molecular-weight molecule that inactivates HIV particles. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 virions pretreated with this compound were unable to infect permissive cells. Moreover, WDO-217 was able to inhibit infections of a wide spectrum of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1, including clinical isolates, HIV-2 and SIV strains. Whereas the capture of virus by DC-SIGN was unaffected by the compound, it efficiently prevented the transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virus to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, exposure of virions to WDO-217 reduced the amount of virion-associated genomic RNA as measured by real-time RT-qPCR. Further mechanism-of-action studies demonstrated that WDO-217 efficiently ejects zinc from the zinc fingers of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein NCp7 and inhibits the cTAR destabilization properties of this protein. Importantly, WDO-217 was able to eject zinc from both zinc fingers, even when NCp7 was bound to oligonucleotides, while no covalent interaction between NCp7 and WDO-217 could be observed. Conclusion This compound is a new lead structure that can be used for the development of a new series of NCp7 zinc ejectors as candidate topical microbicide agents. PMID:23146561

  8. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Claus-Henning; Binz, Anne; Sodeik, Beate; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Bailer, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment. PMID:26083367

  9. C-Terminal DxD-Containing Sequences within Paramyxovirus Nucleocapsid Proteins Determine Matrix Protein Compatibility and Can Direct Foreign Proteins into Budding Particles

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Greeshma; Schmitt, Phuong Tieu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxovirus particles are formed by a budding process coordinated by viral matrix (M) proteins. M proteins coalesce at sites underlying infected cell membranes and induce other viral components, including viral glycoproteins and viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), to assemble at these locations from which particles bud. M proteins interact with the nucleocapsid (NP or N) components of vRNPs, and these interactions enable production of infectious, genome-containing virions. For the paramyxoviruses parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and mumps virus, M-NP interaction also contributes to efficient production of virus-like particles (VLPs) in transfected cells. A DLD sequence near the C-terminal end of PIV5 NP protein was previously found to be necessary for M-NP interaction and efficient VLP production. Here, we demonstrate that 15-residue-long, DLD-containing sequences derived from either the PIV5 or Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein C-terminal ends are sufficient to direct packaging of a foreign protein, Renilla luciferase, into budding VLPs. Mumps virus NP protein harbors DWD in place of the DLD sequence found in PIV5 NP protein, and consequently, PIV5 NP protein is incompatible with mumps virus M protein. A single amino acid change converting DLD to DWD within PIV5 NP protein induced compatibility between these proteins and allowed efficient production of mumps VLPs. Our data suggest a model in which paramyxoviruses share an overall common strategy for directing M-NP interactions but with important variations contained within DLD-like sequences that play key roles in defining M/NP protein compatibilities. IMPORTANCE Paramyxoviruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases that affect both humans and animals. Paramyxovirus pathogens include measles virus, mumps virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, and the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Infectivity of paramyxovirus particles depends on matrix-nucleocapsid protein

  10. Detection of Antibodies to U.S. Isolates of Avian Pneumovirus by a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Baldev R.; Munir, Shirin; Patnayak, Devi P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Kapur, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of subgroup C (United States-specific) avian pneumovirus (APV/US) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and antibodies to the recombinant N protein were shown to specifically recognize the ≈47-kDa N protein of APV/US by Western immunoblot analysis. The recombinant APV/US N protein was used in a sandwich-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the resulting assay was found to be more sensitive and specific than the routine indirect ELISA for the detection of APV/US antibodies in turkey sera. PMID:11474024

  11. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Funk, Christina; Ott, Melanie; Raschbichler, Verena; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Binz, Anne; Sodeik, Beate; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Bailer, Susanne M

    2015-06-01

    Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment. PMID:26083367

  12. Development of novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM enzyme immunoassays based on recombinant Puumala and Dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Helga; Wolbert, Anne; Razanskiene, Ausra; Marg, Andreas; Kazaks, Andris; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Pauli, Georg; Ulrich, Rainer; Krüger, Detlev H

    2006-12-01

    Human infections with Asian and European hantaviruses can result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes of differing severities characterized by renal dysfunction and sometimes by pulmonary symptoms. For the serological detection of human infections by hantaviruses relevant for Europe, we developed monoclonal antibody capture immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on yeast-expressed nucleocapsid proteins of Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses. Moreover, for diagnosis of acute infections, mu-capture IgM ELISAs were established with nucleocapsid proteins expressed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells. The cutoff values of the ELISAs were determined by investigation of up to 500 human anti-hantavirus-negative serum samples. The specificities of the Puumala and Dobrava virus-specific IgM, IgA, and IgG ELISAs were found to be 100%. The sensitivities of these ELISAs were determined to be 100% with panels of characterized anti-Puumala or anti-Dobrava virus-positive human serum samples. In most cases, Puumala and Dobrava virus infections could be differentiated by ELISA reactivity alone, i.e., endpoint titration with homologous and heterologous antigens.

  13. Protection of cats from infectious peritonitis by vaccination with a recombinant raccoon poxvirus expressing the nucleocapsid gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Wasmoen, T L; Kadakia, N P; Unfer, R C; Fickbohm, B L; Cook, C P; Chu, H J; Acree, W M

    1995-01-01

    Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) is a coronavirus that induces an often fatal, systemic infection in cats. Various vaccines designed to prevent FIPV infection have been shown to exacerbate the disease, probably due to immune enhancement mediated by virus-specific immunoglobulins against the outer envelope (S) protein. An effective vaccine would be one that induces cell-mediated immunity without disease enhancing antibodies. In this report, we describe the use of a recombinant raccoon poxvirus that expresses the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein of FIPV (rRCNV-FIPV N) as an effective vaccine against FIPV-induced disease. Cats were parenterally or orally vaccinated twice, three weeks apart. Cats were then orally challenged with Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV), which induces a subclinical infection that can cause enhancement of subsequent FIPV infection. Three weeks later, cats were orally challenged with FIPV. The FIPV challenge induced a fatal infection in 4/5 (80%) of the controls. On the other hand, all five cats vaccinated subcutaneously with rRCNV-FIPV N showed no signs of disease after challenge with FIPV. Four of the five subcutaneous vaccinates survived an additional FIPV challenge. Vaccination with rRCNV-FIPV N induced serum IgG antibody responses to FIPV nucleocapsid protein, but few, if any, FIPV neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to the controls, protected vaccinates maintained low FIPV serum neutralizing antibody titers after FIPV challenge. This suggests that the protective immune response involves a mechanism other than humoral immunity consisting of FIPV neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Nucleocapsids Formed by Carboxy-Terminally Mutated Core Proteins Contain Spliced Viral Genomes but Lack Full-Size DNA

    PubMed Central

    Köck, Josef; Nassal, Michael; Deres, Karl; Blum, Hubert E.; von Weizsäcker, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal sequence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein constitutes a nucleic acid binding domain that is rich in arginine residues and contains three serine phosphorylation sites. While dispensable for capsid assembly, this domain is involved in viral replication, as demonstrated by the effects of mutations on RNA packaging and/or reverse transcription; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we tested a series of core protein mutants in which the three serine phosphorylation sites were replaced by glutamic acid, in parallel with a previously described deletion variant lacking the 19 C-terminal amino acid residues, for their ability to support viral replication in transfected hepatoma cells. Replacement of all serines and the deletion gave rise to nucleocapsids containing a smaller than wild-type DNA genome. Rather than a single-stranded DNA intermediate, as previously thought, this was a 2.0-kbp double-stranded DNA molecule derived from spliced pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Interestingly, full-length pgRNA was associated with nucleocapsids but was found to be sensitive to nuclease digestion, while encapsidated spliced RNA and 3′ truncated RNA species were nuclease resistant. These findings suggest that HBV pgRNA encapsidation is directional and that a packaging limit is determined by the C-terminal portion of the core protein. PMID:15564489

  15. Three of the four nucleocapsid proteins of Marburg virus, NP, VP35, and L, are sufficient to mediate replication and transcription of Marburg virus-specific monocistronic minigenomes.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, E; Lötfering, B; Klenk, H D; Becker, S

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the first reconstituted replication system established for a member of the Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV). MBGV minigenomes containing the leader and trailer regions of the MBGV genome and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were constructed. In MBGV-infected cells, these minigenomes were replicated and encapsidated and could be passaged. Unlike most other members of the order Mononegavirales, filoviruses possess four proteins presumed to be components of the nucleocapsid (NP, VP35, VP30, and L). To determine the protein requirements for replication and transcription, a reverse genetic system was established for MBGV based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system. Northern blot analysis of viral RNA revealed that three nucleocapsid proteins (NP, VP35, and L) were essential and sufficient for transcription as well as replication and encapsidation. These data indicate that VP35, rather than VP30, is the functional homologue of rhabdo- and paramyxovirus P proteins. The reconstituted replication system was profoundly affected by the NP-to-VP35 expression ratio. To investigate whether CAT gene expression was achieved entirely by mRNA or in part by full-length plus-strand minigenomes, a copy-back minireplicon containing the CAT gene but lacking MBGV-specific transcriptional start sites was employed in the artificial replication system. This construct was replicated without accompanying CAT activity. It was concluded that the CAT activity reflected MBGV-specific transcription and not replication. PMID:9765419

  16. Hepatitis B synthetic immunogen comprised of nucleocapsid T-cell sites and an envelope B-cell epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Milich, D R; Hughes, J L; McLachlan, A; Thornton, G B; Moriarty, A

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies located T-cell recognition of the nucleocapsid of the hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) to residues 120-140 in mice bearing the H-2s or H-2b haplotypes. Herein, we demonstrate that B10.S (H-2s) and B10 (H-2b) H-2 congenic strains recognize distinct T-cell sites within the p120-140 (a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 120-140 of HBcAg) sequence defined by p120-131 and p129-140, respectively. Peptide p120-131 stimulates B10.S HBcAg-primed T cells, and reciprocally p120-131-primed T cells recognize HBcAg. Similarly, the p129-140 sequence is a T-cell recognition site relevant to the native HBcAg in the B10 strain. It is also shown that these 12-residue peptides efficiently prime T-helper cells, which are capable of eliciting antibody production to HBcAg in vivo. These observations prompted us to examine the ability of the HBcAg-specific p120-140 sequence to function as a T-cell carrier moiety as a component of a totally synthetic hepatitis B vaccine. For this purpose a synthetic B-cell epitope from the pre-S(2) region (p133-140) of the viral envelope was chosen because this sequence represents a dominant antibody-binding site of the envelope. Immunization of B10.S and B10 strains with the synthetic composite peptide c120-140-(133-140) elicited anti-peptide antibody production, which was crossreactive with the native viral envelope. Furthermore, c120-140-(133-140) immunization primed p120-131-specific T cells in the B10.S strain and p129-140-specific T cells in the B10 strain, which recognized HBcAg and provided T-helper cell function for anti-envelope antibody production in vivo. These results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing complex synthetic immunogens that represent multiple proteins of a pathogen and are capable of engaging both T and B cells relevant to the native antigens. PMID:2449694

  17. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  18. Crystal Structure of the Core Region of Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Reveals the Mechanism for Ribonucleoprotein Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Wenming; Sun, Yuna; Ma, Chao; Wang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Pi; Shen, Shu; Li, Baobin; Lin, Jianping; Deng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantaviruses, which belong to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infect mammals, including humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans with high mortality. Hantavirus encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the genome and form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with viral polymerase. Here, we report the crystal structure of the core domains of NP (NPcore) encoded by Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV), which are two representative members that cause HCPS in the New World. The constructs of SNV and ANDV NPcore exclude the N- and C-terminal portions of full polypeptide to obtain stable proteins for crystallographic study. The structure features an N lobe and a C lobe to clamp RNA-binding crevice and exhibits two protruding extensions in both lobes. The positively charged residues located in the RNA-binding crevice play a key role in RNA binding and virus replication. We further demonstrated that the C-terminal helix and the linker region connecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and NPcore are essential for hantavirus NP oligomerization through contacts made with two adjacent protomers. Moreover, electron microscopy (EM) visualization of native RNPs extracted from the virions revealed that a monomer-sized NP-RNA complex is the building block of viral RNP. This work provides insight into the formation of hantavirus RNP and provides an understanding of the evolutionary connections that exist among bunyaviruses. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses are distributed across a wide and increasing range of host reservoirs throughout the world. In particular, hantaviruses can be transmitted via aerosols of rodent excreta to humans or from human to human and cause HFRS and HCPS, with mortalities of 15% and 50%, respectively. Hantavirus is therefore listed as a category C pathogen. Hantavirus encodes an NP that plays essential roles both in RNP formation and

  19. Fundamental differences between the nucleic acid chaperone activities of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein and Gag or Gag-derived proteins: Biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tiyun; Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Mitra, Mithun; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rein, Alan; Levin, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag polyprotein precursor has multiple domains including nucleocapsid (NC). Although mature NC and NC embedded in Gag are nucleic acid chaperones (proteins that remodel nucleic acid structure), few studies include detailed analysis of the chaperone activity of partially processed Gag proteins and comparison with NC and Gag. Here we address this issue by using a reconstituted minus-strand transfer system. NC and NC-containing Gag proteins exhibited annealing and duplex destabilizing activities required for strand transfer. Surprisingly, unlike NC, with increasing concentrations, Gag proteins drastically inhibited the DNA elongation step. This result is consistent with “nucleic acid-driven multimerization” of Gag and the reported slow dissociation of Gag from bound nucleic acid, which prevent reverse transcriptase from traversing the template (“roadblock” mechanism). Our findings illustrate one reason why NC (and not Gag) has evolved as a critical cofactor in reverse transcription, a paradigm that might also extend to other retrovirus systems. PMID:20655566

  20. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus Is a Potent Human CD8+ T Cell Antigen and Elicits Memory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Watts, Douglas M.; Costanzo, Margaret C.; Tang, Xiaolei; Venegas, Leon A.; Jiao, Feng; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Sewell, Andrew K.; Wooldridge, Linda; Makino, Shinji; Morrill, John C.; Peters, Clarence J.; Kan-Mitchell, June

    2013-01-01

    There is no licensed human vaccine currently available for Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), a Category A high priority pathogen and a serious zoonotic threat. While neutralizing antibodies targeting the viral glycoproteins are protective, they appear late in the course of infection, and may not be induced in time to prevent a natural or bioterrorism-induced outbreak. Here we examined the immunogenicity of RVFV nucleocapsid (N) protein as a CD8+ T cell antigen with the potential for inducing rapid protection after vaccination. HLA-A*0201 (A2)-restricted epitopic determinants were identified with N-specific CD8+ T cells from eight healthy donors that were primed with dendritic cells transduced to express N, and subsequently expanded in vitro by weekly re-stimulations with monocytes pulsed with 59 15mer overlapping peptides (OLPs) across N. Two immunodominant epitopes, VT9 (VLSEWLPVT, N121–129) and IL9 (ILDAHSLYL, N165–173), were defined. VT9- and IL9-specific CD8+ T cells identified by tetramer staining were cytotoxic and polyfunctional, characteristics deemed important for viral control in vivo. These peptides induced specific CD8+ T cell responses in A2-transgenic mice, and more importantly, potent N-specific CD8+ T cell reactivities, including VT9- and IL9-specific ones, were mounted by mice after a booster vaccination with the live attenuated RVF MP-12. Our data suggest that the RVFV N protein is a potent human T cell immunogen capable of eliciting broad, immunodominant CD8+ T cell responses that are potentially protective. Understanding the immune responses to the nucleocapsid is central to the design of an effective RVFV vaccine irrespective of whether this viral protein is effective as a stand-alone immunogen or only in combination with other RVFV antigens. PMID:23527138

  1. Expression and inheritance of hypersensitive resistance to rice hoja blanca virus mediated by the viral nucleocapsid protein gene in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Z; Lozano, I; Tabares, E; Fory, L; Domínguez, J; Cuervo, M; Calvert, L

    2003-04-01

    Rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) is a major virus disease of economic importance affecting rice in northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean. This is the first report of transgenic resistance to RHBV and the transformation of an indica rice variety from Latin America. Rice transformed with the RHBV nucleocapsid protein ( N) gene had a significant reduction in disease development. Several reactions were observed that ranged from susceptible to completely resistant plants (immunity). The resistant reactions were characterized by the production of local lesions like a hypersensitive reaction or a recovery phenotype with the emergence of symptom-less new leaves. These transgenic RHBV-resistant rice lines expressed the N gene RNA at low levels that were below the detection limit by Northern blots and only resolved by RT-PCR. The nucleocapsid protein could not be detected in any of the transgenic plants either by Western or ELISA tests. These results suggest that the resistance encoded by the N gene in these plants appears to be mediated by RNA. When challenged with RHBV, the resistant transgenic lines showed a significant increased performance for important agronomic traits including the number of tillers, the number of grains per plant and the yield as compared to the susceptible control. Furthermore, upon inoculation some of the most-resistant transgenic lines showed agronomic traits similar to the uninoculated non-transgenic Cica 8 control. Using both agronomic traits and disease severity as criteria, several of the most-resistant lines were followed through the R(4) generation and demonstrated that the N gene and RHBV resistance was inherited in a stable manner. These transgenic rice lines could become a new genetic resource in developing RHBV-resistant cultivars. PMID:12671749

  2. Analysis of protein-RNA interactions in CRISPR proteins and effector complexes by UV-induced cross-linking and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kundan; Hrle, Ajla; Kramer, Katharina; Sachsenberg, Timo; Staals, Raymond H J; Randau, Lennart; Marchfelder, Anita; van der Oost, John; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Conti, Elena; Urlaub, Henning

    2015-11-01

    Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes play important roles in the cell by mediating basic cellular processes, including gene expression and its regulation. Understanding the molecular details of these processes requires the identification and characterization of protein-RNA interactions. Over the years various approaches have been used to investigate these interactions, including computational analyses to look for RNA binding domains, gel-shift mobility assays on recombinant and mutant proteins as well as co-crystallization and NMR studies for structure elucidation. Here we report a more specialized and direct approach using UV-induced cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry. This approach permits the identification of cross-linked peptides and RNA moieties and can also pin-point exact RNA contact sites within the protein. The power of this method is illustrated by the application to different single- and multi-subunit RNP complexes belonging to the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; Cas: CRISPR associated). In particular, we identified the RNA-binding sites within three Cas7 protein homologs and mapped the cross-linking results to reveal structurally conserved Cas7 - RNA binding interfaces. These results demonstrate the strong potential of UV-induced cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify RNA interaction sites on the RNA binding proteins. PMID:26071038

  3. A Potential Protein-RNA Recognition Event Along the RISC-Loading Pathway from the Structure of A. aeolicus Argonaute with Externally Bound siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan,Y.; Pei, Y.; Chen, H.; Tuschl, T.; Patel, D.

    2006-01-01

    Argonaute proteins are key components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). They provide both architectural and catalytic functionalities associated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) guide strand recognition and subsequent guide strand-mediated cleavage of complementary mRNAs. We report on the 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structures of 22-mer and 26-mer siRNAs bound to Aquifex aeolicus Argonaute (Aa-Ago), where one 2 nt 3' overhang of the siRNA inserts into a cavity positioned on the outer surface of the PAZ-containing lobe of the bilobal Aa-Ago architecture. The first overhang nucleotide stacks over a tyrosine ring, while the second overhang nucleotide, together with the intervening sugar-phosphate backbone, inserts into a preformed surface cavity. Photochemical crosslinking studies on Aa-Ago with 5-iodoU-labeled single-stranded siRNA and siRNA duplex provide support for this externally bound siRNA-Aa-Ago complex. The structure and biochemical data together provide insights into a protein-RNA recognition event potentially associated with the RISC-loading pathway.

  4. Analysis of protein-RNA interactions in CRISPR proteins and effector complexes by UV-induced cross-linking and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kundan; Hrle, Ajla; Kramer, Katharina; Sachsenberg, Timo; Staals, Raymond H J; Randau, Lennart; Marchfelder, Anita; van der Oost, John; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Conti, Elena; Urlaub, Henning

    2015-11-01

    Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes play important roles in the cell by mediating basic cellular processes, including gene expression and its regulation. Understanding the molecular details of these processes requires the identification and characterization of protein-RNA interactions. Over the years various approaches have been used to investigate these interactions, including computational analyses to look for RNA binding domains, gel-shift mobility assays on recombinant and mutant proteins as well as co-crystallization and NMR studies for structure elucidation. Here we report a more specialized and direct approach using UV-induced cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry. This approach permits the identification of cross-linked peptides and RNA moieties and can also pin-point exact RNA contact sites within the protein. The power of this method is illustrated by the application to different single- and multi-subunit RNP complexes belonging to the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; Cas: CRISPR associated). In particular, we identified the RNA-binding sites within three Cas7 protein homologs and mapped the cross-linking results to reveal structurally conserved Cas7 - RNA binding interfaces. These results demonstrate the strong potential of UV-induced cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify RNA interaction sites on the RNA binding proteins.

  5. Co-evolution of quaternary organization and novel RNA tertiary interactions revealed in the crystal structure of a bacterial protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin system.

    PubMed

    Rao, Feng; Short, Francesca L; Voss, Jarrod E; Blower, Tim R; Orme, Anastasia L; Whittaker, Tom E; Luisi, Ben F; Salmond, George P C

    2015-10-30

    Genes encoding toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are near ubiquitous in bacterial genomes and they play key roles in important aspects of bacterial physiology, including genomic stability, formation of persister cells under antibiotic stress, and resistance to phage infection. The CptIN locus from Eubacterium rectale is a member of the recently-discovered Type III class of TA systems, defined by a protein toxin suppressed by direct interaction with a structured RNA antitoxin. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CptIN protein-RNA complex to 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a new heterotetrameric quaternary organization for the Type III TA class, and the RNA antitoxin bears a novel structural feature of an extended A-twist motif within the pseudoknot fold. The retention of a conserved ribonuclease active site as well as traits normally associated with TA systems, such as plasmid maintenance, implicates a wider functional role for Type III TA systems. We present evidence for the co-variation of the Type III component pair, highlighting a distinctive evolutionary process in which an enzyme and its substrate co-evolve.

  6. The sf32 Unique Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) Is a Non-Essential Gene That Could Be Involved in Nucleocapsid Organization in Occlusion-Derived Virions

    PubMed Central

    Beperet, Inés; Barrera, Gloria; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Gasmi, Laila; Herrero, Salvador; Caballero, Primitivo

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null), unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac). Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration), speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity) to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs. PMID:24204916

  7. The Nucleocapsid Domain of Gag Is Dispensable for Actin Incorporation into HIV-1 and for Association of Viral Budding Sites with Cortical F-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Sarah; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; de Marco, Alex; Carlson, Lars-Anders; Glass, Bärbel; Oberwinkler, Heike; Herold, Nikolas; Briggs, John A. G.; Müller, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-binding proteins are incorporated into HIV-1 particles, and F-actin has been suggested to bind the NC domain in HIV-1 Gag. Furthermore, F-actin has been frequently observed in the vicinity of HIV-1 budding sites by cryo-electron tomography (cET). Filamentous structures emanating from viral buds and suggested to correspond to actin filaments have been observed by atomic force microscopy. To determine whether the NC domain of Gag is required for actin association with viral buds and for actin incorporation into HIV-1, we performed comparative analyses of virus-like particles (VLPs) obtained by expression of wild-type HIV-1 Gag or a Gag variant where the entire NC domain had been replaced by a dimerizing leucine zipper [Gag(LZ)]. The latter protein yielded efficient production of VLPs with near-wild-type assembly kinetics and size and exhibited a regular immature Gag lattice. Typical HIV-1 budding sites were detected by using cET in cells expressing either Gag or Gag(LZ), and no difference was observed regarding the association of buds with the F-actin network. Furthermore, actin was equally incorporated into wild-type HIV-1 and Gag- or Gag(LZ)-derived VLPs, with less actin per particle observed than had been reported previously. Incorporation appeared to correlate with the relative intracellular actin concentration, suggesting an uptake of cytosol rather than a specific recruitment of actin. Thus, the NC domain in HIV-1 Gag does not appear to have a role in actin recruitment or actin incorporation into HIV-1 particles. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 particles bud from the plasma membrane, which is lined by a network of actin filaments. Actin was found to interact with the nucleocapsid domain of the viral structural protein Gag and is incorporated in significant amounts into HIV-1 particles, suggesting that it may play an active role in virus release. Using electron microscopy techniques, we previously observed bundles of actin filaments near HIV-1 buds

  8. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (−)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  9. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R. ); Hare, D.R.; Summers, M.F. )

    1991-06-25

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.

  10. Detection of IgM antibodies against a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of canine distemper virus in dog sera using a dot-blot assay.

    PubMed

    Barben, G; Stettler, M; Jaggy, A; Vandevelde, M; Zurbriggen, A

    1999-03-01

    A dot-blot assay for the detection of IgM antibodies (ABs) against canine distemper virus (CDV) in canine serum is described. The diagnostic potential of this technique was evaluated by analysing sera from three test groups: (i) specific pathogen-free (SPF) beagle dogs experimentally infected with virulent CDV; (ii) SPF dogs immunized with a combined vaccine containing CDV, and (iii) SPF dogs immunized with a CDV-free vaccine. As antigen for the dot-blot assay we used the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of the virulent A75/17 CDV strain. All 12 dogs of group 1, infected with virulent CDV, showed detectable CDV-specific IgM levels in their serum. All dogs of group 2 were also positive for anti-CDV IgM after the first immunization with the CDV-containing vaccine. The four dogs immunized with a CDV-free vaccine (group iii) remained negative throughout the course of the experiment. From these results, we conclude that the IgM detection test, which requires only a single serum sample, is a useful method for diagnosing current or recent CDV infection in CDV-infected or CDV-immunized dogs under experimental conditions. PMID:10216448

  11. The N-terminus of the Montano virus nucleocapsid protein possesses broadly cross-reactive conformation-dependent epitopes conserved in rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshida, Haruka; Shimizu, Kenta; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz, María de Lourdes; Koma, Takaaki; Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Ramos, Celso; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-06-20

    The hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is an important immunogen that stimulates a strong and cross-reactive immune response in humans and rodents. A large proportion of the response to N protein has been found to target its N-terminus. However, the exact nature of this bias towards the N-terminus is not yet fully understood. We characterized six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the N protein of Montano virus (MTNV), a Mexican hantavirus. Five of these mAbs recognized eight American hantaviruses and six European and Asian hantaviruses, but not the Soricomorpha-borne Thottapalayam hantavirus. The N protein-reactive binding regions of the five mAbs were mapped to discontinuous epitopes within the N-terminal 13-51 amino acid residues, while a single serotype-specific mAb was mapped to residues 1-25 and 49-75. Our findings suggest that discontinuous epitopes at the N-terminus are conserved, at least in rodent-borne hantaviruses, and that they contribute considerably to N protein cross-reactivity.

  12. Primary structure of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of feline infectious peritonitis virus and immunogenicity of recombinant vaccinia viruses in kittens.

    PubMed

    Vennema, H; de Groot, R J; Harbour, D A; Horzinek, M C; Spaan, W J

    1991-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a mostly fatal, immunologically mediated disease in cats. Previously, we demonstrated that immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the FIPV spike protein (S) induced early death after challenge with FIPV (Vennema et al., 1990, J. Virol. 64, 1407-1409). In this paper we describe similar immunizations with the FIPV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequences with the corresponding sequences of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus revealed 84.7 and 77% identity for M and N, respectively. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the cloned genes induced antibodies in immunized kittens. Immunization with neither recombinant induced early death after challenge with FIPV, strongly suggesting that antibody-dependent enhancement is mediated by antibodies against S only. Immunization with the N protein recombinant had no apparent effect on the outcome of challenge. However, three of eight kittens immunized with the M protein recombinant survived the challenge, as compared to one of eight kittens of the control group.

  13. Human T-lymphotrophic virus type I nucleocapsid protein NCp15: structural study and stability of the N-terminal zinc-finger.

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, F; Manigand, C; Picard, P; Belghazi, M; Precigoux, G

    2000-01-01

    An 18-residue peptide, corresponding to the minimum sequence of the N-terminal zinc-finger domain in the nucleocapsid of human T-lymphotrophic virus type I, was synthesized by a solid-phase method and fully characterized. Its ability to complex metal ions (Co(2+) and Zn(2+)) was clearly established by UV-visible spectroscopy and MS. The stability of these complexes was investigated by an original method with HPLC chromatography. Our results show that, even in the presence of air, the Zn(2+) complex is highly stable. In contrast, the Co(2+) complex undergoes a relatively fast degradation due to an intramolecular oxidation leading to the formation of a disulphide bridge between two cysteine residues. The (1)H-NMR analysis indicates that Zn(2+) binds to the Ndelta atom of the histidine residue rather than to the Nepsilon atom. Two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine the solution structure of the zinc-finger, illustrated by the existence of turns in the overall conformation. PMID:11085921

  14. Structural characterization of a 39-residue synthetic peptide containing the two zinc binding domains from the HIV-1 p7 nucleocapsid protein by CD and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Sakaguchi, K; Appella, E; Gronenborn, A M

    1991-11-01

    A 39-residue peptide (p7-DF) containing the two zinc binding domains of the p7 nucleocapsid protein was prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The solution structure of the peptide was characterized using circular dichroic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in both the presence and absence of zinc ions. Circular dichroic spectroscopy indicates that the peptide exhibits a random coil conformation in the absence of zinc but appears to form an ordered structure in the presence of zinc. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that the two zinc binding domains within the peptide form stable, but independent, units upon the addition of 2 equivalents of ZnCl2 per equivalent of peptide. Structure calculations on the basis of nuclear Overhauser (NOE) data indicate that the two zinc binding domains have the same polypeptide fold within the errors of the coordinates (approximately 0.5 A for the backbone atoms, the zinc atoms and the coordinating cysteine and histidine ligands). The linker region (Arg17-Gly23) is characterized by a very limited number of sequential NOEs and the absence of any non-sequential NOEs suggest that this region of polypeptide chain is highly flexible. The latter coupled with the occurrence of a large number of basic residues (four out of seven) in the linker region suggests that it may serve to allow adaptable positioning of the nucleic acid recognition sequences within the protein. PMID:1959614

  15. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Junin virus nucleocapsid protein and application to the diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever caused by South American arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Mina; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Saijo, Masayuki; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ure, Agustín E; Romanowski, Victor; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, Sabia virus, and Chapare virus are members of New World arenavirus clade B and are the etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers that occur in South America. In this study, we produced three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the recombinant nucleocapsid protein of JUNV, designated C6-9, C11-12, and E4-2. The specificity of these MAbs was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay, and an epitope-mapping method. Using these MAbs, we developed antigen (Ag) capture ELISA systems. We showed that by using MAb C6-9, JUNV Ag was specifically detected. On the other hand, by using MAb C11-12 or E-4-2, the Ags of all human pathogenic South American arenaviruses were detected. The combined use of these Ag capture ELISA systems in the present study may be useful for the diagnosis of acute-phase viral hemorrhagic fever due to infection by a South American arenavirus.

  16. Distribution and Redistribution of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein in Immature, Mature, and Integrase-Inhibited Virions: a Role for Integrase in Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan; Jurado, Kellie A.; Cheng, Naiqian; Ly, Ngoc L.; Fuchs, James R.; Gorelick, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During virion maturation, HIV-1 capsid protein assembles into a conical core containing the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex, thought to be composed mainly of the viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein (NC). After infection, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which is then incorporated into host chromosomes by integrase (IN) catalysis. Certain IN mutations (class II) and antiviral drugs (allosteric IN inhibitors [ALLINIs]) adversely affect maturation, resulting in virions that contain “eccentric condensates,” electron-dense aggregates located outside seemingly empty capsids. Here we demonstrate that in addition to this mislocalization of electron density, a class II IN mutation and ALLINIs each increase the fraction of virions with malformed capsids (from ∼12% to ∼53%). Eccentric condensates have a high NC content, as demonstrated by “tomo-bubblegram” imaging, a novel labeling technique that exploits the susceptibility of NC to radiation damage. Tomo-bubblegrams also localized NC inside wild-type cores and lining the spherical Gag shell in immature virions. We conclude that eccentric condensates represent nonpackaged vRNPs and that either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of IN can impair vRNP incorporation into mature cores. Supplying IN in trans as part of a Vpr-IN fusion protein partially restored the formation of conical cores with internal electron density and the infectivity of a class II IN deletion mutant virus. Moreover, the ability of ALLINIs to induce eccentric condensate formation required both IN and viral RNA. Based on these observations, we propose a role for IN in initiating core morphogenesis and vRNP incorporation into the mature core during HIV-1 maturation. IMPORTANCE Maturation, a process essential for HIV-1 infectivity, involves core assembly, whereby the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP, composed of vRNA and nucleocapsid protein [NC]) is packaged into a conical capsid. Allosteric integrase

  17. HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Switches the Pathway of TAR RNA/DNA Annealing from Loop-Loop “Kissing” to “Zipper”

    PubMed Central

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Summary The chaperone activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nucleotide (nt) mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is ∼10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable “kissing” loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by ∼105-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate (∼104-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction (∼10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct “zipper” pathway involving nucleation at the 3′/5′ terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC. PMID:19154737

  18. Stem-loop SL4 of the HIV-1 psi RNA packaging signal exhibits weak affinity for the nucleocapsid protein. structural studies and implications for genome recognition.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, G K; Zhou, J; Miskimon, M; Chancellor, K J; McDonald, J A; Matthews, A G; Miller, R R; Rouse, M D; Summers, M F

    2001-12-14

    Encapsidation of the genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) during retrovirus assembly is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of assembling Gag polyproteins and a approximately 110 nucleotide segment of the genome known as the Psi-site. The HIV-1 Psi-site contains four stem-loops (SL1 through SL4), all of which are important for genome packaging. Recent isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies have demonstrated that SL2 and SL3 are capable of binding NC with high affinity (K(d) approximately 140 nM), consistent with proposals for protein-interactive functions during packaging. To determine if SL4 may have a similar function, NC-interactive studies were conducted by NMR and gel-shift methods. In contrast to previous reports, we find that SL4 binds weakly to NC (K(d)=(+/-14 microM), suggesting an alternative function. NMR studies indicate that the GAGA tetraloop of SL4 adopts a classical GNRA-type fold (R=purine, N=G, C, A or U), a motif that stabilizes RNA tertiary structures in other systems. In combination with previously reported gel mobility studies of Psi-site deletion mutants, these findings suggest that SL4 functions in genome recognition not by binding to Gag, but by stabilizing the structure of the Psi-site. Differences in the affinities of NC for SL2, SL3 and SL4 stem-loops can now be rationalized in terms of the different structural properties of stem loops that contain GGNG (SL2 and SL3) and GNRA (SL4) sequences.

  19. Effect of Mg(2+) and Na(+) on the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: implications for reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2009-02-27

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) is an essential protein for retroviral replication. Among its numerous functions, NC is a nucleic acid (NA) chaperone protein that catalyzes NA rearrangements leading to the formation of thermodynamically more stable conformations. In vitro, NC chaperone activity is typically assayed under conditions of low or no Mg(2+), even though reverse transcription requires the presence of divalent cations. Here, the chaperone activity of HIV-1 NC was studied as a function of varying Na(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations by investigating the annealing of complementary DNA and RNA hairpins derived from the trans-activation response domain of the HIV genome. This reaction mimics the annealing step of the minus-strand transfer process in reverse transcription. Gel-shift annealing and sedimentation assays were used to monitor the annealing kinetics and aggregation activity of NC, respectively. In the absence of protein, a limited ability of Na(+) and Mg(2+) cations to facilitate hairpin annealing was observed, whereas NC stimulated the annealing 10(3)- to 10(5)-fold. The major effect of either NC or the cations is on the rate of bimolecular association of the hairpins. This effect is especially strong under conditions wherein NC induces NA aggregation. Titration with NC and NC/Mg(2+) competition studies showed that the annealing kinetics depends only on the level of NA saturation with NC. NC competes with Mg(2+) or Na(+) for sequence-nonspecific NA binding similar to a simple trivalent cation. Upon saturation, NC induces attraction between NA molecules corresponding to approximately 0.3 kcal/mol/nucleotide, in agreement with an electrostatic mechanism of NC-induced NA aggregation. These data provide insights into the variable effects of NC's chaperone activity observed during in vitro studies of divalent metal-dependent reverse transcription reactions and suggest the feasibility of NC-facilitated proviral DNA

  20. Spatial proximity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers investigated by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mély, Y; Jullian, N; Morellet, N; De Rocquigny, H; Dong, C Z; Piémont, E; Roques, B P; Gérard, D

    1994-10-11

    The three-dimensional structure of peptides encompassing the two zinc-saturated finger motifs of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of HIV-1 has been reported by several groups. Whereas the folded structures of the finger motifs were in good agreement, discrepancies existed concerning their spatial relationship since the fingers were found either close to each other [Morellet, N., Jullian, N., De Rocquigny, H., Maigret, B., Darlix, J. L., & Roques, B. P. (1992) Embo J. 11, 3059-3065] or independently folded [Omichinski, J. G., Clore, G. M., Sakaguchi, K., Appella, E., & Gronenborn, A. M. (1991) FEBS Lett. 292, 25-30, Summers, M. F., Henderson, L. E., Chance, M. R., Bess, J. W., Jr., South, T. L., Blake, P. R., Sagi, I., Perez-Alvarado, G., Sowder, R.C., III, Hare, D.R., & Arthur, L. O. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 563-574]. As in the interacting finger model, Phe16 in the NH2-terminal finger and Trp37 in the COOH-terminal finger were found to be spatially close, the fluorescence properties of the aromatic residues at positions 16 and 37 in the wild-type and two conservatively substituted (12-53) NCp7 peptides were investigated and compared with those of three negative control derivatives where the finger motifs were not in close contact. Direct distance measurements by Tyr-Trp fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the former derivatives yielded a 7-12 A interchromophore distance range which is clearly inconsistent with the 12.5-18 A range measured for the negative controls and thus a random orientation of the zinc finger motifs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Porcine circovirus-2 DNA concentration distinguishes wasting from nonwasting pigs and is correlated with lesion distribution, severity, and nucleocapsid staining intensity.

    PubMed

    Harding, John C S; Baker, Crissie D; Tumber, Anju; McIntosh, Kathleen A; Parker, Sarah E; Middleton, Dorothy M; Hill, Janet E; Ellis, John A; Krakowka, Steven

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of severe porcine circoviral disease in North America is associated with Porcine circovirus-2 genotype b (PCV-2b), which has led to speculation that PCV-2b is more virulent than PCV-2a. The objectives of this study were to 1) correlate the PCV-2 DNA concentration and lesions in wasting (WST) and age-matched healthy (HLTH) pigs from 2 clinically affected farms, and unaffected (UNFCT) pigs from a farm with no prior clinical or diagnostic history of PCVD; and 2) to determine the initial estimates of sensitivity and specificity of PCV-2 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PCV-2b was confirmed in all 3 farms. Compared with HLTH pigs, WST pigs demonstrated significantly more prevalent thymic atrophy, failure of normal pulmonary collapse, and ascites (P < 0.017 for all). The HLTH and UNFCT pigs had significantly more pronounced lymphoid germinal centers and proliferative paracortical T-dependent zones, compared with WST pigs (P < 0.017). Across all tissues, PCV-2 DNA concentrations were significantly higher in WST compared with HLTH and UNFCT pigs (P < 0.017 for all). The PCV-2 DNA concentrations were strongly correlated with PCV-2 nucleocapsid staining intensity in lymph node, spleen, Peyer's patches, lung, liver, and kidney (0.60 < or = r < or = 0.84). In the current study, the PCV-2 DNA log10 cutoff concentrations best able to distinguish WST from HLTH and UNFCT pigs were between 7.0 and 8.0 per gram for tissues, and between 4.0 and 5.0 per milliliter for sera. The presence of PCV-2b in UNFCT pigs is evidence that PCV-2b by itself is not sufficient to induce severe disease.

  2. Spatial proximity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers investigated by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mély, Y; Jullian, N; Morellet, N; De Rocquigny, H; Dong, C Z; Piémont, E; Roques, B P; Gérard, D

    1994-10-11

    The three-dimensional structure of peptides encompassing the two zinc-saturated finger motifs of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of HIV-1 has been reported by several groups. Whereas the folded structures of the finger motifs were in good agreement, discrepancies existed concerning their spatial relationship since the fingers were found either close to each other [Morellet, N., Jullian, N., De Rocquigny, H., Maigret, B., Darlix, J. L., & Roques, B. P. (1992) Embo J. 11, 3059-3065] or independently folded [Omichinski, J. G., Clore, G. M., Sakaguchi, K., Appella, E., & Gronenborn, A. M. (1991) FEBS Lett. 292, 25-30, Summers, M. F., Henderson, L. E., Chance, M. R., Bess, J. W., Jr., South, T. L., Blake, P. R., Sagi, I., Perez-Alvarado, G., Sowder, R.C., III, Hare, D.R., & Arthur, L. O. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 563-574]. As in the interacting finger model, Phe16 in the NH2-terminal finger and Trp37 in the COOH-terminal finger were found to be spatially close, the fluorescence properties of the aromatic residues at positions 16 and 37 in the wild-type and two conservatively substituted (12-53) NCp7 peptides were investigated and compared with those of three negative control derivatives where the finger motifs were not in close contact. Direct distance measurements by Tyr-Trp fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the former derivatives yielded a 7-12 A interchromophore distance range which is clearly inconsistent with the 12.5-18 A range measured for the negative controls and thus a random orientation of the zinc finger motifs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7918429

  3. The RING domain and the L79 residue of Z protein are involved in both the rescue of nucleocapsids and the incorporation of glycoproteins into infectious chimeric arenavirus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Casabona, Juan Cruz; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Gomez, Guillermo A; Lopez, Nora

    2009-07-01

    Arenaviruses, such as Tacaribe virus (TacV) and its closely related pathogenic Junin virus (JunV), are enveloped viruses with a bipartite negative-sense RNA genome that encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N), the precursor of the envelope glycoprotein complex (GP), the polymerase (L), and a RING finger protein (Z), which is the driving force of arenavirus budding. We have established a plasmid-based system which allowed the successful packaging of TacV-like nucleocapsids along with Z and GP of JunV into infectious virus-like particles (VLPs). By coexpressing different combinations of the system components, followed by biochemical analysis of the VLPs, the requirements for the assembly of both N and GP into particles were defined. We found that coexpression of N with Z protein in the absence of minigenome and other viral proteins was sufficient to recruit N within lipid-enveloped Z-containing VLPs. In addition, whereas GP was not required for the incorporation of N, coexpression of N substantially enhanced the ratio of GP to Z into VLPs. Disruption of the RING structure or mutation of residue L79 to alanine within Z protein, although it had no effect on Z self-budding, severely impaired VLP infectivity. These mutations drastically altered intracellular Z-N interactions and the incorporation of both N and GP into VLPs. Our results support the conclusion that the interaction between Z and N is required for assembly of both the nucleocapsids and the glycoproteins into infectious arenavirus budding particles. PMID:19420075

  4. The RING Domain and the L79 Residue of Z Protein Are Involved in both the Rescue of Nucleocapsids and the Incorporation of Glycoproteins into Infectious Chimeric Arenavirus-Like Particles ▿

    PubMed Central

    Casabona, Juan Cruz; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M.; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Lopez, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Arenaviruses, such as Tacaribe virus (TacV) and its closely related pathogenic Junin virus (JunV), are enveloped viruses with a bipartite negative-sense RNA genome that encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N), the precursor of the envelope glycoprotein complex (GP), the polymerase (L), and a RING finger protein (Z), which is the driving force of arenavirus budding. We have established a plasmid-based system which allowed the successful packaging of TacV-like nucleocapsids along with Z and GP of JunV into infectious virus-like particles (VLPs). By coexpressing different combinations of the system components, followed by biochemical analysis of the VLPs, the requirements for the assembly of both N and GP into particles were defined. We found that coexpression of N with Z protein in the absence of minigenome and other viral proteins was sufficient to recruit N within lipid-enveloped Z-containing VLPs. In addition, whereas GP was not required for the incorporation of N, coexpression of N substantially enhanced the ratio of GP to Z into VLPs. Disruption of the RING structure or mutation of residue L79 to alanine within Z protein, although it had no effect on Z self-budding, severely impaired VLP infectivity. These mutations drastically altered intracellular Z-N interactions and the incorporation of both N and GP into VLPs. Our results support the conclusion that the interaction between Z and N is required for assembly of both the nucleocapsids and the glycoproteins into infectious arenavirus budding particles. PMID:19420075

  5. Identification of a high affinity nucleocapsid protein binding element within the Moloney murine leukemia virus Psi-RNA packaging signal: implications for genome recognition.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, V; Melamed, J; Habib, D; Pullen, K; Wallace, K; Summers, M F

    2001-11-23

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) is currently the most widely used gene delivery system in gene therapy trials. The simple retrovirus packages two copies of its RNA genome by a mechanism that involves interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of a virally-encoded Gag polyprotein and a segment of the RNA genome located just upstream of the Gag initiation codon, known as the Psi-site. Previous studies indicated that the MLV Psi-site contains three stem loops (SLB-SLD), and that stem loops SLC and SLD play prominent roles in packaging. We have developed a method for the preparation and purification of large quantities of recombinant Moloney MLV NC protein, and have studied its interactions with a series of oligoribonucleotides that contain one or more of the Psi-RNA stem loops. At RNA concentrations above approximately 0.3 mM, isolated stem loop SLB forms a duplex and stem loops SL-C and SL-D form kissing complexes, as expected from previous studies. However, neither the monomeric nor the dimeric forms of these isolated stem loops binds NC with significant affinity. Longer constructs containing two stem loops (SL-BC and SL-CD) also exhibit low affinities for NC. However, NC binds with high affinity and stoichiometrically to both the monomeric and dimeric forms of an RNA construct that contains all three stem loops (SL-BCD; K(d)=132(+/-55) nM). Titration of SL-BCD with NC also shifts monomer-dimer equilibrium toward the dimer. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the conserved GACG tetraloops of stem loops C and D do not influence the monomer-dimer equilibrium of SL-BCD, that the tetraloop of stem loop B does not participate directly in NC binding, and that the tetraloops of stem loops C and D probably also do not bind to NC. These surprising results differ considerably from those observed for HIV-1, where NC binds to individual stem loops with high affinity via interactions with exposed residues of the tetraloops. The present results indicate that MLV NC binds

  6. Competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using recombinant E. coli-expressed nucleocapsid protein as antigen.

    PubMed

    Dea, S; Wilson, L; Therrien, D; Cornaglia, E

    2000-06-01

    The 15 kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and is highly antigenic, which therefore makes it a suitable candidate for the detection of virus-specific antibodies and diagnosis of the disease. In this study, complementary DNA corresponding to the entire N gene of the IAF-Klop strain of PRRSV was cloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector, and the N protein was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein. The resulting GST-N recombinant fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and used as antigen for serological testing by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two anti-N specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (IAF-K8 and IAF-2B4), obtained following fusion experiments with spleen cells of BAlb/c mice that were immunized with the purified virus, were used in a competitive assay to increase the specificity of the ELISA. Both MAbs were found to be directed against highly conserved conformational epitopes of North American isolates of PRRSV. Optimal concentration of GST-N protein was determined by checkerboard titration, using hyperimmune pig antiserum to the homologous PRRSV strain, and corresponded to a range of 0.1-0.5 microg protein per well. When tested on 95 sera from pigs that were experimentally infected with the IAF-Klop strain, the competitive ELISA (K8-ELISA) was capable of detecting anti-PRRSV antibodies in 86.7% (65/75) and 92.6% (63/68) of pig sera known to be seropositive by indirect immunofluorescence (antibody titers >16) and a currently used commercial ELISA (HerdCheck(R); Idexx), with specificity values of 100 and 96.2%, respectively. When tested on clinical samples (542 sera) from 28 positive and 28 negative pig herds, the K8-ELISA performed in a similar way to HerdCheck(R) and immunofluorescence (IF) tests as shown by kappa values of 0.762 and 0.803. The sensitivity and specificity of K8-ELISA were 100% on a

  7. Determination of the pK(a) of the four Zn2+-coordinating residues of the distal finger motif of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: consequences on the binding of Zn2+.

    PubMed

    Bombarda, E; Morellet, N; Cherradi, H; Spiess, B; Bouaziz, S; Grell, E; Roques, B P; Mély, Y

    2001-07-13

    The nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is characterized by two highly conserved CCHC motifs that bind Zn2+ strongly. To elucidate the striking pH-dependence of the apparent Zn2+-binding constants of these motifs further, we investigated, using 1H NMR, potentiometry and fluorescence spectroscopy, the acid-base properties of the four Zn2+-coordinating residues of (35-50)NCp7, a peptide corresponding to the distal finger motif of NCp7. With the exception of the H(beta2) proton of Cys39, the pH-dependence of the H(beta) proton resonances of the three Cys residues and, the H(delta) and H(epsilon) resonances of His44 in the apopeptide could be fitted adequately with a single pK(a). This suggests that the protonating groups are non-interacting, a feature that was confirmed by a potentiometric titration. The pK(a) of His44, Cys36, Cys39, and Cys49 in the apopeptide were found to be 6.4, 8.0, 8.8 and 9.3, respectively. Accordingly, the deprotonation is almost sequential and may thus induce a sequential binding of Zn2+ to the four coordinating residues. The high pK(a) of Cys49 is probably related to the negative charge of the neighboring Asp48. Such a high pK(a) may be a general feature in nucleocapsid proteins (NCs), since an acidic residue generally occupies the (i-1) position of the C-terminal Cys residue of single-finger NCs and distal finger motifs in two-finger NCs. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested the formation of a hydrogen bonded network that weakly structured the Cys36-Cys39 segment in the apopeptide. This network depends on the protonation state of Cys36 and may thus explain the biphasic behavior of the pH-dependence of the Cys39 H(beta2) resonance. Finally, the pK(a) values were used to build up a model describing the coordination of Zn2+ to (35-50)NCp7 at equilibrium. It appears that each protonation step of the coordination complex decreases the Zn2+-binding constant by about four orders of magnitude and that a significant

  8. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the predicted rRNA-binding domain of ErmC' redefines the substrate-binding site and suggests a model for protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Gordana; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Feder, Marcin; Pongor, Sándor; Flögel, Mirna

    2003-08-15

    The Erm family of adenine-N(6) methyltransferases (MTases) is responsible for the development of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics through the methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA. Hence, these proteins are important potential drug targets. Despite the availability of the NMR and crystal structures of two members of the family (ErmAM and ErmC', respectively) and extensive studies on the RNA substrate, the substrate-binding site and the amino acids involved in RNA recognition by the Erm MTases remain unknown. It has been proposed that the small C-terminal domain functions as a target-binding module, but this prediction has not been tested experimentally. We have undertaken structure-based mutational analysis of 13 charged or polar residues located on the predicted rRNA-binding surface of ErmC' with the aim to identify the area of protein-RNA interactions. The results of in vivo and in vitro analyses of mutant protein suggest that the key RNA-binding residues are located not in the small domain, but in the large catalytic domain, facing the cleft between the two domains. Based on the mutagenesis data, a preliminary three-dimensional model of ErmC' complexed with the minimal substrate was constructed. The identification of the RNA-binding site of ErmC' may be useful for structure-based design of novel drugs that do not necessarily bind to the cofactor-binding site common to many S-adenosyl-L- methionine-dependent MTases, but specifically block the substrate-binding site of MTases from the Erm family. PMID:12907737

  9. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the predicted rRNA-binding domain of ErmC' redefines the substrate-binding site and suggests a model for protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Gordana; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Feder, Marcin; Pongor, Sándor; Flögel, Mirna

    2003-08-15

    The Erm family of adenine-N(6) methyltransferases (MTases) is responsible for the development of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics through the methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA. Hence, these proteins are important potential drug targets. Despite the availability of the NMR and crystal structures of two members of the family (ErmAM and ErmC', respectively) and extensive studies on the RNA substrate, the substrate-binding site and the amino acids involved in RNA recognition by the Erm MTases remain unknown. It has been proposed that the small C-terminal domain functions as a target-binding module, but this prediction has not been tested experimentally. We have undertaken structure-based mutational analysis of 13 charged or polar residues located on the predicted rRNA-binding surface of ErmC' with the aim to identify the area of protein-RNA interactions. The results of in vivo and in vitro analyses of mutant protein suggest that the key RNA-binding residues are located not in the small domain, but in the large catalytic domain, facing the cleft between the two domains. Based on the mutagenesis data, a preliminary three-dimensional model of ErmC' complexed with the minimal substrate was constructed. The identification of the RNA-binding site of ErmC' may be useful for structure-based design of novel drugs that do not necessarily bind to the cofactor-binding site common to many S-adenosyl-L- methionine-dependent MTases, but specifically block the substrate-binding site of MTases from the Erm family.

  10. Resolution of the cellular proteome of the nucleocapsid protein from a highly pathogenic isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identifies PARP-1 as a cellular target whose interaction is critical for virus biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Lear, Zoe; Hughes, David J; Wu, Weining; Zhou, En-min; Whitehouse, Adrian; Chen, Hongying; Hiscox, Julian A

    2015-03-23

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry and food security worldwide. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural protein of PRRSV. The primary function of this protein is to encapsidate the viral RNA genome, and it is also thought to participate in the modulation of host cell biology and recruitment of cellular factors to facilitate virus infection. In order to the better understand these latter roles the cellular interactome of PRRSV N protein was defined using label free quantitative proteomics. This identified several cellular factors that could interact with the N protein including poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a cellular protein, which can add adenosine diphosphate ribose to a protein. Use of the PARP-1 small molecule inhibitor, 3-AB, in PRRSV infected cells demonstrated that PARP-1 was required and acted as an enhancer factor for virus biology. Serial growth of PRRSV in different concentrations of 3-AB did not yield viruses that were able to grow with wild type kinetics, suggesting that by targeting a cellular protein crucial for virus biology, resistant phenotypes did not emerge. This study provides further evidence that cellular proteins, which are critical for virus biology, can also be targeted to ablate virus growth and provide a high barrier for the emergence of drug resistance.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for detection of total antibodies in human and animal sera by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yongjun; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiling; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Zhiyang; Zhou, Minghao; Bao, Changjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hua

    2012-02-01

    The recent emergence of the human infection confirmed to be caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in China is of global concern. Safe diagnostic immunoreagents for determination of human and animal seroprevalence in epidemiological investigations are urgently needed. This paper describes the cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SFTSV. An N-protein-based double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was set up to detect the total antibodies in human and animal sera. We reasoned that as the double-antigen sandwich ELISA detected total antibodies with a higher sensitivity than traditional indirect ELISA, it could be used to detect SFTSV-specific antibodies from different animal species. The serum neutralization test was used to validate the performance of this ELISA system. All human and animal sera that tested positive in the neutralization test were also positive in the sandwich ELISA, and there was a high correlation between serum neutralizing titers and ELISA readings. Cross-reactivity was evaluated, and the system was found to be highly specific to SFTSV; all hantavirus- and dengue virus-confirmed patient samples were negative. SFTSV-confirmed human and animal sera from both Anhui and Hubei Provinces in China reacted with N protein in this ELISA, suggesting no major antigenic variation between geographically disparate virus isolates and the suitability of this assay in nationwide application. ELISA results showed that 3.6% of the human serum samples and 47.7% of the animal field serum samples were positive for SFTSV antibodies, indicating that SFTSV has circulated widely in China. This assay, which is simple to operate, poses no biohazard risk, does not require sophisticated equipment, and can be used in disease surveillance programs, particularly in the screening of large numbers of samples from various animal species.

  12. Rapid and sensitive detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against canine distemper virus by a new recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    von Messling, V; Harder, T C; Moennig, V; Rautenberg, P; Nolte, I; Haas, L

    1999-04-01

    Canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) infection causes a frequently fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore species, including domestic dogs. In CDV infection, classical serology provides data of diagnostic and prognostic values (kinetics of seroconversion) and is also used to predict the optimal vaccination age of pups. Routine CDV serology is still based on time- and cost-intensive virus neutralization assays (V-NA). Here, we describe a new capture-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses recombinant baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of a recent CDV wild-type isolate (2544/Han95) for the detection of CDV-specific antibodies in canine sera. Recombinant antigen was produced with high efficacy in Heliothis virescens larvae. The capture-sandwich ELISA enabled a clear-cut qualitative evaluation of the CDV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM serostatuses of 196 and 35 dog sera, respectively. Inter-rater agreement analysis (kappa = 0.988) indicated that the ELISA can be used unrestrictedly as a substitute for the V-NA for the qualitative determination of CDV-specific IgG serostatus. In an attempt to semiquantify N-specific antibodies, a one-step-dilution (alpha method) IgG-specific ELISA was implemented. Alpha values of >/=50% showed very good inter-rater agreement (kappa = 0.968) with V-NA titers of >/=1/100 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) as measured against the central European CDV wild-type isolate 2544/Han95 in canine sera originating from northern Germany. An ND50 titer of 1/100 is considered a threshold, and titers of >/=1/100 indicate a resilient, protective immunity. CDV N-specific antibodies of the IgM class were detected by the newly developed ELISA in 9 of 15 sera obtained from dogs with symptoms of acute distemper. In leucocytes of 5 of the 15 dogs (all of which were also IgM positive) CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The recombinant capture-sandwich ELISA detecting N-specific antibodies

  13. Heat Shock Protein 70 Family Members Interact with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Hazara Virus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Perform a Functional Role in the Nairovirus Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Surtees, Rebecca; Dowall, Stuart D.; Shaw, Amelia; Armstrong, Stuart; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W.; Mankouri, Jamel; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family contains serious human and animal pathogens classified within multiple serogroups and species. Of these serogroups, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) serogroup comprises sole members CCHFV and Hazara virus (HAZV). CCHFV is an emerging zoonotic virus that causes often-fatal hemorrhagic fever in infected humans for which preventative or therapeutic strategies are not available. In contrast, HAZV is nonpathogenic to humans and thus represents an excellent model to study aspects of CCHFV biology under conditions of more-accessible biological containment. The three RNA segments that form the nairovirus genome are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that are substrates for RNA synthesis and packaging into virus particles. We used quantitative proteomics to identify cellular interaction partners of CCHFV N and identified robust interactions with cellular chaperones. These interactions were validated using immunological methods, and the specific interaction between native CCHFV N and cellular chaperones of the HSP70 family was confirmed during live CCHFV infection. Using infectious HAZV, we showed for the first time that the nairovirus N-HSP70 association was maintained within both infected cells and virus particles, where N is assembled as RNPs. Reduction of active HSP70 levels in cells by the use of small-molecule inhibitors significantly reduced HAZV titers, and a model for chaperone function in the context of high genetic variability is proposed. These results suggest that chaperones of the HSP70 family are required for nairovirus replication and thus represent a genetically stable cellular therapeutic target for preventing nairovirus-mediated disease. IMPORTANCE Nairoviruses compose a group of human and animal viruses that are transmitted by ticks and associated with serious or fatal disease. One member is Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

  14. Zinc- and sequence-dependent binding to nucleic acids by the N-terminal zinc finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: NMR structure of the complex with the Psi-site analog, dACGCC.

    PubMed

    South, T L; Summers, M F

    1993-01-01

    The nucleic acid interactive properties of a synthetic peptide with sequence of the N-terminal CCHC zinc finger (CCHC = Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys; X = variable amino acid) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleocapsid protein, Zn(HIV1-F1), have been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Titration of Zn(HIV1-F1) with oligodeoxyribonucleic acids containing different nucleotide sequences reveals, for the first time, sequence-dependent binding that requires the presence of at least one guanosine residue for tight complex formation. The dynamics of complex formation are sensitive to the nature of the residues adjacent to guanosine, with residues on the 3' side of guanosine having the largest influence. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide with sequence corresponding to a portion of the HIV-1 psi-packaging signal, d(ACGCC), forms a relatively tight complex with Zn(HIV1-F1) (Kd = 5 x 10(-6) M). Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data indicate that the bound nucleic acid exists predominantly in a single-stranded, A-helical conformation, and the presence of more than a dozen intermolecular NOE cross peaks enabled three-dimensional modeling of the complex. The nucleic acid binds within a hydrophobic cleft on the peptide surface. This hydrophobic cleft is defined by the side chains of residues Val1, Phe4, Ile12, and Ala13. Backbone amide protons of Phe4 and Ala13 and the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Lys2 that lie within this cleft appear to form hydrogen bonds with the guanosine O6 and N1H atoms, respectively. In addition, the positively charged side chain of Arg14 is ideally positioned for electrostatic interactions with the phosphodiester backbone of the nucleic acid. The structural findings provide a rationalization for the general conservation of these hydrophobic and basic residues in CCHC zinc fingers, and are consistent with site-directed mutagenesis results that implicate these residues as direct participants in viral genome recognition.

  15. Direct mass spectrometric determination of the stoichiometry and binding affinity of the complexes between nucleocapsid protein and RNA stem-loop hairpins of the HIV-1 Psi-recognition element.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nathan; Fabris, Daniele

    2003-09-16

    The formation of noncovalent complexes between the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein p7 (NC) and RNA hairpins SL2-SL4 of the Psi-recognition element was investigated by direct infusion electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS). The high resolution afforded by this method provided the unambiguous characterization of the stoichiometry and composition of complexes formed by multiple equilibria in solution. For each hairpin, the formation of a 1:1 complex was found to be the primary binding mode in solutions of intermediate salt content (150 mM ammonium acetate). Binding of multiple units of NC was observed with lower affinity and a maximum stoichiometry matching the limit calculated from the number of nucleotides in the construct and the size of the footprint of NC onto single-stranded nucleic acids, thus implying the defolding of the hairpin three-dimensional (3D) structure. Dissociation constants of 62 +/- 22 nM, 178 +/- 64 nM, and 1.3 +/- 0.5 microM were determined for SL2, SL3-2, and SL4, respectively, which are similar to values obtained by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods with the additional confidence offered by a direct, rather than inferred, knowledge of the binding stoichiometry. Competitive binding experiments carried out in solutions of intermediate ionic strength, which has the effect of weakening the electrostatic interactions in solution, provided a direct way of evaluating the stabilizing contributions of H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions that are more sensitive to the sequence and structural context of the different hairpins. The relative scale of binding affinity obtained in this environment reflects the combination of contributions provided by the different structures of both the tetraloop and the double-stranded stem. The importance of the stem 3D structure in modulating the binding activity was tested by a competitive binding experiment that included the SL3-2 RNA construct, a DNA analogue of SL3 (SL3(DNA)), and a

  16. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus by a New Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    von Messling, Veronika; Harder, Timm C.; Moennig, Volker; Rautenberg, Peter; Nolte, Ingo; Haas, Ludwig

    1999-01-01

    Canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) infection causes a frequently fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore species, including domestic dogs. In CDV infection, classical serology provides data of diagnostic and prognostic values (kinetics of seroconversion) and is also used to predict the optimal vaccination age of pups. Routine CDV serology is still based on time- and cost-intensive virus neutralization assays (V-NA). Here, we describe a new capture-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses recombinant baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of a recent CDV wild-type isolate (2544/Han95) for the detection of CDV-specific antibodies in canine sera. Recombinant antigen was produced with high efficacy in Heliothis virescens larvae. The capture-sandwich ELISA enabled a clear-cut qualitative evaluation of the CDV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM serostatuses of 196 and 35 dog sera, respectively. Inter-rater agreement analysis (κ = 0.988) indicated that the ELISA can be used unrestrictedly as a substitute for the V-NA for the qualitative determination of CDV-specific IgG serostatus. In an attempt to semiquantify N-specific antibodies, a one-step-dilution (alpha method) IgG-specific ELISA was implemented. Alpha values of ≥50% showed very good inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.968) with V-NA titers of ≥1/100 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) as measured against the central European CDV wild-type isolate 2544/Han95 in canine sera originating from northern Germany. An ND50 titer of 1/100 is considered a threshold, and titers of ≥1/100 indicate a resilient, protective immunity. CDV N-specific antibodies of the IgM class were detected by the newly developed ELISA in 9 of 15 sera obtained from dogs with symptoms of acute distemper. In leucocytes of 5 of the 15 dogs (all of which were also IgM positive) CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The recombinant capture-sandwich ELISA detecting N-specific antibodies of the

  17. Neurodegenerative diseases: quantitative predictions of protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Davide; Agostini, Federico; Klus, Petr; Marchese, Domenica; Rodriguez, Silvia; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that RNA plays an active role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We recently introduced a theoretical framework, catRAPID, to predict the binding ability of protein and RNA molecules. Here, we use catRAPID to investigate ribonucleoprotein interactions linked to inherited intellectual disability, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeuld-Jakob, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. We specifically focus on (1) RNA interactions with fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP; (2) protein sequestration caused by CGG repeats; (3) noncoding transcripts regulated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43 TDP-43; (4) autogenous regulation of TDP-43 and FMRP; (5) iron-mediated expression of amyloid precursor protein APP and α-synuclein; (6) interactions between prions and RNA aptamers. Our results are in striking agreement with experimental evidence and provide new insights in processes associated with neuronal function and misfunction.

  18. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a decameric form of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (Tsa1), C47S mutant, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio de Genu, Victor; Discola, Karen Fulan; Alves, Simone Vidigal; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Guimarães, Beatriz Gomes

    2007-08-01

    A recombinant mutant (C47S) of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 from S. cerevisiae was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from protein previously treated with 1,4-dithiothreitol. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (cTPxI or Tsa1) is a bifunctional enzyme with protective roles in cellular defence against oxidative and thermal stress that exhibits both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Protein overoxidation and/or high temperatures induce great changes in its quaternary structure and lead to its assembly into large complexes that possess chaperone activity. A recombinant mutant of Tsa1 from S. cerevisiae, with Cys47 substituted by serine, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a His{sub 6}-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained from protein previously treated with 1,4-dithiothreitol by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3000 as precipitant and sodium fluoride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods and structure refinement is currently in progress.

  20. Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Martin A; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Perrakis, Anatassis; Anderson, Paul M; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. Results We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 Å resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. Conclusions The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding α-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an ‘open fold’ with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed. PMID:10801492

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a decameric form of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (Tsa1), C47S mutant, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Genu, Victor; Discola, Karen Fulan; Alves, Simone Vidigal; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Guimarães, Beatriz Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (cTPxI or Tsa1) is a bifunctional enzyme with protective roles in cellular defence against oxidative and thermal stress that exhibits both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Protein overoxidation and/or high temperatures induce great changes in its quaternary structure and lead to its assembly into large complexes that possess chaperone activity. A recombinant mutant of Tsa1 from S. cerevisiae, with Cys47 substituted by serine, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a His(6)-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained from protein previously treated with 1,4-dithiothreitol by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3000 as precipitant and sodium fluoride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods and structure refinement is currently in progress. PMID:17671363

  2. Protein-RNA linkage and posttranslational modifications of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olspert, Allan; Hosmillo, Myra; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Peil, Lauri; Truve, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Caliciviridae family of positive sense RNA viruses cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals. The detailed characterization of the calicivirus life cycle had been hampered due to the lack of robust cell culture systems and experimental tools for many of the members of the family. However, a number of caliciviruses replicate efficiently in cell culture and have robust reverse genetics systems available, most notably feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV). These are therefore widely used as representative members with which to examine the mechanistic details of calicivirus genome translation and replication. The replication of the calicivirus RNA genome occurs via a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is then used as a template for the production of new positive sense viral RNA, which is covalently linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg. The covalent linkage to VPg occurs during genome replication via the nucleotidylylation activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using FCV and MNV, we used mass spectrometry-based approach to identify the specific amino acid linked to the 5′ end of the viral nucleic acid. We observed that both VPg proteins are covalently linked to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) moieties via tyrosine positions 24 and 26 for FCV and MNV respectively. These data fit with previous observations indicating that mutations introduced into these specific amino acids are deleterious for viral replication and fail to produce infectious virus. In addition, we also detected serine phosphorylation sites within the FCV VPg protein with positions 80 and 107 found consistently phosphorylated on VPg-linked viral RNA isolated from infected cells. This work provides the first direct experimental characterization of the linkage of infectious calicivirus viral RNA to the VPg protein and highlights that post-translational modifications of VPg may also occur during the viral life cycle. PMID:27375966

  3. Protein-RNA linkage and posttranslational modifications of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins.

    PubMed

    Olspert, Allan; Hosmillo, Myra; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Peil, Lauri; Truve, Erkki; Goodfellow, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Caliciviridae family of positive sense RNA viruses cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals. The detailed characterization of the calicivirus life cycle had been hampered due to the lack of robust cell culture systems and experimental tools for many of the members of the family. However, a number of caliciviruses replicate efficiently in cell culture and have robust reverse genetics systems available, most notably feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV). These are therefore widely used as representative members with which to examine the mechanistic details of calicivirus genome translation and replication. The replication of the calicivirus RNA genome occurs via a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is then used as a template for the production of new positive sense viral RNA, which is covalently linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg. The covalent linkage to VPg occurs during genome replication via the nucleotidylylation activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using FCV and MNV, we used mass spectrometry-based approach to identify the specific amino acid linked to the 5' end of the viral nucleic acid. We observed that both VPg proteins are covalently linked to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) moieties via tyrosine positions 24 and 26 for FCV and MNV respectively. These data fit with previous observations indicating that mutations introduced into these specific amino acids are deleterious for viral replication and fail to produce infectious virus. In addition, we also detected serine phosphorylation sites within the FCV VPg protein with positions 80 and 107 found consistently phosphorylated on VPg-linked viral RNA isolated from infected cells. This work provides the first direct experimental characterization of the linkage of infectious calicivirus viral RNA to the VPg protein and highlights that post-translational modifications of VPg may also occur during the viral life cycle. PMID:27375966

  4. DOMMINO 2.0: integrating structurally resolved protein-, RNA-, and DNA-mediated macromolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xingyan; Dhroso, Andi; Han, Jing Ginger; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Korkin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are formed between proteins, DNA and RNA molecules. Being a principle building block in macromolecular assemblies and pathways, the interactions underlie most of cellular functions. Malfunctioning of macromolecular interactions is also linked to a number of diseases. Structural knowledge of the macromolecular interaction allows one to understand the interaction's mechanism, determine its functional implications and characterize the effects of genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, on the interaction. Unfortunately, until now the interactions mediated by different types of macromolecules, e.g. protein-protein interactions or protein-DNA interactions, are collected into individual and unrelated structural databases. This presents a significant obstacle in the analysis of macromolecular interactions. For instance, the homogeneous structural interaction databases prevent scientists from studying structural interactions of different types but occurring in the same macromolecular complex. Here, we introduce DOMMINO 2.0, a structural Database Of Macro-Molecular INteractiOns. Compared to DOMMINO 1.0, a comprehensive database on protein-protein interactions, DOMMINO 2.0 includes the interactions between all three basic types of macromolecules extracted from PDB files. DOMMINO 2.0 is automatically updated on a weekly basis. It currently includes ∼1,040,000 interactions between two polypeptide subunits (e.g. domains, peptides, termini and interdomain linkers), ∼43,000 RNA-mediated interactions, and ∼12,000 DNA-mediated interactions. All protein structures in the database are annotated using SCOP and SUPERFAMILY family annotation. As a result, protein-mediated interactions involving protein domains, interdomain linkers, C- and N- termini, and peptides are identified. Our database provides an intuitive web interface, allowing one to investigate interactions at three different resolution levels: whole subunit network, binary interaction and interaction interface. Database URL: http://dommino.org.

  5. Analysis of Protein-RNA and Protein-Peptide Interactions in Equine Infectious Anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are essential for virtually all cellular functions including signal transduction processes, metabolic processes, regulation of gene expression and immune responses. This dissertation focuses on the characterization of two important macromolecular interactions involved in the relationship between Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) and its host cell in horse: (1) the interaction between the EIAV Rev protein and its binding site, the Rev-responsive element (RRE) and (2) interactions between equine MHC class I molecules and epitope peptides derived from EIAV proteins. EIAV, one of the most divergent members of the lentivirus family, has a single-stranded RNA genome and carries several regulatory and structural proteins within its viral particle. Rev is an essential EIAV regulatory encoded protein that interacts with the viral RRE, a specific binding site in the viral mRNA. Using a combination of experimental and computational methods, the interactions between EIAV Rev and RRE were characterized in detail. EIAV Rev was shown to have a bipartite RNA binding domain contain two arginine rich motifs (ARMs). The RRE secondary structure was determined and specific structural motifs that act as cis-regulatory elements for EIAV Rev-RRE interaction were identified. Interestingly, a structural motif located in the high affinity Rev binding site is well conserved in several diverse lentiviral genoes, including HIV-1. Macromolecular interactions involved in the immune response of the horse to EIAV infection were investigated by analyzing complexes between MHC class I proteins and epitope peptides derived from EIAV Rev, Env and Gag proteins. Computational modeling results provided a mechanistic explanation for the experimental finding that a single amino acid change in the peptide binding domain of the quine MHC class I molecule differentially affectes the recognitino of specific epitopes by EIAV-specific CTL. Together, the findings in this dissertation provide novel insights into the strategy used by EIAV to replicate itself, and provide new details about how the host cell responds to and defends against EIAV upon the infection. Moreover, they have contributed to the understanding of the macromolecular recognition events that regulate these processes.

  6. Rapid agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay for quantitating protein: RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Ream, Jennifer A; Lewis, L Kevin; Lewis, Karen A

    2016-10-15

    Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids are frequently analyzed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). This technique separates bound protein:nucleic acid complexes from free nucleic acids by electrophoresis, most commonly using polyacrylamide gels. The current study utilizes recent advances in agarose gel electrophoresis technology to develop a new EMSA protocol that is simpler and faster than traditional polyacrylamide methods. Agarose gels are normally run at low voltages (∼10 V/cm) to minimize heating and gel artifacts. In this study we demonstrate that EMSAs performed using agarose gels can be run at high voltages (≥20 V/cm) with 0.5 × TB (Tris-borate) buffer, allowing for short run times while simultaneously yielding high band resolution. Several parameters affecting band and image quality were optimized for the procedure, including gel thickness, agarose percentage, and applied voltage. Association of the siRNA-binding protein p19 with its target RNA was investigated using the new system. The agarose gel and conventional polyacrylamide gel methods generated similar apparent binding constants in side-by-side experiments. A particular advantage of the new approach described here is that the short run times (5-10 min) reduce opportunities for dissociation of bound complexes, an important concern in non-equilibrium nucleic acid binding experiments. PMID:27495142

  7. Versatile control of Plasmodium falciparum gene expression with an inducible protein-RNA interaction

    PubMed Central

    Goldfless, Stephen J.; Wagner, Jeffrey C.; Niles, Jacquin C.

    2014-01-01

    The available tools for conditional gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum are limited. Here, to enable reliable control of target gene expression, we build a system to efficiently modulate translation. We overcame several problems associated with other approaches for regulating gene expression in P. falciparum. Specifically, our system functions predictably across several native and engineered promoter contexts, and affords control over reporter and native parasite proteins irrespective of their subcellular compartmentalization. Induction and repression of gene expression are rapid, homogeneous, and stable over prolonged periods. To demonstrate practical application of our system, we used it to reveal direct links between antimalarial drugs and their native parasite molecular target. This is an important out come given the rapid spread of resistance, and intensified efforts to efficiently discover and optimize new antimalarial drugs. Overall, the studies presented highlight the utility of our system for broadly controlling gene expression and performing functional genetics in P. falciparum. PMID:25370483

  8. Protein-RNA Dynamics in the Central Junction Control 30S Ribosome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kris Ann; Lamichhane, Rajan; Lamichhane, Tek; Rueda, David; Cunningham, Philip R

    2016-09-11

    Interactions between ribosomal proteins (rproteins) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) facilitate the formation of functional ribosomes. S15 is a central domain primary binding protein that has been shown to trigger a cascade of conformational changes in 16S rRNA, forming the functional structure of the central domain. Previous biochemical and structural studies in vitro have revealed that S15 binds a three-way junction of helices 20, 21, and 22, including nucleotides 652-654 and 752-754. All junction nucleotides except 653 are highly conserved among the Bacteria. To identify functionally important motifs within the junction, we subjected nucleotides 652-654 and 752-754 to saturation mutagenesis and selected and analyzed functional mutants. Only 64 mutants with greater than 10% ribosome function in vivo were isolated. S15 overexpression complemented mutations in the junction loop in each of the partially active mutants, although mutations that produced inactive ribosomes were not complemented by overexpression of S15. Single-molecule Förster or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) was used to study the Mg(2+)- and S15-induced conformational dynamics of selected junction mutants. Comparison of the structural dynamics of these mutants with the wild type in the presence and absence of S15 revealed specific sequence and structural motifs in the central junction that are important in ribosome function. PMID:27192112

  9. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of SARS-coronavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang; Shao, Jianmin; Sun, Maomao; Liu, Jinxiu; Xu, Gongjin; Zhang, Xumin; Xu, Ningzhi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Siqi

    2007-12-01

    After decoding the genome of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), next challenge is to understand how this virus causes the illness at molecular bases. Of the viral structural proteins, the N protein plays a pivot role in assembly process of viral particles as well as viral replication and transcription. The SARS-CoV N proteins expressed in the eukaryotes, such as yeast and HEK293 cells, appeared in the multiple spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), whereas the proteins expressed in E. coli showed a single 2DE spotE These 2DE spots were further examined by Western blot and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, and identified as the N proteins with differently apparent pI values and similar molecular mass of 50 kDa. In the light of the observations and other evidences, a hypothesis was postulated that the SARS-CoV N protein could be phosphorylated in eukaryotes. To locate the plausible regions of phosphorylation in the N protein, two truncated N proteins were generated in E. coli and treated with PKC[alpha]. The two truncated N proteins after incubation of PKC[alpha] exhibited the differently electrophoretic behaviors on 2DE, suggesting that the region of 1-256 aa in the N protein was the possible target for PKC[alpha] phosphorylation. Moreover, the SARS-CoV N protein expressed in yeast were partially digested with trypsin and carefully analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In contrast to the completely tryptic digestion, these partially digested fragments generated two new peptide mass signals with neutral loss, and MS/MS analysis revealed two phosphorylated peptides located at the "dense serine" island in the N protein with amino acid sequences, GFYAEGSRGGSQASSRSSSR and GNSGNSTPGSSRGNSPARMASGGGK. With the PKC[alpha] phosphorylation treatment and the partially tryptic digestion, the N protein expressed in E. coli released the same peptides as observed in yeast cells. Thus, this investigation provided the preliminary data to determine the phosphorylation sites in the SARS-CoV N protein, and partially clarified the argument regarding the phosphorylation possibility of the N protein during the infection process of SARS-CoV to human host.

  10. A Druggable Pocket at the Nucleocapsid/Phosphoprotein Interaction Site of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ouizougun-Oubari, Mohamed; Pereira, Nelson; Tarus, Bogdan; Galloux, Marie; Lassoued, Safa; Fix, Jenna; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Hoos, Sylviane; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick; Bontems, François; Rey, Félix A.; Eléouët, Jean-François; Slama-Schwok, Anny

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Presently, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of severe respiratory infections in infants, cannot be treated efficiently with antivirals. However, its RNA-dependent polymerase complex offers potential targets for RSV-specific drugs. This includes the recognition of its template, the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), consisting of genomic RNA encapsidated by the RSV nucleoprotein, N. This recognition proceeds via interaction between the phosphoprotein P, which is the main polymerase cofactor, and N. The determinant role of the C terminus of P, and more particularly of the last residue, F241, in RNP binding and viral RNA synthesis has been assessed previously. Here, we provide detailed structural insight into this crucial interaction for RSV polymerase activity. We solved the crystallographic structures of complexes between the N-terminal domain of N (N-NTD) and C-terminal peptides of P and characterized binding by biophysical approaches. Our results provide a rationale for the pivotal role of F241, which inserts into a well-defined N-NTD pocket. This primary binding site is completed by transient contacts with upstream P residues outside the pocket. Based on the structural information of the N-NTD:P complex, we identified inhibitors of this interaction, selected by in silico screening of small compounds, that efficiently bind to N and compete with P in vitro. One of the compounds displayed inhibitory activity on RSV replication, thereby strengthening the relevance of N-NTD for structure-based design of RSV-specific antivirals. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a widespread pathogen that is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections in infants worldwide. RSV cannot be treated efficiently with antivirals, and no vaccine is presently available, with the development of pediatric vaccines being particularly challenging. Therefore, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies that specifically target RSV. The interaction between the RSV phosphoprotein P and the ribonucleoprotein complex is critical for viral replication. In this study, we identified the main structural determinants of this interaction, and we used them to screen potential inhibitors in silico. We found a family of molecules that were efficient competitors of P in vitro and showed inhibitory activity on RSV replication in cellular assays. These compounds provide a basis for a pharmacophore model that must be improved but that holds promises for the design of new RSV-specific antivirals. PMID:26246564

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation of measles virus nucleocapsid protein in persistently infected neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Y; Ofir, R; Salzberg, S; Heller, A; Weinstein, Y; Isakov, N; Udem, S; Wolfson, M; Rager-Zisman, B

    1995-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressing fatal human disease of the central nervous system which is a delayed sequel of measles virus (MV) infection. A typical pathological feature of this disease is the presence of viral ribonucleocapsid structures in the form of inclusion bodies and the absence of infectious virus or budding viral particles. The mechanisms governing the establishment and maintenance of a persistent MV infection in brain cells are still largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms underlying MV persistence in neuronal cells, a tissue culture model was studied. Clone NS20Y/MS of the murine neuroblastoma C1300 persistently infected with the wild-type Edmonston strain of MV secretes relatively high levels of alpha/beta interferon (IFN). As shown previously, treatment of the persistently infected cultures with anti-IFN serum converted the persistent state into a productive infection indicated by the appearance of multinucleated giant cells. In this study, we have investigated whether alpha/beta IFN produced by NS20Y/MS cells activates cellular protein tyrosine kinases which will induce tyrosine phosphorylating activity specific to virus-infected cells. We present data to show augmented protein tyrosine kinase activity in the persistently infected cells. We demonstrate that the MV N protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine in addition to serine and threonine in the persistent state but not in NS20Y cells acutely infected with MV. PMID:7884896

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of measles virus nucleocapsid protein in persistently infected neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Segev, Y; Ofir, R; Salzberg, S; Heller, A; Weinstein, Y; Isakov, N; Udem, S; Wolfson, M; Rager-Zisman, B

    1995-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressing fatal human disease of the central nervous system which is a delayed sequel of measles virus (MV) infection. A typical pathological feature of this disease is the presence of viral ribonucleocapsid structures in the form of inclusion bodies and the absence of infectious virus or budding viral particles. The mechanisms governing the establishment and maintenance of a persistent MV infection in brain cells are still largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms underlying MV persistence in neuronal cells, a tissue culture model was studied. Clone NS20Y/MS of the murine neuroblastoma C1300 persistently infected with the wild-type Edmonston strain of MV secretes relatively high levels of alpha/beta interferon (IFN). As shown previously, treatment of the persistently infected cultures with anti-IFN serum converted the persistent state into a productive infection indicated by the appearance of multinucleated giant cells. In this study, we have investigated whether alpha/beta IFN produced by NS20Y/MS cells activates cellular protein tyrosine kinases which will induce tyrosine phosphorylating activity specific to virus-infected cells. We present data to show augmented protein tyrosine kinase activity in the persistently infected cells. We demonstrate that the MV N protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine in addition to serine and threonine in the persistent state but not in NS20Y cells acutely infected with MV.

  13. A Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin system from Bacillus thuringiensis promotes plasmid retention during spore development.

    PubMed

    Short, Francesca L; Monson, Rita E; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group of bacteria often contain multiple large plasmids, including those encoding virulence factors in B. anthracis. Bacillus species can develop into spores in response to stress. During sporulation the genomic content of the cell is heavily compressed, which could result in counterselection of extrachromosomal genomic elements, unless they have robust stabilization and segregation systems. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are near-ubiquitous in prokaryotes and have multiple biological roles, including plasmid stabilization during vegetative growth. Here, we have shown that a Type III TA system, based on an RNA antitoxin and endoribonuclease toxin, from plasmid pAW63 in Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki HD-73 can dramatically promote plasmid retention in populations undergoing sporulation and germination, and we provide evidence that this occurs through the post-segregational killing of plasmid-free forespores. Our findings show how an extremely common genetic module can be used to ensure plasmid maintenance during stress-induced developmental transitions, with implications for plasmid dynamics in B. cereus s.l. bacteria.

  14. The zinc fingers of HIV nucleocapsid protein NCp7 direct interactions with the viral regulatory protein Vpr.

    PubMed

    de Rocquigny, H; Petitjean, P; Tanchou, V; Decimo, D; Drouot, L; Delaunay, T; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1997-12-01

    The 96-amino acid protein Vpr functions as a regulator of cellular processes involved in human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle, in particular by interrupting cells division in the G2 phase. Incorporation of Vpr in the virion was reported to be mediated by the C-terminal domain of the Pr55(Gag) polyprotein precursor, which includes NCp7, a protein involved in the genomic RNA encapsidation and p6, a protein required for particle budding. To precisely define the Gag and Vpr sequences involved in this protein-protein interaction, NCp7, p6, and Vpr as well as a series of derived peptides were synthesized using Fmoc (N-(9-fluorenyl)methoxycarbonyl) chemistry. Binding assays were carried out by Far Western experiments and by competition studies using (52-96)Vpr immobilized onto agarose beads. The results show that interaction between NCp7 and Vpr occurs in vitro by a recognition mechanism requiring the zinc fingers of NCp7 and the last 16 amino acids of Vpr. Moreover, NCp10, the equivalent of NCp7 in Moloney murine leukemia virus but not polysine inhibits Vpr-NCp7 complexation. Interestingly enough, Vpr was found to interact with Gag, NCp15, and NCp7 but not with mature p6 in vitro. In vivo mutations in NCp7 zinc fingers in an HIV-1 molecular clone led to viruses with important defects in Vpr encapsidation. Together, these results suggest that NCp7 cooperates with p6 to induce Vpr encapsidation in HIV-1 mature particles. The NCp7-Vpr complex could also be important for interaction of Vpr with cellular proteins involved in cell division.

  15. Glycosylation of purified enveloped nucleocapsids of the granulosis virus infecting Plodia interpunctella as determined by lectin binding.

    PubMed

    Russell, D L; Consigli, R A

    1985-12-01

    Using various iodinated plant lectins and a sensitive in vitro lectin binding procedure in which the radiolabeled lectins are applied directly to viral proteins on nitrocellulose sheets transferred from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (Bartles and Hubbard, 1984; Glass et al., 1981), the proteins of the granulosis virus infecting Plodia interpunctella were probed for carbohydrate moieties. Six proteins (Mr 39 700, 31 000, 29 900, 26 300, 17 800 and 12 600) could be detected using a probe for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine. Three proteins were also detectable with the probe specific for alpha-L-fucose (Mr 44 900, 31 000 and 17 800). One protein (Mr 17 800) was detected with the probe for sialic acid.

  16. Antigenic cross-reactivity among avian pneumoviruses of subgroups A, B, and C at the matrix but not nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Lwamba, Humphrey C M; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Swayne, David; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2002-01-01

    Earlier findings from our laboratory based on analysis of nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence identities of 15 avian pneumoviruses (APVs) isolated from the United States (subgroup C) demonstrated that the viruses were phylogenetically separated from the European subgroup A and subgroup B viruses. Here, we investigated whether viruses from the three subgroups were cross-reactive by testing field sera positive for each of the APV subgroups in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test with recombinant matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) proteins generated from a Minnesota APV isolate (APV/MN2A). Sera from turkeys infected with APV subgroup A, B, or C reacted with recombinant M protein derived from APV/MN2A. In contrast, recombinant N protein from APV/MN2A virus was reactive with sera from subtypes A and C viruses but not from subtype B virus. The results illustrate that viruses from the three APV subtypes share antigenic homology, and the M protein-based ELISA is adequate for monitoring APV outbreaks but not for distinguishing between different subtypes.

  17. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Y.-P.; Lin, J.-Y.; Jan, J.-T.; Leng, C.-H.; Chu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chen, S.-L. . E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-05-26

    The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla{sub b}ind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be First identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-{gamma} stimulation of blood CD8{sup +} T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.

  18. DTL, the Drosophila homolog of PIMT/Tgs1 nuclear receptor coactivator-interacting protein/RNA methyltransferase, has an essential role in development.

    PubMed

    Komonyi, Orbán; Pápai, Gábor; Enunlu, Izzet; Muratoglu, Selen; Pankotai, Tibor; Kopitova, Darija; Maróy, Péter; Udvardy, Andor; Boros, Imre

    2005-04-01

    We describe a novel Drosophila gene, dtl (Drosophila Tat-like), which encodes a 60-kDa protein with RNA binding activity and a methyltransferase (MTase) domain. Dtl has an essential role in Drosophila development. The homologs of DTL recently described include PIMT (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein with a methyltransferase domain), an RNA-binding protein that interacts with and enhances the nuclear receptor coactivator function, and TGS1, the methyltransferase involved in the formation of the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m3G) cap of non-coding small RNAs. DTL is expressed throughout all of the developmental stages of Drosophila. The dtl mRNA has two ORFs (uORF and dORF). The product of dORF is the 60-kDa PIMT/TGS1 homolog protein that is translated from an internal AUG located 538 bp downstream from the 5' end of the message. This product of dtl is responsible for the formation of the m3G cap of small RNAs of Drosophila. Trimethylguanosine synthase activity is essential in Drosophila. The deletion in the dORF or point mutation in the putative MTase active site results in a reduced pool of m3G cap-containing RNAs and lethality in the early pupa stage. The 5' region of the dtl message also has the coding capacity (uORF) for a 178 amino acid protein. For complete rescue of the lethal phenotype of dtl mutants, the presence of the entire dtl transcription unit is required. Transgenes that carry mutations within the uORF restore the MTase activity but result in only partial rescue of the lethal phenotype. Interestingly, two transgenes bearing a mutation in uORF or dORF in trans can result in complete rescue.

  19. Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge.

    PubMed

    Walker, Stephen J; Segal, Jeffrey; Aschner, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There are reports suggesting that some autistic children are unable to mount an adequate response following exposure to environmental toxins. This potential deficit, coupled with the similarity in clinical presentations of autism and some heavy metal toxicities, has led to the suggestion that heavy metal poisoning might play a role in the etiology of autism in uniquely susceptible individuals. Thimerosal, an anti-microbial preservative previously added routinely to childhood multi-dose vaccines, is composed of 49.6% ethyl mercury. Based on the levels of this toxin that children receive through routine immunization schedules in the first years of life, it has been postulated that thimerosal may be a potential triggering mechanism contributing to autism in susceptible individuals. One potential risk factor in these individuals may be an inability to adequately up-regulate metallothionein (MT) biosynthesis in response to presentation of a heavy metal challenge. To investigate this hypothesis, cultured lymphocytes (obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, AGRE) from autistic children and non-autistic siblings were challenged with either 10 microM ethyl mercury, 150 microM zinc, or fresh media (control). Following the challenge, total RNA was extracted and used to query "whole genome" DNA microarrays. Cultured lymphocytes challenged with zinc responded with an impressive up-regulation of MT transcripts (at least nine different MTs were over-expressed) while cells challenged with thimerosal responded by up-regulating numerous heat shock protein transcripts, but not MTs. Although there were no apparent differences between autistic and non-autistic sibling responses in this very small sampling group, the differences in expression profiles between those cells treated with zinc versus thimerosal were dramatic. Determining cellular response, at the level of gene expression, has important implications for the understanding and treatment of conditions that result from exposure to neurotoxic compounds.

  20. LFQProfiler and RNP(xl): Open-Source Tools for Label-Free Quantification and Protein-RNA Cross-Linking Integrated into Proteome Discoverer.

    PubMed

    Veit, Johannes; Sachsenberg, Timo; Chernev, Aleksandar; Aicheler, Fabian; Urlaub, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Modern mass spectrometry setups used in today's proteomics studies generate vast amounts of raw data, calling for highly efficient data processing and analysis tools. Software for analyzing these data is either monolithic (easy to use, but sometimes too rigid) or workflow-driven (easy to customize, but sometimes complex). Thermo Proteome Discoverer (PD) is a powerful software for workflow-driven data analysis in proteomics which, in our eyes, achieves a good trade-off between flexibility and usability. Here, we present two open-source plugins for PD providing additional functionality: LFQProfiler for label-free quantification of peptides and proteins, and RNP(xl) for UV-induced peptide-RNA cross-linking data analysis. LFQProfiler interacts with existing PD nodes for peptide identification and validation and takes care of the entire quantitative part of the workflow. We show that it performs at least on par with other state-of-the-art software solutions for label-free quantification in a recently published benchmark ( Ramus, C.; J. Proteomics 2016 , 132 , 51 - 62 ). The second workflow, RNP(xl), represents the first software solution to date for identification of peptide-RNA cross-links including automatic localization of the cross-links at amino acid resolution and localization scoring. It comes with a customized integrated cross-link fragment spectrum viewer for convenient manual inspection and validation of the results. PMID:27476824

  1. Protein-RNA and Protein-Protein Recognition by Dual KH1/2 Domains of the Neuronal Splicing Factor Nova-1

    SciTech Connect

    M Teplova; L Malinina; J Darnell; J Song; M Lu; R Abagyan; K Musunuru; A Teplov; S Burley; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Nova onconeural antigens are neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins implicated in paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (POMA) syndrome. Nova harbors three K-homology (KH) motifs implicated in alternate splicing regulation of genes involved in inhibitory synaptic transmission. We report the crystal structure of the first two KH domains (KH1/2) of Nova-1 bound to an in vitro selected RNA hairpin, containing a UCAG-UCAC high-affinity binding site. Sequence-specific intermolecular contacts in the complex involve KH1 and the second UCAC repeat, with the RNA scaffold buttressed by interactions between repeats. Whereas the canonical RNA-binding surface of KH2 in the above complex engages in protein-protein interactions in the crystalline state, the individual KH2 domain can sequence-specifically target the UCAC RNA element in solution. The observed antiparallel alignment of KH1 and KH2 domains in the crystal structure of the complex generates a scaffold that could facilitate target pre-mRNA looping on Nova binding, thereby potentially explaining Nova's functional role in splicing regulation.

  2. Vaccine efficacy of a cell lysate with recombinant baculovirus-expressed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus nucleocapsid protein against progression of FIP.

    PubMed

    Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Yamato, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Tasuku; Kaneko, Miyuki; Motokawa, Kenji; Kusuhara, Hajime; Kaneshima, Takashi; Arai, Setsuo; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    The Type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection of feline macrophages is enhanced by a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the S protein of FIPV. This antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activity increased with the MAb that showed a neutralizing activity with feline kidney cells, suggesting that there was a distinct correlation between ADE activity and the neutralizing activity. The close association between enhancing and neutralizing epitopes is an obstacle to developing a vaccine containing only neutralizing epitopes without enhancing epitopes. In this study, we immunized cats with cell lysate with recombinant baculovirus-expressed N protein of the Type I FIPV strain KU-2 with an adjuvant and investigated its preventive effect on the progression of FIP. Cats immunized with this vaccine produced antibodies against FIPV virion-derived N protein but did not produce virus-neutralizing antibodies. A delayed type hypersensitivity skin response to N protein was observed in these vaccinated cats, showing that cell mediated immunity against the FIPV antigen was induced. When these vaccinated cats were challenged with a high dose of heterologous FIPV, the survival rate was 75% (6/8), while the survival rate in the control group immunized with SF-9 cell-derived antigen was 12.5% (1/8). This study showed that immunization with the cell lysate with baculovirus-expressed N protein was effective in preventing the progression of FIP without inducing ADE of FIPV infection in cats.

  3. Structural characterization of the N-terminal part of the MERS-CoV nucleocapsid by X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Lichière, Julie; Baklouti, Amal; Ferron, François; Sévajol, Marion; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    The N protein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein that is organized into several domains. The N-terminal part is composed of an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) followed by a structured domain called the N-terminal domain (NTD). In this study, the structure determination of the N-terminal region of the MERS-CoV N protein via X-ray diffraction measurements is reported at a resolution of 2.4 Å. Since the first 30 amino acids were not resolved by X-ray diffraction, the structural study was completed by a SAXS experiment to propose a structural model including the IDR. This model presents the N-terminal region of the MERS-CoV as a monomer that displays structural features in common with other coronavirus NTDs. PMID:26894667

  4. An SH3 binding motif within the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus interacts with the host cellular signaling proteins STAMI, TXK, Fyn, Hck, and cortactin.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Scott P; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically important global swine disease, and has a complicated virus-host immunomodulation that often leads to a weak Th2 immune response and viral persistence. In this study, we identified a Src homology 3 (SH3) binding motif, PxxPxxP, that is conserved within the N protein of PRRSV strains. Subsequently, we identified five host cellular proteins [signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM)I, TXK tyrosine kinase (TXK), protein tyrosine kinase fyn (Fyn), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and cortactin] that interact with this SH3 motif. We demonstrated that binding of SH3 proteins with PRRSV N protein depends on at least one intact PxxP motif as disruption of P53 within the motif significantly reduced interaction of each of the 5 proteins. The first PxxP motif appears to be more important for STAMI-N protein interactions whereas the second PxxP motif was more important for Hck interaction. Both STAMI and Hck interactions with PRRSV N protein required an unhindered C-terminal domain as the interaction was only observed with STAMI and Hck proteins with N-terminal but not C-terminal fluorescent tags. We showed that the P56 residue within the SH3 motif is critical for virus lifecycle as mutation resulted in a loss of virus infectivity, however the P50 and P53 mutations did not abolish virus infectivity suggesting that these highly conserved proline residues within the SH3 motif may provide a selective growth advantage through interactions with the host rather than a vital functional element. These results have important implications in understanding PRRSV-host interactions.

  5. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Kristen; Lokesh, G.L.; Sherman, Michael; Watowich, Stanley

    2010-10-25

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae. To better understand alphavirus assembly, we analyzed newly formed nucleocapsid particles (termed pre-viral nucleocapsids) isolated from infected cells. These particles were intermediates along the virus assembly pathway, and ultimately bind membrane-associated viral glycoproteins to bud as mature infectious virus. Purified pre-viral nucleocapsids were spherical with a unimodal diameter distribution. The structure of one class of pre-viral nucleocapsids was determined with single particle reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images. These studies showed that pre-viral nucleocapsids assembled into an icosahedral structure with a capsid stoichiometry similar to the mature nucleocapsid. However, the individual capsomers were organized significantly differently within the pre-viral and mature nucleocapsids. The pre-viral nucleocapsid structure implies that nucleocapsids are highly plastic and undergo glycoprotein and/or lipid-driven rearrangements during virus self-assembly. This mechanism of self-assembly may be general for other enveloped viruses.

  6. 75 FR 70010 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... specifically, these compounds target the highly-conserved nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. Activity of these compounds against the nucleocapsid protein leads to inactivation of the virus via disruption of the zinc fingers, integral for infectivity, without significantly affecting cellular proteins. Finally,...

  7. Structural Polypeptides of the Granulosis Virus of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1980-02-01

    Techniques were developed for the isolation and purification of three structural components of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus: granulin, enveloped nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsids. The polypeptide composition and distribution of protein in each viral component were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate discontinuous and gradient polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Enveloped nucleocapsids consisted of 15 structural proteins ranging in molecular weight from 12,600 to 97,300. Five of these proteins, having approximate molecular weights of 17,800, 39,700, 42,400, 48,200, and 97,300, were identified as envelope proteins by surface radioiodination of the enveloped nucleocapsids. Present in purified nucleocapsids were eight polypeptides. The predominant proteins in this structural component had molecular weights of 12,500 and 31,000. Whereas no evidence of polypeptide glycosylation was obtained, six of the viral proteins were observed to be phosphorylated.

  8. Structure of Hepatitis E Virion-Sized Particle Reveals an RNA-Dependent Viral Assembly Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, L.; Wall, J.; Li, T.-C.; Mayazaki, N.; Simon, M. N.; Moore, M.; Wang, C.-Y.; Takeda, N.; Wakita, T.; Miyamura, T.; Cheng, R. H.

    2010-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) induces acute hepatitis in humans with a high fatality rate in pregnant women. There is a need for anti-HEV research to understand the assembly process of HEV native capsid. Here, we produced a large virion-sized and a small T=1 capsid by expressing the HEV capsid protein in insect cells with and without the N-terminal 111 residues, respectively, for comparative structural analysis. The virion-sized capsid demonstrates a T=3 icosahedral lattice and contains RNA fragment in contrast to the RNA-free T=1 capsid. However, both capsids shared common decameric organization. The in vitro assembly further demonstrated that HEV capsid protein had the intrinsic ability to form decameric intermediate. Our data suggest that RNA binding is the extrinsic factor essential for the assembly of HEV native capsids.

  9. Reaction of the N-terminal methionine residues in cyanase with diethylpyrocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P M; Korte, J J; Holcomb, T A

    1994-11-29

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is a decamer of identical subunits (M(r) = 17,000). Previous studies have shown that modification of either the single cysteine residue or the single histidine residue in each subunit gives an active decameric derivative that dissociates reversibly to inactive dimer derivative, indicating that decameric structure is required for activity and that the SH and imidazole groups are not required for catalytic activity [Anderson, P. M., Korte, J. J., Holcomb, T. A., Cho, Y.-G., Son, C.-M., & Sung, Y.-C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15036-15045]. Here the effects of reaction of the reagent diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) with cyanase or mutant cyanases are reported. DEPC reacts stoichiometrically with the histidine residue and at one additional site in each subunit when the enzyme is in the inactive dimer form, preventing reactivation. DEPC reacts stoichiometrically (with the same result on reactivation) at only one site per subunit with the inactive dimer form of cyanase mutants in which the single histidine residue has been replaced by one of several different amino acids by site-directed mutagenesis; the site of the reaction was identified as the amino group of the N-terminal methionine. DEPC does not react with the histidine residue of the active decameric form of wild-type cyanase and does not affect activity of the active decameric form of wild-type or mutant cyanases. Reaction with the N-terminal amino group of methionine apparently prevents reactivation of the mutant enzymes by blocking association to decamer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Ultrastructure of Measles Virus in Cultures of Hamster Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Raine, C. S.; Feldman, L. A.; Sheppard, R. D.; Bornstein, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    Replication of Edmonston strain of measles virus in cultures of hamster central nervous system tissue was studied by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. Infected cultures were fixed from 3 hr to 39 days postinoculation (PI). Measles nucleocapsid was first seen within the cytoplasm of giant cells, the latter appearing 5 to 6 days PI. Measles virus particles were most abundant at 10 days PI and appeared to bud off from areas of the cell membrane along which nucleocapsid was aligned. Intranuclear nucleocapsid was more abundant at later stages, and by 39 days PI entire nuclei were seen to be occupied. By this time, the cytoplasmic formations, which had been sequestered by membranes, appeared to lose their regular structure. Budding viral particles at 39 days PI were of a much simplified structure and did not involve the alignment of nucleocapsid about their periphery. Images PMID:5806983

  11. 3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages by Serial Section Array Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Mike; Joubert, Lydia; Perrino, John; Koh, Ai Leen; Phanwar, Ibanri; Arvin, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM) and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity), what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency) and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the single cell

  12. Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 μm long and 850-485 μm wide constructed from 8 μm thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100μl, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

  13. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Matzke, B; Schaller, H; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the circular viral genome, and ends just downstream of the unique polyadenylation site in HBV. In these animals, the viral mRNA is more abundant in centrilobular hepatocytes than elsewhere in the hepatic lobule. High-level viral DNA replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsid particles that preferentially form in the cytoplasm of these centrilobular hepatocytes, suggesting that an expression threshold must be reached for nucleocapsid assembly and viral replication to occur. Despite the restricted distribution of the viral replication machinery in centrilobular cytoplasmic nucleocapsids, nucleocapsid particles are detectable in the vast majority of hepatocyte nuclei throughout the hepatic lobule. The intranuclear nucleocapsid particles are empty, however, suggesting that viral nucleocapsid particle assembly occurs independently in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte and implying that cytoplasmic nucleocapsid particles do not transport the viral genome across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus during the viral life cycle. This model creates the opportunity to examine the influence of viral and host factors on HBV pathogenesis and replication and to assess the antiviral potential of pharmacological agents and physiological processes, including the immune response. PMID:7666518

  14. Atomic Resolution Description of the Interaction between the Nucleoprotein and Phosphoprotein of Hendra Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yabukarski, Filip; Blocquel, David; Schneider, Robert; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.; Jamin, Marc; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Longhi, Sonia; Blackledge, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The HeV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. Recruitment of the viral polymerase onto the nucleocapsid template relies on the interaction between the C-terminal domain, NTAIL, of N and the C-terminal X domain, XD, of the polymerase co-factor phosphoprotein (P). Here, we provide an atomic resolution description of the intrinsically disordered NTAIL domain in its isolated state and in intact nucleocapsids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using electron microscopy, we show that HeV nucleocapsids form herringbone-like structures typical of paramyxoviruses. We also report the crystal structure of XD of P that consists of a three-helix bundle. We study the interaction between NTAIL and XD using NMR titration experiments and provide a detailed mapping of the reciprocal binding sites. We show that the interaction is accompanied by α-helical folding of the molecular recognition element of NTAIL upon binding to a hydrophobic patch on the surface of XD. Finally, using solution NMR, we investigate the interaction between intact nucleocapsids and XD. Our results indicate that monomeric XD binds to NTAIL without triggering an additional unwinding of the nucleocapsid template. The present results provide a structural description at the atomic level of the protein-protein interactions required for transcription and replication of HeV, and the first direct observation of the interaction between the X domain of P and intact nucleocapsids in Paramyxoviridae. PMID:24086133

  15. Atomic resolution description of the interaction between the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Communie, Guillaume; Habchi, Johnny; Yabukarski, Filip; Blocquel, David; Schneider, Robert; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Jamin, Marc; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Longhi, Sonia; Blackledge, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The HeV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. Recruitment of the viral polymerase onto the nucleocapsid template relies on the interaction between the C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), of N and the C-terminal X domain, XD, of the polymerase co-factor phosphoprotein (P). Here, we provide an atomic resolution description of the intrinsically disordered N(TAIL) domain in its isolated state and in intact nucleocapsids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using electron microscopy, we show that HeV nucleocapsids form herringbone-like structures typical of paramyxoviruses. We also report the crystal structure of XD of P that consists of a three-helix bundle. We study the interaction between N(TAIL) and XD using NMR titration experiments and provide a detailed mapping of the reciprocal binding sites. We show that the interaction is accompanied by α-helical folding of the molecular recognition element of N(TAIL) upon binding to a hydrophobic patch on the surface of XD. Finally, using solution NMR, we investigate the interaction between intact nucleocapsids and XD. Our results indicate that monomeric XD binds to N(TAIL) without triggering an additional unwinding of the nucleocapsid template. The present results provide a structural description at the atomic level of the protein-protein interactions required for transcription and replication of HeV, and the first direct observation of the interaction between the X domain of P and intact nucleocapsids in Paramyxoviridae.

  16. RNA editing of hepatitis B virus transcripts by activation-induced cytidine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guoxin; Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Guangyan; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Fu, Weixin; Koura, Miki; Wakae, Kousho; Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi

    2013-02-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models. In the DNA deamination model, AID converts cytidine bases in DNA into uridine. The uridine is recognized by the DNA repair system, which produces DNA strand breakages and point mutations. In the alternative model, RNA edited by AID is responsible for triggering CSR and SHM. However, RNA deamination by AID has not been demonstrated. Here we found that C-to-T and G-to-A mutations accumulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleocapsid DNA when AID was expressed in HBV-replicating hepatic cell lines. AID expression caused C-to-T mutations in the nucleocapsid DNA of RNase H-defective HBV, which does not produce plus-strand viral DNA. Furthermore, the RT-PCR products of nucleocapsid viral RNA from AID-expressing cells exhibited significant C-to-T mutations, whereas viral RNAs outside the nucleocapsid did not accumulate C-to-U mutations. Moreover, AID was packaged within the nucleocapsid by forming a ribonucleoprotein complex with HBV RNA and the HBV polymerase protein. The encapsidation of the AID protein with viral RNA and DNA provides an efficient environment for evaluating AID's RNA and DNA deamination activities. A bona fide RNA-editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1, induced a similar level of C-to-U mutations in nucleocapsid RNA as AID. Taken together, the results indicate that AID can deaminate the nucleocapsid RNA of HBV.

  17. Marburg virus inclusions: A virus-induced microcompartment and interface to multivesicular bodies and the late endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Dolnik, Olga; Stevermann, Lea; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Filovirus infection of target cells leads to the formation of virally induced cytoplasmic inclusions that contain viral nucleocapsids at different stages of maturation. While the role of the inclusions has been unclear since the identification of Marburg and Ebola viruses, it recently became clear that the inclusions are the sites of viral replication, nucleocapsid formation and maturation. Live cell imaging analyses revealed that mature nucleocapsids are transported from inclusions to the filopodia, which represent the major budding sites. Moreover, inclusions recruit cellular proteins that have been shown to support the transport of nucleocapsids. For example, the tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein (Tsg101) interacts with a late domain motif in the nucleocapsid protein NP and recruits the actin-nucleation factor IQGAP1. Complexes of nucleocapsids together with Tsg101 and IQGAP1 are then co-transported along actin filaments. We detected additional proteins (Alix, Nedd4 and the AAA-type ATPase VPS4) of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) that are recruited into inclusions. Together, the results suggest that nucleocapsids recruit the machinery that enhances viral budding at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we identified Lamp1 as a marker of the late endosomal compartment in inclusions, while ER, Golgi, TGN and early endosomal markers were absent. In addition, we observed that LC3, a marker of autophagosomal membranes, was present in inclusions. The 3D structures of inclusions show an intricate structure that seems to accommodate an intimate cooperation between cellular and viral components with the intention to support viral transport and budding. PMID:26070789

  18. How pH modulates the dimer-decamer interconversion of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins from the Prx1 subfamily.

    PubMed

    Morais, Mariana A B; Giuseppe, Priscila O; Souza, Tatiana A C B; Alegria, Thiago G P; Oliveira, Marcos A; Netto, Luis E S; Murakami, Mario T

    2015-03-27

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins belonging to the Prx1 subfamily are Cys-based peroxidases that control the intracellular levels of H2O2 and seem to assume a chaperone function under oxidative stress conditions. The regulation of their peroxidase activity as well as the observed functional switch from peroxidase to chaperone involves changes in their quaternary structure. Multiple factors can modulate the oligomeric transitions of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins such as redox state, post-translational modifications, and pH. However, the molecular basis for the pH influence on the oligomeric state of these enzymes is still elusive. Herein, we solved the crystal structure of a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Leishmania in the dimeric (pH 8.5) and decameric (pH 4.4) forms, showing that conformational changes in the catalytic loop are associated with the pH-induced decamerization. Mutagenesis and biophysical studies revealed that a highly conserved histidine (His(113)) functions as a pH sensor that, at acidic conditions, becomes protonated and forms an electrostatic pair with Asp(76) from the catalytic loop, triggering the decamerization. In these 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, decamer formation is important for the catalytic efficiency and has been associated with an enhanced sensitivity to oxidative inactivation by overoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine. In eukaryotic cells, exposure to high levels of H2O2 can trigger intracellular pH variations, suggesting that pH changes might act cooperatively with H2O2 and other oligomerization-modulator factors to regulate the structure and function of typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in response to oxidative stress.

  19. How pH modulates the dimer-decamer interconversion of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins from the Prx1 subfamily.

    PubMed

    Morais, Mariana A B; Giuseppe, Priscila O; Souza, Tatiana A C B; Alegria, Thiago G P; Oliveira, Marcos A; Netto, Luis E S; Murakami, Mario T

    2015-03-27

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins belonging to the Prx1 subfamily are Cys-based peroxidases that control the intracellular levels of H2O2 and seem to assume a chaperone function under oxidative stress conditions. The regulation of their peroxidase activity as well as the observed functional switch from peroxidase to chaperone involves changes in their quaternary structure. Multiple factors can modulate the oligomeric transitions of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins such as redox state, post-translational modifications, and pH. However, the molecular basis for the pH influence on the oligomeric state of these enzymes is still elusive. Herein, we solved the crystal structure of a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Leishmania in the dimeric (pH 8.5) and decameric (pH 4.4) forms, showing that conformational changes in the catalytic loop are associated with the pH-induced decamerization. Mutagenesis and biophysical studies revealed that a highly conserved histidine (His(113)) functions as a pH sensor that, at acidic conditions, becomes protonated and forms an electrostatic pair with Asp(76) from the catalytic loop, triggering the decamerization. In these 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, decamer formation is important for the catalytic efficiency and has been associated with an enhanced sensitivity to oxidative inactivation by overoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine. In eukaryotic cells, exposure to high levels of H2O2 can trigger intracellular pH variations, suggesting that pH changes might act cooperatively with H2O2 and other oligomerization-modulator factors to regulate the structure and function of typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25666622

  20. How pH Modulates the Dimer-Decamer Interconversion of 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins from the Prx1 Subfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Mariana A. B.; Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Souza, Tatiana A. C. B.; Alegria, Thiago G. P.; Oliveira, Marcos A.; Netto, Luis E. S.; Murakami, Mario T.

    2015-01-01

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins belonging to the Prx1 subfamily are Cys-based peroxidases that control the intracellular levels of H2O2 and seem to assume a chaperone function under oxidative stress conditions. The regulation of their peroxidase activity as well as the observed functional switch from peroxidase to chaperone involves changes in their quaternary structure. Multiple factors can modulate the oligomeric transitions of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins such as redox state, post-translational modifications, and pH. However, the molecular basis for the pH influence on the oligomeric state of these enzymes is still elusive. Herein, we solved the crystal structure of a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Leishmania in the dimeric (pH 8.5) and decameric (pH 4.4) forms, showing that conformational changes in the catalytic loop are associated with the pH-induced decamerization. Mutagenesis and biophysical studies revealed that a highly conserved histidine (His113) functions as a pH sensor that, at acidic conditions, becomes protonated and forms an electrostatic pair with Asp76 from the catalytic loop, triggering the decamerization. In these 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, decamer formation is important for the catalytic efficiency and has been associated with an enhanced sensitivity to oxidative inactivation by overoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine. In eukaryotic cells, exposure to high levels of H2O2 can trigger intracellular pH variations, suggesting that pH changes might act cooperatively with H2O2 and other oligomerization-modulator factors to regulate the structure and function of typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25666622

  1. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V.; Carvalho, Helena G.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    The experimental models of dicotyledonous cytoplasmic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases unveil a conserved eukaryotic-type decameric architecture, with subtle structural differences in M. truncatula isoenzymes that account for their distinct herbicide resistance. The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants.

  2. PNA Directed Sequence Addressed Self-Assembly of DNA Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2008-10-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) can be designed to target duplex DNA with very high sequence specificity and efficiency via various binding modes. We have designed three domain PNA clamps, that bind stably to predefined decameric homopurine targets in large dsDNA molecules and via a third PNA domain sequence specifically recognize another PNA oligomer. We describe how such three domain PNAs have utility for assembling dsDNA grid and clover leaf structures, and in combination with SNAP-tag technology of protein dsDNA structures.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of mussel adhesive protein repeating peptide segment.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, M P; Wollman, R M; Alderfer, J L

    1997-12-01

    Mussel adhesive protein (MAP) is the adhesive agent used by the common blue sea mussel (Mytilus edulis) to attach the animal to various underwater surfaces. It is generally composed of 75 to 85 repeating decameric units with the reported primary sequence NH2-Ala(1)-Lyst(2)-Pro(3)-Ser(4)-Tyr(5)-Hyp(6)-Hyp(7)-Thr(8)-DOPA( 9)- Lys(10)-COOH. This study examines this peptide's solution-state conformation using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR and molecular modeling of the decamer before and after molecular dynamics calculations in water suggests a conformation that retains an overall bent helix.

  4. Phosphate cycling on the basic protein of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The presence of infected cell-specific phosphoproteins was investigated in Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV)-infected fat body using [32P]orthophosphoric acid labeling. One infected cell-specific phosphoprotein had a mobility similar to that of the basic protein (VP12) of PiGV. Further analysis, using immunoblotting and acid-urea gel analysis of infected fat body, confirmed that this phosphoprotein was VP12. However we did not detect phosphorylated VP12 in 32P-labeled nucleocapsids. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP12 revealed that phosphoserine was present in the basic protein. Since VP12 is phosphorylated in the infected cell, but not in the nucleocapsid, it appears that dephosphorylation of VP12 is a critical event in the life cycle of the virus. We therefore assayed virus nucleocapsids and infected fat body for the presence of phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity was not detected in the virus, but the infected fat body had more activity than uninfected fat body. A model for nucleocapsid assembly and uncoating is presented which takes into account the phosphorylation state of VP12, the role of Zn2+ in the nucleocapsid, and the role of the capsid-associated kinase.

  5. Phosphate cycling on the basic protein of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Consigli, R A

    1993-03-01

    The presence of infected cell-specific phosphoproteins was investigated in Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV)-infected fat body using [32P]orthophosphoric acid labeling. One infected cell-specific phosphoprotein had a mobility similar to that of the basic protein (VP12) of PiGV. Further analysis, using immunoblotting and acid-urea gel analysis of infected fat body, confirmed that this phosphoprotein was VP12. However we did not detect phosphorylated VP12 in 32P-labeled nucleocapsids. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP12 revealed that phosphoserine was present in the basic protein. Since VP12 is phosphorylated in the infected cell, but not in the nucleocapsid, it appears that dephosphorylation of VP12 is a critical event in the life cycle of the virus. We therefore assayed virus nucleocapsids and infected fat body for the presence of phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity was not detected in the virus, but the infected fat body had more activity than uninfected fat body. A model for nucleocapsid assembly and uncoating is presented which takes into account the phosphorylation state of VP12, the role of Zn2+ in the nucleocapsid, and the role of the capsid-associated kinase.

  6. The matrix proteins of neurovirulent subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus and its acute measles virus progenitor are functionally different.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, A; Wang, A H; Gombart, A F; Wong, T C

    1992-01-01

    Persistence of measles virus in the brains of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is accompanied by changes in the viral matrix (M) protein. To understand the significance of these changes, cell culture and cell-free assays were developed to compare the functions of the M proteins of an SSPE virus Biken strain and its acute measles virus progenitor Nagahata strain. The Nagahata viral M protein is associated with the intracellular viral nucleocapsids and the plasma membrane, whereas the Biken viral M protein is localized mainly in the cytosol. The lack of M protein in the Biken viral nucleocapsids is due to a failure of the Biken M protein to bind to the viral nucleocapsids. The Biken M protein also fails to bind to the Nagahata viral nucleocapsids. Conversely, the Nagahata M protein can bind to the Biken viral nucleocapsids, although this association is not as stable at physiological salt concentration. These results offer concrete evidence that the M protein of an SSPE virus is functionally different from that of its progenitor acute measles virus. Images PMID:1528889

  7. Cryo-electron microscopy of hepatitis B virions reveals variability in envelope capsid interactions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Stefan; Urban, Stephan; Antoni, Christoph; Böttcher, Bettina

    2007-09-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen causing about 750,000 deaths per year. The virion consists of a nucleocapsid and an envelope formed by lipids, and three integral membrane proteins. Although we have detailed structural insights into the organization of the HBV core, the arrangement of the envelope in virions and its interaction with the nucleocapsid is elusive. Here we show the ultrastructure of hepatitis B virions purified from patient serum. We identified two morphological phenotypes, which appear as compact and gapped particles with nucleocapsids in distinguishable conformations. The overall structures of these nucleocapsids resemble recombinant cores with two alpha-helical spikes per asymmetric unit. At the charged tips the spikes are contacted by defined protrusions of the envelope proteins, probably via electrostatic interactions. The HBV envelope in the two morphotypes is to some extent variable, but the surface proteins follow a general packing scheme with up to three surface protein dimers per asymmetric unit. The variability in the structure of the envelope indicates that the nucleocapsid does not firmly constrain the arrangement of the surface proteins, but provides a general template for the packing.

  8. Cryo-electron microscopy of hepatitis B virions reveals variability in envelope capsid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Stefan; Urban, Stephan; Antoni, Christoph; Böttcher, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen causing about 750 000 deaths per year. The virion consists of a nucleocapsid and an envelope formed by lipids, and three integral membrane proteins. Although we have detailed structural insights into the organization of the HBV core, the arrangement of the envelope in virions and its interaction with the nucleocapsid is elusive. Here we show the ultrastructure of hepatitis B virions purified from patient serum. We identified two morphological phenotypes, which appear as compact and gapped particles with nucleocapsids in distinguishable conformations. The overall structures of these nucleocapsids resemble recombinant cores with two α-helical spikes per asymmetric unit. At the charged tips the spikes are contacted by defined protrusions of the envelope proteins, probably via electrostatic interactions. The HBV envelope in the two morphotypes is to some extent variable, but the surface proteins follow a general packing scheme with up to three surface protein dimers per asymmetric unit. The variability in the structure of the envelope indicates that the nucleocapsid does not firmly constrain the arrangement of the surface proteins, but provides a general template for the packing. PMID:17762862

  9. An electron microscopic study of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    McNulty, M S; Gowans, E J; Louza, A C; Fraser, G

    1977-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of a line of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus (MDBKpi cells) revealed the presence of cytoplasmic aggregates of both smooth and granular nucleocapsids. Only granular nucleocapsids aligned under modified areas of plasma membrane and were incorporated into virus particles. On the grounds of morphogenesis, there was no apparent explanation for the persistent, not-cytocidal nature of the infection. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates of smooth nucleocapsids were present in MDBKpi cells which had been held without subculture for between 40 and 130 days (aged MDBKpi cells). Modified areas of plasma membrane with associated alignment of nucleocapsids were not present in aged MDBKpi cells, and neither budding nor released virus particles were observed, indicating a block in virus maturation. It is suggested that the granular material coating granular nucleocapsids allows them to interact with modified areas of plasma membrane, thereby inducing virus budding. A deficiency of this material, as apparently occurs in aged MDBKpi cells, would therefore cause a block in virus maturation. The nature of this granular material is discussed, and we suggest that it consists of M protein.

  10. The heterodimeric association between the membrane proteins of Semliki Forest virus changes its sensitivity to low pH during virus maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, J M; Boere, W A; Garoff, H

    1989-01-01

    The budding and the fusion processes of the enveloped animal virus Semliki Forest virus serve the purpose of transporting its nucleocapsid, containing its genome, from the cytoplasm of an infected cell into that of an uninfected one. We show here that, in the infected cell, the viral membrane (spike) proteins p62 and E1 are organized as heterodimers which are very resistant to dissociation in acidic conditions. In contrast, the mature form of the heterodimer, E2E1, which is found in the virus particle and which is generated by proteolytic processing of p62, is very prone to dissociate upon treatment with mildly acidic buffers. We discuss the possibility that this difference in behavior of the intracellular precursor form and the mature form of the spike protein complex represents an important regulatory mechanism for the processes involving membrane binding around the nucleocapsid during budding and membrane release from the nucleocapsid at the stage of virus fusion. Images PMID:2479769

  11. Structure of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 nucleoprotein-RNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Alayyoubi, Maher; Leser, George P.; Kors, Christopher A.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2015-05-20

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of membrane-enveloped viruses with a negative-sense RNA genome that is packaged and protected by long filamentous nucleocapsid-helix structures (RNPs). These RNPs, consisting of ~2,600 protomers of nucleocapsid (N) protein, form the template for viral transcription and replication. We have determined the 3D X-ray crystal structure of the nucleoprotein (N)-RNA complex from PIV5 to 3.11-Å resolution. The structure reveals a 13-mer nucleocapsid ring whose diameter, cavity, and pitch/height dimensions agree with EM data from early studies on the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of native RNPs, indicating that it closely represents one-turn in the building block of the RNP helices. The PIV5-N nucleocapsid ring encapsidates a nuclease resistant 78-nt RNA strand in its positively charged groove formed between the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of its successive N protomers. Six nucleotides precisely are associated with each N protomer, with alternating three-base-in three-base-out conformation. The binding of six nucleotides per protomer is consistent with the "rule of six" that governs the genome packaging of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of viruses. PIV5-N protomer subdomains are very similar in structure to the previously solved Nipah-N structure, but with a difference in the angle between NTD/CTD at the RNA hinge region. Based on the Nipah-N structure we modeled a PIV5-N open conformation in which the CTD rotates away from the RNA strand into the inner spacious nucleocapsid-ring cavity. This rotation would expose the RNA for the viral polymerase activity without major disruption of the nucleocapsid structure.

  12. Structure of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 nucleoprotein–RNA complex

    PubMed Central

    Alayyoubi, Maher; Leser, George P.; Kors, Christopher A.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of membrane-enveloped viruses with a negative-sense RNA genome that is packaged and protected by long filamentous nucleocapsid-helix structures (RNPs). These RNPs, consisting of ∼2,600 protomers of nucleocapsid (N) protein, form the template for viral transcription and replication. We have determined the 3D X-ray crystal structure of the nucleoprotein (N)-RNA complex from PIV5 to 3.11-Å resolution. The structure reveals a 13-mer nucleocapsid ring whose diameter, cavity, and pitch/height dimensions agree with EM data from early studies on the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of native RNPs, indicating that it closely represents one-turn in the building block of the RNP helices. The PIV5-N nucleocapsid ring encapsidates a nuclease resistant 78-nt RNA strand in its positively charged groove formed between the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of its successive N protomers. Six nucleotides precisely are associated with each N protomer, with alternating three-base-in three-base-out conformation. The binding of six nucleotides per protomer is consistent with the “rule of six” that governs the genome packaging of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of viruses. PIV5-N protomer subdomains are very similar in structure to the previously solved Nipah-N structure, but with a difference in the angle between NTD/CTD at the RNA hinge region. Based on the Nipah-N structure we modeled a PIV5-N open conformation in which the CTD rotates away from the RNA strand into the inner spacious nucleocapsid-ring cavity. This rotation would expose the RNA for the viral polymerase activity without major disruption of the nucleocapsid structure. PMID:25831513

  13. Interaction of serum amyloid P component with hexanoyl bis(d-proline) (CPHPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstoe, Simon E.; Jenvey, Michelle C.; Purvis, Alan; Light, Mark E.; Thompson, Darren; Hughes, Peter; Pepys, Mark B.; Wood, Stephen P.

    2014-08-01

    Serum amyloid P component is a pentameric plasma glycoprotein that recognizes and binds to amyloid fibres in a calcium-dependent fashion and is likely to contribute to their deposition and persistence in vivo. Five molecules of the drug CPHPC avidly cross-link pairs of protein pentamers and the decameric complex is rapidly cleared in vivo. Crystal structures of the protein in complex with a bivalent drug and cadmium ions, which improve crystal quality, allow the definition of the preferred bound drug isomers. Under physiological conditions, the pentameric human plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds hexanoyl bis(d-proline) (R-1-(6-[R-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; CPHPC) through its d-proline head groups in a calcium-dependent interaction. Cooperative effects in binding lead to a substantial enhancement of affinity. Five molecules of the bivalent ligand cross-link and stabilize pairs of SAP molecules, forming a decameric complex that is rapidly cleared from the circulation by the liver. Here, it is reported that X-ray analysis of the SAP complex with CPHPC and cadmium ions provides higher resolution detail of the interaction than is observed with calcium ions. Conformational isomers of CPHPC observed in solution by HPLC and by X-ray analysis are compared with the protein-bound form. These are discussed in relation to the development of CPHPC to provide SAP depletion for the treatment of amyloidosis and other indications.

  14. Investigating interactions of the pentraxins serum amyloid P component and C-reactive protein by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, J Andrew; Robinson, Carol V

    2003-10-15

    The oligomeric state of human SAP (serum amyloid P component) in the absence and presence of known ligands has been investigated using nanoelectrospray ionization MS. At pH 8.0, in the absence of Ca2+, SAP has been shown to consist of pentameric and decameric forms. In the presence of physiological levels of Ca2+, SAP was observed to exist primarily as a pentamer, reflecting its in vivo state. dAMP was shown not only to promote decamerization, but also to lead to decamer stacking involving up to 30 monomers. A mechanism for this finding is proposed. CRP (C-reactive protein), a pentraxin closely related to SAP, exists as a pentamer in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Pentamers of CRP and SAP were shown to form mixed decamers in Ca2+-free buffer; however, in the presence of Ca2+, this interaction was not observed. Furthermore, no exchange of monomeric subunits was observed between the SAP and CRP oligomers, suggesting a remarkable stability of the individual pentameric complexes. PMID:12892563

  15. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture

    PubMed Central

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V.; Carvalho, Helena G.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants. PMID:24699643

  16. Crystal structures and enzyme mechanisms of a dual fucose mutarotase/ribose pyranase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Kim, Min-Sung; Suh, Hye-Young; Ku, Bonsu; Song, Young-Lan; Ko, Sunggeon; Lee, Weontae; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli FucU (Fucose Unknown) is a dual fucose mutarotase and ribose pyranase, which shares 44% sequence identity with its human counterpart. Herein, we report the structures of E. coli FucU and mouse FucU bound to L-fucose and delineate the catalytic mechanisms underlying the interconversion between stereoisomers of fucose and ribose. E. coli FucU forms a decameric toroid with each active site formed by two adjacent subunits. While one subunit provides most of the fucose-interacting residues including a catalytic tyrosine residue, the other subunit provides a catalytic His-Asp dyad. This active-site feature is critical not only for the mutarotase activity toward L-fucose but also for the pyranase activity toward D-ribose. Structural and biochemical analyses pointed that mouse FucU assembles into four different oligomeric forms, among which the smallest homodimeric form is most abundant and would be the predominant species under physiological conditions. This homodimer has two fucose-binding sites that are devoid of the His-Asp dyad and catalytically inactive, indicating that the mutarotase and the pyranase activities appear dispensable in vertebrates. The defective assembly of the mouse FucU homodimer into the decameric form is due to an insertion of two residues at the N-terminal extreme, which is a common aspect of all the known vertebrate FucU proteins. Therefore, vertebrate FucU appears to serve for as yet unknown function through the quaternary structural alteration.

  17. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture.

    PubMed

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V; Carvalho, Helena G; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants. PMID:24699643

  18. Kinetics of Incorporation of Structural Proteins into Sindbis Virions

    PubMed Central

    Scheele, Christina M.; Pfefferkorn, E. R.

    1969-01-01

    The morphogenesis of Sindbis virus was studied by determining the kinetics with which newly synthesized nucleocapsid and envelope proteins appeared in virions released into the extracellular medium. Assembly of the nucleocapsid was more rapid than modification of the cellular membrane by the addition of the viral envelope protein. However, both viral structural proteins were efficiently incorporated into virions; a 0.5-hr pulse-labeling period resulted in the release of maximally labeled virus during the next hour. When protein synthesis was inhibited, release of virus soon declined even though large amounts of both viral structural proteins were present within the cell and ribonucleic acid replication was unaffected. PMID:5771964

  19. Evidence for zinc binding by two structural proteins of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Consigli, R A

    1992-05-01

    Workers in our laboratory previously reported the possibility of cation involvement in the in vitro dissociation of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus nucleocapsids (K. A. Tweeten, L. A. Bulla, Jr., and R. A. Consigli, J. Virol. 33:866-876, 1980; M. E. Wilson and R. A. Consigli, Virology 143:516-525, 1985). The current study found zinc associated with both granulosis virus nucleocapsids and granulin by atomic absorption analysis. A blotting assay with 65Zn2+ specifically identified the radioactive cation as binding to two viral structural proteins, granulin and VP12. These findings indicate that zinc may have a critical role in maintaining virus stability.

  20. Evidence for zinc binding by two structural proteins of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Workers in our laboratory previously reported the possibility of cation involvement in the in vitro dissociation of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus nucleocapsids (K. A. Tweeten, L. A. Bulla, Jr., and R. A. Consigli, J. Virol. 33:866-876, 1980; M. E. Wilson and R. A. Consigli, Virology 143:516-525, 1985). The current study found zinc associated with both granulosis virus nucleocapsids and granulin by atomic absorption analysis. A blotting assay with 65Zn2+ specifically identified the radioactive cation as binding to two viral structural proteins, granulin and VP12. These findings indicate that zinc may have a critical role in maintaining virus stability.

  1. Translocation of Incoming Pseudorabies Virus Capsids to the Cell Nucleus Is Delayed in the Absence of Tegument Protein pUL37▿

    PubMed Central

    Krautwald, Mirjam; Fuchs, Walter; Klupp, Barbara G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    After fusion of the envelope of herpesvirus particles with the host cell plasma membrane, incoming nucleocapsids are transported to nuclear pores. Inner tegument proteins pUL36, pUL37, and pUS3 remain attached to the nucleocapsid after entry and therefore might mediate interactions between the nucleocapsid and cellular microtubule-associated motor proteins during transport. To assay for the role of pUL37 in this process, we constructed a pUL37-deleted pseudorabies virus mutant, PrV-ΔUL37/UL35GFP, which expresses a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the nonessential small capsid protein pUL35, resulting in the formation of fluorescently labeled capsids. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit kidney cells infected with PrV-ΔUL37/UL35GFP revealed that, whereas penetration was not affected in the absence of pUL37, nuclear translocation of incoming particles was delayed by approximately 1 h compared to PrV-UL35GFP, but not abolished. In contrast, phenotypically complemented pUL37-containing virions of PrV-ΔUL37/UL35GFP exhibited wild type-like entry kinetics. Thus, the presence of pUL37 is required for rapid nuclear translocation of incoming nucleocapsids. PMID:19144717

  2. Translocation of incoming pseudorabies virus capsids to the cell nucleus is delayed in the absence of tegument protein pUL37.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Mirjam; Fuchs, Walter; Klupp, Barbara G; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2009-04-01

    After fusion of the envelope of herpesvirus particles with the host cell plasma membrane, incoming nucleocapsids are transported to nuclear pores. Inner tegument proteins pUL36, pUL37, and pUS3 remain attached to the nucleocapsid after entry and therefore might mediate interactions between the nucleocapsid and cellular microtubule-associated motor proteins during transport. To assay for the role of pUL37 in this process, we constructed a pUL37-deleted pseudorabies virus mutant, PrV-DeltaUL37/UL35GFP, which expresses a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the nonessential small capsid protein pUL35, resulting in the formation of fluorescently labeled capsids. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit kidney cells infected with PrV-DeltaUL37/UL35GFP revealed that, whereas penetration was not affected in the absence of pUL37, nuclear translocation of incoming particles was delayed by approximately 1 h compared to PrV-UL35GFP, but not abolished. In contrast, phenotypically complemented pUL37-containing virions of PrV-DeltaUL37/UL35GFP exhibited wild type-like entry kinetics. Thus, the presence of pUL37 is required for rapid nuclear translocation of incoming nucleocapsids. PMID:19144717

  3. Baculovirus infection of nondividing mammalian cells: mechanisms of entry and nuclear transport of capsids.

    PubMed

    van Loo, N D; Fortunati, E; Ehlert, E; Rabelink, M; Grosveld, F; Scholte, B J

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the infection pathway of Autographa californica multinuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus) in mammalian cells. By titration with a baculovirus containing a green fluorescent protein cassette, we found that several, but not all, mammalian cell types can be infected efficiently. In contrast to previous suggestions, our data show that the asialoglycoprotein receptor is not required for efficient infection. We demonstrate for the first time that this baculovirus can infect nondividing mammalian cells, which implies that the baculovirus is able to transport its genome across the nuclear membrane of mammalian cells. Our data further show that the virus enters via endocytosis, followed by an acid-induced fusion event, which releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. Cytochalasin D strongly reduces the infection efficiency but not the delivery of nucleocapsids to the cytoplasm, suggesting involvement of actin filaments in cytoplasmic transport of the capsids. Electron microscopic analysis shows the cigar-shaped nucleocapsids located at nuclear pores of nondividing cells. Under these conditions, we observed the viral genome, major capsid protein, and electron-dense capsids inside the nucleus. This suggests that the nucleocapsid is transported through the nuclear pore. This mode of transport seems different from viruses with large spherical capsids, such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, which are disassembled before nuclear transport of the genome. The implications for the application of baculovirus or its capsid proteins in gene therapy are discussed.

  4. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific.

  5. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  6. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus)

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific. PMID:26186516

  7. 78 FR 13860 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... cryogenically frozen soluble and membrane proteins, protein complexes, protein/DNA and protein/RNA complexes... production, signal transduction, and DNA repair. Justification for Duty-Free Entry: There are no...

  8. Association Between Preovulatory Concentrations of Estradiol and Expression of Uterine Milk Protein Precursor, Inhibin Beta A, Period 1, Proenkephalin, and Receptors for Oxytocin, Progesterone, and Estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eliminating the preovulatory surge of estradiol decreased uterine weight, uterine protein, RNA to DNA ratio, rate of protein synthesis, and embryo survival following embryo transfer in sheep. Furthermore, cows that did not exhibit standing estrus (decreased preovulatory concentrations of estradiol) ...

  9. Characterization of mouse hepatitis virus-specific cytotoxic T cells derived from the central nervous system of mice infected with the JHM strain.

    PubMed Central

    Stohlman, S A; Kyuwa, S; Polo, J M; Brady, D; Lai, M M; Bergmann, C C

    1993-01-01

    The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity of spleen cells from BALB/c (H-2d) mice immunized with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) was stimulated in vitro for 7 days. CTL were tested for recognition of target cells infected with either JHMV or vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the four virus structural proteins. Only target cells infected with either JHMV or the vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the JHMV nucleocapsid protein were recognized. Cytotoxic T cell lines were established by limiting dilution from the brains of mice undergoing acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis after infection with JHMV. Twenty of the 22 lines recognized JHMV-infected but not uninfected syngeneic target cells, indicating that they are specific for JHMV. All T-cell lines except one were CD8+. The specificity of the CTL lines was examined by using target cells infected with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the JHMV nucleocapsid, spike, membrane, and hemagglutinin-esterase structural proteins. Seventeen lines recognized target cells expressing the nucleocapsid protein. Three of the JHMV-specific T-cell lines were unable to recognize target cells expressing any of the JHMV structural proteins, indicating that they are specific for an epitope of a nonstructural protein(s) of JHMV. These data indicate that the nucleocapsid protein induces an immunodominant CTL response. However, no CTL activity specific for the nucleocapsid protein could be detected in either the spleens or cervical lymph nodes of mice 4, 5, 6, or 7 days after intracranial infection, suggesting that the CTL response to JHMV infection within the central nervous system may be induced or expanded locally. PMID:8230429

  10. Assembly of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin. A study of the kinetics by sedimentation, light scattering and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    van Holde, K E; Miller, K; Schabtach, E; Libertini, L

    1991-01-20

    The kinetics of association of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin subunits to form the native decameric molecule have been studied with a combination of sedimentation, light scattering and electron microscopy. The reaction, initiated by addition of magnesium, is relatively slow, requiring hours to reach completion, with monomer and decamer as predominant molecular species throughout. Analysis of the light-scattering data, including stopped-flow studies, reveals an initial lag period in the reaction, followed by a second-order process that is rate limiting. The lag period depends on both protein and magnesium ion concentration. Electron microscope studies reveal intermediates in the process, and support a model of assembly in which nucleation begins at the dimer level. Theoretical models for the process are compared. PMID:1992165

  11. Structural characterization of encapsulated ferritin provides insight into iron storage in bacterial nanocompartments.

    PubMed

    He, Didi; Hughes, Sam; Vanden-Hehir, Sally; Georgiev, Atanas; Altenbach, Kirsten; Tarrant, Emma; Mackay, C Logan; Waldron, Kevin J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Ferritins are ubiquitous proteins that oxidise and store iron within a protein shell to protect cells from oxidative damage. We have characterized the structure and function of a new member of the ferritin superfamily that is sequestered within an encapsulin capsid. We show that this encapsulated ferritin (EncFtn) has two main alpha helices, which assemble in a metal dependent manner to form a ferroxidase center at a dimer interface. EncFtn adopts an open decameric structure that is topologically distinct from other ferritins. While EncFtn acts as a ferroxidase, it cannot mineralize iron. Conversely, the encapsulin shell associates with iron, but is not enzymatically active, and we demonstrate that EncFtn must be housed within the encapsulin for iron storage. This encapsulin nanocompartment is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and represents a distinct class of iron storage system, where the oxidation and mineralization of iron are distributed between two proteins. PMID:27529188

  12. High-resolution structure of HLA-A*0201 in complex with a tumour-specific antigenic peptide encoded by the MAGE-A4 gene.

    PubMed

    Hillig, R C; Coulie, P G; Stroobant, V; Saenger, W; Ziegler, A; Hülsmeyer, M

    2001-07-27

    The heterotrimeric complex of the human major histocompatibity complex (MHC) molecule HLA-A*0201, beta2-microglobulin and the decameric peptide GVYDGREHTV derived from the melanoma antigen (MAGE-A4 protein has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.4 A resolution. MAGE-A4 belongs to a family of genes that are specifically expressed in a variety of tumours. MAGE-A4-derived peptides are presented by MHC molecules at the cell surface to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. As the HLA-A*0201:MAGE-A4 complex occurs only on tumour cells, it is considered to be an appropriate target for immunotherapy. The structure presented here reveals potential epitopes specific to the complex and indicates which peptide residues could be recognised by T-cell receptors. In addition, as the structure could be refined anisotropically, it was possible to describe the movements of the bound peptide in more detail.

  13. Computational design of the affinity and specificity of a therapeutic T cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brian G; Hellman, Lance M; Hossain, Moushumi; Singh, Nishant K; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Weng, Zhiping; Baker, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    T cell receptors (TCRs) are key to antigen-specific immunity and are increasingly being explored as therapeutics, most visibly in cancer immunotherapy. As TCRs typically possess only low-to-moderate affinity for their peptide/MHC (pMHC) ligands, there is a recognized need to develop affinity-enhanced TCR variants. Previous in vitro engineering efforts have yielded remarkable improvements in TCR affinity, yet concerns exist about the maintenance of peptide specificity and the biological impacts of ultra-high affinity. As opposed to in vitro engineering, computational design can directly address these issues, in theory permitting the rational control of peptide specificity together with relatively controlled increments in affinity. Here we explored the efficacy of computational design with the clinically relevant TCR DMF5, which recognizes nonameric and decameric epitopes from the melanoma-associated Melan-A/MART-1 protein presented by the class I MHC HLA-A2. We tested multiple mutations selected by flexible and rigid modeling protocols, assessed impacts on affinity and specificity, and utilized the data to examine and improve algorithmic performance. We identified multiple mutations that improved binding affinity, and characterized the structure, affinity, and binding kinetics of a previously reported double mutant that exhibits an impressive 400-fold affinity improvement for the decameric pMHC ligand without detectable binding to non-cognate ligands. The structure of this high affinity mutant indicated very little conformational consequences and emphasized the high fidelity of our modeling procedure. Overall, our work showcases the capability of computational design to generate TCRs with improved pMHC affinities while explicitly accounting for peptide specificity, as well as its potential for generating TCRs with customized antigen targeting capabilities.

  14. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  15. Virus-Specific Proteins Synthesized in Cells Infected with RNA+ Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Sindbis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Scheele, Christina M.; Pfefferkorn, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    All Sindbis virus temperature-sensitive mutants defective in “late” functions were systematically surveyed by acrylamide-gel electrophoresis for similarities and differences in the intracellular pattern of virus-specific proteins synthesized at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Only cells infected with mutants of complementation group C showed an altered pattern. At the nonpermissive temperature, these mutants failed to induce the synthesis of a polypeptide corresponding to the nucleocapsid protein and instead overproduced a protein of higher molecular weight than either viral structural protein. This defect was shown to be irreversible by the finding that 3H-leucine incorporated at 41.5 C specifically failed to appear in the nucleocapsid of virions subsequently released at 29 C. Attempts to demonstrate a precursor protein in wild-type infections were inconclusive. PMID:5461887

  16. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces egress channels through marginalized host chromatin.

    PubMed

    Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; Aho, Vesa; Smith, Elizabeth A; Hakanen, Satu; Peri, Piritta; Salvetti, Anna; Timonen, Jussi; Hukkanen, Veijo; Larabell, Carolyn A; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Lytic infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces profound modification of the cell nucleus including formation of a viral replication compartment and chromatin marginalization into the nuclear periphery. We used three-dimensional soft X-ray tomography, combined with cryogenic fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy, to analyse the transformation of peripheral chromatin during HSV-1 infection. Our data showed an increased presence of low-density gaps in the marginalized chromatin at late infection. Advanced data analysis indicated the formation of virus-nucleocapsid-sized (or wider) channels extending through the compacted chromatin of the host. Importantly, confocal and electron microscopy analysis showed that these gaps frequently contained viral nucleocapsids. These results demonstrated that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of channels penetrating the compacted layer of cellular chromatin and allowing for the passage of progeny viruses to the nuclear envelope, their site of nuclear egress. PMID:27349677

  17. In vivo pathway of Autographa californica baculovirus invasion and infection.

    PubMed

    Granados, R R; Lawler, K A

    1981-01-30

    The pathway of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) infection in cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larval midgut cells was studied by ultrastructural and virus titration methods. Enveloped virions interacted with microvilli of columnar cells resulting in apparent fusion of the viral envelope and microvillus membrane. After entry into the cell cytoplasm, the intact nucleocapsids appeared to enter the nucleus through nuclear pores, and uncoating of the viral genome took place in the nucleoplasm. Viral progeny were first observed at 8 hr postinoculation (p. i.) and the developmental cycle of the virus was essentially completed by 24 hr p.i. Inoculum virus nucleocapsids also moved to the basal plasma membrane and budded into the hemocoel through the basal lamina within 0.5 hr p.i. We propose that this budded virus, possessing an envelope with a peplomer structure, is the primary inoculum for the systemic invasion of the insect host.

  18. Global changes in the RNA binding specificity of HIV-1 Gag regulate virion genesis

    PubMed Central

    Kutluay, Sebla B.; Zang, Trinity; Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Powell, Chelsea; Jannain, David; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The HIV-1 Gag protein orchestrates all steps of virion genesis, including membrane targeting and RNA recruitment into virions. Using crosslinking-immunoprecipitation (CLIP) sequencing, we uncover several dramatic changes in the RNA binding properties of Gag that occur during virion genesis, coincident with membrane binding, multimerization and proteolytic maturation. Prior to assembly, and after virion assembly and maturation, the nucleocapsid domain of Gag preferentially binds to psi and Rev Response elements in the viral genome, and GU-rich mRNA sequences. However, during virion genesis, this specificity transiently changes in a manner that facilitates genome packaging; nucleocapsid binds to many sites on the HIV-1 genome and to mRNA sequences with a HIV-1-like, A-rich nucleotide composition. Additionally, we find that the matrix domain of Gag binds almost exclusively to specific tRNAs in the cytosol, and this association regulates Gag binding to cellular membranes. PMID:25416948

  19. A novel fish rhabdovirus from sweden is closely related to the Finnish rhabdovirus 903/87.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Tove; Ostman-Myllyoja, Lillemor; Hellström, Anders; Martelius, Suzanne; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Björklund, Harry

    2002-10-01

    A novel rhabdovirus, preliminary designated as the Sea trout rhabdovirus 28/97 (STRV 28/97), was isolated from sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) in Sweden in 1996. The fish showed central nervous symptoms, and at the autopsy petechial bleedings in the mesenteric fat were visible. STRV 28/97 was shown to be serologically related to the vesiculotype rhabdovirus 903/87 isolated from brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) in Finland [1,3]. The sequences for the nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and beginning of the polymerase protein of STRV 28/97 were determined. At the amino acid level the genes were over 97% similar to virus 903/87. The nucleocapsid proteins, glycoproteins and beginning of the polymerase protein of STRV 28/97 and virus 903/87 were clustered with the vesiculoviruses and the phosphoproteins close to the vesiculoviruses in protein parsimony analysis. The matrix proteins formed a distinct clade in protein parsimony analysis.

  20. Development of antibody to measles virus polypeptides during complicated and uncomplicated measles virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M; Griffin, D E; Johnson, R T; Hirsch, R L; de Soriano, I L; Roedenbeck, S; Vaisberg, A

    1984-01-01

    Immune precipitation of 181 sera from 152 patients with natural measles was studied to determine the temporal course and frequency of antibody responses to nucleocapsid, fusion, hemagglutinin, and matrix proteins of measles virus. Large amounts of antibody to nucleocapsid protein developed in all patients by day one of the rash. Antibody to hemagglutinin and fusion proteins developed in all patients over the next 3 weeks, the former to high levels and the latter to low levels. Antibody to matrix protein developed to very low levels and was detectable in only 41% of the patients; this poor response to matrix protein was not correlated with the age of the patient or the acute neurological complications of measles. PMID:6694263

  1. In Vitro Identification and Characterization of a Virus Isolated from a Dog with Neurological Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Baumgärtner, Wolfgang K.; Metzler, Alfred E.; Krakowka, Steven; Koestner, Adalbert

    1981-01-01

    A virus, 78-238, isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with neurological dysfunction, was characterized as a paramyxovirus. This conclusion was supported by viral cytopathic effects and morphological appearance of virions and nucleocapsids in infected cells. Nucleocapsids were found in the cytoplasm of all infected cells and in the nuclei of 0.001% of these cells. Growth curves revealed that a high percentage (≥76%) of infectious progeny virus was cell released. Persistent infection of Vero cells with 78-238 showed a consistently high percentage of fluorescence-positive cells and a low proportion of hemadsorption-positive cells. Serological studies indicate that the virus was closely related to Simian virus 5 and reference canine parainfluenza virus. Images PMID:7228400

  2. Expression of the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) non-structural protein 3 (NS3) in Escherichia coli and its in situ localization in RHBV-infected rice tissues.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Miguel; Bolaños, Isela; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    The non-structural NS3 protein gene from the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) was fused to the glutathione-S-transferase carboxilic end and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM83. Large quantities of fusion protein were produced in insoluble form. The fusion protein was fractionated in SDS-PAGE and purified by electroelution, polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit and the antiserum was absorbed with bacterial crude extract. A band of similar size as that of NS3 protein was observed in Western blots using extracts from RHBV-infected rice plants. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold-labeled antibodies against NS3 protein and the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed in situ accumulation of NS3 protein in the cytoplasm but not in the viral inclusion bodies, vacuoles or chloroplasts of RHBV-infected plants, following the same pattern of distribution as the RHBV nucleocapsid protein. PMID:17361569

  3. Global changes in the RNA binding specificity of HIV-1 gag regulate virion genesis.

    PubMed

    Kutluay, Sebla B; Zang, Trinity; Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Powell, Chelsea; Jannain, David; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2014-11-20

    The HIV-1 Gag protein orchestrates all steps of virion genesis, including membrane targeting and RNA recruitment into virions. Using crosslinking-immunoprecipitation (CLIP) sequencing, we uncover several dramatic changes in the RNA-binding properties of Gag that occur during virion genesis, coincident with membrane binding, multimerization, and proteolytic maturation. Prior to assembly, and after virion assembly and maturation, the nucleocapsid domain of Gag preferentially binds to psi and Rev Response elements in the viral genome, and GU-rich mRNA sequences. However, during virion genesis, this specificity transiently changes in a manner that facilitates genome packaging; nucleocapsid binds to many sites on the HIV-1 genome and to mRNA sequences with a HIV-1-like, A-rich nucleotide composition. Additionally, we find that the matrix domain of Gag binds almost exclusively to specific tRNAs in the cytosol, and this association regulates Gag binding to cellular membranes.

  4. A Thermodynamic Model for Genome Packaging in Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2015-10-20

    Understanding the fundamentals of genome packaging in viral capsids is important for finding effective antiviral strategies and for utilizing benign viral particles for gene therapy. While the structure of encapsidated genomic materials has been routinely characterized with experimental techniques such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, much less is known about the molecular driving forces underlying genome assembly in an intracellular environment and its in vivo interactions with the capsid proteins. Here we study the thermodynamic basis of the pregenomic RNA encapsidation in human Hepatitis B virus in vivo using a coarse-grained molecular model that captures the essential components of nonspecific intermolecular interactions. The thermodynamic model is used to examine how the electrostatic interaction between the packaged RNA and the highly charged C-terminal domains (CTD) of capsid proteins regulate the nucleocapsid formation. The theoretical model predicts optimal RNA content in Hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids with different CTD lengths in good agreement with mutagenesis measurements, confirming the predominant role of electrostatic interactions and molecular excluded-volume effects in genome packaging. We find that the amount of encapsidated RNA is not linearly correlated with the net charge of CTD tails as suggested by earlier theoretical studies. Our thermodynamic analysis of the nucleocapsid structure and stability indicates that ∼10% of the CTD residues are free from complexation with RNA, resulting in partially exposed CTD tails. The thermodynamic model also predicts the free energy of complex formation between macromolecules, which corroborates experimental results for the impact of CTD truncation on the nucleocapsid stability.

  5. Rabies-related Yuli virus; identification with a panel of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Selimov, M A; Tatarov, A G; Botvinkin, A D; Klueva, E V; Kulikova, L G; Khismatullina, N A

    1989-12-01

    Yuli virus was isolated by intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of suckling mice with a 10% brain suspension from 11-year-old patient who died under signs of atypical hydrophobia after a bat bite into lower lip. Identification with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to nucleocapsid protein (NP) confirmed that Yuli virus belongs to Lyssavirus genus, as an antigenic variant of the European Duvenhage virus. PMID:2576595

  6. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  7. In vitro translation of mRNA species from cells infected with Machupo virus.

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, I S; Stelmakh, T A; Stchesljenok, E P; Shkolina, T V

    1987-01-01

    RNA from Machupo virus infected cells was centrifuged in a linear sucrose gradient and RNAs from gradient fractions were tested separately for template activity in a cell-free protein synthesizing system from rabbit reticulocytes. Fraction 15-16 S programmed the synthesis of protein that migrated in SDS-polyacrylamide gel like the nucleocapsid protein of a purified virus. The synthesis of virus glycoproteins was not detected in the system.

  8. [A prototype of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of pathogens relating to arena- and Filoviridae families].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, I V; Ryabinin, V A; Sinyakov, A N; Ternovoy, V A; Shikov, A N

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Guanarito viruses (Arenaviridae family), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae family) was presented. An original approach founded on virus proteins (nucleocapsid protein for Junin, Guanarito, Machupo viruses and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase for Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses) amino acid sequences analysis with subsequent transform of revealed unique peptides into due sets of oligonucleotides was used to design probes for hybridization and primers.

  9. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  10. Cross-linking of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Yoshida, T; Hamaguchi, M; Iinuma, M; Maeno, K; Matsumoto, T

    1978-01-01

    The proxomity and spatial relationships of the structural proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were studied by chemical cross-linking with a series of imidoesters. When the virions were reacted by the cross-linker with a distance 6.1A or longer between the functional groups and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, remarkable changes were observed in the migration patterns of the viral proteins. The most striking one was the extensive decrease in the intensity of the M protein band, and although not so strikingly, glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein bands were reduced significantly. Instead, several protein complexes appeared at and near the top of the gels. The protein complexes formed by a reversible cross-linker, dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate (DTBP), were analyzed by two dimensional electrophoresis; the complexes on the first-dimension cylindrical gels were cleaved by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol and electrophoresed laterally on the second-dimension slab gels. The results indicated that homodimers of glycoprotein, nucleocapsid protein and M protein were generated under the condition of the most gentle cross-linking employed. At the same time, however, trimer and higher homopolymers of M protein were already detectable. Under the more extensive conditions, the bulk of M protein was cross-linked to form a large protein complex with very high molecular weight. Further, small but significant amounts of glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein were always detected in this complex. These results suggest that M protein may be present in the virion in close enough proximity to interact with each other and may further have some interactions with glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein. On the basis of these findings possible roles of M protein in virus assembly were discussed.

  11. The Interaction between tRNALys3 and the Primer Activation Signal Deciphered by NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Franck; Tisne, Carine

    2013-01-01

    The initiation of reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the opening of the three-dimensional structure of the primer tRNALys3 for its annealing to the viral RNA at the primer binding site (PBS). Despite the fact that the result of this rearrangement is thermodynamically more stable, there is a high-energy barrier that requires the chaperoning activity of the viral nucleocapsid protein. In addition to the nucleotide complementarity to the PBS, several regions of tRNALys3 have been described as interacting with the viral genomic RNA. Among these sequences, a sequence of the viral genome called PAS for “primer activation signal” was proposed to interact with the T-arm of tRNALys3, this interaction stimulating the initiation of reverse transcription. In this report, we investigate the formation of this additional interaction with NMR spectroscopy, using a simple system composed of the primer tRNALys3, the 18 nucleotides of the PBS, the PAS (8 nucleotides) encompassed or not in a hairpin structure, and the nucleocapsid protein. Our NMR study provides molecular evidence of the existence of this interaction and highlights the role of the nucleocapsid protein in promoting this additional RNA-RNA annealing. This study presents the first direct observation at a single base-pair resolution of the PAS/anti-PAS association, which has been proposed to be involved in the chronological regulation of the reverse transcription. PMID:23762248

  12. Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Analysis of Plodia interpunctella Granulosis Virus.

    PubMed

    Russell, D L; Consigli, R A

    1986-10-01

    The structural polypeptides of purified Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus were analyzed by three different two-dimensional gel systems. Isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed resolution of 53 acidic polypeptides in the enveloped nucleocapsid of the virus ranging in molecular weight from 97,300 to 8,000. Nine of these polypeptides were shown to be glycoproteins by the technique of radiolabeled lectin blotting. Separation of the granulin in this system allowed resolution of five species, all of which have identical tryptic peptide maps. This matrix protein was demonstrated to be a phosphoglycoprotein by radiolabeled lectin blotting and acid phosphatase dephosphorylation. Nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed resolution of the major basic protein of the virus, VP12, from a more acidic protein of the same molecular weight. Tryptic peptide analysis demonstrated that these two proteins were indeed different and acid urea gels followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed localization of the acidic protein to the envelope and the basic protein to the nucleocapsid of the virus. Finally, probing of the separated envelope nucleocapsid proteins in both the isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gel electrophoresis two-dimensional systems after transfer to nitrocellulose with iodinated, purified viral proteins allowed further insight into reactions which may be important in the maintenance of the virion structure.

  13. Physicochemical Study of Viral Nanoparticles at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Torres-Salgado, Jose F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Villagrana-Escareño, Maria V; Durán-Meza, Ana L; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Cadena-Nava, Ruben D

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses into icosahedral nucleocapsids is a spontaneous process driven by protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions. The precise nature of these interactions results in the assembly of extremely monodisperse and structurally indistinguishable nucleocapsids. In this work, by using a ssRNA plant virus (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [CCMV]) as a charged nanoparticle we show that the diffusion of these nanoparticles from the bulk solution to the air/water interface is an irreversible adsorption process. By using the Langmuir technique, we measured the diffusion and adsorption of viral nucleocapsids at the air/water interface at different pH conditions. The pH changes, and therefore in the net surface charge of the virions, have a great influence in the diffusion rate from the bulk solution to the air/water interface. Moreover, assembly of mesoscopic and microscopic viral aggregates at this interface depends on the net surface charge of the virions and the surface pressure. By using Brewster's angle microscopy we characterized these structures at the interface. Most common structures observed were clusters of virions and soap-frothlike micron-size structures. Furthermore, the CCMV films were compressed to form monolayers and multilayers from moderate to high surface pressures, respectively. After transferring the films from the air/water interface onto mica by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, their morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy. These viral monolayers showed closed-packing nano- and microscopic arrangements.

  14. The Organisation of Ebola Virus Reveals a Capacity for Extensive, Modular Polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Beniac, Daniel R.; Melito, Pasquale L.; deVarennes, Shauna L.; Hiebert, Shannon L.; Rabb, Melissa J.; Lamboo, Lindsey L.; Jones, Steven M.; Booth, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Filoviruses, including Ebola virus, are unusual in being filamentous animal viruses. Structural data on the arrangement, stoichiometry and organisation of the component molecules of filoviruses has until now been lacking, partially due to the need to work under level 4 biological containment. The present study provides unique insights into the structure of this deadly pathogen. Methodology and Principal Findings We have investigated the structure of Ebola virus using a combination of cryo-electron microscopy, cryo-electron tomography, sub-tomogram averaging, and single particle image processing. Here we report the three-dimensional structure and architecture of Ebola virus and establish that multiple copies of the RNA genome can be packaged to produce polyploid virus particles, through an extreme degree of length polymorphism. We show that the helical Ebola virus inner nucleocapsid containing RNA and nucleoprotein is stabilized by an outer layer of VP24-VP35 bridges. Elucidation of the structure of the membrane-associated glycoprotein in its native state indicates that the putative receptor-binding site is occluded within the molecule, while a major neutralizing epitope is exposed on its surface proximal to the viral envelope. The matrix protein VP40 forms a regular lattice within the envelope, although its contacts with the nucleocapsid are irregular. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate a modular organization in Ebola virus that accommodates a well-ordered, symmetrical nucleocapsid within a flexible, tubular membrane envelope. PMID:22247782

  15. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  16. A baculovirus alkaline nuclease knockout construct produces fragmented DNA and aberrant capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Rohrmann, George F. . E-mail: rohrmanng@orst.edu

    2007-03-01

    DNA replication of bacmid-derived constructs of the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was analyzed by field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) in combination with digestion at a unique Eco81I restriction enzyme site. Three constructs were characterized: a parental bacmid, a bacmid deleted for the alkaline nuclease gene, and a bacmid from which the gp64 gene had been deleted. The latter was employed as a control for comparison with the alkaline nuclease knockout because neither yields infectious virus and their replication is limited to the initially transfected cells. The major difference between DNA replicated by the different constructs was the presence in the alkaline nuclease knockout of high concentrations of relatively small, subgenome length DNA in preparations not treated with Eco81I. Furthermore, upon Eco81I digestion, the alkaline nuclease knockout bacmid also yielded substantially more subgenome size DNA than the other constructs. Electron microscopic examination of cells transfected with the alkaline nuclease knockout indicated that, in addition to a limited number of normal-appearing electron-dense nucleocapsids, numerous aberrant capsid-like structures were observed indicating a defect in nucleocapsid maturation or in a DNA processing step that is necessary for encapsidation. Because of the documented role of the baculovirus alkaline nuclease and its homologs from other viruses in homologous recombination, these data suggest that DNA recombination may play a major role in the production of baculovirus genomes.

  17. Pervasive and dynamic protein binding sites of the mRNA transcriptome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-RNA interactions are integral components of nearly every aspect of biology, including regulation of gene expression, assembly of cellular architectures, and pathogenesis of human diseases. However, studies in the past few decades have only uncovered a small fraction of the vast landscape of the protein-RNA interactome in any organism, and even less is known about the dynamics of protein-RNA interactions under changing developmental and environmental conditions. Results Here, we describe the gPAR-CLIP (global photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunopurification) approach for capturing regions of the untranslated, polyadenylated transcriptome bound by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in budding yeast. We report over 13,000 RBP crosslinking sites in untranslated regions (UTRs) covering 72% of protein-coding transcripts encoded in the genome, confirming 3' UTRs as major sites for RBP interaction. Comparative genomic analyses reveal that RBP crosslinking sites are highly conserved, and RNA folding predictions indicate that secondary structural elements are constrained by protein binding and may serve as generalizable modes of RNA recognition. Finally, 38% of 3' UTR crosslinking sites show changes in RBP occupancy upon glucose or nitrogen deprivation, with major impacts on metabolic pathways as well as mitochondrial and ribosomal gene expression. Conclusions Our study offers an unprecedented view of the pervasiveness and dynamics of protein-RNA interactions in vivo. PMID:23409723

  18. Crystallization of viruses and virus proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnke, Paul C.; Harrington, Melissa; Hosur, M. V.; Li, Yunge; Usha, R.; Craig Tucker, R.; Bomu, Wu; Stauffacher, Cynthia V.; Johnson, John E.

    1988-07-01

    Methods for crystallizing six isometric plant and insect viruses are presented. Procedures developed for modifying, purifying and crystallizing coat protein subunits isolated from a virus forming asymmetric, spheroidal particles, stabilized almost exclusively by protein-RNA interactions, are also discussed. The tertiary and quaternary structures of small RNA viruses are compared.

  19. Uukuniemi virus glycoproteins accumulate in and cause morphological changes of the Golgi complex in the absence of virus maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Gahmberg, N; Kuismanen, E; Keränen, S; Pettersson, R F

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the transport of the Uukuniemi virus membrane glycoproteins in baby hamster kidney and chick embryo cells by using a temperature-sensitive mutant (ts12). Uukuniemi virus assembles in the Golgi complex, where both glycoproteins G1 and G2 and nucleocapsid protein N accumulate (E. Kuismanen, B. Bång, M. Hurme, and R. F. Pettersson, J. Virol. 51:137-146, 1984). At the restrictive temperature (39 degrees C), the glycoproteins of ts12 were transported to the Golgi complex as in wild-type, virus-infected cells, whereas the nucleocapsid protein failed to accumulate there. Pulse-chase labeling followed by immunoprecipitation and treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H showed that G1 synthesized at 39 degrees C in ts12-infected cells had an altered mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting a lack of terminal glycosylation. The typical Uukuniemi virus-induced vacuolization and expansion of the Golgi complex could be seen also in ts12-infected cells at 39 degrees C, although no virus particles were formed. This suggests that the morphological changes were induced by the Uukuniemi virus glycoproteins. In wild-type virus- or ts12-infected cells, G1 and G2 could not be chased out from the Golgi complex even after 6 h of treatment with cycloheximide. The glycoproteins were thus retained in the Golgi even under conditions when no virus maturation took place and when nucleocapsids did not accumulate in the Golgi region. Accordingly, the glycoproteins of Uukuniemi virus were found to have properties resembling those of Golgi-specific proteins. This virus model system may be useful in studying the synthesis and transport of membrane proteins that are transported to and retained in the Golgi. Images PMID:3512854

  20. Physicochemical Study of Viral Nanoparticles at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Torres-Salgado, Jose F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Villagrana-Escareño, Maria V; Durán-Meza, Ana L; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Cadena-Nava, Ruben D

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses into icosahedral nucleocapsids is a spontaneous process driven by protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions. The precise nature of these interactions results in the assembly of extremely monodisperse and structurally indistinguishable nucleocapsids. In this work, by using a ssRNA plant virus (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [CCMV]) as a charged nanoparticle we show that the diffusion of these nanoparticles from the bulk solution to the air/water interface is an irreversible adsorption process. By using the Langmuir technique, we measured the diffusion and adsorption of viral nucleocapsids at the air/water interface at different pH conditions. The pH changes, and therefore in the net surface charge of the virions, have a great influence in the diffusion rate from the bulk solution to the air/water interface. Moreover, assembly of mesoscopic and microscopic viral aggregates at this interface depends on the net surface charge of the virions and the surface pressure. By using Brewster's angle microscopy we characterized these structures at the interface. Most common structures observed were clusters of virions and soap-frothlike micron-size structures. Furthermore, the CCMV films were compressed to form monolayers and multilayers from moderate to high surface pressures, respectively. After transferring the films from the air/water interface onto mica by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, their morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy. These viral monolayers showed closed-packing nano- and microscopic arrangements. PMID:26999022

  1. Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF11 Is Essential for Budded-Virus Production and Occlusion-Derived-Virus Envelopment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xue Ying; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Jin; An, Saes Byeol; Liu, Qin; Kim, Song Eun; Lee, Seok Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Woo, Soo Dong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ORF11 (ac11) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved gene with unknown function. To determine the role of ac11 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac11 knockout mutant of AcMNPV, Ac11KO, was constructed. Northern blot and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analyses revealed that ac11 is an early gene in the life cycle. Microscopy, titration assays, and Western blot analysis revealed that budded viruses (BVs) were not produced in Ac11KO-transfected Sf9 cells. However, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the deletion of ac11 did not affect viral DNA replication. Furthermore, electron microscopy revealed that there was no nucleocapsid in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Ac11KO-transfected cells, which demonstrates that the defect in BV production in Ac11KO-transfected cells is due to the inefficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy observations showed that the nucleocapsids in the nucleus were not enveloped to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and that their subsequent embedding into occlusion bodies (OBs) was also blocked in Ac11KO-transfected cells, demonstrating that ac11 is required for ODV envelopment. These results therefore demonstrate that ac11 is an early gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment. IMPORTANCE Baculoviruses have been extensively used not only as specific, environmentally benign insecticides but also as helper-independent protein expression vectors. Although the function of baculovirus genes in viral replication has been studied by using gene knockout technology, the functions of more than one-third of viral genes, which include some highly conserved genes, are still unknown. In this study, ac11 was proven to play a crucial role in BV production and ODV envelopment. These results will lead to a better understanding of baculovirus infection cycles. PMID:25320313

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of dUTPase from Mason–Pfizer monkey retrovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Barabás, Orsolya; Németh, Veronika; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2006-04-01

    Deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from Mason–Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV dUTPase) is a betaretroviral member of the dUTPase enzyme family. The nucleocapsid-free dUTPase (48426 Da) was co-crystallized with a dUTP substrate analogue using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from Mason–Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV dUTPase) is a betaretroviral member of the dUTPase enzyme family. In the mature M-PMV virion, this enzyme is present as the C-terminal domain of the fusion protein nucleocapsid-dUTPase. The homotrimeric organization characteristic of dUTPases is retained in this bifunctional fusion protein. The fusion protein supposedly plays a role in adequate localization of dUTPase activity in the vicinity of nucleic acids during reverse transcription and integration. Here, the nucleocapsid-free dUTPase (48 426 Da) was cocrystallized with a dUTP substrate analogue using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The obtained crystals belong to the primitive hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.6, b = 60.6, c = 63.6 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 120°. Native and PtCl{sub 4}-derivative data sets were collected using synchrotron radiation to 1.75 and 2.3 Å, respectively. Phasing was successfully performed by isomorphous replacement combined with anomalous scattering.

  3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and demonstration of genetic variability among bifidobacteria isolated from rats fed with raw kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Fanedl, L; Nekrep, F V; Avgustin, G

    1998-11-01

    A rise in bifidobacterial numbers resembling the Escherichia coli overgrowth phenomenon was observed in the rat small intestine in a feeding experiment with kidney beans. Bifidobacterial colony counts increased from 7.6 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(8) cfu.g-1 of intestinal tissue in the anterior part and from less than 1 x 10(5) to 2.65 x 10(8) cfu.g-1 in posterior part of the intestine. Fifteen bifidobacterial strains were purified and further analysed. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were used to genetically differentiate bifidobacterial isolates from rat gut and compare them with type strains of 20 different species from the genus Bifidobacterium. A total of 80 arbitrary decamere primers were screened with 6 isolates, and 7 primers were chosen for the final analysis. The amplified DNA bands were scored and analysed by the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages clustering. The isolates were not identical to each other nor to the screened type strains. Whereas it was possible to group 12 of the isolates into 2 separate clusters, 3 strains showed no significant relatedness to any strain. The results of the RAPD analysis indicated that there was a large degree variability among the bifidobacteria in the rat gut and demonstrated the potential applicability of such an approach in the investigation of microbial diversity in complex ecosystems.

  4. Expression of the Multimeric and Highly Immunogenic Brucella spp. Lumazine Synthase Fused to Bovine Rotavirus VP8d as a Scaffold for Antigen Production in Tobacco Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, E. Federico; Lentz, Ezequiel M.; Bellido, Demian; Dus Santos, María J.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F.

    2015-01-01

    Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) is a highly immunogenic decameric protein which can accommodate foreign polypeptides or protein domains fused to its N-termini, markedly increasing their immunogenicity. The inner core domain (VP8d) of VP8 spike protein from bovine rotavirus is responsible for viral adhesion to sialic acid residues and infection. It also displays neutralizing epitopes, making it a good candidate for vaccination. In this work, the BLS scaffold was assessed for the first time in plants for recombinant vaccine development by N-terminally fusing BLS to VP8d and expressing the resulting fusion (BLSVP8d) in tobacco chloroplasts. Transplastomic plants were obtained and characterized by Southern, northern and western blot. BLSVP8d was highly expressed, representing 40% of total soluble protein (4.85 mg/g fresh tissue). BLSVP8d remained soluble and stable during all stages of plant development and even in lyophilized leaves stored at room temperature. Soluble protein extracts from fresh and lyophilized leaves were able to induce specific neutralizing IgY antibodies in a laying hen model. This work presents BLS as an interesting platform for highly immunogenic injectable, or even oral, subunit vaccines. Lyophilization of transplastomic leaves expressing stable antigenic fusions to BLS would further reduce costs and simplify downstream processing, purification and storage, allowing for more practical vaccines. PMID:26779198

  5. Quaternary Structure Heterogeneity of Oligomeric Proteins: A SAXS and SANS Study of the Dissociation Products of Octopus vulgaris Hemocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Mičetić, Ivan; Ferrero, Claudio; Pontoni, Diego; Beltramini, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Octopus vulgaris hemocyanin shows a particular self-assembling pattern, characterized by a hierarchical organization of monomers. The highest molecular weight aggregate is a decamer, the stability of which in solution depends on several parameters. Different pH values, buffer compositions, H2O/D2O ratios and Hofmeister’s salts result in modifications of the aggregation state of Octopus vulgaris hemocyanin. The new QUAFIT method, recently applied to derive the structure of the decameric and the monomeric assembly from small-angle scattering data, is used here to model the polydisperse system that results from changing the solution conditions. A dataset of small-angle X-rays and neutron scattering curves is analysed by QUAFIT to derive structure, composition and concentration of different assemblies present in solution. According to the hierarchy of the association/dissociation processes and the possible number of different aggregation products in solution, each sample has been considered as a heterogeneous mixture composed of the entire decamer, the dissociated “loose” monomer and all the intermediate dissociation products. Scattering curves corresponding to given experimental conditions are well fitted by using a linear combination of single particle form factors. QUAFIT has proved to be a method of general validity to describe solutions of proteins that, even after purification processes, result to be intrinsically heterogeneous. PMID:23166737

  6. UDP-galactopyranose mutase, a potential drug target against human pathogenic nematode Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sweta; Valicherla, Guru R; Mohd Shahab; Gupta, Jyoti; Gayen, Jiaur R; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a vector-borne neglected tropical disease affects millions of population in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccine unavailability and emerging drug resistance against standard antifilarial drugs necessitate search of novel drug targets for developing alternate drugs. Recently, UDP-galactopyranose mutases (UGM) have emerged as a promising drug target playing an important role in parasite virulence and survival. This study deals with the cloning and characterization of Brugia malayi UGM and further exploring its antifilarial drug target potential. The recombinant protein was actively involved in conversion of UDP-galactopyranose (substrate) to UDP-galactofuranose (product) revealing Km and Vmax to be ∼51.15 μM and ∼1.27 μM/min, respectively. The purified protein appeared to be decameric in native state and its 3D homology modeling using Aspergillus fumigatus UGM enzyme as template revealed conservation of active site residues. Two specific prokaryotic inhibitors (compounds A and B) of the enzyme inhibited B. malayi UGM enzymatic activity competitively depicting Ki values ∼22.68 and ∼23.0 μM, respectively. These compounds were also active in vitro and in vivo against B. malayi The findings suggest that B. malayi UGM could be a potential antifilarial therapeutic drug target. PMID:27465638

  7. Structure of the Sulphiredoxin-Peroxiredoxin Complex Reveals an Essential Repair Embrace

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson,T.; Johnson, L.; Lowther, W.

    2008-01-01

    Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) have an important role in regulating hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell signalling1. In this process, Prxs can become inactivated through the hyperoxidation of an active site Cys residue to Cys sulphinic acid. The unique repair of this moiety by sulphiredoxin (Srx) restores peroxidase activity and terminates the signal2. The hyperoxidized form of Prx exists as a stable decameric structure with each active site buried. Therefore, it is unclear how Srx can access the sulphinic acid moiety. Here we present the 2.6 Angstroms crystal structure of the human Srx-PrxI complex. This complex reveals the complete unfolding of the carboxy terminus of Prx, and its unexpected packing onto the backside of Srx away from the Srx active site. Binding studies and activity analyses of site-directed mutants at this interface show that the interaction is required for repair to occur. Moreover, rearrangements in the Prx active site lead to a juxtaposition of the Prx Gly-Gly-Leu-Gly and Srx ATP-binding motifs, providing a structural basis for the first step of the catalytic mechanism. The results also suggest that the observed interactions may represent a common mode for other proteins to bind to Prxs.

  8. Cluster Analysis of p53 Binding Site Sequences Reveals Subsets with Different Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hyun; Latysheva, Natasha S.; Iggo, Richard D.; Barker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    p53 is an important regulator of cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis and metabolism, and is frequently mutated in tumors. It functions as a tetramer, where each component dimer binds to a decameric DNA region known as a response element. We identify p53 binding site subtypes and examine the functional and evolutionary properties of these subtypes. We start with over 1700 known binding sites and, with no prior labeling, identify two sets of response elements by unsupervised clustering. When combined, they give rise to three types of p53 binding sites. We find that probabilistic and alignment-based assessments of cross-species conservation show no strong evidence of differential conservation between types of binding sites. In contrast, functional analysis of the genes most proximal to the binding sites provides strong bioinformatic evidence of functional differentiation between the three types of binding sites. Our results are consistent with recent structural data identifying two conformations of the L1 loop in the DNA binding domain, suggesting that they reflect biologically meaningful groups imposed by the p53 protein structure. PMID:27812278

  9. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dadinova, Liubov A.; Shtykova, Eleonora V.; Konarev, Petr V.; Rodina, Elena V.; Snalina, Natalia E.; Vorobyeva, Natalia N.; Kurilova, Svetlana A.; Nazarova, Tatyana I.; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2016-01-01

    The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i) class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB); (ii) inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); (iii) 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI); and (iv) glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin) metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques. PMID:27227414

  10. Interaction of Gramicidin S and its Aromatic Amino-Acid Analog with Phospholipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; Hodges, Robert S.; Meissner, Joseph E.; Hassenstein, Una E.; Wheaton, Laura

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of interaction of gramicidin S-like antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes, a series of five decameric cyclic cationic β-sheet-β-turn peptides with all possible combinations of aromatic D-amino acids, Cyclo(Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar1-Pro-Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar2-Pro) (Ar ≡ Phe, Tyr, Trp), were synthesized. Conformations of these cyclic peptides were comparable in aqueous solutions and lipid vesicles. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements revealed entropy-driven binding of cyclic peptides to POPC and POPE/POPG lipid vesicles. Binding of peptides to both vesicle systems was endothermic—exceptions were peptides containing the Trp-Trp and Tyr-Trp pairs with exothermic binding to POPC vesicles. Application of one- and two-site binding (partitioning) models to binding isotherms of exothermic and endothermic binding processes, respectively, resulted in determination of peptide-lipid membrane binding constants (Kb). The Kb1 and Kb2 values for endothermic two-step binding processes corresponded to high and low binding affinities (Kb1 ≥ 100 Kb2). Conformational change of cyclic peptides in transferring from buffer to lipid bilayer surfaces was estimated using fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the Tyr-Trp pair in one of the peptide constructs. The cyclic peptide conformation expands upon adsorption on lipid bilayer surface and interacts more deeply with the outer monolayer causing bilayer deformation, which may lead to formation of nonspecific transient peptide-lipid porelike zones causing membrane lysis. PMID:18621820

  11. A 1-Cys Peroxiredoxin from a Thermophilic Archaeon Moonlights as a Molecular Chaperone to Protect Protein and DNA against Stress-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Bang Phuong; Kwak, Jae Myeong; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Cheong, Gang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1, an anaerobic archaeon, contains many antioxidant proteins, including three Prxs (Tk0537, Tk0815, and Tk1055). Only Tk0537 has been found to be induced in response to heat, osmotic, and oxidative stress. Tk0537 was found to belong to a 1-Cys Prx6 subfamily based on sequence analysis and was named 1-Cys TkPrx. Using gel filtration chromatography, electron microscopy, and blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we observed that 1-Cys TkPrx exhibits oligomeric forms with reduced peroxide reductase activity as well as decameric and dodecameric forms that can act as molecular chaperones by protecting both proteins and DNA from oxidative stress. Mutational analysis showed that a cysteine residue at the N-terminus (Cys46) was responsible for the peroxide reductase activity, and cysteine residues at the C-terminus (Cys205 and Cys211) were important for oligomerization. Based on our results, we propose that interconversion between different oligomers is important for regulating the different functions of 1-Cys TkPrx. PMID:25933432

  12. Specificity analysis of the C-type lectin from rattlesnake venom, and its selectivity towards Gal- or GalNAc-terminated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Young, N Martin; van Faassen, Henk; Watson, David C; Mackenzie, C Roger

    2011-08-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom lectin is a readily-prepared decameric C-type lectin, specific for Gal and GalNAc. Glycan microarray analysis showed it reacted with a wide range of glycans, chiefly recognizing sets of compounds with Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc), α-Gal or α-GalNAc non-reducing termini. Its array profile was therefore distinctly different from those of four previously studied mammalian C-type lectins with the same Gal/GalNAc monosaccharide specificity, and it was more broadly reactive than several Gal- or GalNAc-specific plant lectins commonly used for glycan blotting. Though a general reactivity towards glycoproteins might be expected from the avidity conferred by its high valence, it showed a marked preference for glycoproteins with multiple glycans, terminated by Gal or GalNAc. Thus its ten closely-spaced sites each with a K(D) for GalNAc of ~2 mM appeared to make RSVL more selective than the four more widely-spaced sites of soybean agglutinin, with a ten-fold better K(D) for GalNAc.

  13. Structural characterization of encapsulated ferritin provides insight into iron storage in bacterial nanocompartments

    PubMed Central

    He, Didi; Hughes, Sam; Vanden-Hehir, Sally; Georgiev, Atanas; Altenbach, Kirsten; Tarrant, Emma; Mackay, C Logan; Waldron, Kevin J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Ferritins are ubiquitous proteins that oxidise and store iron within a protein shell to protect cells from oxidative damage. We have characterized the structure and function of a new member of the ferritin superfamily that is sequestered within an encapsulin capsid. We show that this encapsulated ferritin (EncFtn) has two main alpha helices, which assemble in a metal dependent manner to form a ferroxidase center at a dimer interface. EncFtn adopts an open decameric structure that is topologically distinct from other ferritins. While EncFtn acts as a ferroxidase, it cannot mineralize iron. Conversely, the encapsulin shell associates with iron, but is not enzymatically active, and we demonstrate that EncFtn must be housed within the encapsulin for iron storage. This encapsulin nanocompartment is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and represents a distinct class of iron storage system, where the oxidation and mineralization of iron are distributed between two proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18972.001 PMID:27529188

  14. Interaction of serum amyloid P component with hexanoyl bis(d-proline) (CPHPC)

    PubMed Central

    Kolstoe, Simon E.; Jenvey, Michelle C.; Purvis, Alan; Light, Mark E.; Thompson, Darren; Hughes, Peter; Pepys, Mark B.; Wood, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the pentameric human plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds hexanoyl bis(d-proline) (R-1-{6-[R-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl}pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; CPHPC) through its d-proline head groups in a calcium-dependent interaction. Cooperative effects in binding lead to a substantial enhancement of affinity. Five molecules of the bivalent ligand cross-link and stabilize pairs of SAP molecules, forming a decameric complex that is rapidly cleared from the circulation by the liver. Here, it is reported that X-ray analysis of the SAP complex with CPHPC and cadmium ions provides higher resolution detail of the interaction than is observed with calcium ions. Conformational isomers of CPHPC observed in solution by HPLC and by X-ray analysis are compared with the protein-bound form. These are discussed in relation to the development of CPHPC to provide SAP depletion for the treatment of amyloidosis and other indications. PMID:25084341

  15. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and demonstration of genetic variability among bifidobacteria isolated from rats fed with raw kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Fanedl, L; Nekrep, F V; Avgustin, G

    1998-11-01

    A rise in bifidobacterial numbers resembling the Escherichia coli overgrowth phenomenon was observed in the rat small intestine in a feeding experiment with kidney beans. Bifidobacterial colony counts increased from 7.6 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(8) cfu.g-1 of intestinal tissue in the anterior part and from less than 1 x 10(5) to 2.65 x 10(8) cfu.g-1 in posterior part of the intestine. Fifteen bifidobacterial strains were purified and further analysed. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were used to genetically differentiate bifidobacterial isolates from rat gut and compare them with type strains of 20 different species from the genus Bifidobacterium. A total of 80 arbitrary decamere primers were screened with 6 isolates, and 7 primers were chosen for the final analysis. The amplified DNA bands were scored and analysed by the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages clustering. The isolates were not identical to each other nor to the screened type strains. Whereas it was possible to group 12 of the isolates into 2 separate clusters, 3 strains showed no significant relatedness to any strain. The results of the RAPD analysis indicated that there was a large degree variability among the bifidobacteria in the rat gut and demonstrated the potential applicability of such an approach in the investigation of microbial diversity in complex ecosystems. PMID:10030004

  16. Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpC points to the importance of ionic interactions in oligomerization and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, R; Mande, S C

    2001-01-01

    An alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpC) has been found frequently to be overexpressed in isoniazid-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These strains have an inactivated katG gene encoding a catalase peroxidase, which might render mycobacteria susceptible to the toxic peroxide radicals, thus leading to the concomitant overexpression of the AhpC. Although the overexpressed AhpC in isoniazid-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis may not directly participate in isoniazid action, AhpC might still assist M. tuberculosis in combating oxidative damage in the absence of the catalase. Here we have attempted to characterize the AhpC protein biochemically and report its functional and oligomerization properties. The alkyl hydroperoxidase of M. tuberculosis is unique in many ways compared with its well-characterized homologues from enteric bacteria. We show that AhpC is a decameric protein, composed of five identical dimers held together by ionic interactions. Dimerization of individual subunits takes place through an intersubunit disulphide linkage. The ionic interactions play a significant role in enzymic activity of the AhpC protein. The UV absorption spectrum and three-dimensional model of AhpC suggest that interesting conformational changes may take place during oxidation and reduction of the intersubunit disulphide linkage. In the absence of the partner AhpF subunit in M. tuberculosis, the mycobacterial AhpC might use small-molecule reagents, such as mycothiol, for completing its enzymic cycle. PMID:11171096

  17. Unprecedented {Fe14 }/{Fe10 } Polyoxotungstate-Based Nanoclusters with Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Activity: Synthesis, Structure, Magnetism, and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chen, Zhiyuan; Ma, Pengtao; Zhang, Dongdi; Drew, Michael G B; Niu, Jingyang; Wang, Jingping

    2016-07-25

    Novel Fe10 and Fe14 clusters [Rb9 Cs4 H37 Fe10 O34 (A-α-PW9 O31 )3 (OH)3 ]⋅36 H2 O (1) and [H3 Rb3 Fe14 (OH)12 (PO4 )6 (B-α-PW9 O34 )2 ]⋅21 H2 O (2) were synthesized and characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetic studies, and in solution by electrochemistry. Cluster 1 is a decameric Fe(III) polyanionic cluster encapsulating a cesium atom in the center. Cluster 2 is a unique tetradecanuclear Fe(III) sandwich structure with phosphate-linked units featuring two quasicubic Fe4 O4 moieties. Apparently, 2 has the highest nuclearity of all known Fe(III) sandwich-type polyoxometalate clusters. Clusters 1 and 2 also act as photocatalysts with platinum as cocatalyst for H2 evolution from light-driven water splitting. Changes in the cyclovoltammetric patterns with variations in pH were observed for 1 and 2, most likely due to intermolecular interactions among the high-nuclearity Fe(III) cluster cores and subsequent changes in the acid-base properties of the two reduced POMs. Magnetic studies provide evidence of antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 2. TGA showed that complexes 1 and 2 decompose between 580 and 590 °C. PMID:27345965

  18. Crystal Structure of Reduced and of Oxidized Peroxiredoxin IV Enzyme Reveals a Stable Oxidized Decamer and a Non-disulfide-bonded Intermediate in the Catalytic Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenbo; Tavender, Timothy J.; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Bulleid, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin IV (PrxIV) is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme that metabolizes the hydrogen peroxide produced by endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1 (Ero1). It has been shown to play a role in de novo disulfide formation, oxidizing members of the protein disulfide isomerase family of enzymes, and is a member of the typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. We have determined the crystal structure of both reduced and disulfide-bonded, as well as a resolving cysteine mutant of human PrxIV. We show that PrxIV has a similar structure to other typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins and undergoes a conformational change from a fully folded to a locally unfolded form following the formation of a disulfide between the peroxidatic and resolving cysteine residues. Unlike other mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, we show that human PrxIV forms a stable decameric structure even in its disulfide-bonded state. In addition, the structure of a resolving cysteine mutant reveals an intermediate in the reaction cycle that adopts the locally unfolded conformation. Interestingly the peroxidatic cysteine in the crystal structure is sulfenylated rather than sulfinylated or sulfonylated. In addition, the peroxidatic cysteine in the resolving cysteine mutant is resistant to hyper-oxidation following incubation with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. These results highlight some unique properties of PrxIV and suggest that the equilibrium between the fully folded and locally unfolded forms favors the locally unfolded conformation upon sulfenylation of the peroxidatic cysteine residue. PMID:21994946

  19. Immunoglobulin synthesis in primary and myeloma amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Preud'homme, J L; Ganeval, D; Grünfeld, J P; Striker, L; Brouet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow cells from 14 patients with primary amyloidosis and two patients with myeloma amyloidosis were studied by immunofluorescence and biosynthesis experiments after incorporation of radioactive amino acids. Cells from four patients affected with non-myeloma secondary amyloidosis were also studied as controls. In primary amyloidosis, monoclonal plasma cell populations were demonstrated by immunofluorescence in virtually every case, even in patients without serum and urine monoclonal immunoglobulin and with a normal percentage of bone marrow plasma cells. Biosynthesis experiments showed the secretion of large amounts of free light chains, most often of the lambda type, in every primary or myeloma amyloidosis case and the presence of light chain fragments in almost all cases. Special features in certain patients were the synthesis of short gamma chains (two cases), assembly block at the HL half molecule level of a monoclonal IgA (one case) and secretion of decameric abnormally large kappa chains (one case). This is in contrast with non-myelomatous secondary amyloidosis where the distribution of bone marrow plasma cells was normal by immunofluorescence and where normal sized immunoglobulins were synthesized, without free light chain secretion and fragments. These data confirm that primary amyloidosis belongs to plasma cell dyscrasias and emphasize the role of free light chains and light chain fragments in the pathogenesis of amyloid deposition. PMID:3145161

  20. Structure of the fucose mutarotase from Streptococcus pneumoniae in complex with L-fucose.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Melanie A; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae relies on a variety of carbohydrate-utilization pathways for both colonization of its human host and full virulence during the development of invasive disease. One such pathway is the fucose-utilization pathway, a component of which is fucose mutarotase (SpFcsU), an enzyme that performs the interconversion between α-L-fucose and β-L-fucose. This protein was crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was solved in complex with L-fucose. The structure shows a complex decameric quaternary structure with a high overall degree of structural identity to Escherichia coli FcsU (EcFcsU). Furthermore, the active-site architecture of SpFcsU is highly similar to that of EcFcsU. When considered in the context of the fucose-utilization pathway found in S. pneumoniae, SpFcsU appears to link the two halves of the pathway by enhancing the rate of conversion of the product of the final glycoside hydrolysis step, β-fucose, into the substrate for the fucose isomerase, α-fucose.

  1. Unprecedented {Fe14 }/{Fe10 } Polyoxotungstate-Based Nanoclusters with Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Activity: Synthesis, Structure, Magnetism, and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chen, Zhiyuan; Ma, Pengtao; Zhang, Dongdi; Drew, Michael G B; Niu, Jingyang; Wang, Jingping

    2016-07-25

    Novel Fe10 and Fe14 clusters [Rb9 Cs4 H37 Fe10 O34 (A-α-PW9 O31 )3 (OH)3 ]⋅36 H2 O (1) and [H3 Rb3 Fe14 (OH)12 (PO4 )6 (B-α-PW9 O34 )2 ]⋅21 H2 O (2) were synthesized and characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetic studies, and in solution by electrochemistry. Cluster 1 is a decameric Fe(III) polyanionic cluster encapsulating a cesium atom in the center. Cluster 2 is a unique tetradecanuclear Fe(III) sandwich structure with phosphate-linked units featuring two quasicubic Fe4 O4 moieties. Apparently, 2 has the highest nuclearity of all known Fe(III) sandwich-type polyoxometalate clusters. Clusters 1 and 2 also act as photocatalysts with platinum as cocatalyst for H2 evolution from light-driven water splitting. Changes in the cyclovoltammetric patterns with variations in pH were observed for 1 and 2, most likely due to intermolecular interactions among the high-nuclearity Fe(III) cluster cores and subsequent changes in the acid-base properties of the two reduced POMs. Magnetic studies provide evidence of antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 2. TGA showed that complexes 1 and 2 decompose between 580 and 590 °C.

  2. Rotavirus VP2 core shell regions critical for viral polymerase activation.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah M; Patton, John T

    2011-04-01

    The innermost VP2 core shell of the triple-layered, icosahedral rotavirus particle surrounds the viral genome and RNA processing enzymes, including the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In addition to anchoring VP1 within the core, VP2 is also an essential cofactor that triggers the polymerase to initiate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesis using packaged plus-strand RNA templates. The VP2 requirement effectively couples packaging with genome replication and ensures that VP1 makes dsRNA only within an assembling previrion particle. However, the mechanism by which the rotavirus core shell protein activates the viral polymerase remains very poorly understood. In the current study, we sought to elucidate VP2 regions critical for VP1-mediated in vitro dsRNA synthesis. By comparing the functions of proteins from several different rotaviruses, we found that polymerase activation by the core shell protein is specific. Through truncation and chimera mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the VP2 amino terminus, which forms a decameric, internal hub underneath each 5-fold axis, plays an important but nonspecific role in VP1 activation. Our results indicate that the VP2 residues correlating with polymerase activation specificity are located on the inner face of the core shell, distinct from the amino terminus. Based on these findings, we predict that several regions of VP2 engage the polymerase during the concerted processes of rotavirus core assembly and genome replication.

  3. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dadinova, Liubov A; Shtykova, Eleonora V; Konarev, Petr V; Rodina, Elena V; Snalina, Natalia E; Vorobyeva, Natalia N; Kurilova, Svetlana A; Nazarova, Tatyana I; Jeffries, Cy M; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2016-01-01

    The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i) class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB); (ii) inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); (iii) 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI); and (iv) glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin) metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques. PMID:27227414

  4. Enhancement of the Chaperone Activity of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Resulting from a Point-Specific Mutation Confers Heat Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Taek; Lee, Seung Sik; Mondal, Suvendu; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kim, Siu; Lee, Keun Woo; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC). This increased activity may have been associated with the proportionate increase in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction and enhanced hydrophobicity of S78C-PaAhpC. Homology modeling revealed that mutation of Ser78 to Cys78 resulted in a more compact decameric structure than that observed in WT-PaAhpC and decreased the atomic distance between the two neighboring sulfur atoms of Cys78 in the dimer-dimer interface of S78C-PaAhpC, which could be responsible for the enhanced hydrophobic interaction at the dimer-dimer interface. Furthermore, complementation assays showed that S78C-PaAhpC exhibited greatly improved the heat tolerance, resulting in enhanced survival under thermal stress. Thus, addition of Cys at position 78 in PaAhpC modulated the functional shifting of this protein from a peroxidase to a chaperone. PMID:27457208

  5. Enhancement of the Chaperone Activity of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Resulting from a Point-Specific Mutation Confers Heat Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Taek; Lee, Seung Sik; Mondal, Suvendu; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kim, Siu; Lee, Keun Woo; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2016-08-31

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC). This increased activity may have been associated with the proportionate increase in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction and enhanced hydrophobicity of S78C-PaAhpC. Homology modeling revealed that mutation of Ser(78) to Cys(78) resulted in a more compact decameric structure than that observed in WT-PaAhpC and decreased the atomic distance between the two neighboring sulfur atoms of Cys(78) in the dimer-dimer interface of S78C-PaAhpC, which could be responsible for the enhanced hydrophobic interaction at the dimer-dimer interface. Furthermore, complementation assays showed that S78C-PaAhpC exhibited greatly improved the heat tolerance, resulting in enhanced survival under thermal stress. Thus, addition of Cys at position 78 in PaAhpC modulated the functional shifting of this protein from a peroxidase to a chaperone. PMID:27457208

  6. [Development of ELISA on the basis of monoclonal antibodies for detecting specific activity of the vaccine against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Dzagurova, T K; Solopova, O N; Sveshnikov, P G; Korotina, N A; Balovneva, M V; Leonovich, O A; Varlamov, N E; Malkin, G A; Sotskova, S E; Tkachenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies to Puumala, Dobrava, Hantaan, and Seoul hantaviruses were obtained using mice. The viruses were known to cause HFRS, and two variants of ELISA were designed. First, Hanta-PUU variant, was constructed using monoclonal antibodies to Puumala virus envelope glycoprotein (G(N):G(C)) for detecting only Puumala virus antigen. The second, Hanta-N variant, was constructed using monoclonal antibodies to Dobrava and Puumala nucleocapsid proteins for detecting four above mentioned hantaviruses. Both Hanta-PUU and Hanta-N assays were reliable in detecting specific hantavirus antigens and the immunogenecity of hantavirus vaccines.

  7. Fast high-throughput screening of H1N1 virus by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Nan, He; Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is one of the acute respiratory diseases of human caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus and accounted for major public health concerns worldwide. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are the most popular tools for clinical diagnosis of influenza A virus. Microchip electrophoresis is a widely used method for DNA molecules separation. Herein, we describe the fast and high-throughput separation of hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene PCR products (116 bp and 195 bp, respectively) by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis and programmed step electric field strength (PSEFS). PMID:25673484

  8. [Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for virus-like partical vaccine: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Yu; Bo, Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2012-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) is a major viral nucleocapsid protein of HBV. It is a 21-22kD protein consisting of 183-185 amino acids. Because of its easy purification, strong immunogenicity, high expression level, and self-assembles into the virus-like particles (VLP), HBcAg could be an efficient and safe VLP carrier for developing vaccines for various pathogens. Up to now, HBcAg VLP carrier has been an important system to develop novel vaccines and many antigen epitope genes from viruses, bacteria and parasites were expressed successfully using the system.

  9. Cell entry mechanisms of HSV: what we have learned in recent years

    PubMed Central

    Agelidis, Alex M; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    HSV type-1 and -2 are widespread pathogens producing lifelong infection with multiple sequelae, including oral, ocular and genital disease. The process of herpesvirus entry is a highly complex process involving numerous viral and cellular factors. Entry begins with attachment of virus to the cell surface followed by interactions between viral glycoproteins and cellular receptors to facilitate capsid penetration. The nucleocapsid is then transported along microtubules to the nuclear membrane, where viral DNA is released for replication in the nucleus. The work reviewed here comprises the most recent advancements in our understanding of the mechanism involved in the herpesvirus entry process. PMID:27066105

  10. Cytomegalovirus Primary Envelopment Occurs at Large Infoldings of the Inner Nuclear Membrane▿

    PubMed Central

    Buser, Christopher; Walther, Paul; Mertens, Thomas; Michel, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the morphogenesis of human and murine cytomegalovirus by transmission electron microscopy after high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and plastic embedding. We observed large tubular infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane that were free of lamina and active in primary envelopment and subsequent transport of capsids to the nuclear periphery. Semiquantitative determinations of the enlarged inner nuclear membrane area and the location of the primary envelopment of nucleocapsids demonstrated that this structure represents a virus-induced specialized membrane domain at which the particles are preferentially enveloped. This is a previously undescribed structural element relevant in cytomegalovirus morphogenesis. PMID:17192309

  11. Fast high-throughput screening of H1N1 virus by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Nan, He; Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is one of the acute respiratory diseases of human caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus and accounted for major public health concerns worldwide. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are the most popular tools for clinical diagnosis of influenza A virus. Microchip electrophoresis is a widely used method for DNA molecules separation. Herein, we describe the fast and high-throughput separation of hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene PCR products (116 bp and 195 bp, respectively) by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis and programmed step electric field strength (PSEFS).

  12. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:22156529

  13. New Mexico and the southwestern US are affected by a unique population of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) strains.

    PubMed

    French, J M; Goldberg, N P; Randall, J J; Hanson, S F

    2016-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an important pathogen of many ornamental, greenhouse and agronomic crops worldwide. TSWV also causes sporadic problems in a number of crops in New Mexico (NM). Nucleocapsid gene sequences obtained from six different crop species across the state over four different years were used to characterize the NM TSWV population. This analysis shows that NM is affected by a unique TSWV population that is part of larger independent population present in the southwestern US. This population likely arose due to geographic isolation and is related to other TSWV populations from the US, Spain, and Italy.

  14. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-02-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen (HBcAg)) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen (HBeAg)). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid.

  15. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, Stefan; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-03-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle.

  16. Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-08-01

    This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

  17. Isolation of carboxyl-termini and blocked amino-termini of viral proteins by high-performance cation-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gorman, J J; Shiell, B J

    1993-08-27

    The strong cation-exchanger, PolySulfoethyl Aspartamide, has been assessed as a medium for isolation of carboxyl-terminal and blocked amino-terminal peptides from tryptic digests of small quantities of viral proteins. Peptides with a single positive charge, the blocked amino-terminal peptides of ovalbumin and the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix protein and carboxyl-terminal peptides of ovalbumin and the NDV nucleocapsid protein, eluted in early ion-exchange fractions and were readily isolated in homogeneous form by subsequent reversed-phase HPLC. Some early ion-exchange fractions also contained singly charged peptides derived by "chymotryptic-like" cleavage, whilst other peptides eluted in these fractions due to their highly acidic character. Terminal sequences with additional basic residues were isolated from later eluting ion-exchange fractions. Peptides with this property included the blocked amino-terminus of the NDV nucleocapsid protein and a portion of the carboxyl-terminus of the NDV matrix protein. Hitherto undescribed polymorphism in the amino-terminal region of ovalbumin was revealed in this study. Truncated peptides from the carboxyl-terminus of the NDV matrix protein were also detected. The presence of these peptides could be a reflection of carboxyl-terminal processing of the matrix protein. The strategy described herein should be of general utility for selective microisolation of carboxyl-terminal peptides and blocked amino-terminal peptides from tryptic digests of proteins. PMID:8408428

  18. Reassortment of Avian Influenza A/H6N6 Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Runyu; Zou, Lirong; Kang, Yinfeng; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Liang, Lijun; Song, Yingchao; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Hanzhong; Lin, Jinyan; Liao, Ming; Ke, Changwen

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2013, H7N9-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused human infection in eastern China. To evaluate AIV contamination and the public risk of infection, we systematically implemented environmental sampling from live poultry markets in Guangdong Province. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and next-generation sequencing, we generated full nucleotide sequences of all 10 H6N6 AIVs isolated during sampling. Focusing on sequence analyses of hemagglutinin genes of the 10 H6N6 AIVs revealed that the viruses were low pathogenic AIVs with the typical hemagglutinin cleavage site of P-Q-I-E-T-R-G. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsid genes of nine AIVs were of ST2853-like (H6-subtype) lineage, ST192-like (N6-subtype) lineage, and HN573-like (H6-subtype) lineage, respectively; whereas the other five genes were of ST339-like (H6-subtype) lineage. However, the polymerase PB2 and nucleocapsid genes of one strain (HZ057) were of GS/GD-like (H5N1-subtype) and ST339-like lineages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that all eight genes of the 10 viruses belonged to Eurasian avian lineage. Altogether, the 10 AIVs were reassortants of different genetic groups of exchanges with the same virus subtype, thus illustrating the genetic diversity and complexity of H6N6-subtype AIVs in Guangdong Province. PMID:26903958

  19. Morphology and Morphogenesis of Sindbis Virus as Seen with Freeze-Etching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis T.; Waite, Marilynn R. F.; Pfefferkorn, Elmer R.

    1972-01-01

    Freeze-etch electron microscope studies of the morphogenesis and morphology of Sindbis virus confirmed results obtained by other workers employing thin-sectioning techniques. The 68-nm virion was found to have a nucleocapsid 36 nm in diameter surrounded by a double-layered, unit membrane. The membranous envelope is acquired as the capsid buds through the plasma membrane of the infected cell. The freeze-etch technique also provided the following new information. (i) At any one time, budding occurs in patches rather than evenly over the cell surface. (ii) The nucleocapsid is composed of capsomers 7 nm in diameter. (iii) The capsid interacts strongly with the membrane, both prior to budding and after maturation. (iv) The 7- to 10-nm particles characteristic of the internal faces of plasma membranes, which presumably represent host membrane proteins, are present in early stages of budding but disappear as morphogenesis progresses. (v) Fusion of the cell membrane at the base of the budding virion is a two-step process; the inner leaflet fuses into a sphere before the outer one. (vi) The outer surface of the viral envelope is covered with 4-nm subunits with a center-to-center spacing of 6 nm. Images PMID:4672393

  20. Epizootiology of Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (Arenaviridae) associated with neotomine rodents (Cricetidae, Neotominae) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bennett, Stephen G; Hess, Barry D; Rood, Michael P; Conlan, Christopher A; Nguyen, Kiet; Wekesa, J Wakoli; Ramos, Ronald D; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to advance our knowledge of the epizootiology of Bear Canyon virus and other Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (Arenaviridae) associated with wild rodents in California. Antibody (immunoglobulin G [IgG]) to a Tacaribe serocomplex virus was found in 145 (3.6%) of 3977 neotomine rodents (Cricetidae: Neotominae) captured in six counties in southern California. The majority (122 or 84.1%) of the 145 antibody-positive rodents were big-eared woodrats (Neotoma macrotis) or California mice (Peromyscus californicus). The 23 other antibody-positive rodents included a white-throated woodrat (N. albigula), desert woodrat (N. lepida), Bryant's woodrats (N. bryanti), brush mice (P. boylii), cactus mice (P. eremicus), and deer mice (P. maniculatus). Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that Bear Canyon virus is associated with N. macrotis and/or P. californicus in Santa Barbara County, Los Angeles County, Orange County, and western Riverside County. Together, analyses of field data and antibody prevalence data indicated that N. macrotis is the principal host of Bear Canyon virus. Last, the analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that the Tacaribe serocomplex virus associated with N. albigula and N. lepida in eastern Riverside County represents a novel species (tentatively named "Palo Verde virus") in the genus Arenavirus. PMID:25700047

  1. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Da, Xiaojiang; Donly, Cam; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-03-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac142 is a baculovirus core gene and encodes a protein previously shown to associate with occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac142 deletion virus (AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}). Fluorescence and light microscopy revealed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} exhibits a single-cell infection phenotype. Titration assays and Western blot confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} is unable to produce budded virus (BV). However, viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}-transfected cells evidenced progression to very late phases of the viral infection. Western blot analysis showed that AC142 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection and that it is a structural component of BV and ODV which localizes to nucleocapsids. Electron microscopy indicates that ac142 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form ODV and their subsequent occlusion, a fundamental process to all baculoviruses.

  2. Measles virus genetic evolution throughout an imported epidemic outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Casasnovas, José María; Porras-Mansilla, Rebeca; Serrano-Pardo, Ángela; Pagán, Israel; Ordobás, María; Ramírez, Rosa; Celma, María Luisa

    2015-01-22

    Measles virus circulates endemically in African and Asian large urban populations, causing outbreaks worldwide in populations with up-to-95% immune protection. We studied the natural genetic variability of genotype B3.1 in a population with 95% vaccine coverage throughout an imported six month measles outbreak. From first pass viral isolates of 47 patients we performed direct sequencing of genomic cDNA. Whilst no variation from index case sequence occurred in the Nucleocapsid gene hyper-variable carboxy end, in the Hemagglutinin gene, main target for neutralizing antibodies, we observed gradual nucleotide divergence from index case along the outbreak (0% to 0.380%, average 0.138%) with the emergence of transient and persistent non-synonymous and synonymous mutations. Little or no variation was observed between the index and last outbreak cases in Phosphoprotein, Nucleocapsid, Matrix and Fusion genes. Most of the H non-synonymous mutations were mapped on the protein surface near antigenic and receptors binding sites. We estimated a MV-Hemagglutinin nucleotide substitution rate of 7.28 × 10-6 substitutions/site/day by a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The dN/dS analysis did not suggest significant immune or other selective pressures on the H gene during the outbreak. These results emphasize the usefulness of MV-H sequence analysis in measles epidemiological surveillance and elimination programs, and in detection of potentially emergence of measles virus neutralization-resistant mutants.

  3. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, Stefan; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle. PMID:26884161

  4. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Ac92 (ORF92, P33) is required for budded virus production and multiply enveloped occlusion-derived virus formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbi; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2010-12-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus orf92 (p33), ac92, is one of 31 genes carried in all sequenced baculovirus genomes, thus suggesting an essential function. Ac92 has homology to the family of flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases and is related to the ERV/ALR family of sulfhydryl oxidases. The role of ac92 during virus replication is unknown. Ac92 was associated with the envelope of both budded and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To investigate the role of Ac92 during virus replication, an ac92-knockout bacmid was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Titration and plaque assays showed no virus spread in ac92-knockout bacmid DNA-transfected insect cells. Deletion of ac92 did not affect viral DNA replication. However, ac92-knockout bacmid DNA-transfected cells lacked multiply enveloped occlusion-derived nucleocapsids; instead, singly enveloped nucleocapsids were detected. To gain insight into the requirement for sulfhydryl oxidation during virus replication, a virus was constructed in which the Ac92 C(155)XXC(158) amino acids, important for sulfhydryl oxidase activity, were mutated to A(155)XXA(158). The mutant virus exhibited a phenotype similar to that of the knockout virus, suggesting that the C-X-X-C motif was essential for sulfhydryl oxidase activity and responsible for the altered ODV phenotype.

  5. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Dai, Xiaojiang; Donly, Cam; Theilmann, David A

    2008-03-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac142 is a baculovirus core gene and encodes a protein previously shown to associate with occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac142 deletion virus (AcBAC(ac142KO-PH-GFP)). Fluorescence and light microscopy revealed that AcBAC(ac142KO-PH-GFP) exhibits a single-cell infection phenotype. Titration assays and Western blot confirmed that AcBAC(ac142KO-PH-GFP) is unable to produce budded virus (BV). However, viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in AcBAC(ac142KO-PH-GFP)-transfected cells evidenced progression to very late phases of the viral infection. Western blot analysis showed that AC142 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection and that it is a structural component of BV and ODV which localizes to nucleocapsids. Electron microscopy indicates that ac142 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form ODV and their subsequent occlusion, a fundamental process to all baculoviruses.

  6. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene

    PubMed Central

    Clem, Stian A.; Wu, Wenbi; Lorena Passarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, Tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  7. Isolation of an arenavirus from a marmoset with callitrichid hepatitis and its serologic association with disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stephensen, C B; Jacob, J R; Montali, R J; Holmes, K V; Muchmore, E; Compans, R W; Arms, E D; Buchmeier, M J; Lanford, R E

    1991-01-01

    Callitrichid hepatitis (CH) is an acute, often fatal viral infection of New World primates from the family Callitrichidae. The etiologic agent of CH is unknown. We report here the isolation of an arenavirus from a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with CH by using in vitro cultures of marmoset hepatocytes and Vero-E6 cells. Enveloped virions 67 to 133 nm in diameter with ribosomelike internal structures were seen in infected cultures. Immunofluorescence and Western immunoblot analysis using CH-specific antisera (principally from animals exposed to CH during zoo outbreaks) revealed three antigens in cells infected with this CH-associated virus (CHV). These antigens had the same electrophoretic mobilities on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as did the nucleocapsid, GP2, and GPC proteins of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Monoclonal antibodies specific for these arenavirus proteins also reacted with the three CHV antigens. Conversely, the CH-specific antisera reacted with the nucleocapsid, GP2, and GPC proteins of LCMV. CHV thus appears to be a close antigenic relative of LCMV. The serologic association of CHV with several CH outbreaks implicate it as the etiologic agent of this disease. Images PMID:1712856

  8. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  9. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, Stefan; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-03-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle. PMID:26884161

  10. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Huy, Tran Quang; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  11. A host-factor interaction and localization map for a plant-adapted rhabdovirus implicates cytoplasm-tethered transcription activators in cell-to-cell movement.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Martin, Kathleen; Wang, Renyuan; Tafelmeyer, Petra; Bridges, Max; Goodin, Michael

    2010-11-01

    To identify host factors that play critical roles in processes, including cell-to-cell movement of plant-adapted rhabdoviruses, we constructed and validated a high-resolution Nicotiana benthamiana yeast two-hybrid library. The library was screened with the putative movement protein (sc4), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M) proteins of Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV). This resulted in identification of 31 potential host factors. Steady-state localization studies using autofluorescent protein fusions to full-length clones of interactors were conducted in transgenic N. benthamiana marker lines. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to validate two-hybrid interactions. The sc4 interactor, sc4i21, localized to microtubules. The N interactor, Ni67, localized to punctuate loci on the endoplasmic reticulum. These two proteins are 84% identical homologues of the Arabidopsis phloem-associated transcription activator AtVOZ1, and contain functional nuclear localization signals. Sc4i17 is a microtubule-associated motor protein. The M interactor, Mi7, is a nuclear-localized transcription factor. Combined with a binary interaction map for SYNV proteins, our data support a model in which the SYNV nucleocapsids are exported from the nucleus and moved cell-to-cell by transcription activators tethered in the cytoplasm.

  12. Mouse hepatitis virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes protect from lethal infection without eliminating virus from the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Stohlman, S A; Bergmann, C C; van der Veen, R C; Hinton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Acute infection of the central nervous system by the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) induces nucleocapsid protein specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) not found in the periphery (S. Stohlman, S. Kyuwa, J. Polo, D. Brady, M. Lai, and C. Bergmann, J. Virol. 67:7050-7059, 1993). Peripheral induction of CTL specific for the nucleocapsid protein of JHMV by vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses was unable to provide significant protection to a subsequent lethal virus challenge. By contrast, the transfer of nucleoprotein-specific CTL protected mice from a subsequent lethal challenge by reducing virus replication within the central nervous system, demonstrating the importance of the CTL response to this epitope in JHMV infection. Transfer of these CTL directly into the central nervous system was at least 10-fold more effective than peripheral transfer. Histological analysis indicated that the CTL reduced virus replication in ependymal cells, astrocytes, and microglia. Although the CTL were relatively ineffective at reducing virus replication in oligodendroglia, survivors showed minimal evidence of virus persistence within the central nervous system and no evidence of chronic ongoing demyelination. PMID:7815531

  13. Epizootiology of Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Arenaviridae) Associated with Neotomine Rodents (Cricetidae, Neotominae) in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Bennett, Stephen G.; Hess, Barry D.; Rood, Michael P.; Conlan, Christopher A.; Nguyen, Kiet; Wekesa, J. Wakoli; Ramos, Ronald D.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to advance our knowledge of the epizootiology of Bear Canyon virus and other Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (Arenaviridae) associated with wild rodents in California. Antibody (immunoglobulin G [IgG]) to a Tacaribe serocomplex virus was found in 145 (3.6%) of 3977 neotomine rodents (Cricetidae: Neotominae) captured in six counties in southern California. The majority (122 or 84.1%) of the 145 antibody-positive rodents were big-eared woodrats (Neotoma macrotis) or California mice (Peromyscus californicus). The 23 other antibody-positive rodents included a white-throated woodrat (N. albigula), desert woodrat (N. lepida), Bryant's woodrats (N. bryanti), brush mice (P. boylii), cactus mice (P. eremicus), and deer mice (P. maniculatus). Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that Bear Canyon virus is associated with N. macrotis and/or P. californicus in Santa Barbara County, Los Angeles County, Orange County, and western Riverside County. Together, analyses of field data and antibody prevalence data indicated that N. macrotis is the principal host of Bear Canyon virus. Last, the analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that the Tacaribe serocomplex virus associated with N. albigula and N. lepida in eastern Riverside County represents a novel species (tentatively named “Palo Verde virus”) in the genus Arenavirus. PMID:25700047

  14. Measles virus genetic evolution throughout an imported epidemic outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Casasnovas, José María; Porras-Mansilla, Rebeca; Serrano-Pardo, Ángela; Pagán, Israel; Ordobás, María; Ramírez, Rosa; Celma, María Luisa

    2015-01-22

    Measles virus circulates endemically in African and Asian large urban populations, causing outbreaks worldwide in populations with up-to-95% immune protection. We studied the natural genetic variability of genotype B3.1 in a population with 95% vaccine coverage throughout an imported six month measles outbreak. From first pass viral isolates of 47 patients we performed direct sequencing of genomic cDNA. Whilst no variation from index case sequence occurred in the Nucleocapsid gene hyper-variable carboxy end, in the Hemagglutinin gene, main target for neutralizing antibodies, we observed gradual nucleotide divergence from index case along the outbreak (0% to 0.380%, average 0.138%) with the emergence of transient and persistent non-synonymous and synonymous mutations. Little or no variation was observed between the index and last outbreak cases in Phosphoprotein, Nucleocapsid, Matrix and Fusion genes. Most of the H non-synonymous mutations were mapped on the protein surface near antigenic and receptors binding sites. We estimated a MV-Hemagglutinin nucleotide substitution rate of 7.28 × 10-6 substitutions/site/day by a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The dN/dS analysis did not suggest significant immune or other selective pressures on the H gene during the outbreak. These results emphasize the usefulness of MV-H sequence analysis in measles epidemiological surveillance and elimination programs, and in detection of potentially emergence of measles virus neutralization-resistant mutants. PMID:25445338

  15. Natural history of restricted synthesis and expression of measles virus genes in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Haase, A T; Gantz, D; Eble, B; Walker, D; Stowring, L; Ventura, P; Blum, H; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Tourtellotte, W

    1985-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slow infection caused by measles virus in which several years separate recovery from typical acute measles and the development of a slowly progressive neurological disease. We have investigated replication of measles virus in brain tissue obtained after the onset of neurological disease and in the terminal phase. With a hybridization tomographic technique that combines in situ hybridization with macroradioautographic screening of large areas of tissue, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of virus genes in vivo, using region- and strand-specific probes for the nucleocapsid and matrix genes. We show that early in the course of SSPE there is a global repression in the synthesis and expression of the genome. In the final stage of SSPE most infected cells still have depressed levels of plus- and minus-strand viral RNA and contain nucleocapsid protein but lack matrix protein. These findings provide further evidence for a unified view of slow infections of the nervous system, where the general constraints on virus gene expression provide an explanation for persistence of virus in the face of the host's immune response, and the slow evolution of pathological change. In the final phases of SSPE the more specific block in virus replication accounts for the cell-associated state of the virus and the difficulty in virus isolation. Images PMID:3857631

  16. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships.

  17. Apical Budding of a Recombinant Influenza A Virus Expressing a Hemagglutinin Protein with a Basolateral Localization Signal

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Rosalia; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Influenza virions bud preferentially from the apical plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells, by enveloping viral nucleocapsids located in the cytosol with its viral integral membrane proteins, i.e., hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M2 proteins, located at the plasma membrane. Because individually expressed HA, NA, and M2 proteins are targeted to the apical surface of the cell, guided by apical sorting signals in their transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains, it has been proposed that the polarized budding of influenza virions depends on the interaction of nucleocapsids and matrix proteins with the cytoplasmic domains of HA, NA, and/or M2 proteins. Since HA is the major protein component of the viral envelope, its polarized surface delivery may be a major force that drives polarized viral budding. We investigated this hypothesis by infecting MDCK cells with a transfectant influenza virus carrying a mutant form of HA (C560Y) with a basolateral sorting signal in its cytoplasmic domain. C560Y HA was expressed nonpolarly on the surface of infected MDCK cells. Interestingly, viral budding remained apical in C560Y virus-infected cells, and so did the location of NP and M1 proteins at late times of infection. These results are consistent with a model in which apical viral budding is a shared function of various viral components rather than a role of the major viral envelope glycoprotein HA. PMID:11884578

  18. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail). PMID:7447711

  19. Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Elliott, R M

    1991-08-01

    A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence of the Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae) L genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. In the first, the L gene is under control of vaccinia virus P7.5 promoter; in the second, the L gene is under control of the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the L gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes T7 RNA polymerase. Both systems express a protein which is the same size as the Bunyamwera virus L protein and is recognized by a monospecific L antiserum. The expressed L protein was shown to be functional in synthesizing Bunyamwera virus RNA in a nucleocapsid transfection assay: recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, total cellular RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blotting. No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells which had previously been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the L protein, both positive- and negative-sense Bunyamwera virus S segment RNA was detected. The suitability of this system to delineate functional domains within the Bunyamwera virus L protein is discussed.

  20. Measurements and models of synchronous growth of fission yeast induced by temperature oscillations. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Agar, D.W.; Bailey, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Pulsing of temperature in a fermentor at intervals coincident with cell generation time was used to induce synchrony in a population of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Measurements of culture protein, RNA, and DNA during synchronous growth confirm continuous synthesis of protein and RNA and discontinuous synthesis of DNA as previously reported. Flow microfluorometry of populations at different times during the synchrony cycle was used to monitor the changes in single-cell protein, RNA, and DNA frequency functions. These measurements illustrate very clearly the degree of synchrony and patterns of macromolecular synthesis and also confirm previous estimates of the cellular protein contents characteristic of dividing cells. Additional insights into single-cell kinetics and division controls are provided by two-parameter flow microfluorometry measurements and by mathematical modeling of population dynamics. Such data are necessary foundations for robust population balance models of microbial processes. (Refs. 31).

  1. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  2. Arginylation in a Partially Purified Fraction of 150k × g Supernatants of Axoplasm and Injured Vertebrate Nerves.

    PubMed

    Ingoglia, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Transfer RNA-mediated posttranslational protein modification by arginine has been demonstrated in vitro in axoplasm extruded from the giant axons of squid and in injured and regenerating vertebrate nerves. In nerve and axoplasm, the highest activity is found in a fraction of a 150,000 × g supernatant containing high molecular weight protein/RNA complexes but lacking molecules of <5 kDa. Arginylation (and protein modification by other amino acids) is not found in more purified, reconstituted fractions. The data are interpreted as indicating that it is critical to recover the reaction components in high molecular weight protein/RNA complexes in order to maintain maximum physiological activity. The level of arginylation is greatest in injured and growing vertebrate nerves compared with intact nerves, suggesting a role for these reactions in nerve injury/repair and during axonal growth.

  3. Mescaline-induced changes of brain-cortex ribosomes. Effect of mescaline on the stability of brain-cortex ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Datta, R K; Ghosh, J J

    1970-05-01

    1. During the action of mescaline sulphate on goat brain-cortex slices the ribosomal particles become susceptible to breakdown, releasing protein, RNA, acidsoluble nucleotides and ninhydrin-positive materials, resulting in loss of ribosomal enzyme activities. 2. Ribosomes of the mescaline-treated cortex slices undergo rapid degradation in the presence of trypsin and ribonuclease. 3. Mescaline does not alter the chemical and nucleotide compositions or the u.v.-absorption characteristics of ribosomal particles, however.

  4. Structural Basis for the Coevolution of a Viral RNA-Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chao,J.; Patskovsky, Y.; Almo, S.; Singer, R.

    2008-01-01

    The cocrystal structure of the PP7 bacteriophage coat protein in complex with its translational operator identifies a distinct mode of sequence-specific RNA recognition when compared to the well-characterized MS2 coat protein-RNA complex. The structure reveals the molecular basis of the PP7 coat protein's ability to selectively bind its cognate RNA, and it demonstrates that the conserved beta-sheet surface is a flexible architecture that can evolve to recognize diverse RNA hairpins.

  5. Discovery of Dual Inhibitors of MDM2 and XIAP for Cancer Treatment | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    MDM2 and XIAP are mutually regulated. Binding of MDM2 RING protein to the IRES region on XIAP mRNA results in MDM2 protein stabilization and enhanced XIAP translation. In this study, we developed a protein-RNA fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries. Our FP-HTS identified eight inhibitors that blocked the MDM2 protein-XIAP RNA interaction, leading to MDM2 degradation.

  6. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%-8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein-RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein-RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions.

  7. HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licatalosi, Donny D.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Ule, Jernej; Kayikci, Melis; Chi, Sung Wook; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Wang, Xuning; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Protein-RNA interactions have critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. However, applying biochemical methods to understand such interactions in living tissues has been challenging. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova revealed extremely reproducible RNA-binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3' untranslated regions, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.

  8. The new (dis)order in RNA regulation.

    PubMed

    Järvelin, Aino I; Noerenberg, Marko; Davis, Ilan; Castello, Alfredo

    2016-04-06

    RNA-binding proteins play a key role in the regulation of all aspects of RNA metabolism, from the synthesis of RNA to its decay. Protein-RNA interactions have been thought to be mostly mediated by canonical RNA-binding domains that form stable secondary and tertiary structures. However, a number of pioneering studies over the past decades, together with recent proteome-wide data, have challenged this view, revealing surprising roles for intrinsically disordered protein regions in RNA binding. Here, we discuss how disordered protein regions can mediate protein-RNA interactions, conceptually grouping these regions into RS-rich, RG-rich, and other basic sequences, that can mediate both specific and non-specific interactions with RNA. Disordered regions can also influence RNA metabolism through protein aggregation and hydrogel formation. Importantly, protein-RNA interactions mediated by disordered regions can influence nearly all aspects of co- and post-transcriptional RNA processes and, consequently, their disruption can cause disease. Despite growing interest in disordered protein regions and their roles in RNA biology, their mechanisms of binding, regulation, and physiological consequences remain poorly understood. In the coming years, the study of these unorthodox interactions will yield important insights into RNA regulation in cellular homeostasis and disease.

  9. The crystal structure of the C45S mutant of annelid Arenicola marina peroxiredoxin 6 supports its assignment to the mechanistically typical 2-Cys subfamily without any formation of toroid-shaped decamers

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Aude; Loumaye, Eléonore; Clippe, André; Rees, Jean-François; Knoops, Bernard; Declercq, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) define a superfamily of thiol-dependent peroxidases able to reduce hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite. Besides their cytoprotective antioxidant function, PRDXs have been implicated in redox signaling and chaperone activity, the latter depending on the formation of decameric high-molecular-weight structures. PRDXs have been mechanistically divided into three major subfamilies, namely typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys PRDXs, based on the number and position of cysteines involved in the catalysis. We report the structure of the C45S mutant of annelid worm Arenicola marina PRDX6 in three different crystal forms determined at 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 Å resolution. Although A. marina PRDX6 was cloned during the search of annelid homologs of mammalian 1-Cys PRDX6s, the crystal structures support its assignment to the mechanistically typical 2-Cys PRDX subfamily. The protein is composed of two distinct domains: a C-terminal domain and an N-terminal domain exhibiting a thioredoxin fold. The subunits are associated in dimers compatible with the formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds between the peroxidatic and the resolving cysteine residues in the wild-type enzyme. The packing of two crystal forms is very similar, with pairs of dimers associated as tetramers. The toroid-shaped decamers formed by dimer association and observed in most typical 2-Cys PRDXs is not present. Thus, A. marina PRDX6 presents structural features of typical 2-Cys PRDXs without any formation of toroid-shaped decamers, suggesting that it should function more like a cytoprotective antioxidant enzyme or a modulator of peroxide-dependent cell signaling rather than a molecular chaperone. PMID:18359859

  10. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogusław

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.

  11. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    DOE PAGES

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogusław

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to usemore » in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.« less

  12. Control of water molecule aggregations in copper 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate coordination polymers containing pyridyl-piperazine type ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiblawi, Sultan H.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    A series of layered divalent copper coordination polymers containing 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and long-spanning pyridyl-piperazine type ligands exhibits greatly different co-crystallized water molecule aggregations depending on the specific ligands used. Both [Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpmp)]n (1, t-14cdc = trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, 4-bpmp = bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) and {[Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpfp)(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (2, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) possess 2D (4,4) coordination polymer grids. However 1 lacks any co-crystallized water and has pinched grid apertures, while 2 manifests infinite water tapes with T6(2)4(2) classification and rectangular grid apertures. {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpmp)]·2H2O}n (3, c-14cdc = cis-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) has [Cu2(c-14cdc)]2 ribbons with paddlewheel dimeric units linked into 2D slabs by 4-bpmp tethers, along with isolated water molecule pairs. In contrast, {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpfp)]·10H2O}n (4) shows a very similar underlying coordination polymer topology but entrains unique decameric water molecule clusters. The minor product {[Cu2(c-14cdcH)2(t-1,4-cdc)(4-bpfp)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (5) was isolated along with 4; this compound underwent some in situ cis to trans cyclohexane-dicarboxylate ligand isomerization and exhibits a ladder polymer motif.

  13. Multiple redox and non-redox interactions define 2-Cys peroxiredoxin as a regulatory hub in the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Muthuramalingam, Meenakumari; Seidel, Thorsten; Laxa, Miriam; Nunes de Miranda, Susana M; Gärtner, Florian; Ströher, Elke; Kandlbinder, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2009-11-01

    In plants, the highly abundant 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (2-CysPrx) is associated with the chloroplast and involved in protecting photosynthesis. This work addresses the multiple interactions of the 2-CysPrx in the chloroplast, which depend on its redox state. Transcript co-regulation analysis showed a strong linkage to the peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase Cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3) and other components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Co-expression in protoplasts and quantification of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency in vivo confirmed protein interactions of 2-CysPrx with Cyp20-3 as well as NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), while thioredoxin x (Trx-x) did not form complexes that could enable FRET. Likewise, changes in FRET of fluorescently labeled 2-CysPrx in vitro and in vivo proved redox dependent dynamics of 2-CysPrx. Addition of Cyp20-3 to an in vitro peroxidase assay with 2-CysPrx had no significant effect on peroxide reduction. Also, in the presence of NTRC, addition of Cyp20-3 did not further enhance peroxide reduction. In addition, 2-CysPrx functioned as chaperone and inhibited aggregation of citrate synthase during heat treatment. This activity was partly inhibited by Cyp20-3. As a new interaction partner of decameric 2-CysPrx, photosystem II could be identified after chloroplast fractionation and in pull-down assays after reconstitution. In summary, the data indicate a dynamic function of plant 2-CysPrx as redox sensor, chaperone, and regulator in the chloroplast with diverse functions beyond its role as thiol peroxidase.

  14. Structural and Kinetic Properties of Lumazine Synthase Isoenzymes in the Order Rhizobiales

    SciTech Connect

    Klinke,S.; Zylberman, V.; Bonomi, H.; Haase, I.; Guimaraes, B.; Braden, B.; Bacher, A.; Fischer, M.; Goldbaum, F.

    2007-01-01

    6, 7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase (lumazine synthase; LS) catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in plants and microorganisms. This protein is known to exhibit different quaternary assemblies between species, existing as free pentamers, decamers (dimers of pentamers) and icosahedrally arranged dodecamers of pentamers. A phylogenetic analysis on eubacterial, fungal and plant LSs allowed us to classify them into two categories: Type I LSs (pentameric or icosahedral) and Type II LSs (decameric). The Rhizobiales represent an order of ?-proteobacteria that includes, among others, the genera Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Brucella. Here, we present structural and kinetic studies on several LSs from Rhizobiales. Interestingly, Mesorhizobium and Brucella encode both a Type-I LS and a Type-II LS called RibH1 and RibH2, respectively. We show that Type II LSs appear to be almost inactive, whereas Type I LSs present a highly variable catalytic activity according to the genus. Additionally, we have solved four RibH1/RibH2 crystallographic structures from the genera Mesorhizobium and Brucella. The relationship between the active-site architecture and catalytic properties in these isoenzymes is discussed, and a model that describes the enzymatic behavior is proposed. Furthermore, sequence alignment studies allowed us to extend our results to the genus Agrobacterium. Our results suggest that the selective pressure controlling the riboflavin pathway favored the evolution of catalysts with low reaction rates, since the excess of flavins in the intracellular pool in Rhizobiales could act as a negative factor when these bacteria are exposed to oxidative or nitrosative stress.

  15. Subunit Conformations and Assembly States of a DNA Translocating Motor: The Terminase of Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Němeček, Daniel; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Kang, Sebyung; Prevelige, Peter E.; Casjens, Sherwood; Thomas, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42 kbp genome using a headful mechanism. DNA translocation is accomplished by the phage terminase, a powerful molecular motor consisting of large and small subunits. Although many of the structural proteins of the P22 virion have been well characterized, little is known about the terminase subunits and their molecular mechanism of DNA translocation. We report here structural and assembly properties of ectopically expressed and highly purified terminase large and small subunits. The large subunit (gp2), which contains the nuclease and ATPase activities of terminase, exists as a stable monomer with an α/β fold. The small subunit (gp3), which recognizes DNA for packaging and may regulate gp2 activity, exhibits a highly α-helical secondary structure and self-associates to form a stable oligomeric ring in solution. For wildtype gp3, the ring contains nine subunits, as demonstrated by hydrodynamic measurements, electron microscopy and native mass spectrometry. We have also characterized a gp3 mutant (Ala 112 → Thr) that forms a ten subunit ring, despite a subunit fold indistinguishable from wildtype. Both the nonameric and decameric gp3 rings exhibit nonspecific DNA binding activity, and gp2 is able to bind strongly to the DNA/gp3 complex but not to DNA alone. We propose a scheme for the roles of P22 terminase large and small subunits in the recruitment and packaging of viral DNA and discuss the model in relation to proposals for terminase-driven DNA translocation in other phages. PMID:17945256

  16. Evolution from primordial oligomeric repeats to modern coding sequences.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S

    1987-01-01

    It seems as though nature was most innovative at the very beginning of life on this Earth a few billion years ago. For example, the functional competence of most, if not all, of the sugar-metabolizing enzymes was clearly established before the division of eukaryotes from prokaryotes eons ago, each critical active-site amino acid sequence being conserved ever since by bacteria as well as by mammals. I contend that this initial innovativeness was due to the first set of coding sequences being repeats of base oligomers, thus encoding polypeptide chains of various periodicities; such periodical polypeptide chains can easily acquire alpha-helical and beta-sheet-forming segments. In fact, the entire length of sugar-metabolizing enzymes is comprised of alternating alpha-helical and beta-sheet-forming segments. In the prebiotic (therefore nonenzymatic) replication of nucleic acids, what was in short supply was long templates, for there apparently was no inherent obstacle in copying of long templates, if such existed, in the presence of Zn2+. I submit that in this prebiotic condition, only those nucleotide oligomers that were internal doubles were automatically assured of progressive elongation to become long templates. For example, a decamer that was a pentameric repeat and its complementary sequence may pair unequally to initiate the next round of replication: first unit pairing with second, and a paired segment serving as a primer. As a consequence of this unequal pairing, decameric templates managed to become pentadecameric templates only after one round of replication, and this elongation process had no inherent limit.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structures and characterization of four coordination polymers based on 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Koulin; Chang Yan; Zhang Jingbo; Yuan Limin; Deng Ye; Diao Guowang; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-05-15

    One homochiral 1D coordination polymer [Cu(ATIBDC)(2,2'-bipy)].3H{sub 2}O.CH{sub 3}OH (1) and three achiral 1D coordination polymers: [Cd(ATIBDC)(2,2'-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)].3H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(ATIBDC)(phen)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), and [Mn(ATIBDC)(phen){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (4) have been synthesized and characterized (H{sub 2}ATIBDC=5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid, 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, and phen=1,10-phenanthroline). Extended high dimensional network architectures are further constructed with the help of weak secondary interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, aromatic stacking, and halogen bonding (C-I..{pi} and C-I...N/O). Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with chiral space group P2(1) and exhibits a right-handed 2{sub 1} helical chain structure. The homochirality of 1 was confirmed by CD spectrum. Interestingly, two new configurations of decameric water cluster are found in 3 and 4. The acyclic tetrameric cluster (H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}OH) in 1 and (H{sub 2}O){sub 4} in 2 array into highly ordered helical infinite chains. Thermal stabilities of all the complexes have been studied. Solid state fluorescent properties of the Cd(II) complexes have been explored. -- Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structures and characterization of one 1D homochiral coordination polymer and three achiral 1D coordination polymers with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (H{sub 2}ATIBDC) are reported. Display Omitted highlights: > Four 1D coordination polymers with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate are reported. > The halogen bonds play important roles in the supramolecular assembly. > Solid state fluorescent properties of the Cd(II) complexes are explored.

  18. Multiple complexes of nitrogen assimilatory enzymes in spinach chloroplasts: possible mechanisms for the regulation of enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Kimata-Ariga, Yoko; Hase, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of nitrogen is an essential biological process for plant growth and productivity. Here we show that three chloroplast enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, glutamate synthase (GOGAT), nitrite reductase (NiR) and glutamine synthetase (GS), separately assemble into distinct protein complexes in spinach chloroplasts, as analyzed by western blots under blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). GOGAT and NiR were present not only as monomers, but also as novel complexes with a discrete size (730 kDa) and multiple sizes (>120 kDa), respectively, in the stromal fraction of chloroplasts. These complexes showed the same mobility as each monomer on two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE after BN-PAGE. The 730 kDa complex containing GOGAT dissociated into monomers, and multiple complexes of NiR reversibly converted into monomers, in response to the changes in the pH of the stromal solvent. On the other hand, the bands detected by anti-GS antibody were present not only in stroma as a conventional decameric holoenzyme complex of 420 kDa, but also in thylakoids as a novel complex of 560 kDa. The polypeptide in the 560 kDa complex showed slower mobility than that of the 420 kDa complex on the 2D SDS-PAGE, implying the assembly of distinct GS isoforms or a post-translational modification of the same GS protein. The function of these multiple complexes was evaluated by in-gel GS activity under native conditions and by the binding ability of NiR and GOGAT with their physiological electron donor, ferredoxin. The results indicate that these multiplicities in size and localization of the three nitrogen assimilatory enzymes may be involved in the physiological regulation of their enzyme function, in a similar way as recently described cases of carbon assimilatory enzymes.

  19. Interaction of gramicidin S and its aromatic amino-acid analog with phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; Hodges, Robert S; Meissner, Joseph E; Hassenstein, Una E; Wheaton, Laura

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of interaction of gramicidin S-like antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes, a series of five decameric cyclic cationic beta-sheet-beta-turn peptides with all possible combinations of aromatic D-amino acids, Cyclo(Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar1-Pro-Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar2-Pro) (Ar identical with Phe, Tyr, Trp), were synthesized. Conformations of these cyclic peptides were comparable in aqueous solutions and lipid vesicles. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements revealed entropy-driven binding of cyclic peptides to POPC and POPE/POPG lipid vesicles. Binding of peptides to both vesicle systems was endothermic-exceptions were peptides containing the Trp-Trp and Tyr-Trp pairs with exothermic binding to POPC vesicles. Application of one- and two-site binding (partitioning) models to binding isotherms of exothermic and endothermic binding processes, respectively, resulted in determination of peptide-lipid membrane binding constants (K(b)). The K(b1) and K(b2) values for endothermic two-step binding processes corresponded to high and low binding affinities (K(b1) >or= 100 K(b2)). Conformational change of cyclic peptides in transferring from buffer to lipid bilayer surfaces was estimated using fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the Tyr-Trp pair in one of the peptide constructs. The cyclic peptide conformation expands upon adsorption on lipid bilayer surface and interacts more deeply with the outer monolayer causing bilayer deformation, which may lead to formation of nonspecific transient peptide-lipid porelike zones causing membrane lysis.

  20. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. Based on the structure, it was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes. PMID:26284087

  1. An Aptamer against the Matrix Binding Domain on the Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Impairs Virion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Ahmed; Bieringer, Maria; Geerlof, Arie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle is an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by a lipid envelope containing viral surface proteins. A small domain (matrix domain [MD]) in the large surface protein L and a narrow region (matrix binding domain [MBD]) including isoleucine 126 on the capsid surface have been mapped, in which point mutations such as core I126A specifically blocked nucleocapsid envelopment. It is possible that the two domains interact with each other during virion morphogenesis. By the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method, we evolved DNA aptamers from an oligonucleotide library binding to purified recombinant capsids but not binding to the corresponding I126A mutant capsids. Aptamers bound to capsids were separated from unbound molecules by filtration. After 13 rounds of selections and amplifications, 16 different aptamers were found among 73 clones. The four most frequent aptamers represented more than 50% of the clones. The main aptamer, AO-01 (13 clones, 18%), showed the lowest dissociation constant (Kd) of 180 ± 82 nM for capsid binding among the four molecules. Its Kd for I126A capsids was 1,306 ± 503 nM. Cotransfection of Huh7 cells with AO-01 and an HBV genomic construct resulted in 47% inhibition of virion production at 3 days posttransfection, but there was no inhibition by cotransfection of an aptamer with a random sequence. The half-life of AO-01 in cells was 2 h, which might explain the incomplete inhibition. The results support the importance of the MBD for nucleocapsid envelopment. Inhibiting the MD-MBD interaction with a low-molecular-weight substance might represent a new approach for an antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Approximately 240 million people are persistently infected with HBV. To date, antiviral therapies depend on a single target, the viral reverse transcriptase. Future additional targets could be viral protein-protein interactions. We selected a 55-base-long single-stranded DNA

  2. Nucleic Acid Binding by Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA Promotes Virus Assembly and Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Füzik, Tibor; Píchalová, Růžena; Schur, Florian K. M.; Strohalmová, Karolína; Křížová, Ivana; Hadravová, Romana; Rumlová, Michaela; Briggs, John A. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gag polyprotein of retroviruses drives immature virus assembly by forming hexameric protein lattices. The assembly is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions between capsid (CA) domains and by interactions between nucleocapsid (NC) domains and RNA. Specific interactions between NC and the viral RNA are required for genome packaging. Previously reported cryoelectron microscopy analysis of immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) particles suggested that a basic region (residues RKK) in CA may serve as an additional binding site for nucleic acids. Here, we have introduced mutations into the RKK region in both bacterial and proviral M-PMV vectors and have assessed their impact on M-PMV assembly, structure, RNA binding, budding/release, nuclear trafficking, and infectivity using in vitro and in vivo systems. Our data indicate that the RKK region binds and structures nucleic acid that serves to promote virus particle assembly in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the RKK region appears to be important for recruitment of viral genomic RNA into Gag particles, and this function could be linked to changes in nuclear trafficking. Together these observations suggest that in M-PMV, direct interactions between CA and nucleic acid play important functions in the late stages of the viral life cycle. IMPORTANCE Assembly of retrovirus particles is driven by the Gag polyprotein, which can self-assemble to form virus particles and interact with RNA to recruit the viral genome into the particles. Generally, the capsid domains of Gag contribute to essential protein-protein interactions during assembly, while the nucleocapsid domain interacts with RNA. The interactions between the nucleocapsid domain and RNA are important both for identifying the genome and for self-assembly of Gag molecules. Here, we show that a region of basic residues in the capsid protein of the betaretrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) contributes to interaction of Gag with nucleic acid. This

  3. Characterization of the Mode of Action of a Potent Dengue Virus Capsid Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Scaturro, Pietro; Trist, Iuni Margaret Laura; Paul, David; Kumar, Anil; Acosta, Eliana G.; Byrd, Chelsea M.; Jordan, Robert; Brancale, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue viruses (DV) represent a significant global health burden, with up to 400 million infections every year and around 500,000 infected individuals developing life-threatening disease. In spite of attempts to develop vaccine candidates and antiviral drugs, there is a lack of approved therapeutics for the treatment of DV infection. We have previously reported the identification of ST-148, a small-molecule inhibitor exhibiting broad and potent antiviral activity against DV in vitro and in vivo (C. M. Byrd et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:15–25, 2013, doi:10 .1128/AAC.01429-12). In the present study, we investigated the mode of action of this promising compound by using a combination of biochemical, virological, and imaging-based techniques. We confirmed that ST-148 targets the capsid protein and obtained evidence of bimodal antiviral activity affecting both assembly/release and entry of infectious DV particles. Importantly, by using a robust bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we observed an ST-148-dependent increase of capsid self-interaction. These results were corroborated by molecular modeling studies that also revealed a plausible model for compound binding to capsid protein and inhibition by a distinct resistance mutation. These results suggest that ST-148-enhanced capsid protein self-interaction perturbs assembly and disassembly of DV nucleocapsids, probably by inducing structural rigidity. Thus, as previously reported for other enveloped viruses, stabilization of capsid protein structure is an attractive therapeutic concept that also is applicable to flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE Dengue viruses are arthropod-borne viruses representing a significant global health burden. They infect up to 400 million people and are endemic to subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Currently, there are neither vaccines nor approved therapeutics for the prophylaxis or treatment of DV infections, respectively. This study reports the

  4. SLAM- and Nectin-4-Independent Noncytolytic Spread of Canine Distemper Virus in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Lisa; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Avila, Mislay; Ader-Ebert, Nadine; Bringolf, Fanny; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Vandevelde, Marc

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles and canine distemper viruses (MeV and CDV, respectively) first replicate in lymphatic and epithelial tissues by using SLAM and nectin-4 as entry receptors, respectively. The viruses may also invade the brain to establish persistent infections, triggering fatal complications, such as subacute sclerosis pan-encephalitis (SSPE) in MeV infection or chronic, multiple sclerosis-like, multifocal demyelinating lesions in the case of CDV infection. In both diseases, persistence is mediated by viral nucleocapsids that do not require packaging into particles for infectivity but are directly transmitted from cell to cell (neurons in SSPE or astrocytes in distemper encephalitis), presumably by relying on restricted microfusion events. Indeed, although morphological evidence of fusion remained undetectable, viral fusion machineries and, thus, a putative cellular receptor, were shown to contribute to persistent infections. Here, we first showed that nectin-4-dependent cell-cell fusion in Vero cells, triggered by a demyelinating CDV strain, remained extremely limited, thereby supporting a potential role of nectin-4 in mediating persistent infections in astrocytes. However, nectin-4 could not be detected in either primary cultured astrocytes or the white matter of tissue sections. In addition, a bioengineered “nectin-4-blind” recombinant CDV retained full cell-to-cell transmission efficacy in primary astrocytes. Combined with our previous report demonstrating the absence of SLAM expression in astrocytes, these findings are suggestive for the existence of a hitherto unrecognized third CDV receptor expressed by glial cells that contributes to the induction of noncytolytic cell-to-cell viral transmission in astrocytes. IMPORTANCE While persistent measles virus (MeV) infection induces SSPE in humans, persistent canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes chronic progressive or relapsing demyelination in carnivores. Common to both central nervous system (CNS

  5. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs. PMID:27565348

  6. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  7. Quantum chemical modelling of reactivity and selectivity of 1,2-dithiolanes towards retroviral and cellular zinc fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, Igor A.; Nemukhin, Alexander V.; Burt, Stanley K.

    Interactions of 1,2-dithiolane species with zinc-containing sites, which mimic the zinc finger domains of retroviral and the cellular zinc finger proteins, have been investigated by quantum chemistry tools. According to the calculations, the immediate domains of zinc binding sites in the cellular and retroviral zinc fingers interact differently with such agents of the disulphide family. Thus, when approaching the model cellular-type domains, the molecules of 1,2-dithiolanes experience considerable potential barriers along the reaction path. However, these species react practically barrier-less with the model retroviral-type domains at the correlated DFT level. The results of the quantum chemical modelling provide firm support to the selectivity of 1,2-dithiolanes towards retroviral and cellular zinc fingers. This can be of great practical importance for the design of therapeutics that accomplish functional inactivation of the zinc fingers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) retroviral type nucleocapsid protein NCp7.

  8. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  9. Development of Primer Pairs from Molecular Typing of Rabies Virus Variants Present in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bastida-González, Fernando; Ramírez-Hernández, Dolores G; Chavira-Suárez, Erika; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Zárate-Segura, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (N) gene from rabies virus (RABV) is a useful sequence target for variant studies. Several specific RABV variants have been characterized in different mammalian hosts such as skunk, dog, and bats by using anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) via indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, a technique not available in many laboratories in Mexico. In the present study, a total of 158 sequences of N gene from RABV were used to design eight pairs of primers (four external and four internal primers), for typing four different RABV variants (dog, skunk, vampire bat, and nonhematophagous bat) which are most common in Mexico. The results indicate that the primer and the typing variant from the brain samples, submitted to nested and/or real-time PCR, are in agreement in all four singleplex reactions, and the designed primer pairs are an alternative for use in specific variant RABV typing.

  10. Searching for cellular partners of hantaviral nonstructural protein NSs: Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library and analysis of cellular interactome.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, Tuomas; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi; Blot, Guillaume; Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

  11. Searching for Cellular Partners of Hantaviral Nonstructural Protein NSs: Y2H Screening of Mouse cDNA Library and Analysis of Cellular Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically. PMID:22506017

  12. Characterization of murine hepatitis virus (JHM) RNA from rats with experimental encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Percy, D H; Morris, V L

    1984-09-01

    When Wistar Furth rats are inoculated intracerebrally with the murine hepatitis virus JHM they often develop a demyelinating disease with resulting hind leg paralysis. Using an RNA transfer procedure and hybridization kinetic analysis, the virus-specific RNA in these rats was characterized. The pattern of JHM-specific RNA varied with individual infections of Wistar Furth rats. However, two species of JHM-specific RNA, the nucleocapsid and a 2.1-2.4 X 10(6)-Da RNA species were generally present. A general decrease in JHM-specific RNA in brains and spinal cord samples taken later than 20 days postinoculation was observed; however, JHM-specific RNA persisted in the spinal cord longer than in the brain of these rats.

  13. Use of anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads for capture of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, and a major public health concern in pediatrics. However, current diagnostic methods for RSV are not sufficiently sensitive. In addition, there is no simple method for enhancing RSV detection. Here, a method for capturing RSV from nasal fluid has been developed using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). The beads were incubated with RSV-infected nasal fluid, then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnet field and washed. The adsorption [corrected] of RSV by the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which indicated the presence of nucleocapsid protein, fusion protein, and the viral genome of RSV on the incubated beads. Therefore, this capture method will contribute to the improvement of RSV detection.

  14. Isolation and purification of a granulosis virus from infected larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1977-09-01

    A procedure was developed for purification of a granulosis virus inclusion body produced in vivo in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation, treatment with sodium deoxycholate, and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The adequacy of the procedure was confirmed by mixing experiments in which uninfected, radioactively labeled larvae were mixed with infected, unlabeled larvae. After purification, the virus was shown to be free of host tissue, to retain its physical integrity, and to be highly infectious per os. Preparations of purified virus consisted of homogeneous populations of intact inclusion bodies (210 by 380 nm) whose buoyant density was 1.271 g/cm3 when centrifuged to equilibrium in sucrose gradients. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned virus or of virus sequentially disrupted on electron microscope grids demonstrated three components: protein matrix, envelope, and nucleocapsid.

  15. Control of ruminant morbillivirus replication by small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Servan de Almeida, Renata; Keita, Djénéba; Libeau, Geneviève; Albina, Emmanuel

    2007-08-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are two morbilliviruses of economic relevance in African and Asian countries. Although efficient vaccines are available for both diseases, they cannot protect the animals before 14 days post-vaccination. In emergencies, it would be desirable to have efficient therapeutics for virus control. Here, two regions are described in the nucleocapsid genes of PPRV and RPV that can be targeted efficiently by synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), resulting in a >80 % reduction in virus replication. The effects of siRNAs on the production of viral RNA by real-time quantitative PCR, of viral proteins by flow cytometry and of virus particles by appreciation of the cytopathic effect and virus titration were monitored. The findings of this work highlight the potential for siRNA molecules to be developed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of PPRV and RPV infections.

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel virus from different carp species suffering gill necrosis - ultrastructure and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Granzow, H; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Lenk, M; Dresenkamp, B; Nieper, H; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel enveloped RNA virus were obtained from carp and koi carp with gill necrosis. Both isolates behaved identically and could be propagated in different cyprinid cell lines forming large syncytia. The virus was sensitive to lipid solvents and neither exhibited haemadsorption/haemagglutination nor reverse transcriptase activity. Mature virus particles displayed a spherical shape with diameter of 100-350 nm after negative staining and 100-300 nm in ultrathin sections, covered by short projections of 8-10 nm in length. Maturation of virus progeny was shown to occur by budding and envelopment of the filamentous helical nucleocapsids at the cell surface. A detailed comparison of ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the novel virus isolates with selected arena-, ortho- and paramyxoviruses as possible candidates for evaluation of taxonomic classification yielded no consistency in all phenotypic features. Thus, on the basis of ultrastructure the novel virus isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to any established virus family. PMID:23865968

  17. Genetic diversity between and within the arenavirus species indigenous to western Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Fulhorst, Charles F.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Paredes, Hector; de Manzione, Nuris M. C.; Salas, Rosa A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyses of Z, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, and nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that Guanarito virus was the most common cause of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever in a 7-year period in the 1990’s and that the evolution of Pirital virus in association with Sigmodon alstoni (Alston’s cotton rat) has occurred at a significantly higher rate than the evolution of Guanarito virus in association with Zygodontomys brevicauda (short-tailed cane mouse) on the plains of western Venezuela. The results of analyses of the primary structures of the glycoproteins of the 8 strains of Guanarito virus isolated from humans suggested that these strains would be highly cross-reactive in neutralization assays. Thus, passive antibody therapy may prove beneficial in the treatment of human disease caused by strains of Guanarito virus that are enzootic in the region in which Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever is endemic. PMID:18586298

  18. Electron cryotomography of measles virus reveals how matrix protein coats the ribonucleocapsid within intact virions.

    PubMed

    Liljeroos, Lassi; Huiskonen, Juha T; Ora, Ari; Susi, Petri; Butcher, Sarah J

    2011-11-01

    Measles virus is a highly infectious, enveloped, pleomorphic virus. We combined electron cryotomography with subvolume averaging and immunosorbent electron microscopy to characterize the 3D ultrastructure of the virion. We show that the matrix protein forms helices coating the helical ribonucleocapsid rather than coating the inner leaflet of the membrane, as previously thought. The ribonucleocapsid is folded into tight bundles through matrix-matrix interactions. The implications for virus assembly are that the matrix already tightly interacts with the ribonucleocapsid in the cytoplasm, providing a structural basis for the previously observed regulation of RNA transcription by the matrix protein. Next, the matrix-covered ribonucleocapsids are transported to the plasma membrane, where the matrix interacts with the envelope glycoproteins during budding. These results are relevant to the nucleocapsid organization and budding of other paramyxoviruses, where isolated matrix has been observed to form helices.

  19. The underlying mechanisms for the "isolated positivity for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)" serological profile.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    During HBV infection, four structural antigen/antibody systems are observed: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its antibody (anti-HBs); the pre-S antigens associated with HBsAg particles and their antibodies; the particulate nucleocapsid antigen (HBcAg) and anti-HBc; and an antigen structurally related to HBcAg, namely HBeAg and its antibody (anti-HBe). Through the examination of this antigen-antibodies system, hepatitis B infection is diagnosed and the course of the disorder may be observed. Isolated HBsAg seropositivity is a peculiar serological pattern in HBV infection observed some times in routine laboratory. In most cases is not clear how this profile should be interpreted neither its significance. This pattern, however, may be associated with some clinical and laboratorial situations of great relevance, some of which will be addressed in this article.

  20. Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-09-01

    Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.

  1. The Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory (SNL) and Recent Applications of an Aberration-Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope**

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Robert; Kempen, Paul Joseph; Chin, Richard; Koh, Ai Leen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the establishment, over a period of ten years or so, of a multi-user, institution-wide facility for the characterization of materials and devices at the nano-scale. Emphasis is placed on the type of equipment that we have found to be most useful for our users, and the business strategy that maintains its operations. A central component of our facility is an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope and its application is summarized in the studies of plasmon energies of silver nanoparticles, the band gap of PbS quantum dots, atomic site occupancy near grain boundaries in yttria stabilized zirconia, the lithiation of silicon nanoparticles, in situ observations on carbon nanotube oxidation and the electron tomography of varicella zoster virus nucleocapsids. PMID:25364299

  2. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves Morais, Felipe; Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  3. Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus) identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Javangwe, S; Sabeta, C T; Wandeler, A I; Nel, L H

    2001-06-01

    Rabies isolates that had been stored between 1983 and 1997 were examined with a panel of anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Out of 56 isolates from cats and various wild carnivore species, 1 isolate of Mokola virus and 5 other non-typical rabies viruses were identified. The Mokola virus isolate was diagnosed as rabies in 1993 from a cat. Genetic analysis of this isolate suggests that it falls in a distinct subgroup of the Mokola virus genotype. The 5 non-typical rabies viruses were isolated from honey badgers (Mellivora capensis), African civets (Civettictis civetta) and an unidentified mongoose (Herpestidae). These isolates are representatives of rarely-reported wildlife-associated strains of rabies, probably maintained by the slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea). These findings indicate that both Mokola virus and the mongoose-associated variant may be more common in Zimbabwe than is apparent from routine surveillance. PMID:11513267

  4. Ultrastructural studies on the replication of herpes simplex virus in PK and XTC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ciampor, F; Szántó, J

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes showed the following characteristics of restricted replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) strains MA and HSZP in PK and XTC-2 cells: 1) minimal cytopathic changes in PK cells as compared to more pronounced alterations in XTC-2 cells; 2) formation of single nucleocapsids or their absence in the nuclei of PK cells infected with the HSZP strain; 3) lack of budding and envelopment and absence of reduplication of the nuclear membrane; 4) persistence of partially uncoated virions within the endocytic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of PK cells; and 5) formation of dense inclusion bodies in addition to the presence of defective virions in the cytoplasm of XTC-2 cells and vacuolation of their cytoplasmic membranes. The replication of HSV 1 in PK and XTC-2 cells seemed to be blocked at both early and late stages of virus replication. At low multiplicity of infection, no virus particles were formed.

  5. Development and evaluation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay to detect antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna; Goldberg, Tony; Marcquenski, Susan; Olson, Wendy; Goetz, Frederick; Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas M.; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a target of surveillance by many state and federal agencies in the United States. Currently, the detection of VHSV relies on virus isolation, which is lethal to fish and indicates only the current infection status. A serological method is required to ascertain prior exposure. Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that the VN assay had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 42.9%; the anti-nucleocapsid-blocking ELISA detected nonneutralizing VHSV antibodies at a specificity of 88.2% and a sensitivity of 96.4%. The VN assay and ELISA are valuable tools for assessing exposure to VHSV.

  6. Timing is everything: Fine-tuned molecular machines orchestrate paramyxovirus entry

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sayantan; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Paramyxoviridae include some of the great and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. In most paramyxoviruses, two viral membrane glycoproteins, fusion protein (F) and receptor binding protein (HN, H or G) mediate a concerted process of recognition of host cell surface molecules followed by fusion of viral and cellular membranes, resulting in viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. The interactions between the F and HN, H or G viral glycoproteins and host molecules are critical in determining host range, virulence and spread of these viruses. Recently, atomic structures, together with biochemical and biophysical studies, have provided major insights into how these two viral glycoproteins successfully interact with host receptors on cellular membranes and initiate the membrane fusion process to gain entry into cells. These studies highlight the conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus entry that provide the fundamental basis for rational anti-viral drug design and vaccine development. PMID:25771804

  7. RNA sequence and transcriptional properties of the 3' end of the Newcastle disease virus genome

    SciTech Connect

    Kurilla, M.G.; Stone, H.O.; Keene, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    The 3' end of the genomic RNA of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been sequenced and the leader RNA defined. Using hybridization to a 3'-end-labeled genome, leader RNA species from in vitro transcription reactions and from infected cell extracts were found to be 47 and 53 nucleotides long. In addition, the start site of the 3'-proximal mRNA was determined by sequence analysis of in vitro (beta-32P)GTP-labeled transcription products. The genomic sequence extending beyond the leader region demonstrated an open reading frame for at least 42 amino acids and probably represents the amino terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (NP). The terminal 8 nucleotides of the NDV genome were identical to those of measles virus and Sendai virus while the sequence of the distal half of the leader region was more similar to that of vesicular stomatitis virus. These data argue for strong evolutionary relatedness between the paramyxovirus and rhabdovirus groups.

  8. Development of Primer Pairs from Molecular Typing of Rabies Virus Variants Present in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Hernández, Dolores G.; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Zárate-Segura, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (N) gene from rabies virus (RABV) is a useful sequence target for variant studies. Several specific RABV variants have been characterized in different mammalian hosts such as skunk, dog, and bats by using anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) via indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, a technique not available in many laboratories in Mexico. In the present study, a total of 158 sequences of N gene from RABV were used to design eight pairs of primers (four external and four internal primers), for typing four different RABV variants (dog, skunk, vampire bat, and nonhematophagous bat) which are most common in Mexico. The results indicate that the primer and the typing variant from the brain samples, submitted to nested and/or real-time PCR, are in agreement in all four singleplex reactions, and the designed primer pairs are an alternative for use in specific variant RABV typing. PMID:27563666

  9. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  10. Live-cell observation of cytosolic HIV-1 assembly onset reveals RNA-interacting Gag oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Jelle; Baumgärtel, Viola; Schrimpf, Waldemar; Ivanchenko, Sergey; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of the Gag polyprotein into new viral particles in infected cells is a crucial step in the retroviral replication cycle. Currently, little is known about the onset of assembly in the cytosol. In this paper, we analyzed the cytosolic HIV-1 Gag fraction in real time in live cells using advanced fluctuation imaging methods and thereby provide detailed insights into the complex relationship between cytosolic Gag mobility, stoichiometry, and interactions. We show that Gag diffuses as a monomer on the subsecond timescale with severely reduced mobility. Reduction of mobility is associated with basic residues in its nucleocapsid (NC) domain, whereas capsid (CA) and matrix (MA) domains do not contribute significantly. Strikingly, another diffusive Gag species was observed on the seconds timescale that oligomerized in a concentration-dependent manner. Both NC- and CA-mediated interactions strongly assist this process. Our results reveal potential nucleation steps of cytosolic Gag fractions before membrane-assisted Gag assembly. PMID:26283800

  11. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves Morais, Felipe; Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  12. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jialing Lazear, Helen M. Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-05

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses.

  13. Novel tubular inclusions in the bone marrow in multiple sclerosis: an ultrastructural study of early autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J; Dermott, E

    1981-01-01

    Samples of bone marrow taken at early autopsy from patients who died with multiple sclerosis and from control cases, were examined ultrastructurally with the aim of detecting any infectious agents which might be present. No recognizable virus or mycoplasma was detected. However, rare bizarre cellular inclusions were found in 2 cases. The inclusions which are unlike anything previously described in MS consisted of fine (ca 17 nm) sinuous tubules occasionally showing dilated discoid ends. They occurred together with fragmentary electron opaque material in large membrane bound vacuoles in unidentified cells. Despite superficial resemblance to some viral nucleocapsids it is considered more likely that they have been formed as a result of degenerative phagocytic or autolytic activity. The specificity or otherwise of these inclusions to MS remains to be demonstrated. PMID:6939232

  14. Electron cryotomography of measles virus reveals how matrix protein coats the ribonucleocapsid within intact virions

    PubMed Central

    Liljeroos, Lassi; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Ora, Ari; Susi, Petri; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus is a highly infectious, enveloped, pleomorphic virus. We combined electron cryotomography with subvolume averaging and immunosorbent electron microscopy to characterize the 3D ultrastructure of the virion. We show that the matrix protein forms helices coating the helical ribonucleocapsid rather than coating the inner leaflet of the membrane, as previously thought. The ribonucleocapsid is folded into tight bundles through matrix–matrix interactions. The implications for virus assembly are that the matrix already tightly interacts with the ribonucleocapsid in the cytoplasm, providing a structural basis for the previously observed regulation of RNA transcription by the matrix protein. Next, the matrix-covered ribonucleocapsids are transported to the plasma membrane, where the matrix interacts with the envelope glycoproteins during budding. These results are relevant to the nucleocapsid organization and budding of other paramyxoviruses, where isolated matrix has been observed to form helices. PMID:22025713

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain mutant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Daisy W.; Borek, Dominika; Farahbakhsh, Mina; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Nix, Jay C.; Wang, Tianjiao; Prins, Kathleen C.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Honzatko, Richard B.; Helgeson, Luke A.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2010-06-21

    VP35 is one of seven structural proteins encoded by the Ebola viral genome and mediates viral replication, nucleocapsid formation and host immune suppression. The C-terminal interferon inhibitory domain (IID) of VP35 is critical for dsRNA binding and interferon inhibition. The wild-type VP35 IID structure revealed several conserved residues that are important for dsRNA binding and interferon antagonism. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant Zaire Ebola VP35 IID mutants R312A, K319A/R322A and K339A in space groups P6{sub 1}22, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P2{sub 1}, respectively, are described. Diffraction data were collected using synchrotron sources at the Advanced Light Source and the Advanced Photon Source.

  16. IgG-subclass-specific antibody reactivity to respiratory syncytial virus polypeptides investigated by western blot.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M; Hornsleth, A; Olsen, P G

    1990-01-01

    IgG1 and IgG3 subclass-specific antibody reactivity (ABR) in serum samples obtained from infants and children in relation to acute lower respiratory disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was investigated by Western blot. IgG1 ABR was directed against the nucleocapsid polypeptides VPN and VPP as well as against the glycoproteins GP48 (F1) and GP90. IgG3 ABR was directed only against VPN and VPP. In infants, a low IgG1 reactivity against glycoproteins was observed. When serum samples obtained in the early convalescent phase were tested, ABR against GP48 and GP90 as well as against VPP differed with respect to RSV subtypes A and B. IgG1 ABR increased in the late convalescent phase, while IgG3 ABR decreased during this phase when serum samples from primary infections were tested.

  17. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase specifically interacts with the anticodon domain of its cognate primer tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Barat, C; Lullien, V; Schatz, O; Keith, G; Nugeyre, M T; Grüninger-Leitch, F; Barré-Sinoussi, F; LeGrice, S F; Darlix, J L

    1989-01-01

    The virion cores of the replication competent type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus, contain and RNA genome associated with nucleocapsid (NC) and reverse transcriptase (RT p66/p51) molecules. In vitro reconstructions of these complexes with purified components show that NC is required for efficient annealing of the primer tRNALys,3. In the absence of NC, HIV-1 RT is unable to retrotranscribe the viral RNA template from the tRNA primer. We demonstrate that the HIV-1 RT p66/p51 specifically binds to its cognate primer tRNALys,3 even in the presence of a 100-fold molar excess of other tRNAs. Cross-linking analysis of this interaction locates the contact site to a region within the heavily modified anti-codon domain of tRNALys,3. Images PMID:2479543

  18. Reverse genetics of Mononegavirales: How they work, new vaccines, and new cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Christian K; Cattaneo, Roberto; Schnell, Matthias J

    2015-05-01

    The order Mononegavirales includes five families: Bornaviridae, Filoviridae, Nyamaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. The genome of these viruses is one molecule of negative-sense single strand RNA coding for five to ten genes in a conserved order. The RNA is not infectious until packaged by the nucleocapsid protein and transcribed by the polymerase and co-factors. Reverse genetics approaches have answered fundamental questions about the biology of Mononegavirales. The lack of icosahedral symmetry and modular organization in the genome of these viruses has facilitated engineering of viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, and these fluorescent proteins have provided important insights about the molecular and cellular basis of tissue tropism and pathogenesis. Studies have assessed the relevance for virulence of different receptors and the interactions with cellular proteins governing the innate immune responses. Research has also analyzed the mechanisms of attenuation. Based on these findings, ongoing clinical trials are exploring new live attenuated vaccines and the use of viruses re-engineered as cancer therapeutics.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Virus Neutralization Assay To Detect Antibodies to Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anna; Goldberg, Tony; Marcquenski, Susan; Olson, Wendy; Goetz, Frederick; Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a target of surveillance by many state and federal agencies in the United States. Currently, the detection of VHSV relies on virus isolation, which is lethal to fish and indicates only the current infection status. A serological method is required to ascertain prior exposure. Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that the VN assay had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 42.9%; the anti-nucleocapsid-blocking ELISA detected nonneutralizing VHSV antibodies at a specificity of 88.2% and a sensitivity of 96.4%. The VN assay and ELISA are valuable tools for assessing exposure to VHSV. PMID:24429071

  20. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  1. Fatal pulmonary edema in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) associated with adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sorden, S D; Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-07-01

    Sporadic sudden deaths in adult white-tailed deer occurred from November 1997 through August 1998 on an Iowa game farm. Three of the 4 deer necropsied had severe pulmonary edema, widespread mild lymphocytic vasculitis, and amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in scattered endothelial cells in blood vessels in the lung and abdominal viscera. Immunohistochemistry with bovine adenovirus 5 antisera and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral antigen and nucleocapsids, respectively, within endothelial cells. Adenovirus was isolated in cell culture from 1 of the affected deer. The isolate was neutralized by California black-tailed deer adenovirus antiserum. These findings indicate that adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both black-tailed and white-tailed deer with pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy.

  2. Development of Primer Pairs from Molecular Typing of Rabies Virus Variants Present in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bastida-González, Fernando; Ramírez-Hernández, Dolores G; Chavira-Suárez, Erika; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Zárate-Segura, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoprotein (N) gene from rabies virus (RABV) is a useful sequence target for variant studies. Several specific RABV variants have been characterized in different mammalian hosts such as skunk, dog, and bats by using anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) via indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, a technique not available in many laboratories in Mexico. In the present study, a total of 158 sequences of N gene from RABV were used to design eight pairs of primers (four external and four internal primers), for typing four different RABV variants (dog, skunk, vampire bat, and nonhematophagous bat) which are most common in Mexico. The results indicate that the primer and the typing variant from the brain samples, submitted to nested and/or real-time PCR, are in agreement in all four singleplex reactions, and the designed primer pairs are an alternative for use in specific variant RABV typing. PMID:27563666

  3. Vesicular Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport—Herpesviruses as Pioneers in Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses use a vesicle-mediated transfer of intranuclearly assembled nucleocapsids through the nuclear envelope (NE) for final maturation in the cytoplasm. The molecular basis for this novel vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is beginning to be elucidated in detail. The heterodimeric viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), conserved within the classical herpesviruses, mediates vesicle formation from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by polymerization into a hexagonal lattice followed by fusion of the vesicle membrane with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Mechanisms of capsid inclusion as well as vesicle-membrane fusion, however, are largely unclear. Interestingly, a similar transport mechanism through the NE has been demonstrated in nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes during Drosophila neuromuscular junction formation, indicating a widespread presence of a novel concept of cellular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. PMID:27690080

  4. Genetic diversity among Bolivian arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T; Bowen, Michael D; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2009-03-01

    Machupo virus and Chapare virus are members of the Tacaribe serocomplex (virus family Arenaviridae) and etiological agents of hemorrhagic fever in humans in Bolivia. The nucleotide sequences of the complete Z genes, a large fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes, the complete glycoprotein precursor genes, and the complete nucleocapsid protein genes of 8 strains of Machupo virus were determined to increase our knowledge of the genetic diversity among the Bolivian arenaviruses. The results of analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of the glycoproteins of the Machupo virus strains and Chapare virus strain 200001071 indicated that immune plasma from hemorrhagic fever cases caused by Machupo virus may prove beneficial in the treatment of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever but not hemorrhagic fever caused by Chapare virus.

  5. [Characteristics of the subvirion components formed after the treatment of Machupo virus with a nonionic detergent].

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, I S; Lemeshko, N N; Golubev, V P

    1985-01-01

    Machupo virus labeled with radioactive precursors of RNA or protein synthesis was purified by isodensity ultracentrifugation in sucrose concentration gradient. The purified virus was disrupted with NP-40 nonionic detergent in the presence of 1 M KCl, and subvirion fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation in urografin density gradient. This treatment resulted in formation of two subvirion components with a buoyant density 1.25-1.26 and 1.10-1.12 g/cm3 in urografin concentration gradient. The subvirion fraction with the density of 1.25-1.26 g/cm3 contained high-molecular virion RNAs, a major protein of molecular weight of 64 kD, and seemed to be the virion nucleocapsid. The solubilised fraction (1.10-1.12 g/cm3) contained glycosylated protein 37 kD which seems to be a surface glycoprotein.

  6. Pathogenesis of herpetic neuritis and ganglionitis in mice: evidence for intra-axonal transport of infection.

    PubMed

    Cook, M L; Stevens, J G

    1973-02-01

    The pathogenesis of acute herpetic infection in the nervous system has been studied following rear footpad inoculation of mice. Viral assays performed on appropriate tissues at various time intervals indicated that the infection progressed sequentially from peripheral to the central nervous system, with infectious virus reaching the sacrosciatic spinal ganglia in 20 to 24 hr. The infection also progressed to ganglia in mice given high levels of anti-viral antibody. Immunofluorescent techniques demonstrated that both neurons and supporting cells produced virus-specific antigens. By electron microscopy, neurons were found to produce morphologically complete virions, but supporting cells replicated principally nucleocapsids. These results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms by which herpes simplex virus might travel in nerve trunks. They are considered to offer strong support for centripetal transport in axons.

  7. [Research Progress in the Core Proteins of the Classical Swine Fever Virus].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuzhen; Zhao, Dantong; Liu, Guoying; He, Fan; Liu, Bin; Fu, Shaoyin; Hao, Yongqing; Zhang, Wenguang

    2015-09-01

    The core protein (CP) of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of its structural proteins. Apart from forming the nucleocapsid to protect internal viral genomic RNA, this protein is involved in transcriptional regulation. Also, during viral infection, the CP is involved in interactions with many host proteins. In this review, we combine study of this protein with its disorders, structural/functional characteristics, as well as its interactions with the non-structural proteins NS3, NS5B and host proteins such as SUMO-1, UBC9, OS9 and IQGAP1. We also summarize the important part played by the CP in CSFV pathogenicity, virulence and replication of genomic RNA. We also provide guidelines for further studies in the CP of the CSFV. PMID:26738299

  8. Isla Vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the California vole Microtus californicus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Irwin, W; Harrison, F J; Davis, R; Ascher, M; Jay, M; Hjelle, B

    1995-12-01

    Prospect Hill virus (PH) was isolated from a meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in 1982, and much of its genome has been sequenced. Hantaviruses of other New World microtine rodents have not been genetically characterized. We show that another Microtus species (the California vole M. californicus) from the United States is host to a genetically distinct PH-like hantavirus, Isla Vista virus (ILV). The nucleocapsid protein of ILV differs from that of PH by 11.1% and a portion of the G2 glycoprotein differs from that of PH by 19.6%. ILV antibodies were identified in five of 33 specimens of M. californicus collected in 1975 and 1994-1995. Enzymatic amplification studies showed that 1975 and 1994-1995 ILV genomes were highly similar. Secondary infection of Peromyscus californicus was identified in Santa Barbara County, California. A long-standing enzootic of a genetically distinct hantavirus lineage is present in California voles. PMID:8847529

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Interaction between a Plant Virus and Its Vector Insect Reveals New Functions of Hemipteran Cuticular Protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Gray, Stewart; Huo, Yan; Li, Li; Wei, Taiyun; Wang, Xifeng

    2015-08-01

    Numerous viruses can be transmitted by their corresponding vector insects; however, the molecular mechanisms enabling virus transmission by vector insects have been poorly understood, especially the identity of vector components interacting with the virus. Here, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to study proteomic interactions of a plant virus (Rice stripe virus, RSV, genus Tenuivirus) with its vector insect, small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Sixty-six proteins of L. striatellus that interacted with the nucleocapsid protein (pc3) of RSV were identified. A virus-insect interaction network, constructed for pc3 and 29 protein homologs of Drosophila melanogaster, suggested that nine proteins might directly interact with pc3. Of the 66 proteins, five (atlasin, a novel cuticular protein, jagunal, NAC domain protein, and vitellogenin) were most likely to be involved in viral movement, replication, and transovarial transmission. This work also provides evidence that the novel cuticular protein, CPR1, from L. striatellus is essential for RSV transmission by its vector insect. CPR1 binds the nucleocapsid protein (pc3) of RSV both in vivo and in vitro and colocalizes with RSV in the hemocytes of L. striatellus. Knockdown of CPR1 transcription using RNA interference resulted in a decrease in the concentration of RSV in the hemolymph, salivary glands and in viral transmission efficiency. These data suggest that CPR1 binds RSV in the insect and stabilizes the viral concentration in the hemolymph, perhaps to protect the virus or to help move the virus to the salivary tissues. Our studies provide direct experimental evidence that viruses can use existing vector proteins to aid their survival in the hemolymph. Identifying these putative vector molecules should lead to a better understanding of the interactions between viruses and vector insects. PMID:26091699

  10. Inclusion Bodies Are a Site of Ebolavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Thomas; Shabman, Reed S.; Groseth, Allison; Herwig, Astrid; Weber, Michaela; Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Basler, Christopher F.; Becker, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Inclusion bodies are a characteristic feature of ebolavirus infections in cells. They contain large numbers of preformed nucleocapsids, but their biological significance has been debated, and they have been suggested to be aggregates of viral proteins without any further biological function. However, recent data for other viruses that produce similar structures have suggested that inclusion bodies might be involved in genome replication and transcription. In order to study filovirus inclusion bodies, we fused mCherry to the ebolavirus polymerase L, which is found in inclusion bodies. The resulting L-mCherry fusion protein was functional in minigenome assays and incorporated into virus-like particles. Importantly, L-mCherry fluorescence in transfected cells was readily detectable and distributed in a punctate pattern characteristic for inclusion bodies. A recombinant ebolavirus encoding L-mCherry instead of L was rescued and showed virtually identical growth kinetics and endpoint titers to those for wild-type virus. Using this virus, we showed that the onset of inclusion body formation corresponds to the onset of viral genome replication, but that viral transcription occurs prior to inclusion body formation. Live-cell imaging further showed that inclusion bodies are highly dynamic structures and that they can undergo dramatic reorganization during cell division. Finally, by labeling nascent RNAs using click technology we showed that inclusion bodies are indeed the site of viral RNA synthesis. Based on these data we conclude that, rather than being inert aggregates of nucleocapsids, ebolavirus inclusion bodies are in fact complex and dynamic structures and an important site at which viral RNA replication takes place. PMID:22915810

  11. A Virus-Like Particle System Identifies the Endonuclease Domain of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Devignot, Stephanie; Bergeron, Eric; Nichol, Stuart; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV; genus Nairovirus) is an extremely pathogenic member of the Bunyaviridae family. Since handling of the virus requires a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facility, little is known about pathomechanisms and host interactions. Here, we describe the establishment of a transcriptionally competent virus-like particle (tc-VLP) system for CCHFV. Recombinant polymerase (L), nucleocapsid protein (N) and a reporter minigenome expressed in human HuH-7 cells resulted in formation of transcriptionally active nucleocapsids that could be packaged by coexpressed CCHFV glycoproteins into tc-VLPs. The tc-VLPs resembled authentic virus particles in their protein composition and neutralization sensitivity to anti-CCHFV antibodies and could recapitulate all steps of the viral replication cycle. Particle attachment, entry, and primary transcription were modeled by infection of naive cells. The subsequent steps of genome replication, secondary transcription, and particle assembly and release can be obtained upon passaging the tc-VLPs on cells expressing CCHFV structural proteins. The utility of the VLP system was demonstrated by showing that the endonuclease domain of L is located around amino acid D693, as was predicted in silico by B. Morin et al. (PLoS Pathog 6:e1001038, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001038). The tc-VLP system will greatly facilitate studies and diagnostics of CCHFV under non-BSL-4 conditions. IMPORTANCE Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an extremely virulent pathogen of humans. Since the virus can be handled only at the highest biosafety level, research is restricted to a few specialized laboratories. We developed a plasmid-based system to produce virus-like particles with the ability to infect cells and transcribe a reporter genome. Due to the absence of viral genes, the virus-like particles are unable to spread or cause disease, thus allowing study of aspects of CCHFV biology under relaxed

  12. Does Tyrosyl DNA Phosphodiesterase-2 Play a Role in Hepatitis B Virus Genome Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev; Sohn, Ji A.; Ledesma, Felipe Cortes; Caldecott, Keith W.; Seeger, Christoph; Hu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and persistence are sustained by a nuclear episome, the covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, which serves as the transcriptional template for all viral RNAs. CCC DNA is converted from a relaxed circular (RC) DNA in the virion early during infection as well as from RC DNA in intracellular progeny nucleocapsids via an intracellular amplification pathway. Current antiviral therapies suppress viral replication but cannot eliminate CCC DNA. Thus, persistence of CCC DNA remains an obstacle toward curing chronic HBV infection. Unfortunately, very little is known about how CCC DNA is formed. CCC DNA formation requires removal of the virally encoded reverse transcriptase (RT) protein from the 5’ end of the minus strand of RC DNA. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-2 (Tdp2) was recently identified as the enzyme responsible for cleavage of tyrosyl-5’ DNA linkages formed between topoisomerase II and cellular DNA. Because the RT-DNA linkage is also a 5’ DNA-phosphotyrosyl bond, it has been hypothesized that Tdp2 might be one of several elusive host factors required for CCC DNA formation. Therefore, we examined the role of Tdp2 in RC DNA deproteination and CCC DNA formation. We demonstrated Tdp2 can cleave the tyrosyl-minus strand DNA linkage using authentic HBV RC DNA isolated from nucleocapsids and using RT covalently linked to short minus strand DNA produced in vitro. On the other hand, our results showed that Tdp2 gene knockout did not block CCC DNA formation during HBV infection of permissive human hepatoma cells and did not prevent intracellular amplification of duck hepatitis B virus CCC DNA. These results indicate that although Tdp2 can remove the RT covalently linked to the 5’ end of the HBV minus strand DNA in vitro, this protein might not be required for CCC DNA formation in vivo. PMID:26079492

  13. A phylogenetically distinct Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus detected in a dromedary calf from a closed dairy herd in Dubai with rising seroprevalence with age.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; El Rasoul, I Hassab; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Marina; Chen, Yixin; Jose, Shanty; Tsang, Alan K L; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Chen, Honglin; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Joseph, Sunitha; Xia, Ningshao; Wernery, Renate; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-12-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by monoclonal antibody-based nucleocapsid protein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RNA detection, and viral culture from the nasal sample of a 1-month-old dromedary calf in Dubai with sudden death. Whole genome phylogeny showed that this MERS-CoV strain did not cluster with the other MERS-CoV strains from Dubai that we reported recently. Instead, it formed a unique branch more closely related to other MERS-CoV strains from patients in Qatar and Hafr-Al-Batin in Saudi Arabia, as well as the MERS-CoV strains from patients in the recent Korean outbreak, in which the index patient acquired the infection during travel in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Non-synonymous mutations, resulting in 11 unique amino acid differences, were observed between the MERS-CoV genome from the present study and all the other available MERS-CoV genomes. Among these 11 unique amino acid differences, four were found in ORF1ab, three were found in the S1 domain of the spike protein, and one each was found in the proteins encoded by ORF4b, ORF5, envelope gene, and ORF8. MERS-CoV detection for all other 254 dromedaries in this closed dairy herd was negative by nucleocapsid protein-capture ELISA and RNA detection. MERS-CoV IgG sero-positivity gradually increased in dromedary calves with increasing age, with positivity rates of 75% at zero to three months, 79% at four months, 89% at five to six months, and 90% at seven to twelve months. The development of a rapid antigen detection kit for instantaneous diagnosis is warranted.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2015) 4, e74; doi:10.1038/emi.2015.74; published online 2 December 2015.

  14. Development of a duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of antibody responses to influenza A and newcastle disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Mathieu M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Pasick, John; Ojkic, Davor; Leith, Marsha; Suderman, Matthew; Berhane, Yohannes

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) cause serious illnesses in domestic poultry, both of which are reportable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) and APMV-1 infections are difficult to differentiate, emphasizing the importance of rapid and sensitive serologic assays that are able to distinguish them. Currently, a variety of serological assays are used for the serologic diagnosis of both diseases, but these assays are not used in multiplex formats. In this study, development of a duplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) based on Luminex xMAP Technology is described. The assay employs MagPlex magnetic microspheres that are covalently coated with recombinant avian influenza virus nucleoprotein and APMV-1 nucleocapsid antigens produced in a baculovirus insect cell expression system. The assay is able to detect AIV antibodies against all existing hemagglutinin (H1-H16) subtypes and simultaneously detect antibodies against APMV-1. In the process of this assay development different bead coupling conditions were compared. The assay has the capability of detecting serum antibodies from chickens and turkeys and optimization was accomplished by using 2462 chicken and 446 turkey field and experimental sera and had a comparable detection capability with currently used assays in the laboratory. Assay threshold values were calculated with Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis (ROC) in non-parametric analysis due to a highly skewed data distribution; this analysis resulted in AIV nucleoprotein relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.7%, and 97.3% respectively. The APMV-1 nucleocapsid relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.4%, and 98.5% respectively.

  15. DNA Polymerase κ Is a Key Cellular Factor for the Formation of Covalently Closed Circular DNA of Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yonghe; Gao, Zhenchao; Peng, Bo; Yan, Huan; Tang, Dingbin; Song, Zilin; He, Wenhui; Sun, Yinyan; Guo, Ju-Tao; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of hepatocytes begins by binding to its cellular receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), followed by the internalization of viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The viral relaxed circular (rc) DNA genome in nucleocapsid is transported into the nucleus and converted into covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA to serve as a viral persistence reservoir that is refractory to current antiviral therapies. Host DNA repair enzymes have been speculated to catalyze the conversion of rcDNA to cccDNA, however, the DNA polymerase(s) that fills the gap in the plus strand of rcDNA remains to be determined. Here we conducted targeted genetic screening in combination with chemical inhibition to identify the cellular DNA polymerase(s) responsible for cccDNA formation, and exploited recombinant HBV with capsid coding deficiency which infects HepG2-NTCP cells with similar efficiency of wild-type HBV to assure cccDNA synthesis is exclusively from de novo HBV infection. We found that DNA polymerase κ (POLK), a Y-family DNA polymerase with maximum activity in non-dividing cells, substantially contributes to cccDNA formation during de novo HBV infection. Depleting gene expression of POLK in HepG2-NTCP cells by either siRNA knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9 knockout inhibited the conversion of rcDNA into cccDNA, while the diminished cccDNA formation in, and hence the viral infection of, the knockout cells could be effectively rescued by ectopic expression of POLK. These studies revealed that POLK is a crucial host factor required for cccDNA formation during a de novo HBV infection and suggest that POLK may be a potential target for developing antivirals against HBV. PMID:27783675

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Interaction between a Plant Virus and Its Vector Insect Reveals New Functions of Hemipteran Cuticular Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenwen; Gray, Stewart; Huo, Yan; Li, Li; Wei, Taiyun; Wang, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    Numerous viruses can be transmitted by their corresponding vector insects; however, the molecular mechanisms enabling virus transmission by vector insects have been poorly understood, especially the identity of vector components interacting with the virus. Here, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to study proteomic interactions of a plant virus (Rice stripe virus, RSV, genus Tenuivirus) with its vector insect, small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Sixty-six proteins of L. striatellus that interacted with the nucleocapsid protein (pc3) of RSV were identified. A virus–insect interaction network, constructed for pc3 and 29 protein homologs of Drosophila melanogaster, suggested that nine proteins might directly interact with pc3. Of the 66 proteins, five (atlasin, a novel cuticular protein, jagunal, NAC domain protein, and vitellogenin) were most likely to be involved in viral movement, replication, and transovarial transmission. This work also provides evidence that the novel cuticular protein, CPR1, from L. striatellus is essential for RSV transmission by its vector insect. CPR1 binds the nucleocapsid protein (pc3) of RSV both in vivo and in vitro and colocalizes with RSV in the hemocytes of L. striatellus. Knockdown of CPR1 transcription using RNA interference resulted in a decrease in the concentration of RSV in the hemolymph, salivary glands and in viral transmission efficiency. These data suggest that CPR1 binds RSV in the insect and stabilizes the viral concentration in the hemolymph, perhaps to protect the virus or to help move the virus to the salivary tissues. Our studies provide direct experimental evidence that viruses can use existing vector proteins to aid their survival in the hemolymph. Identifying these putative vector molecules should lead to a better understanding of the interactions between viruses and vector insects. PMID:26091699

  17. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Salfeld, J; Pfaff, E; Noah, M; Schaller, H

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. The single conformational determinant responsible for HBc antigenicity in the assembled core (HBc) and a linear HBe-related determinant (HBe1) were both mapped to an overlapping hydrophilic sequence around amino acid 80; a second HBe determinant (HBe2) was assigned to a location in the vicinity of amino acid 138 but found to require for its antigenicity the intramolecular participation of the extended sequence between amino acids 10 and 140. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid. Images PMID:2463383

  18. Bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus infection: ultrastructural aspects of viral pathogenesis in the bovine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K S; Thomson, R G

    1975-04-01

    After aerosolization of a bovine strain of parainfluenza type 3 virus, the pathogenesis of the virus was followed from the trachea to the bronchioalveolar compartments of the lung of colostrum-free calves and of conventionally reared calves during a 5- to 12-day postexposure interval. By tissue titration, plaque assay, and electron microscopy, it was found that virus infection could be established in colostrum-free calves as well as in conventionally reared calves, even though sequential changes of virus replication were observed mainly in the infected colostrum-free calves during the 5- to 6-day postexposure periods. Electron microscopy demonstrations of (i) aggregates of viral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm, (ii) alterations of cilia and basal bodies, (iii) dissolution of cytoplasmic membranes, and (iv) the shedding of virus into luminal spaces confirmed that epithelial cells of the respiratory tract were the primary target cells for the virus replication leading to cell destruction. These observations revealed further that productive infection was more efficient in the bronchioalveolar regions than in the tracheal regions, although large aggregates of viral nucleocapsids and destructive changes were more pronounced in the tracheal epithelium. The finding that parainfluenza type 3 virus replicates in the alveolar type II cells suggests that changes in surfactant production may occur during the peak of infection of these cells. The demonstration of virus budding through the basement membrane of small bronchioles and the presence of virus particles in the interstitial regions imply that one of the host defense lines, the basement membrane, may be impaired by virus invasion.

  19. Biarsenical labeling of vesicular stomatitis virus encoding tetracysteine-tagged m protein allows dynamic imaging of m protein and virus uncoating in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Subash C; Panda, Debasis; Nayak, Debasis; Pattnaik, Asit K

    2009-03-01

    A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-PeGFP-M-MmRFP) encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein fused in frame with P (PeGFP) in place of P and a fusion matrix protein (monomeric red fluorescent protein fused in frame at the carboxy terminus of M [MmRFP]) at the G-L gene junction, in addition to wild-type (wt) M protein in its normal location, was recovered, but the MmRFP was not incorporated into the virions. Subsequently, we generated recombinant viruses (VSV-PeGFP-DeltaM-Mtc and VSV-DeltaM-Mtc) encoding M protein with a carboxy-terminal tetracysteine tag (Mtc) in place of the M protein. These recombinant viruses incorporated Mtc at levels similar to M in wt VSV, demonstrating recovery of infectious rhabdoviruses encoding and incorporating a tagged M protein. Virions released from cells infected with VSV-PeGFP-DeltaM-Mtc and labeled with the biarsenical red dye (ReAsH) were dually fluorescent, fluorescing green due to incorporation of PeGFP in the nucleocapsids and red due to incorporation of ReAsH-labeled Mtc in the viral envelope. Transport and subsequent association of M protein with the plasma membrane were shown to be independent of microtubules. Sequential labeling of VSV-DeltaM-Mtc-infected cells with the biarsenical dyes ReAsH and FlAsH (green) revealed that newly synthesized M protein reaches the plasma membrane in less than 30 min and continues to accumulate there for up to 2 1/2 hours. Using dually fluorescent VSV, we determined that following adsorption at the plasma membrane, the time taken by one-half of the virus particles to enter cells and to uncoat their nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm is approximately 28 min.

  20. Fatal Systemic Necrotizing Infections Associated with a Novel Paramyxovirus, Anaconda Paramyxovirus, in Green Anaconda Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Groff, Joseph M.; Tam, Emily W. T.; Chan, Kwok-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 104 to 1.05 × 108 copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical “herringbone” appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3′-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5′. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission. PMID:25078906

  1. Insights into the Hendra virus NTAIL-XD complex: Evidence for a parallel organization of the helical MoRE at the XD surface stabilized by a combination of hydrophobic and polar interactions.

    PubMed

    Erales, Jenny; Beltrandi, Matilde; Roche, Jennifer; Maté, Maria; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    The Hendra virus is a member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The nucleoprotein, which consists of a structured core and of a C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain (N(TAIL)), encapsidates the viral genome within a helical nucleocapsid. N(TAIL) partly protrudes from the surface of the nucleocapsid being thus capable of interacting with the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Interaction with XD implies a molecular recognition element (MoRE) that is located within N(TAIL) residues 470-490, and that undergoes α-helical folding. The MoRE has been proposed to be embedded in the hydrophobic groove delimited by helices α2 and α3 of XD, although experimental data could not discriminate between a parallel and an antiparallel orientation of the MoRE. Previous studies also showed that if the binding interface is enriched in hydrophobic residues, charged residues located close to the interface might play a role in complex formation. Here, we targeted for site directed mutagenesis two acidic and two basic residues within XD and N(TAIL). ITC studies showed that electrostatics plays a crucial role in complex formation and pointed a parallel orientation of the MoRE as more likely. Further support for a parallel orientation was afforded by SAXS studies that made use of two chimeric constructs in which XD and the MoRE were covalently linked to each other. Altogether, these studies unveiled the multiparametric nature of the interactions established within this complex and contribute to shed light onto the molecular features of protein interfaces involving intrinsically disordered regions.

  2. Role of Vif in Stability of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Core

    PubMed Central

    Öhagen, Åsa; Gabuzda, Dana

    2000-01-01

    The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for virion infectivity. Previous studies have shown that vif-defective virions exhibit structural abnormalities in the virus core and are defective in the ability to complete proviral DNA synthesis in acutely infected cells. We developed novel assays to assess the relative stability of the core in HIV-1 virions. Using these assays, we examined the role of Vif in the stability of the HIV-1 core. The integrity of the core was examined following virion permeabilization or removal of the lipid envelope and treatment with various triggers, including S100 cytosol, deoxynucleoside triphosphates, detergents, NaCl, and buffers of different pH to mimic aspects of the uncoating and disassembly process which occurs after virus entry but preceding or during reverse transcription. vif mutant cores were more sensitive to disruption by all triggers tested than wild-type cores, as determined by endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) assays, biochemical analyses, and electron microscopy. RT and the p7 nucleocapsid protein were released more readily from vif mutant virions than from wild-type virions, suggesting that the internal nucleocapsid is less stably packaged in the absence of Vif. Purified cores could be isolated from wild-type but not vif mutant virions by sedimentation through detergent-treated gradients. These results demonstrate that Vif increases the stability of virion cores. This may permit efficient viral DNA synthesis by preventing premature degradation or disassembly of viral nucleoprotein complexes during early events after virus entry. PMID:11070000

  3. Predicting and rationalizing the effect of surface charge distribution and orientation on nano-wire based FET bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vico, Luca; Iversen, Lars; Sørensen, Martin H.; Brandbyge, Mads; Nygård, Jesper; Martinez, Karen L.; Jensen, Jan H.

    2011-09-01

    A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969-3976) and Nucleocapsid protein (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 1219-1224).A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969-3976) and Nucleocapsid protein (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 1219-1224). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A detailed description of the SMSCSL model is given, along with the Streptavidin and N protein treatment. Additional material is provided in Tables 1S-3S and Fig. 1S-13S. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10316d

  4. Ensemble Structure of the Highly Flexible Complex Formed between Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Unassembled Nucleoprotein and its Phosphoprotein Chaperone.

    PubMed

    Yabukarski, Filip; Leyrat, Cedric; Martinez, Nicolas; Communie, Guillaume; Ivanov, Ivan; Ribeiro, Euripedes A; Buisson, Marlyse; Gerard, Francine C; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Bernadó, Pau; Blackledge, Martin; Jamin, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Nucleocapsid assembly is an essential process in the replication of the non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses (NNVs). Unassembled nucleoprotein (N(0)) is maintained in an RNA-free and monomeric form by its viral chaperone, the phosphoprotein (P), forming the N(0)-P complex. Our earlier work solved the structure of vesicular stomatitis virus complex formed between an N-terminally truncated N (NΔ21) and a peptide of P (P60) encompassing the N(0)-binding site, but how the full-length P interacts with N(0) remained unknown. Here, we combine several experimental biophysical methods including size exclusion chromatography with detection by light scattering and refractometry, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation and computational modeling to characterize the NΔ21(0)-PFL complex formed with dimeric full-length P. We show that for multi-molecular complexes, simultaneous multiple-curve fitting using small-angle neutron scattering data collected at varying contrast levels provides additional information and can help refine structural ensembles. We demonstrate that (a) vesicular stomatitis virus PFL conserves its high flexibility within the NΔ21(0)-PFL complex and interacts with NΔ21(0) only through its N-terminal extremity; (b) each protomer of P can chaperone one N(0) client protein, leading to the formation of complexes with stoichiometries 1N:P2 and 2N:P2; and (c) phosphorylation of residues Ser60, Thr62 and Ser64 provides no additional interactions with N(0) but creates a metal binding site in PNTR. A comparison with the structures of Nipah virus and Ebola virus N(0)-P core complex suggests a mechanism for the control of nucleocapsid assembly that is common to all NNVs. PMID:27107640

  5. Comparison of the specificity of interaction of cellular and viral zinc-binding domains with 2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Durell, Stewart R; Maynard, Andrew T; Stahl, Stephen J; Inman, John K; Appella, Ettore; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2006-09-13

    The interactions of two 2-mercaptobenzamide thioester compounds with six diverse zinc-binding domains (ZBDs) have been analyzed by UV/visible spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and nucleic acid binding assays. These thioester compounds serve as useful tools for probing the intrinsic chemical stability of ZBDs that exist within a variety of cellular and viral proteins. In our studies, the classical (Cys(2)His(2)) zinc finger ZBDs, the interleaved RING like ZBDs of protein kinase C delta (Cys(2)HisCys and HisCys(3)), and the carboxyl-terminal (Cys(2)HisCys) ZBD of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus nucleocapsid protein (MMTV NCp10) were resistant to reaction with the thioester compounds. In contrast, the thioester compounds were able to efficiently eject zinc from the amino-terminal (Cys(2)HisCys) ZBD of MMTV NCp10, a Cys(2)HisCys ZBD from Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1), and from both Cys(4) ZBDs of GATA-1. In all cases, zinc ejection led to a loss of protein structure. Interestingly, GATA-1 was resistant to reaction with the thioester compounds when bound to its target DNA sequence. The electronic and steric screening was calculated for select ZBDs to further explore their reactivity. Based on these results, it appears that both first and second zinc-coordination shell interactions within ZBDs, as well as nucleic acid binding, play important roles in determining the chemical stability and reactivity of ZBDs. These studies not only provide information regarding the relative reactivity of cysteine residues within structural ZBDs but also are crucial for the design of future therapeutic agents that selectively target ZBDs, such as those that occur in the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein. PMID:16953638

  6. Ribonucleocapsid Formation of SARS-COV Through Molecular Action of the N-Terminal Domain of N Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Saikatendu, K.S.; Joseph, J.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Conserved amongst all coronaviruses are four structural proteins, the matrix (M), small envelope (E) and spike (S) that are embedded in the viral membrane and the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), which exists in a ribonucleoprotein complex in their lumen. The N terminal domain of coronaviral N proteins (N-NTD) provides a scaffold for RNA binding while the C-terminal domain (N-CTD) mainly acts as oligomerization modules during assembly. The C-terminus of N protein anchors it to the viral membrane by associating with M protein. We characterized the structures of N-NTD from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in two crystal forms, at 1.17A (monoclinic) and 1.85 A (cubic) respectively, solved by molecular replacement using the homologous avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) structure. Flexible loops in the solution structure of SARS-CoV N-NTD are now shown to be well ordered around the beta-sheet core. The functionally important positively charged beta-hairpin protrudes out of the core and is oriented similar to that in the IBV N-NTD and is involved in crystal packing in the monoclinic form. In the cubic form, the monomers form trimeric units that stack in a helical array. Comparison of crystal packing of SARS-CoV and IBV N-NTDs suggest a common mode of RNA recognition, but probably associate differently in vivo during the formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex. Electrostatic potential distribution on the surface of homology models of related coronaviral N-NTDs hints that they employ different modes of both RNA recognition as well as oligomeric assembly, perhaps explaining why their nucleocapsids have different morphologies.

  7. Identification and ultrastructural characterization of a novel virus from fish.

    PubMed

    Granzow, H; Weiland, F; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Karger, A; Mundt, E; Dresenkamp, B; Martin, P; Mettenleiter, T C

    2001-12-01

    During routine investigations on fish, a virus (isolate DF 24/00) with novel morphological features and hitherto undescribed morphogenesis was isolated from a white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.; Teleostei, order Cypriniformes). Cell-free virions consist of a rod-shaped nucleocapsid (120-150x19-22 nm) similar to that seen in baculoviruses. The virion has a bacilliform shape (170-200x75-88 nm) reminiscent of rhabdoviruses with an envelope containing coronavirus-like spikes (20-25 nm). DF 24/00 replicated well in various fish cell lines. Inhibitor studies with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine indicated that the viral genome consists of RNA and chloroform sensitivity correlated with ultrastructural demonstration of enveloped virions. The buoyant density of the virus determined in sucrose was 1.17-1.19 g/ml. Preliminary biochemical characterization revealed the presence of six antigenic glycoproteins, three of which contain sugars with concanavalin-A specificity. Ultrastructurally, morphogenesis of virus progeny was detected only in the cytoplasm. Nucleocapsids were observed to bud through membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi apparatus into dilated vesicles. Egress of mature virions occurs primarily by exocytosis and, only very rarely, by budding directly at the plasma membrane. Morphologically similar viruses had previously been isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), blue crab (Callinectis sapidus), European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon). To date, none of them has been classified. In summary, the first characterization of a new virus that might represent a member of a novel virus family that has morphological features resembling those found in rhabdo-, corona- and baculoviruses is presented. PMID:11714959

  8. Inclusion bodies are a site of ebolavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Hoenen, Thomas; Shabman, Reed S; Groseth, Allison; Herwig, Astrid; Weber, Michaela; Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Basler, Christopher F; Becker, Stephan; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-11-01

    Inclusion bodies are a characteristic feature of ebolavirus infections in cells. They contain large numbers of preformed nucleocapsids, but their biological significance has been debated, and they have been suggested to be aggregates of viral proteins without any further biological function. However, recent data for other viruses that produce similar structures have suggested that inclusion bodies might be involved in genome replication and transcription. In order to study filovirus inclusion bodies, we fused mCherry to the ebolavirus polymerase L, which is found in inclusion bodies. The resulting L-mCherry fusion protein was functional in minigenome assays and incorporated into virus-like particles. Importantly, L-mCherry fluorescence in transfected cells was readily detectable and distributed in a punctate pattern characteristic for inclusion bodies. A recombinant ebolavirus encoding L-mCherry instead of L was rescued and showed virtually identical growth kinetics and endpoint titers to those for wild-type virus. Using this virus, we showed that the onset of inclusion body formation corresponds to the onset of viral genome replication, but that viral transcription occurs prior to inclusion body formation. Live-cell imaging further showed that inclusion bodies are highly dynamic structures and that they can undergo dramatic reorganization during cell division. Finally, by labeling nascent RNAs using click technology we showed that inclusion bodies are indeed the site of viral RNA synthesis. Based on these data we conclude that, rather than being inert aggregates of nucleocapsids, ebolavirus inclusion bodies are in fact complex and dynamic structures and an important site at which viral RNA replication takes place.

  9. A targeted spatial-temporal proteomics approach implicates multiple cellular trafficking pathways in human cytomegalovirus virion maturation.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Nathaniel J; Sharon-Friling, Ronit; Shenk, Thomas; Cristea, Ileana M

    2010-05-01

    The assembly of infectious virus particles is a complex event. For human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) this process requires the coordinated expression and localization of at least 60 viral proteins that comprise the infectious virion. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling this process, we identified protein binding partners for two viral proteins, pUL99 (also termed pp28) and pUL32 (pp150), which are essential for HCMV virion assembly. We utilized HCMV strains expressing pUL99 or pUL32 carboxyl-terminal green fluorescent protein fusion proteins from their native location in the HCMV genome. Based on the presence of ubiquitin in the pUL99 immunoisolation, we discovered that this viral protein colocalizes with components of the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway during the initial stages of virion assembly. We identified the nucleocapsid and a large number of tegument proteins as pUL32 binding partners, suggesting that events controlling trafficking of this viral protein in the cytoplasm regulate nucleocapsid/tegument maturation. The finding that pUL32, but not pUL99, associates with clathrin led to the discovery that the two viral proteins traffic via distinct pathways during the early stages of virion assembly. Additional investigation revealed that the majority of the major viral glycoprotein gB initially resides in a third compartment. Analysis of the trafficking of these three viral proteins throughout a time course of virion assembly allowed us to visualize their merger into a single large cytoplasmic structure during the late stages of viral assembly. We propose a model of HCMV virion maturation in which multiple components of the virion traffic independently of one another before merging.

  10. Fatal systemic necrotizing infections associated with a novel paramyxovirus, anaconda paramyxovirus, in green anaconda juveniles.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Lau, Candy C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Groff, Joseph M; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission. PMID:25078906

  11. Fatal systemic necrotizing infections associated with a novel paramyxovirus, anaconda paramyxovirus, in green anaconda juveniles.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Lau, Candy C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Groff, Joseph M; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission.

  12. Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

  13. Towards a Black-Box for Biological EXAFS Data Analysis - I. Identification of Zinc Finger Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wellenreuther, Gerd; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2007-02-02

    EXAFS allows the determination of metal binding motifs in proteins. Here we present an algorithm for the identification of one subgroup, the Zinc finger proteins, by an automated refinement of biological EXAFS data. In combination with scoring criteria inspired by high resolution crystal structures these refinements led to the identification of these motifs, that playing an important role in protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. Robust criteria were identified investigating several EXAFS data sets from different zinc binding proteins. For all structural zinc motifs the automated EXAFS refinement led to results consistent with published ones.

  14. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful.

  15. Extracellular Vesicles: Satellites of Information Transfer in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Laura M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2016-05-23

    The generation and shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), by cells has emerged as a form of intercellular communication with important roles in several physiological processes and diseases such as cancer. These membrane-enclosed packets can transfer specific proteins, RNA transcripts, microRNAs, and even DNA to target cells, thereby altering their function. Despite the exponential growth of the EV field, a great deal remains unclear about the mechanisms that regulate exosome and MV biogenesis, as well as about how to isolate different classes of EVs and how to best take advantage of them for clinical applications.

  16. Concepts related to the origin of the genetic apparatus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Fox, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Since the genetic apparatus is composed of nucleic acid and protein, the origin of the apparatus involves the origin of polyaminoacids and of polynucleotides, separately or together. Laboratory models for the origins of the separate macromolecular types are considered. The origin of their joint synthesis, believed to have been necessary at a later stage, is also discussed. Proteins and nucleic acids appear to have definite relationships with each other in three major contemporary biological systems, including chromatin, ribosomes, and the protein synthesizing system using nucleic acid templates. Stages considered in connection with the flow of information in the early evolution of the apparatus are environment, protoprotein, protein, RNA, and DNA.

  17. Coassembly of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Proteins into Nanotubes with Uniform Length and Improved Physical Stability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Eiben, Sabine; Wang, Qiangbin

    2016-06-01

    Using tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins (TMVcp) from both sources of the plant and bacterial expression systems as building blocks, we demonstrate here a coassembly strategy of TMV nanotubes in the presence of RNA. Specifically, plant-expressed cp (cpp) efficiently dominates the genomic RNA encapsidation to determine the length of assembled TMV nanotubes, whereas the incorporated Escherichia coli-expressed cp (cpec) improves the physical stability of TMV nanotubes by introducing disulfide bonds between the interfaces of subunits. We expect this coassembly strategy can be expanded to other virus nanomaterials to obtain desired properties based on rationally designed protein-RNA and protein-protein interfacial interactions. PMID:27188634

  18. Extracellular Vesicles: Satellites of Information Transfer in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Laura M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2016-05-23

    The generation and shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), by cells has emerged as a form of intercellular communication with important roles in several physiological processes and diseases such as cancer. These membrane-enclosed packets can transfer specific proteins, RNA transcripts, microRNAs, and even DNA to target cells, thereby altering their function. Despite the exponential growth of the EV field, a great deal remains unclear about the mechanisms that regulate exosome and MV biogenesis, as well as about how to isolate different classes of EVs and how to best take advantage of them for clinical applications. PMID:27219060

  19. Crystal structure of a mutant of archaeal ribosomal protein L1 from Methanococcus jannaschii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarskikh, A. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Kostareva, O. S.; Shklyaeva, A. A.; Tishchenko, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of a mutant of archaeal ribosomal protein L1 from Methanococcus jannaschii with the deletion of a nonconserved positively charged cluster consisting of eight C-terminal amino acid residues is determined by the molecular replacement method at 1.75 Å resolution. This mutant is shown to form more stable and ordered crystals belonging to a space group other than that of the wild-type protein crystals. The positively charged C-terminal region has only a slight effect on the interaction between protein L1 and RNA molecules. Hence, this mutant can be used to prepare protein-RNA complexes and obtain their crystals.

  20. Estetrol, molecular chaperones, and the epigenetics of longevity and cancer resistance.

    PubMed

    Krøll, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Evidence is given that replicative senescence--possibly as organismal aging--constitutes epigenetic phenomena, counteracted by homeostatic factors such as, e.g., the molecular chaperones, which are housekeeping molecules essential for the folding, repair, and transport of proteins, RNA, and DNA. Weakening of the chaperone defense with age probably contributes to the frailty in senescence. The present review presents evidence that the human fetal estrogen hormone estetrol, by promotion of chaperone functions, homeostasis, and cancer resistance, may prove useful as a supplement during human senescence. PMID:23992378

  1. HISTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENTS ON CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE.

    PubMed

    El Sobky, Mona M; Ismail, Howaida I H; Assar, Abada A

    2016-04-01

    The histochemical effects of the lethal concentration that kills 50% of larvae (LC50) of three biological agents, abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis and spinosad on the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, nucleic acids and lipids content of the midgut and fat bodies of Culex pipiens 2nd instar larvae were studied. The results showed that the three tested compounds reduced the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, RNA synthesis and lipids content after 72 hours of treatment where abamectin was the most effective followed by Bacillus thuringiensis then spinosad. PMID:27363043

  2. Conformational and oligomeric effects on the cysteine pK(a) of tryparedoxin peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Knaggs, Michael H; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2010-08-01

    Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are peroxidases which regulate cell signaling pathways, apoptosis, and differentiation. These enzymes are obligate homodimers, and can form decamers in solution. During catalysis, Prxs exhibit cysteine-dependent reactivity which requires the deprotonation of the peroxidatic cysteine (C(p)) supported by a lowered pK(a) in the initial step. We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations combined with pKa calculations on the monomeric, dimeric and decameric forms of one typical 2-Cys Prx, the tryparedoxin peroxidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (PDB id, 1uul). The calculations indicate that C(p) (C52) pK(a) values are highly affected by oligomeric state; an unshifted C(p) pK(a) (approximately 8.3, comparable to the pK(a) of isolated cysteine) is calculated for the monomer. In the dimers, starting with essentially identical structures, the C(p)s evolve dynamically asymmetric pK(a)s during the simulations; one subunit's C(p) pK(a) is shifted downward at a time, while the other is unshifted. However, when averaged over time, or multiple simulations, the two subunits within a dimer exhibit the same C(p), showing no preference for a lowered pK(a) in either subunit. Two conserved pathways that communicate the asymmetric pK(a)s between C(p)s of different subunits can be identified. In the decamer, all the C(p) pK(a)s are shifted downward, with slight asymmetry in the dimers which form the decamers. Structural analyses implicate oligomerization effects as responsible for these oligomeric state-dependent C(p) pK(a) shifts. The intra-dimer and the inter-dimer subunit contacts in the decamer restrict the conformations of the side chains of several residues (T49, T54 and E55) calculated to be key in shifting the C(p) pK(a). In addition, the backbone fluctuations of a few residues (M46, D47 and F48) result in a different electrostatic environment for the C(p) in dimers relative to the monomers. These side chain and backbone interactions

  3. Montmorillonite, oligonucleotides, RNA and origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertem, Gozen

    2004-01-01

    Na-montmorillonite prepared from Volclay by the titration method facilitates the self-condensation of ImpA, the 5'-phosphorimidazolide derivative of adenosine. As was shown by AE-HPLC analysis and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of products, oligo(A)s formed in this reaction are 10 monomer units long and contain 67% 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds (Ferris and Ertem, 1992a). Under the same reaction conditions, 5'-phosphorimidazolide derivatives of cytidine, uridine and guanosine also undergo self-condensation producing oligomers containing up to 12-14 monomer units for oligo(C)s to 6 monomer units for oligo(G)s. In oligo(C)s and oligo(U)s, 75-80% of the monomers are linked by 2',5'-phosphodiester bonds. Hexamer and higher oligomers isolated from synthetic oligo(C)s formed by montmorillonite catalysis, which contain both 3',5'- and 2',5'-linkages, serve as catalysts for the non-enzymatic template directed synthesis of oligo(G)s from activated monomer 2-MeImpG, guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (Ertem and Ferris, 1996). Pentamer and higher oligomers containing exclusively 2',5'-linkages, which were isolated from the synthetic oligo(C)s, also serve as templates and produce oligo(G)s with both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds. Kinetic studies on montmorillonite catalyzed elongation rates of oligomers using the computer program SIMFIT demonstrated that the rate constants for the formation of oligo(A)s increased in the order of 2-mer < 3-mer < 4-mer ... < 7-mer (Kawamura and Ferris, 1994). A decameric primer, dA(pdA)8pA bound to montmorillonite was elongated to contain up to 50 monomer units by daily addition of activated monomer ImpA to the reaction mixture (Ferris, Hill and Orgel, 1996). Analysis of dimer fractions formed in the montmorillonite catalyzed reaction of binary and quaternary mixtures of ImpA, ImpC, 2-MeImpG and ImpU suggested that only a limited number of oligomers could have formed on the primitive Earth rather than equal amounts of all possible

  4. Conformational and oligomeric effects on the cysteine pKa of typaredoxin peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ye; Knaggs, Michael H.; Poole, Leslie B.; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.; Salsbury, Freddie R.

    2010-01-01

    Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are peroxidases which regulate cell signaling pathways, apoptosis, and differentiation. These enzymes are obligate homodimers, and can form decamers in solution. During catalysis, Prxs exhibit cysteine-dependent reactivity which requires the deprotonation of the peroxidatic cysteine (Cp) supported by a lowered pKa in the initial step. We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations combined with pKa calculations on the monomeric, dimeric and decameric forms of one typical 2-Cys Prx, the tryparedoxin peroxidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (PDB id, 1uul). The calculations indicate that Cp (C52) pKa values are highly affected by oligomeric state; an unshifted Cp pKa (~ 8.3, comparable to the pKa of isolated cysteine) is calculated for the monomer. In the dimers, starting with essentially identical structures, the Cps evolve dynamically asymmetric pKas during the simulations; one subunit’s Cp pKa is shifted downward at a time, while the other is unshifted. However, when averaged over time, or multiple simulations, the two subunits within a dimer exhibit the same Cp, showing no preference for a lowered pKa in either subunit. Two conserved pathways that communicate the asymmetric pKas between Cps of different subunits can be identified. In the decamer, all the Cp pKas are shifted downward, with slight asymmetry in the dimers which form the decamers. Structural analyses implicate oligomerization effects as responsible for these oligomeric state-dependent Cp pKa shifts. The intra-dimer and the inter-dimer subunit contacts in the decamer restrict the conformations of the side chains of several residues (T49, T54 and E55) calculated to be key in shifting the Cp pKa. In addition, the backbone fluctuations of a few residues (M46, D47 and F48) result in a different electrostatic environment for the Cp in dimers relative to the monomers. These side chain and backbone interactions which contribute to pKa modulation indicate the importance

  5. Trans-Ancestral Studies Fine Map the SLE-Susceptibility Locus TNFSF4

    PubMed Central

    Manku, Harinder; Langefeld, Carl D.; Guerra, Sandra G.; Malik, Talat H.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Gregersen, Peter A.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Han, Sang-Hoon; Harley, John B.; Jacob, Chaim O.; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Martin, Javier; Merrill, Joan T.; Moser, Kathy L.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Park, So-Yeon; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Sawalha, Amr H.; Scofield, R. Hal; Shen, Nan; Stevens, Anne M.; Sun, Celi; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Edberg, Jeff C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Nath, Swapan K.; Tsao, Betty P.; Vyse, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited by alleles spanning the region. Using a trans-ancestral approach to fine-map the locus, utilising 17,900 SLE and control subjects including Amerindian/Hispanics (1348 cases, 717 controls), African-Americans (AA) (1529, 2048) and better powered cohorts of Europeans and East Asians, we find strong association of risk alleles in all ethnicities; the AA association replicates in African-American Gullah (152,122). The best evidence of association comes from two adjacent markers: rs2205960-T (P = 1.71×10−34, OR = 1.43[1.26–1.60]) and rs1234317-T (P = 1.16×10−28, OR = 1.38[1.24–1.54]). Inference of fine-scale recombination rates for all populations tested finds the 80 kb risk and non-risk haplotypes in all except African-Americans. In this population the decay of recombination equates to an 11 kb risk haplotype, anchored in the 5′ region proximal to TNFSF4 and tagged by rs2205960-T after 1000 Genomes phase 1 (v3) imputation. Conditional regression analyses delineate the 5′ risk signal to rs2205960-T and the independent non-risk signal to rs1234314-C. Our case-only and SLE-control cohorts demonstrate robust association of rs2205960-T with autoantibody production. The rs2205960-T is predicted to form part of a decameric motif which binds NF-κBp65 with increased affinity compared to rs2205960-G. ChIP-seq data also indicate NF-κB interaction with the DNA sequence at this position in LCL cells. Our research suggests association of rs2205960-T with SLE across multiple groups and an independent non-risk signal at rs1234314-C. rs2205960-T is associated with autoantibody production and

  6. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on biochemical indices of neuronal gene expression in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol and kolanut interactions on biochemical indices of neuronal gene expression in Wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2-6 were treated for a period of 21-days with (10 % v/v) 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol, 50 mg/kg body weight of kolanut, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of kolanut, and 50 mg/kg body weight of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters namely total protein, DNA, RNA and protein/RNA ratios. The status of neuronal gene expression was monitored through assessment of these parameters. The results showed that alcohol-kolanut co-administration decreased brain total protein, DNA, RNA levels and protein/RNA ratios, and inhibited gene expression. These effects, in turn, inhibited DNA transcription, MRNA splicing and protein synthesis, and polypeptide expression, which are necessary for the growth, development, differentiation and cell survival.

  7. A sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site of pre-miRNAs regulates alternative Dicer processing to generate 5'-isomiRs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongming; Wu, Yonggan; Niu, Qi; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Gengxiang; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2016-09-01

    5'-isomiRs expand the repertoire of miRNA targets. However, how they are generated is not well understood. Previously, we showed that for some miRNAs in mammalian cells, Drosha cleaves at multiple sites to generate multiple pre-miRNAs that give rise to multiple 5'-isomiRs. Here, we showed that for some other miRNAs, 5'-isomiRs are generated by alternative Dicer processing. In addition, we showed that in miR-203, alternative Dicer processing is regulated by a conserved sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site, which allows the pre-miRNA molecule to fold into two different structures that are processed differently by Dicer. So far no RNA motif that slides to change conformation and alter a protein-RNA interaction has been reported. Thus, our study revealed a novel RNA motif that regulates 5'-isomiR generation in some miRNAs. It might also contribute to regulating protein-RNA interactions in other biological processes, since it takes only one point mutation to generate the sliding bulge, and there are a large number of different RNAs in the cell. PMID:27656682

  8. Markov State Models Reveal a Two-Step Mechanism of miRNA Loading into the Human Argonaute Protein: Selective Binding followed by Structural Re-arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zhu, Lizhe; Gao, Xin; Bernauer, Julie; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) are central components in RNA interference, which is a key cellular mechanism for sequence-specific gene silencing. Despite intensive studies, molecular mechanisms of how Ago recognizes miRNA remain largely elusive. In this study, we propose a two-step mechanism for this molecular recognition: selective binding followed by structural re-arrangement. Our model is based on the results of a combination of Markov State Models (MSMs), large-scale protein-RNA docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using MSMs, we identify an open state of apo human Ago-2 in fast equilibrium with partially open and closed states. Conformations in this open state are distinguished by their largely exposed binding grooves that can geometrically accommodate miRNA as indicated in our protein-RNA docking studies. miRNA may then selectively bind to these open conformations. Upon the initial binding, the complex may perform further structural re-arrangement as shown in our MD simulations and eventually reach the stable binary complex structure. Our results provide novel insights in Ago-miRNA recognition mechanisms and our methodology holds great potential to be widely applied in the studies of other important molecular recognition systems. PMID:26181723

  9. Template recognition mechanisms by replicase proteins differ between bipartite positive-strand genomic RNAs of a plant virus.

    PubMed

    Iwakawa, Hiro-Oki; Mine, Akira; Hyodo, Kiwamu; An, Mengnan; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of RNA templates by viral replicase proteins is one of the key steps in the replication process of all RNA viruses. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, including primary RNA elements that are recognized by the viral replicase proteins, are not well understood. Here, we used aptamer pulldown assays with membrane fractionation and protein-RNA coimmunoprecipitation in a cell-free viral translation/replication system to investigate how viral replicase proteins recognize the bipartite genomic RNAs of the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). RCNMV replicase proteins bound specifically to a Y-shaped RNA element (YRE) located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of RNA2, which also interacted with the 480-kDa replicase complexes that contain viral and host proteins. The replicase-YRE interaction recruited RNA2 to the membrane fraction. Conversely, RNA1 fragments failed to interact with the replicase proteins supplied in trans. The results of protein-RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays suggest that RNA1 interacts with the replicase proteins coupled with their translation. Thus, the initial template recognition mechanisms employed by the replicase differ between RCNMV bipartite genomic RNAs and RNA elements are primary determinants of the differential replication mechanism.

  10. Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abara, A E; Obochi, G O; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F E

    2007-01-01

    Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme in Wistar albino rats was studied. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4.0 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 4 were treated for a 14-day period with 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut water, and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut milk in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the animals were anaesthetized by inhalation of an overdose of chloroform. The blood of each rat was collected by cardiac puncture while the liver of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total protein and RNA levels, protein/RNA ratios, and activities of alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST, respectively). The results showed that while ingestion of coconut milk and coconut water increased the values of protein and protein/RNA ratios, it decreased alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) activities. These effects, in turn, enhanced the induction of the metabolizing enzymes and a resultant faster clearance and elimination of the caffeine from the body, there by reducing the toxic effect on the liver. PMID:18379623

  11. Markov State Models Reveal a Two-Step Mechanism of miRNA Loading into the Human Argonaute Protein: Selective Binding followed by Structural Re-arrangement.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zhu, Lizhe; Gao, Xin; Bernauer, Julie; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-07-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) are central components in RNA interference, which is a key cellular mechanism for sequence-specific gene silencing. Despite intensive studies, molecular mechanisms of how Ago recognizes miRNA remain largely elusive. In this study, we propose a two-step mechanism for this molecular recognition: selective binding followed by structural re-arrangement. Our model is based on the results of a combination of Markov State Models (MSMs), large-scale protein-RNA docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using MSMs, we identify an open state of apo human Ago-2 in fast equilibrium with partially open and closed states. Conformations in this open state are distinguished by their largely exposed binding grooves that can geometrically accommodate miRNA as indicated in our protein-RNA docking studies. miRNA may then selectively bind to these open conformations. Upon the initial binding, the complex may perform further structural re-arrangement as shown in our MD simulations and eventually reach the stable binary complex structure. Our results provide novel insights in Ago-miRNA recognition mechanisms and our methodology holds great potential to be widely applied in the studies of other important molecular recognition systems.

  12. Markov State Models Reveal a Two-Step Mechanism of miRNA Loading into the Human Argonaute Protein: Selective Binding followed by Structural Re-arrangement.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zhu, Lizhe; Gao, Xin; Bernauer, Julie; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-07-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) are central components in RNA interference, which is a key cellular mechanism for sequence-specific gene silencing. Despite intensive studies, molecular mechanisms of how Ago recognizes miRNA remain largely elusive. In this study, we propose a two-step mechanism for this molecular recognition: selective binding followed by structural re-arrangement. Our model is based on the results of a combination of Markov State Models (MSMs), large-scale protein-RNA docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using MSMs, we identify an open state of apo human Ago-2 in fast equilibrium with partially open and closed states. Conformations in this open state are distinguished by their largely exposed binding grooves that can geometrically accommodate miRNA as indicated in our protein-RNA docking studies. miRNA may then selectively bind to these open conformations. Upon the initial binding, the complex may perform further structural re-arrangement as shown in our MD simulations and eventually reach the stable binary complex structure. Our results provide novel insights in Ago-miRNA recognition mechanisms and our methodology holds great potential to be widely applied in the studies of other important molecular recognition systems. PMID:26181723

  13. Chronic alpha-tocopherol supplementation in rats does not ameliorate either chronic or acute alcohol-induced changes in muscle protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Koll, Michael; Beeso, Julie A; Kelly, Frank J; Simanowski, Ulrich A; Seitz, Helmut K; Peters, Timothy J; Preedy, Victor R

    2003-03-01

    Chronic alcohol muscle disease is characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass precipitated by acute reduction in protein synthesis. The pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure, but several lines of evidence suggest that increased oxidative stress occurs in muscle in response to alcohol and this may be associated with impaired alpha-tocopherol status. Potentially, this implies a therapeutic role for alpha-tocopherol, especially as we have shown that supplemental alpha-tocopherol may increase the rate of protein synthesis in normal rats [Reilly, Patel, Peters and Preedy (2000) J. Nutr. 130, 3045-3049]. We investigated the therapeutic effect of alpha-tocopherol on plantaris muscle protein synthesis in rats treated either acutely, chronically or chronically+acutely with ethanol. Protein synthesis rates were measured with a flooding dose of L-[4-(3)H]phenylalanine. Protein, RNA and DNA contents were determined by standard laboratory methods. Ethanol caused defined metabolic changes in muscle, including decreased protein, RNA and DNA contents in chronically treated rats. In acute or chronic+acute studies, ethanol suppressed fractional rates of protein synthesis. alpha-Tocopherol supplementation did not ameliorate the effects of either acute, chronic or chronic+acute alcohol on plantaris muscle protein content or rates of protein synthesis. In control animals (not treated with alcohol), alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreased muscle protein content owing to increases in protein turnover (both synthesis and degradation). alpha-Tocopherol supplementation is not protective against the deleterious effects of alcohol on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  14. Binding Site Identification and Flexible Docking of Single Stranded RNA to Proteins Using a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chauvot de Beauchene, Isaure; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-RNA docking is hampered by the high flexibility of RNA, and particularly single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Yet, ssRNA regions typically carry the specificity of protein recognition. The lack of methodology for modeling such regions limits the accuracy of current protein-RNA docking methods. We developed a fragment-based approach to model protein-bound ssRNA, based on the structure of the protein and the sequence of the RNA, without any prior knowledge of the RNA binding site or the RNA structure. The conformational diversity of each fragment is sampled by an exhaustive RNA fragment library that was created from all the existing experimental structures of protein-ssRNA complexes. A systematic and detailed analysis of fragment-based ssRNA docking was performed which constitutes a proof-of-principle for the fragment-based approach. The method was tested on two 8-homo-nucleotide ssRNA-protein complexes and was able to identify the binding site on the protein within 10 Å. Moreover, a structure of each bound ssRNA could be generated in close agreement with the crystal structure with a mean deviation of ~1.5 Å except for a terminal nucleotide. This is the first time a bound ssRNA could be modeled from sequence with high precision. PMID:26815409

  15. Binding of 16S rRNA to chloroplast 30S ribosomal proteins blotted on nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Rozier, C; Mache, R

    1984-10-11

    Protein-RNA associations were studied by a method using proteins blotted on a nitrocellulose sheet. This method was assayed with Escherichia Coli 30S ribosomal components. In stringent conditions (300 mM NaCl or 20 degrees C) only 9 E. coli ribosomal proteins strongly bound to the 16S rRNA: S4, S5, S7, S9, S12, S13, S14, S19, S20. 8 of these proteins have been previously found to bind independently to the 16S rRNA. The same