Science.gov

Sample records for nucleoside analog kinase

  1. Antiviral nucleoside analogs phosphorylation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, S; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2004-05-01

    The reaction of NDP kinase was studied in vitro with several antiviral derivatives, using kinetic steady state and presteady state analysis. The enzyme is highly efficient with natural nucleotides but most of the analogs are slow substrates. The catalytic efficiency, also related to the affinity of the analog, is mainly dependent on the presence of a 3'-OH group on the ribose moiety.

  2. Improving nucleoside diphosphate kinase for antiviral nucleotide analogs activation.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Chen, Yuxing; Giacomoni-Fernandes, Veronique; Mulard, Laurence; Morera, Solange; Janin, Joel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Veron, Michel

    2002-10-18

    Antiviral nucleoside analog therapies rely on their incorporation by viral DNA polymerases/reverse transcriptase leading to chain termination. The analogs (3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), and other dideoxynucleosides) are sequentially converted into triphosphate by cellular kinases of the nucleoside salvage pathway and are often poor substrates of these enzymes. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates the diphosphate derivatives of the analogs with an efficiency some 10(4) lower than for its natural substrates. Kinetic and structural studies of Dictyostelium and human NDP kinases show that the sugar 3'-OH, absent from all antiviral analogs, is required for catalysis. To improve the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase on the analogs, we engineered several mutants with a protein OH group replacing the sugar 3'-OH. The substitution of Asn-115 in Ser and Leu-55 in His results in an NDP kinase mutant with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate antiviral derivatives. Transfection of the mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli results in an increased sensitivity to AZT. An x-ray structure at 2.15-A resolution of the Dictyostelium enzyme bearing the serine substitution in complex with the R(p)-alpha-borano-triphosphate derivative of AZT shows that the enhanced activity reflects an improved geometry of binding and a favorable interaction of the 3'-azido group with the engineered serine.

  3. Role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the activation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Deville-Bonne, D; Véron, M

    2000-06-01

    Nucleoside analogs are currently used in antiretrovirus therapies. The best known example is AZT one of the first drug to be used for the treatment of AIDS. However, only the triphosphate derivatives of these compounds act as substrates of the viral reverse transcriptase. Since they do not enter cells, nucleoside analogs are administered and phosphorylated by cellular kinases. The last step in this phosphorylation pathway is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase. The incorporation of the nucleoside triphosphates into nascent viral DNA chain results in termination of the elongation process. We have performed kinetics studies of the phosphorylation reaction by NDP kinase of dideoxynucleoside diphosphates such as 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-azidothymidine diphosphate (AZT-DP) and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine diphosphate (d4T-DP). We show that the catalytic efficiency is strongly decreased and, therefore, that the reaction step catalyzed by NDP kinase constitutes a bottleneck in the processing pathway of anti-HIV compounds. In addition, the affinity of the analogs in the absence of catalysis was determined using a catalytically inactive NDP kinase mutant, showing a reduction of affinity by a factor of 2 to 30, depending on the analog. The structure of NDP kinase provides a structural explanation for these results. Indeed, all nucleoside analogs acting as chain terminators must lack a 3'-OH in the nucleotide deoxyribose. Unfortunately, this same substitution is detrimental for their capacity to be phosphorylated by NDP kinase. This defines the framework for the design of new nucleoside analogs with increased efficiency in antiretroviral therapies.

  4. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  5. Phosphorylation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y; Sellam, O; Sarfati, R; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of NDP kinase with antiviral nucleoside triphosphates used in antiviral therapies was studied at the presteady state by fluorescence stopped-flow and compared with the steady-state parameters. The affinity of the analogs was determined by fluorescence titration of a mutated enzyme with an inserted Trp in the binding site. The lack of the 3' hydroxyl in analogs is shown to decrease the kcat more than the KD.

  6. Activation of anti-reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase: improvement by alpha-boranophosphate substitution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Sarfati, S; Mulard, L; Guerreiro, C; Boretto, J; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Canard, B

    2001-01-01

    Nucleoside activation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase and inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were studied comparatively for a new class of nucleoside analogs with a borano (BH3-) or a thio (SH) group on the alpha-phosphate. Both the alpha-Rp-borano derivatives of AZT and d4T improved phosphorylation by NDP kinase, inhibition of reverse transcription as well as stability of alpha-borano nonophosphate derivatives in terminated viral DNA chain.

  7. Directed evolution of an orthogonal nucleoside analog kinase via fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingfeng; Li, Yongfeng; Liotta, Dennis; Lutz, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Nucleoside analogs (NAs) represent an important category of prodrugs for the treatment of viral infections and cancer, yet the biological potency of many analogs is compromised by their inefficient activation through cellular 2'-deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). We herein report the directed evolution and characterization of an orthogonal NA kinase for 3'-deoxythymidine (ddT), using a new FACS-based screening protocol in combination with a fluorescent analog of ddT. Four rounds of random mutagenesis and DNA shuffling of Drosophila melanogaster 2'-deoxynucleoside kinase, followed by FACS analysis, yielded an orthogonal ddT kinase with a 6-fold higher activity for the NA and a 20-fold k(cat)/K(M) preference for ddT over thymidine, an overall 10,000-fold change in substrate specificity. The contributions of individual amino acid substitutions in the ddT kinase were evaluated by reverse engineering, enabling a detailed structure-function analysis to rationalize the observed changes in performance. Based on our results, kinase engineering with fluorescent NAs and FACS should prove a highly versatile method for evolving selective kinase:NA pairs and for studying fundamental aspects of the structure-function relationship in dNKs.

  8. Structural basis for activation of the therapeutic l-nucleoside analogs 3TC and troxacitabine by human deoxycytidine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Burley, Stephen K.; Lavie, Arnon

    2007-01-01

    l-nucleoside analogs represent an important class of small molecules for treating both viral infections and cancers. These pro-drugs achieve pharmacological activity only after enzyme-catalyzed conversion to their tri-phosphorylated forms. Herein, we report the crystal structures of human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) in complex with the l-nucleosides (−)-β-2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC)—an approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent—and troxacitabine (TRO)—an experimental anti-neoplastic agent. The first step in activating these agents is catalyzed by dCK. Our studies reveal how dCK, which normally catalyzes phosphorylation of the natural d-nucleosides, can efficiently phosphorylate substrates with non-physiologic chirality. The capability of dCK to phosphorylate both d- and l-nucleosides and nucleoside analogs derives from structural properties of both the enzyme and the substrates themselves. First, the nucleoside-binding site tolerates substrates with different chiral configurations by maintaining virtually all of the protein-ligand interactions responsible for productive substrate positioning. Second, the pseudo-symmetry of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs in combination with their conformational flexibility allows the l- and d-enantiomeric forms to adopt similar shapes when bound to the enzyme. This is the first analysis of the structural basis for activation of l-nucleoside analogs, providing further impetus for discovery and clinical development of new agents in this molecular class. PMID:17158155

  9. Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ren; Eriksson, Staffan; Wang, Liya

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) catalyze the initial phosphorylation of deoxynucleosides in the synthesis of the DNA precursors required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and are essential for mitochondrial function. Antiviral nucleosides are known to cause toxic mitochondrial side effects. Here, we examined the effects of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) (zidovudine) on mitochondrial TK2 and dGK levels and found that AZT treatment led to downregulation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK in U2OS cells, whereas cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) levels were not affected. The AZT effects on mitochondrial TK2 and dGK were similar to those of oxidants (e.g., hydrogen peroxide); therefore, we examined the oxidative effects of AZT. We found a modest increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the AZT-treated cells. The addition of uridine to AZT-treated cells reduced ROS levels and protein oxidation and prevented the degradation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK. In organello studies indicated that the degradation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK is a mitochondrial event. These results suggest that downregulation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK may lead to decreased mitochondrial DNA precursor pools and eventually mtDNA depletion, which has significant implications for the regulation of mitochondrial nucleotide biosynthesis and for antiviral therapy using nucleoside analogs.

  10. Engineering Kinases to Phosphorylate Nucleoside Analogs for Antiviral and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Stefan; Liu, Lingfeng; Liu, Yichen

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme engineering by directed evolution presents a powerful strategy for tailoring the function and physicochemical properties of biocatalysts to therapeutic and industrial applications. Our laboratory’s research focuses on developing novel molecular tools for protein engineering, as well as on utilizing these methods to customize enzymes and to study fundamental aspects of their structure and function. Specifically, we are interested in nucleoside and nucleotide kinases which are responsible for the intracellular phosphorylation of nucleoside analog (NA) prodrugs to their biologically active triphosphates. The high substrate specificity of the cellular kinases often interferes with prodrug activation and consequently lowers the potency of NAs as antiviral and cancer therapeutics. A working solution to the problem is the co-adminstration of a promiscuous kinase from viruses, bacteria, and other mammals. However, further therapeutic enhancements of NAs depend on the selective and efficient prodrug phosphorylation. In the absence of true NA kinases in nature, we are pursuing laboratory evolution strategies to generate efficient phosphoryl-transfer catalysts. This review summarizes some of our recent work in the field and outlines future challenges. PMID:20305804

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents.

  12. Targeted Delivery of Deoxycytidine Kinase to Her2-Positive Cells Enhances the Efficacy of the Nucleoside Analog Fludarabine

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Brian K.; Lavie, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, such as nucleoside analogs and toxins, commonly suffer from off-target effects. One approach to mitigate this problem is to deliver the cytotoxic drug selectively to the intended site. While for toxins this can be achieved by conjugating the cell-killing moiety to a targeting moiety, it is not an option for nucleoside analogs, which rely on intracellular enzymes to convert them to their active triphosphorylated form. To overcome this limitation, and achieve site-targeted activation of nucleoside analogs, we fused the coding region of a prodrug-activating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), to affinity reagents that bind to the Her2 cell surface protein. We evaluated dCK fusions to an anti-Her2 affibody and Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) for their ability to kill cancer cells by promoting the activation of the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Cell staining and flow cytometry experiments with three Her2 positive cancer cell lines (BT-474-JB, JIMT-1 and SK-OV-3) indicate dCK fusions binding and cellular internalization. In contrast, these reagents bind only weakly to the Her2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Cell proliferation assays indicate that SK-OV-3 and BT-474-JB cell lines exhibit significantly reduced proliferation rates when treated with targeting-module fused dCK and fludarabine, compared to fludarabine alone. These findings demonstrate that we have succeeded in delivering active dCK into the Her2-positive cells, thereby increasing the activation of fludarabine, which ultimately reduces the dose of nucleoside analog needed for cell killing. This strategy may help establish the therapeutic index required to differentiate between healthy tissues and cancer cells. PMID:27280468

  13. Nucleoside kinases in adult Schistosoma mansoni: phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Fardos N M; El Kouni, Mahmoud H

    2014-01-01

    Competition studies and column chromatography demonstrated that adults Schistosoma mansoni contains three nucleoside kinases that can phosphorylate pyrimidine nucleosides; a non-specific deoxyriboside kinase (EC 2.7.1.145), a specific uridine kinase and a specific cytidine kinase. The non-specific deoxyriboside kinase can phosphorylate all naturally occurring pyrimidine and purine 2'-deoxyribosides. Uridine and cytidine kinases are specific for uridine and cytidine, respectively. Various nucleoside 5'-triphosphate act as phosphate donors for the three kinases albeit to different degrees. Nucleoside kinases are critical in the activation of potential anti-parasitic drugs which may be identified among the numerous available pyrimidine nucleoside analogues. The finding that S. mansoni have nucleoside kinases that differ from their host enzymes raises the possibilities that certain pyrimidine nucleoside analogues could be selectively toxic to schistosomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-09-26

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells.

  15. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  16. The sugar ring of the nucleoside is required for productive substrate positioning in the active site of human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK): implications for the development of dCK-activated acyclic guanine analogs

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The low toxicity of acyclovir (ACV) is mainly due to the fact that human nucleoside kinases have undetectable phosphorylation rates with this acyclic guanine analog. In contrast, herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) readily activates ACV. We wanted to understand why human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), which is related to HSV1-TK and phosphorylates deoxyguanosine, does not accept acyclic guanine analogs as substrates. Therefore, we crystallized dCK in complex with ACV at the nucleoside phosphoryl acceptor site, and UDP at the phosphoryl donor site. The structure reveals that while ACV does bind at the dCK active site, it does so adopting a non-productive conformation. Despite binding ACV, the enzyme remains in the open, inactive state. In comparison to ACV binding to HSV1-TK, in dCK the nucleoside base adopts a different orientation related by about a 60 degree rotation. Our analysis suggests that dCK would phosphorylate acyclic guanine analogs if they can induce a similar rotation. PMID:20684612

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2'-Deoxy-2'-Spirodiflurocyclopropyl Nucleoside Analogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xia, Xueliang; Sun, Chenghai; Lin, Cai; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Lu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-siprodifluorocyclopropany-lnucleoside analogs has been achieved from α-d-glucose in several steps. The key step in the synthesis was the introduction of the difluorocyclopropane through a difluorocarbene type reaction at the 2'-position. Then, a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2'-spirodifluorocyclopropanyl nucleoside analogs were synthesized using the Vorbrüggen method. All the synthesized nucleosides were characterized and subsequently evaluated against hepatitis C and influenza A virus strains in vitro.

  18. Improving nucleoside analogs via lipid conjugation: Is fatter any better?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Kucera, Gregory; Pardee, Timothy S

    2016-04-01

    In the past few decades, nucleoside analog drugs have been used to treat a large variety of cancers. These anti-metabolite drugs mimic nucleosides and interfere with chain lengthening upon incorporation into the DNA or RNA of actively replicating cells. However, efficient delivery of these drugs is limited due to their pharmacokinetic properties, and tumors often develop drug resistance. In addition, nucleoside analogs are generally hydrophilic, resulting in poor bioavailability and impaired blood-brain barrier penetration. Conjugating these drugs to lipids modifies their pharmacokinetic properties and may improve in vivo efficacy. This review will cover recent advances in the field of conjugation of phospholipids to nucleoside analogs. This includes conjugation of myristic acid, 12-thioethyldodecanoic acid, 5-elaidic acid esters, phosphoramidate, and self-emulsifying formulations. Relevant in vitro and in vivo data will be discussed for each drug, as well as any available data from clinical trials.

  19. Flow cytomeric measurement of DNA and incorporated nucleoside analogs

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for simultaneously measuring total cellular DNA and incorporated nucleoside analog. The method entails altering the cellular DNA of cells grown in the presence of a nucleoside analog so that single stranded and double stranded portions are present. Separate stains are used against the two portions. An immunochemical stain is used against the single stranded portion to provide a measure of incorporated nucleoside analog, and a double strand DNA-specific stain is used against the double stranded portion to simultaneously provide a measure of total cellular DNA. The method permits rapid flow cytometric analysis of cell populations, rapid identification of cycling and noncycling subpopulations, and determination of the efficacy of S phase cytotoxic anticancer agents.

  20. Phosphorylation of nucleoside-metallacarborane and carborane conjugates by nucleoside kinases.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2013-01-01

    A library of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides modified with carborane or metallacarborane boron clusters at different locations, consisting of new molecules as well as already described compounds, was prepared. The compounds were tested as substrates for human deoxynucleoside kinases. Some conjugates, with modification attached to N3 of thymidine via a linker containing the triazole moiety, were efficiently phosphorylated by cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 and mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. Higher phosphorylation levels were observed with thymidine kinase 1, the phosphorylation of nucleosides modified with metallacarboranes was observed for the first time.

  1. Nucleoside analog labeling of neural stem cells and their progeny.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Erik Michael; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside analog pulse labeling is an important technique which can assess the birthdate, cell cycle maintenance, or cycling rates of cells during development. This method has evolved over several decades of use and is now applied to a multitude of tissue subtypes and systems. The methodology in this chapter covers the classic uses for analog pulse labeling as well as their use in conjunction with the newly characterized technique of in utero electroporation (IUE).

  2. Nucleoside analogs: ready to enter the era of precision medicine?

    PubMed

    Ciccolini, Joseph; Serdjebi, Cindy; Le Thi Thu, Hau; Lacarelle, Bruno; Milano, Gerard; Fanciullino, Raphaelle

    2016-08-01

    The term 'precision medicine' has garnered significant attention in the oncological setting in relation to attempts to optimize anticancer treatment. Precision medicine is mostly associated with oral targeted therapies and biotherapies, however, to date classic cytotoxics still remain the backbone of most regimens for treating solid tumors or in hematology, both in children and in adults. Among the existing cytotoxic therapies, nucleosides are widely used for treating a variety of cancerous diseases, alone or as part of combination therapies. Several markers at the tumor or the germinal levels have been identified as being associated with clinical outcome (e.g. CDA, DPD, EONFS1, hENT1, TYMS, MTHFR), however little effort has been made to implement bioguided therapy with nucleoside analogs. Still, growing clinical evidence has demonstrated how the efficacy-toxicity balance of these drugs could be improved by developing bioguided strategies at the bedside. This review covers the current knowledge regarding putative markers to be used with nucleoside analogs, what is known on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships, and provides clues for implementing precision medicine with those old, yet pivotal drugs. Through a variety of strategies ranging from pharmacogenetics, tumor genomics and pharmacokinetically-driven adaptive dosing procedures, nucleoside analogs could enter the era of precision medicine in oncology.

  3. A review on the chemical synthesis of pyrophosphate bonds in bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong

    2015-09-15

    Currently, there is an ongoing interest in the synthesis of nucleoside diphosphate analogs as important regulators in catabolism/anabolism, and their potential applications as mechanistic probes and chemical tools for bioassays. However, the pyrophosphate bond formation step remains as the bottleneck. In this Digest, the chemical synthesis of the pyrophosphate bonds of representative bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs, i.e. phosphorus-modified analogs, nucleoside cyclic diphosphates, and nucleoside diphosphate conjugates, will be described.

  4. Overcoming nucleoside analog chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer: A therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Mody, Hardik R.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical refractoriness to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine, capecitabine) is a major scientific problem and is one of the main reasons underlying the extremely poor prognostic state of pancreatic cancer. The drugs’ effects are suboptimal partly due to cellular mechanisms limiting their transport, activation, and overall efficacy. Nonetheless, novel therapeutic approaches are presently under study to circumvent nucleoside analog resistance in pancreatic cancer. With these new approaches come additional challenges to be addressed. This review describes the determinants of chemoresistance in the gemcitabine cytotoxicity pathways, provides an overview of investigational approaches for overcoming chemoresistance, and discusses new challenges presented. Understanding the future directions of the field may assist in the successful development of novel treatment strategies for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22425961

  5. Lethal Mutagenesis of HIV with Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Lawrence A.; Essigmann, John M.; Kazazi, Farhad; Zhang, Jue; Rose, Karl D.; Mullins, James I.

    1999-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside analogs for lack of toxicity to human cells, incorporation by HIV reverse transcriptase, resistance to repair when incorporated into the DNA strand of an RNA\\cdot DNA hybrid, and mispairing at high frequency. Among the candidates tested, 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine (5-OH-dC) fulfilled these criteria. In seven of nine experiments, the presence of this analog resulted in the loss of viral replicative potential after 9-24 sequential passages of HIV in human CEM cells. In contrast, loss of viral replication was not observed in 28 control cultures passaged in the absence of the nucleoside analog, nor with other analogs tested. Sequence analysis of a portion of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene demonstrated a disproportionate increase in G -> A substitutions, mutations predicted to result from misincorporation of 5-OH-dC into the cDNA during reverse transcription. Thus, "lethal mutagenesis" driven by the class of deoxynucleoside analogs represented by 5-OH-dC could provide a new approach to treating HIV infections and, potentially, other viral infections.

  6. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β /α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49 and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M−1 s−1. These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK represents a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. PMID:23161756

  7. A broad specificity nucleoside kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Sarah R; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W; Columbus, Linda

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 Å resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β/α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, fructokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49, and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M(-1) s(-1) . These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK is a member of a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. Proteins 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine.

    PubMed

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine

    PubMed Central

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27799897

  10. New insights on nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases: a versatile biocatalyst for one-pot one-step synthesis of nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Taboada, A; de la Mata, I; Arroyo, M; Fernández-Lucas, J

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, glycosiltransferases have arisen as standard biocatalysts for the enzymatic synthesis of a wide variety of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Such enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside analogs catalyzed by nucleoside phosphorylases and 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs) has demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to the traditional multistep chemical methods, since chemical glycosylation reactions include several protection-deprotection steps. This minireview exhaustively covers literature reports on this topic with the final aim of presenting NDTs as an efficient option to nucleoside phosphorylases for the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Detailed comments about structure and catalytic mechanism of described NDTs, as well as their possible biological role, substrate specificity, and advances in detection of new enzyme specificities towards different non-natural nucleoside synthesis are included. In addition, optimization of enzymatic transglycosylation reactions and their application in the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides have been described. Finally, immobilization of NDTs is shown as a practical procedure which leads to the preparation of very interesting biocatalysts applicable to industrial nucleoside synthesis.

  11. Coupling between catalysis and oligomeric structure in nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Mesnildrey, S; Agou, F; Karlsson, A; Bonne, D D; Véron, M

    1998-02-20

    A dimeric Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate kinase has been stabilized by the double mutation P100S-N150stop which targets residues involved in the trimer interface (Karlsson, A., Mesnildrey, S., Xu, Y., Moréra, S., Janin, J., and Veron, M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19928-19934). The reassociation of this dimeric form into a hexamer similar to the wild-type enzyme is induced by the presence of a nucleotide substrate. Equilibrium sedimentation and gel filtration experiments, as well as enzymatic activity measurements, show that reactivation of the enzyme closely parallels its reassociation. A phosphorylatable intermediate with low activity participates in the association pathway while the dimeric form is shown totally devoid of enzymatic activity. Our results support the hypothesis that different oligomeric species of nucleoside diphosphate kinase are involved in different cellular processes where the enzymatic activity is not required.

  12. Selective Phosphorylation of South and North-Cytidine and Adenosine Methanocarba-Nucleosides by Human Nucleoside and Nucleotide Kinases Correlates with Their Growth Inhibitory Effects on Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Sjuvarsson, Elena; Marquez, Victor E; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Here bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane locked deoxycytidine (S-MCdC, N-MCdC), and deoxyadenosine analogs (S-MCdA and N-MCdA) were examined as substrates for purified preparations of human deoxynucleoside kinases: dCK, dGK, TK2, TK1, the ribonucleoside kinase UCK2, two NMP kinases (CMPK1, TMPK) and a NDP kinase. dCK can be important for the first step of phosphorylation of S-MCdC in cells, but S-MCdCMP was not a substrate for CMPK1, TMPK, or NDPK. dCK and dGK had a preference for the S-MCdA whereas N-MCdA was not a substrate for dCK, TK1, UCK2, TK2, dGK nucleoside kinases. The cell growth experiments suggested that N-MCdC and S-MCdA could be activated in cells by cellular kinases so that a triphosphate metabolite was formed. List of abbreviations: ddC, 2', 3'-didioxycytosine, Zalcitabine; 3TC, β-L-(-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, Lamivudine; CdA, 2-cloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Cladribine; AraA, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine; hCNT 1-3, human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2 and 3; hENT 1-4, human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2, 3, and 4.

  13. The Sythesis of Certain Carbocyclic Nucleoside Analogs as Antiviral Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4135 DTIC Southern Research Institute t E L ECT E Birmingham, Alabama 35255...T.A~~~1ThL~~ ANrn~A NIIA GNS915/84-12/14/85"I S---- . PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER:..NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS AS A TIVIR L A ENTS S E RIGOG E SoRI-KM- 85...CH, RR = NH2 0/NHH HOC HOCH HOCH X HO HO OH HO OH 4 6 a) R =CH3 a) X =0 b) R= l b) X =CH2 NH 2 ICH H H 7 %5 a specific inhibitor of S-adenosyl- L

  14. The mechanism of phosphorylation of anti-HIV D4T by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Biondi, R; Sarfati, R; Agou, F; Guerreiro, C; Deville-Bonne, D; Veron, M

    2000-05-01

    The last step in the intracellular activation of antiviral nucleoside analogs is the addition of the third phosphate by nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase resulting in the synthesis of the viral reverse transcriptase substrates. We have previously shown that dideoxynucleotide analogs and 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT) as di- or triphosphate are poor substrates for NDP kinase. By use of protein fluorescence, we monitor the phosphotransfer between the enzyme and the nucleotide analog. Here, we have studied the reactivity of D4T (2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine; stavudine) as di- (DP) or triphosphate (TP) at the pre-steady state. The catalytic efficiency of D4T-DP or -TP is increased by a factor of 10 compared with AZT-DP or -TP, respectively. We use an inactive mutant of NDP kinase to monitor the binding of a TP derivative, and show that the affinity for D4T-TP is in the same range as for the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate, but is 30 times higher than for AZT-TP. Our results indicate that D4T should be efficiently phosphorylated after intracellular maturation of a prodrug into D4T-monophosphate.

  15. X-ray analysis of azido-thymidine diphosphate binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingwu; Sellam, Olivier; Moréra, Solange; Sarfati, Simon; Biondi, Ricardo; Véron, Michel; Janin, Joël

    1997-01-01

    To be effective as antiviral agent, AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine) must be converted to a triphosphate derivative by cellular kinases. The conversion is inefficient and, to understand why AZT diphosphate is a poor substrate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, we determined a 2.3-Å x-ray structure of a complex with the N119A point mutant of Dictyostelium NDP kinase. It shows that the analog binds at the same site and, except for the sugar ring pucker which is different, binds in the same way as the natural substrate thymidine diphosphate. However, the azido group that replaces the 3′OH of the deoxyribose in AZT displaces a lysine side chain involved in catalysis. Moreover, it is unable to make an internal hydrogen bond to the oxygen bridging the β- and γ-phosphate, which plays an important part in phosphate transfer. PMID:9207061

  16. X-ray analysis of azido-thymidine diphosphate binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sellam, O; Moréra, S; Sarfati, S; Biondi, R; Véron, M; Janin, J

    1997-07-08

    To be effective as antiviral agent, AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) must be converted to a triphosphate derivative by cellular kinases. The conversion is inefficient and, to understand why AZT diphosphate is a poor substrate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, we determined a 2.3-A x-ray structure of a complex with the N119A point mutant of Dictyostelium NDP kinase. It shows that the analog binds at the same site and, except for the sugar ring pucker which is different, binds in the same way as the natural substrate thymidine diphosphate. However, the azido group that replaces the 3'OH of the deoxyribose in AZT displaces a lysine side chain involved in catalysis. Moreover, it is unable to make an internal hydrogen bond to the oxygen bridging the beta- and gamma-phosphate, which plays an important part in phosphate transfer.

  17. The Role of Transporters in the Toxicity of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A; Torres, Rebecca A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Two families of nucleoside analogs have been developed to treat viral infections and cancer, but these compounds can cause tissue and cell-specific toxicity related to their uptake and subcellular activity which are dictated by host enzymes and transporters. Cellular uptake of these compounds requires nucleoside transporters that share functional similarities but differ in substrate specificity. Tissue-specific cellular expression of these transporters enables nucleoside analogs to produce their tissue specific toxic effects, a limiting factor in the treatment of retroviruses and cancer. Areas Covered This review discusses the families of nucleoside transporters and how they mediate cellular uptake of nucleoside analogs. Specific focus is placed on examples of known cases of transporter-mediated cellular toxicity and classification of the toxicities resulting. Efflux transporters are also explored as a contributor to analog toxicity and cell-specific effects. Expert Opinion Efforts to modulate transporter uptake/clearance remain long-term goals of oncologists and virologists. Accordingly, subcellular approaches that either increase or decrease intracellular nucleoside analog concentrations are eagerly sought and include transporter inhibitors and targeting transporter expression. However, additional understanding of nucleoside transporter kinetics, tissue expression, and genetic polymorphisms are required to design better molecules and better therapies. PMID:22509856

  18. Synthesis of novel homo-N-nucleoside analogs composed of a homo-1,4-dioxane sugar analog and substituted 1,3,5-triazine base equivalents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Schwidom, Dirk; Exner, Alexander; Carlsen, Per

    2008-12-10

    Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH(2), OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions.

  19. Antibacterial Nucleoside-Analog Inhibitor of Bacterial RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Carzaniga, Thomas; Del Gatto, Giancarlo; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Mazzetti, Carlo; Guglierame, Paola; Candiani, Gianpaolo; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Facchetti, Giuseppe; Kaltofen, Petra; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Dehò, Gianni; Donadio, Stefano; Ebright, Richard H

    2017-06-15

    Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis. PUM inhibits RNAP through a binding site on RNAP (the NTP addition site) and mechanism (competition with UTP for occupancy of the NTP addition site) that differ from those of the RNAP inhibitor and current antibacterial drug rifampin (Rif). PUM exhibits additive antibacterial activity when co-administered with Rif, exhibits no cross-resistance with Rif, and exhibits a spontaneous resistance rate an order-of-magnitude lower than that of Rif. PUM is a highly promising lead for antibacterial therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The search for nucleoside/nucleotide analog inhibitors of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Yokokawa, Fumiaki; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Nucleoside analogs represent the largest class of antiviral agents and have been actively pursued for potential therapy of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Early success in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the recent approval of sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C have provided proof of concept for this class of compounds in clinics. Here we review (i) nucleoside analogs with known anti-DENV activity; (ii) challenges of the nucleoside antiviral approach for dengue; and (iii) potential strategies to overcome these challenges. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on flavivirus drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytostatic evaluations of nucleoside analogs related to unnatural base pairs for a genetic expansion system.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Michiko; Moriyama, Kei; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hirao, Ichiro

    2007-10-15

    The introduction of an unnatural base pair into DNA enables the expansion of genetic information. To apply unnatural base pairs to in vivo systems, we evaluated the cytostatic toxicity of several nucleoside analogs by an MTT assay. Several nucleoside analogs based on two types of unnatural base pairs were tested. One is a hydrogen-bonded base pair between 2-amino-6-(2-thienyl)purine (s) and pyridin-2-one (y), and the other is a hydrophobic base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa). Among the nucleoside analogs, the ribonucleoside of 6-(2-thienyl)purine possessed the highest cytostatic activity against CCRF-CEM and especially HT-1080, as well as the normal fibroblast cell line, WI-38. The other analogs, including its 2'-deoxy, 2-amino, and 1-deazapurine nucleoside derivatives, were less active against CCRF-CEM and HT-1080, and the toxicity of these nucleosides toward WI-38 was low. The nucleosides of y and Pa were inactive against CCRF-CEM, HT-1080, and WI-38. In addition, no cytostatic synergism was observed with the combination of the pairing nucleosides of s and y or Ds and Pa.

  2. Visualizing nucleic acid metabolism using non-natural nucleosides and nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Berdis, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosides and their corresponding mono-, di-, and triphosphates play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In addition, perturbations in this homeostasis can result in dysfunctional cellular processes that cause pathological conditions such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review article discusses contemporary research areas applying nucleoside analogs to probe the mechanistic details underlying the complexities of nucleoside metabolism at the molecular and cellular levels. The first area describes classic and contemporary approaches used to quantify the activity of nucleoside transporters, an important class of membrane proteins that mediate the influx and efflux of nucleosides and nucleobases. A focal point of this section is describing how biophotonic nucleosides are replacing conventional assays employing radiolabeled substrates to study the mechanism of these proteins. The second section describes approaches to understand the utilization of nucleoside triphosphates by cellular DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis. Emphasis here is placed on describing how novel nucleoside analogs such as 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine are being used to quantify DNA synthesis during normal replication as well as during the replication of damaged DNA. In both sections, seminal research articles relevant to these areas are described to highlight how these novel probes are improving our understanding of these biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular moment similarity between several nucleoside analogs of thymidine and thymidine. sil@watson.ibm.com.

    PubMed

    Silverman, B D; Pitman, M C; Platt, D E

    1999-06-01

    Molecular moment descriptors of the shape and charge distributions of twenty five nucleoside structures have been examined. The structures include thymidine as well as the difluorotoluene nucleoside analog which has been found to pair efficiently with adenine by polymerase catalysis. The remaining twenty three structures have been chosen to be as structurally similar to thymidine and to the difluorotoluene nucleoside analog as possible. The moment descriptors which include a description of the relationship of molecular charge to shape show the difluorotoluene nucleoside to be one of the most proximate molecules to thymidine in the space of the molecular moments. The calculations, therefore, suggest that polymerase specificity might be not only a consequence of molecular steric features alone but also of the molecular electrostatic environment and its registration with molecular shape.

  4. Inhibition of Mycoplasma pneumoniae growth by FDA-approved anticancer and antiviral nucleoside and nucleobase analogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic respiratory diseases and has been linked to many extrapulmonary diseases. Due to the lack of cell wall, Mpn is resistant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis such as penicillin. During the last 10 years macrolide-resistant Mpn strains have been frequently reported in Asian countries and have been spreading to Europe and the United States. Therefore, new antibiotics are needed. In this study, 30 FDA-approved anticancer or antiviral drugs were screened for inhibitory effects on Mpn growth and selected analogs were further characterized by inhibition of target enzymes and metabolism of radiolabeled substrates. Results Sixteen drugs showed varying inhibitory effects and seven showed strong inhibition of Mpn growth. The anticancer drug 6-thioguanine had a MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration required to cause 90% of growth inhibition) value of 0.20 μg ml-1, whereas trifluorothymidine, gemcitabine and dipyridamole had MIC values of approximately 2 μg ml-1. In wild type Mpn culture the presence of 6-thioguanine and dipyridamole strongly inhibited the uptake and metabolism of hypoxanthine and guanine while gemcitabine inhibited the uptake and metabolism of all nucleobases and thymidine. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, however, stimulated the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and this stimulation was due to induction of thymidine kinase activity. Furthermore, Mpn hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) was cloned, expressed, and characterized. The 6-thioguanine, but not other purine analogs, strongly inhibited HPRT, which may in part explain the observed growth inhibition. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine were shown to be good substrates and inhibitors for thymidine kinase from human and Mycoplasma sources. Conclusion We have shown that several anticancer and antiviral nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are potent

  5. Metabolism, Biochemical Actions, and Chemical Synthesis of Anticancer Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Base Analogs.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jadd; Lu, Xiao; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Cho, Jong Hyun; Amblard, Franck; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2016-12-14

    Nucleoside, nucleotide, and base analogs have been in the clinic for decades to treat both viral pathogens and neoplasms. More than 20% of patients on anticancer chemotherapy have been treated with one or more of these analogs. This review focuses on the chemical synthesis and biology of anticancer nucleoside, nucleotide, and base analogs that are FDA-approved and in clinical development since 2000. We highlight the cellular biology and clinical biology of analogs, drug resistance mechanisms, and compound specificity towards different cancer types. Furthermore, we explore analog syntheses as well as improved and scale-up syntheses. We conclude with a discussion on what might lie ahead for medicinal chemists, biologists, and physicians as they try to improve analog efficacy through prodrug strategies and drug combinations.

  6. Effects of antiviral nucleoside analogs on human DNA polymerases and mitochondrial DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, J L; Brown, C E; Matthews-Davis, N; Reardon, J E

    1994-12-01

    Inhibition constants were determined for 16 nucleoside analog triphosphates against human DNA polymerases alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon, and 7 nucleoside analogs were examined as inhibitors of mitochondrial DNA synthesis in human Molt-4 cells in culture. The results demonstrate no clear quantitative or qualitative correlation between inhibition of DNA polymerases, particularly mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma, and the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis in Molt-4 cell culture. Furthermore, the data indicate that inhibition of isolated DNA polymerases may not be predictive of in vitro or in vivo toxicity. Finally, it is not clear whether inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis will be an accurate predictor of the potential in vivo toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Human Nucleoside Kinase-Based Reporter Systems for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason T.; Zhang, Hanwen; Moroz, Maxim A.; Likar, Yury; Shenker, Larissa; Sumzin, Nikita; Lobo, Jose; Zurita, Juan; Collins, Jeffrey; van Dam, R. Michael; Ponomarev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radionuclide-based reporter gene imaging has the sensitivity to monitor gene- and cell-based therapies in human subjects. Potential immunogenicity of current viral transgenes warrants development of human-based reporter systems. We compared human nucleoside kinase reporters to a panel of nucleoside analogs of FEAU, FMAU, and FIAU, including the first in vivo assessment of L-[18F]FEAU. Procedures Human isogenic U87 cell lines were transduced to express different human reporter genes including dCK-R104M/D133A (dCKDM), dCK-R104Q/D133N (dCKep16A), dCK-A100V/R104M/D133A (dCK3M), and TK2-N93D/L109F (TK2DM), and wild-type dCK (dCK) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSVTK) reporter gene as references. In vitro cell uptake assays were performed with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, [14C]FMAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU. Micro-positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging of xenograft-bearing nu/nu mice was conducted with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU on consecutive days. A cell viability assay was also performed to assess sensitivities to gemcitabine and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU). Results In vitro, dCKep16A and dCKDM with [18F]FEAU exhibited the highest sensitivity and selectivity of the human reporters, second only to HSVTK/[18F]FEAU. L-[18F]FEAU biodistribution in mice was on par with [18F]FEAU and L-[18F]FMAU. L-[18F]FMAU uptake in isogenic xenografts was highest for all human reporter genes. However, [18F]FEAU was the most selective of the short half-life reporter probes due to its minimal recognition by human dCK and relative sensitivity, whereas [124I]FIAU permitted imaging at a later time point, improving signal-to-background ratio. Of the human reporter genes, dCKep16A consistently outperformed the other tested reporters. Reporter genes of interest increased potency to the nucleoside analog prodrugs gemcitabine and BVdU. Conclusions We demonstrate that human nucleoside kinase reporter systems vary significantly in their

  8. GS-5734 and its parent nucleoside analog inhibit Filo-, Pneumo-, and Paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Michael K.; Jordan, Robert; Arvey, Aaron; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Hotard, Anne L.; Flint, Mike; McMullan, Laura K.; Siegel, Dustin; Clarke, Michael O.; Mackman, Richard L.; Hui, Hon C.; Perron, Michel; Ray, Adrian S.; Cihlar, Tomas; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2017-01-01

    GS-5734 is a monophosphate prodrug of an adenosine nucleoside analog that showed therapeutic efficacy in a non-human primate model of Ebola virus infection. It has been administered under compassionate use to two Ebola patients, both of whom survived, and is currently in Phase 2 clinical development for treatment of Ebola virus disease. Here we report the antiviral activities of GS-5734 and the parent nucleoside analog across multiple virus families, providing evidence to support new indications for this compound against human viruses of significant public health concern. PMID:28262699

  9. OCTN1 is a high-affinity carrier of nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Drenberg, Christina; Gibson, Alice A; Pounds, Stanley; Shi, Lei; Rhinehart, Dena; Li, Lie; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Nies, Anne T; Schwab, Matthias; Pabla, Navjotsingh; Blum, William; Gruber, Tanja A; Baker, Sharyn D; Sparreboom, Alex

    2017-02-16

    Resistance to xenobiotic nucleosides used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other cancers remains a major obstacle to clinical management. One process suggested to participate in resistance is reduced uptake into tumor cells via nucleoside transporters, although precise mechanisms are not understood. Through transcriptomic profiling, we determined that low expression of the ergothioneine transporter OCTN1 (SLC22A4; ETT) strongly predicts poor event-free survival and overall survival in multiple cohorts of AML patients receiving treatment with the cytidine nucleoside analog cytarabine. Cell biological studies confirmed OCTN1-mediated transport of cytarabine and various structurally-related cytidine analogs, such as 2'deoxycytidine and gemcitabine, occurs through a saturable process that is highly sensitive to inhibition by the classic nucleoside transporter inhibitors dipyridamole and nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR). Our findings have immediate clinical implications given the potential of the identified transport system to help refine strategies that could improve patient survival across multiple cancer types where nucleoside analogs are used in cancer treatment.

  10. Nucleotide affinity for a stable phosphorylated intermediate of nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benoit; Norda, Ameli; Karlsson, Anna; Veron, Michel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2002-07-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is transiently phosphorylated on a histidine of the active site during the catalytic cycle. In the presence of a nucleotide acceptor, the phosphohistidine bond is unstable and the phosphate is transferred to the acceptor in less than 1 msec. We describe the synthesis of an analog of the phosphoenzyme intermediate with an inactive mutant of NDP kinase in which the catalytic histidine is replaced by a cysteine. In two sequential disulfide exchange reactions, a thiophosphate group reacts with the thiol function of the cysteine that had previously reacted with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB). The thiophosphoenzyme presents a 400,000-fold increased stability in the presence of NDPs compared with the phosphoenzyme. The binding of NDP is studied at the steady state and presteady state. Data were analyzed according to a bimolecular association model. For the first time, the true equilibrium dissociation constants of NDP for the analog of the phosphoenzyme are determined in the absence of phosphotransfer, allowing a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme.

  11. Nucleotide affinity for a stable phosphorylated intermediate of nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Benoit; Norda, Ameli; Karlsson, Anna; Veron, Michel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is transiently phosphorylated on a histidine of the active site during the catalytic cycle. In the presence of a nucleotide acceptor, the phosphohistidine bond is unstable and the phosphate is transferred to the acceptor in less than 1 msec. We describe the synthesis of an analog of the phosphoenzyme intermediate with an inactive mutant of NDP kinase in which the catalytic histidine is replaced by a cysteine. In two sequential disulfide exchange reactions, a thiophosphate group reacts with the thiol function of the cysteine that had previously reacted with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB). The thiophosphoenzyme presents a 400,000-fold increased stability in the presence of NDPs compared with the phosphoenzyme. The binding of NDP is studied at the steady state and presteady state. Data were analyzed according to a bimolecular association model. For the first time, the true equilibrium dissociation constants of NDP for the analog of the phosphoenzyme are determined in the absence of phosphotransfer, allowing a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. PMID:12070317

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  13. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases.

    PubMed

    Bucurenci, N; Sakamoto, H; Briozzo, P; Palibroda, N; Serina, L; Sarfati, R S; Labesse, G; Briand, G; Danchin, A; Bărzu, O; Gilles, A M

    1996-02-02

    CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is a monomeric protein of 225 amino acid residues. The protein exhibits little overall sequence similarities with other known NMP kinases. However, residues involved in binding of substrates and/or in catalysis were found conserved, and sequence comparison suggested conservation of the global fold found in adenylate kinases or in several CMP/UMP kinases. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, crystallized, and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3), have unit cell parameters a = b = 82.3 A and c = 60.7 A, and diffract x-rays to a 1.9 A resolution. The bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 328 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, which suggests that the single tryptophan residue (Trp30) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors. This is in contrast with CMP/UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, an enzyme active on CMP or UMP but much less active on the corresponding deoxynucleotides. Binding of CMP enhanced the affinity of E. coli CMP kinase for ATP or ADP, a particularity never described in this family of proteins that might explain inhibition of enzyme activity by excess of nucleoside monophosphate.

  14. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  15. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    López-Zavala, Alonso A.; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012 ▶), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325–331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  16. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  17. The non-enantioselectivity property of human deoxycytidine kinase explained by structures of the enzyme in complex with l- and d-nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-01-01

    Biological molecules are predominantly enantioselective. Yet, currently two nucleoside analog prodrugs (3TC and FTC) with opposite chirality to physiological nucleosides are clinically approved for the treatment of HIV infections. These prodrugs require conversion to their tri-phosphorylated forms to achieve pharmacological activity. The first step in the activation of these agents is catalyzed by human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). This enzyme possesses the ability to phosphorylate nucleosides of the unnatural l-chirality. To understand the molecular basis for the non-enantioselectivity of dCK we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the l-enantiomer of its physiological substrate deoxycytidine and with the l-nucleoside analog FTC. These were compared to a structure solved with d-dC. Our results highlight structural adjustments imposed on the l-nucleosides, and properties of the enzyme endowing it with the ability to phosphorylate substrates with non-physiological chirality. This work reveals the molecular basis for the activation of l-nucleosides by dCK. PMID:17530837

  18. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Evaluation of 2',5',5'-Trifluoro-Apiosyl Nucleoside Phosphonic Acid Analogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunae; Hong, Joon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Racemic synthesis of novel 2',5',5'-trifluoro-apiose nucleoside phosphonic acid analogs were performed as potent antiviral agents. Phosphonation was performed by direct displacement of triflate intermediate with diethyl (lithiodifluoromethyl) phosphonate to give the corresponding (α,α-difluoroalkyl) phosphonate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor with persilylated bases to yield the nucleoside phosphonate analogs. Deprotection of diethyl phosphonates provided the target nucleoside analogs. An antiviral evaluation of the synthesized compounds against various viruses such as HIV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HCMV revealed that the pyrimidine analogues have significant anti-HCMV activity.

  19. Arginine kinase shows nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity toward deoxythymidine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Hernandez-Flores, Jose M; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) (ATP: L-arginine phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.3.3) catalyzes the reversible transfer of ATP γ-phosphate group to L-arginine to synthetize phospho-arginine as a high-energy storage. Previous studies suggest additional roles for AK in cellular processes. Since AK is found only in invertebrates and it is homologous to creatine kinase from vertebrates, the objective of this work was to demonstrate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for shrimp AK. For this, AK from marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) was purified and its activity was assayed for phosphorylation of TDP using ATP as phosphate donor. Moreover, by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) the phosphate transfer reaction was followed. Also, LvAK tryptophan fluorescence emission changes were detected by dTDP titration, suggesting that the hydrophobic environment of Trp 221, which is located in the top of the active site, is perturbed upon dTDP binding. The kinetic constants for both substrates Arg and dTDP were calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Besides, docking calculations suggested that dTDP could bind LvAK in the same cavity where ATP bind, and LvAK basic residues (Arg124, 126 and 309) stabilize the dTDP phosphate groups and the pyrimidine base interact with His284 and Ser122. These results suggest that LvAK bind and phosphorylate dTDP being ATP the phosphate donor, thus describing a novel alternate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for this enzyme.

  20. Investigation of the binding between pepsin and nucleoside analogs by spectroscopy and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Lingling; Xie, Yuanzhe; Shi, Jie; Wang, Ruiyong; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the interactions of pepsin with CYD (cytidine) or nucleoside analogs, including FNC (2'-deoxy-2'-β-fluoro-4'-azidocytidine) and CMP (cytidine monophosphate), were investigated by fluorescence, UV-visible absorption and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results indicated that FNC (CYD/CMP) caused the fluorescence quenching by the formation of complex. The binding constants and thermo-dynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. The F atom in FNC might weaken the binding of nucleoside analog to pepsin. Results showed that CYD was the strongest quencher and bound to pepsin with higher affinity.

  1. The mechanism of phosphorylation of natural nucleosides and anti-HIV analogues by nucleoside diphosphate kinase is independent of their sugar substituents.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Michael C; Helms, Volkhard

    2002-07-02

    The reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by dinucleoside diphosphate kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum is investigated by semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital computation of an active site model system on the basis of various X-ray crystallographic structures. The computational results suggest that the phosphoryl transfer from adenosine triphosphate to the His122 residue is accompanied by the simultaneous shift of a proton from the histidine residue to one of the oxygen atoms of the gamma phosphate group. This involves a doubly protonated His122 residue whilst this residue is neutral in its ternary complex with ADP and the transition state analogue AlF(3). The proposed mechanism is thus analogous to that of phosphoryl transfer by cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase and uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase as found in our earlier work and clarifies the role of the ribose 3'-OH group. Furthermore, the energetics of phosphoryl transfer onto other nucleoside analogues such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-diphosphate and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-thymidine-diphosphate are investigated. The calculated reaction barriers for the phosphorylation of the diphosphates by the enzyme are all within a range of 13.1 kJ mol(-1), which suggests that variations in the activation energies alone cannot account for the experimentally observed differences in enzymatic activity. Consequences for the design of new anti-HIV nucleoside analogues are discussed. Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2268/2002/f360_s.pdf or from the author.

  2. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  3. Reaction of human UMP-CMP kinase with natural and analog substrates.

    PubMed

    Pasti, Claudia; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Veron, Michel; Gilles, Anne-Marie; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2003-04-01

    UMP-CMP kinase catalyses an important step in the phosphorylation of UTP, CTP and dCTP. It is also involved in the necessary phosphorylation by cellular kinases of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies. The reactivity of human UMP-CMP kinase towards natural substrates and nucleotide analogs was reexamined. The expression of the recombinant enzyme and conditions for stability of the enzyme were improved. Substrate inhibition was observed for UMP and CMP at concentrations higher than 0.2 mm, but not for dCMP. The antiviral analog l-3TCMP was found to be an efficient substrate phosphorylated into l-3TCDP by human UMP-CMP kinase. However, in the reverse reaction, the enzyme did not catalyse the addition of the third phosphate to l-3TCDP, which was rather an inhibitor. By molecular modelling, l-3TCMP was built in the active site of the enzyme from Dictyostelium. Human UMP-CMP kinase has a relaxed enantiospecificity for the nucleoside monophosphate acceptor site, but it is restricted to d-nucleotides at the donor site.

  4. The binding mode of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase B to single-strand DNA.

    PubMed

    Agou, F; Raveh, S; Véron, M

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, we studied the interaction of the human isoform B of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase B) with the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) present in the promoter element of the c-myc oncogene. The DNA-binding properties of NDP kinase B and other NDP kinases are compared and the nucleotide requirement for binding are discussed. Using quantitative methods, we identified the DNA-binding sites on the protein and we proposed a structural model for a complex of one hexameric NDP kinase B with an oligonucleotide.

  5. Site-directed Mutagenesis of Key Residues Unveiled a Novel Allosteric Site on Human Adenosine Kinase for Pyrrolobenzoxa(thia)zepinone Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Savi, Lida; Brindisi, Margherita; Alfano, Gloria; Butini, Stefania; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana; Lossani, Andrea; Focher, Federico; Cavella, Caterina; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Most nucleoside kinases, besides the catalytic domain, feature an allosteric domain which modulates their activity. Generally, non-substrate analogs, interacting with allosteric sites, represent a major opportunity for developing more selective and safer therapeutics. We recently developed a series of non-nucleoside non-competitive inhibitors of human adenosine kinase (hAK), based on a pyrrolobenzoxa(thia)zepinone scaffold. Based on computational analysis, we hypothesized the existence of a novel allosteric site on hAK, topographically distinct from the catalytic site. In this study, we have adopted a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modeling, biochemical studies, and site-directed mutagenesis to validate our hypothesis. Based on a three-dimensional model of interaction between hAK and our molecules, we designed, cloned, and expressed specific, single and double point mutants of hAK (Q74A, Q78A, H107A, K341A, F338A, and Q74A-F338A). Kinetic characterization of recombinant enzymes indicated that these mutations did not affect enzyme functioning; conversely, mutated enzymes are endowed of reduced susceptibility to our non-nucleoside inhibitors, while maintaining comparable affinity for nucleoside inhibitors to the wild-type enzyme. This study represents the first characterization and validation of a novel allosteric site in hAK and may pave the way to the development of novel selective and potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of hAK endowed with therapeutic potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Pyrrole-indolinone SU11652 targets the nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Plínio Salmazo; Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Severiano, Kelven Ulisses; Rocco, Silvana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante; Cordeiro, Artur Torres; Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; de Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira; Murakami, Mário Tyago

    2017-07-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are key enzymes in the purine-salvage pathway of trypanosomatids and have been associated with the maintenance of host-cell integrity for the benefit of the parasite, being potential targets for rational drug discovery and design. The NDK from Leishmania major (LmNDK) and mutants were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Thermal shift assays were employed to identify potential inhibitors for LmNDK. Calorimetric experiments, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking analysis were performed to validate the interaction and to evaluate the structural basis of ligand recognition. Furthermore, the anti-leishmanial activity of the newly identified and validated compound was tested in vitro against different Leishmania species. The molecule SU11652, a Sunitinib analog, was identified as a potential inhibitor for LmNDK and structural studies indicated that this molecule binds to the active site of LmNDK in a similar conformation to nucleotides, mimicking natural substrates. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the residues H50 and H117, considered essential for catalysis, play an important role in ligand binding. In vitro cell studies showed that SU11652 had similar efficacy to Amphotericin b against some Leishmania species. Together, our results indicate the pyrrole-indolinone SU11652 as a promising scaffold for the rational design of new drugs targeting the enzyme NDK from Leishmania parasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transgene expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase reverses mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shuba; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Paredes, João A; Kuiper, Raoul V; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-02-15

    A strategy to reverse the symptoms of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in a mouse model was investigated. The nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) was expressed in TK2-deficient mice that have been shown to present with a severe phenotype caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion. The Dm-dNK(+/-) transgenic mice were shown to be able to rescue the TK2-deficient mice. The Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mice were normal as judged by growth and behavior during the observation time of 6 months. The Dm-dNK-expressing mice showed a substantial increase in thymidine-phosphorylating activity in investigated tissues. The Dm-dNK expression also resulted in highly elevated dTTP pools. The dTTP pool alterations did not cause specific mitochondrial DNA mutations or deletions when 6-month-old mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial DNA was also detected at normal levels. In conclusion, the Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mouse model illustrates how dTMP synthesized in the cell nucleus can compensate for loss of intramitochondrial dTMP synthesis in differentiated tissue. The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency.

  8. Structural analysis of the activation of ribavirin analogs by NDP kinase: comparison with other ribavirin targets.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Chen, Yuxing; Dutartre, Hélène; Sophys, Magali; Morera, Solange; Guerreiro, Catherine; Schneider, Benoit; Mulard, Laurence; Janin, Joël; Veron, Michel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Canard, Bruno

    2003-03-01

    Ribavirin used in therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is potentially efficient against other viruses but presents a high cytotoxicity. Several ribavirin triphosphate analogs modified on the ribose moiety were synthesized and tested in vitro on the RNA polymerases of HCV, phage T7, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Modified nucleotides with 2'-deoxy, 3'-deoxy, 2',3'-dideoxy, 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-dehydro, and 2',3'-epoxy-ribose inhibited the HCV enzyme but not the other two polymerases. They were also analyzed as substrates for nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, the enzyme responsible for the last step of the cellular activation of antiviral nucleoside analogs. An X-ray structure of NDP kinase complexed with ribavirin triphosphate was determined. It demonstrates that the analog binds as a normal substrate despite the modified base and confirms the crucial role of the 3'-hydroxyl group in the phosphorylation reaction. The 3'-hydroxyl is required for inhibition of the initiation step of RNA synthesis by HCV polymerase, and both sugar hydroxyls must be present to inhibit elongation. The 2'deoxyribavirin is the only derivative efficient in vitro against HCV polymerase and properly activated by NDP kinase.

  9. Enzyme-Driven Chemo-and Radiation-Therapy with 12 Pyrimidine Nucleoside Analogs Not Yet in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Greer, Sheldon; Han, Tieran; Dieguez, Cristina; McLean, Nicola; Saer, Rafael; Reis, Isildinha; Levi, Joe; Marquez, Victor E

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemotherapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U). Among patients with colon (19) and pancreatic tumors (40), 53 and 68 %, respectively, displayed T/N values >4 for CD suggesting chemotherapy with 5-FdC, 4-N-methylamino-5-FdC, 5-trifluoromethyldeoxycytidine and radiosensitization with 5- CldC, 4-N-methylamino-5-CldC, 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-bromodeoxycytidine. The percent of patients with tumors with a T/N value >4 for U/CK in lung (72), colon (23) and breast (28) was 47, 61 and 68, respectively, suggesting zebularine (plus thymidine) treatment for tumors involving gene silencing. Evidence is presented that the 4-N-alkylamino-dC substituted nucleosides and those with large 5-substitutions are activated only via CD to thymidine kinase (TK) using end-points of cytotoxicity and/or radiosensitization: H4U, the inhibitor of CD is an antagonist, cells with low CD or no TK are resistant to the analogs, the end points are indifferent to the dCK status of cells, they are poor substrates for dCK and good substrates for CD, whereas 5-FdC and 5-CldC are good substrates for both enzymes. The analogs present opportunities for Collateral Sensitivity for 5-azacytidine and gemcitabine resistant tumors.

  10. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the DNA alkylating agent busulfan, nucleoside analogs and SAHA in lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Wang, Guiyun; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising treatment for lymphomas. Its success depends on effective pre-transplant conditioning regimens. We previously reported on the efficacy of DNA alkylating agent-nucleoside analog (NA) combinations for conditioning in AML. We hypothesized that a similar combinatory approach can be used for lymphomas. A combination of busulfan (Bu) with two NAs – clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu) or gemcitabine (Gem) – resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in lymphoma cell lines. We demonstrated that the [2 NAs+Bu] combination activates a DNA damage response through the ATM-CHK2 and ATM-CHK1 pathways, leading to cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Histone modifications and KAP1 phosphorylation are indicative of chromatin relaxation mediated by the nucleoside analogs which sequentially increase Bu alkylation. Addition of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) enhanced chromatin relaxation through increased histone acetylation and further augmented the cytotoxicity of [2 NAs+Bu]. Our results provide a preclinical basis for a clinical trial on using [2 NAs+Bu±SAHA] combinations as conditioning therapy for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:22023523

  11. Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase–expressing plasma cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Jouliana; Hernandez-Hopkins, Denise; Akar, Gunkut; Barelli, Peter J.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Zhou, Hufeng; Totonchy, Jennifer; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Guasparri, Ilaria; Liu, Yifang; Sei, Shizuko; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Elemento, Olivier; Kaye, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase–inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI–sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers. PMID:28504647

  12. Modeling of Plasmodium falciparum Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Ternary Complex: Repurposing of Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pallavi; Gupta, Akanksha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2015-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum telomerase reverse transcriptase (PfTERT) is a ribonucleoprotein that assists the maintenance of the telomeric ends of chromosomes by reverse transcription of its own RNA subunit. It represents an attractive therapeutic target for eradication of the plasmodial parasite at the asexual liver stage. Automated modeling using MUSTER and knowledge-based techniques were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the active site of reverse transcriptase domain of PfTERT, which is responsible for catalyzing the addition of incoming dNTPs to the growing DNA strand in presence of divalent magnesium ions. Further, the ternary complex of the active site of PfTERT bound to a DNA-RNA duplex was also modeled using Haddock server and represents the functional form of the enzyme. Initially, established nucleoside analog inhibitors of PfTERT, AZTTP, and ddGTP were docked in the modeled binding site of the PfTERT ternary complex using AutoDock v4.2. Subsequently, docking studies were carried out with 14 approved nucleoside analog inhibitors. Docking studies predicted that floxuridine, gemcitabine, stavudine, and vidarabine have high affinity for the PfTERT ternary complex. Further analysis on the basis of known side effects led us to propose repositioning of vidarabine as a suitable drug candidate for inhibition of PfTERT.

  13. Maltose modified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers as potential carriers of nucleoside analog 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Aleksandra; Signorelli, Marco; Schiraldi, Alberto; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Fessas, Dimitrios

    2015-11-30

    Poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers contained surface maltose modification are proposed as drug carriers for nucleoside analog (NA) 5'-triphosphates. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between PPI dendrimers of 3rd (G3) or 4th (G4) generation and cytidine-5'-triphosphate (CTP) by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry method. CTP was used as a model molecule of pyrimidine nucleoside analog-cytarabine (ara-CTP) commonly used in leukemia treatment. Complexes of PPI dendrimers with NAs may help to overcome severe limitations of NAs associated with their low solubility and stability or resistance in cancer cells. In the present work, we evaluated stoichiometry and a mechanism of forming complexes between dendrimers and the nucleotide. Moreover, we examined the efficiency of complex formation in relation to dendrimer generations, a type of dendrimer modification with maltose residues and a type of solvent. It was observed that PPI dendrimers create complexes with CTP with high efficiency that makes them promising candidates for a drug delivery system.

  14. NMR studies on the flexibility of nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Lecroisey, A; Veron, M; Delepierre, M; Janin, J

    1997-06-01

    Human NDP kinase B, product of the nm23-H2 gene, binds DNA. It has been suggested that a helix hairpin on the protein surface, part of the nucleotide substrate binding site, could accommodate DNA binding by swinging away. The presence of flexible regions was therefore investigated by 1H NMR dynamic filtering. Although TOCSY peaks could be assigned to five residues at the N terminus of Dictyostelium NDP kinase, no flexible region was detected in the human enzyme. These data favor the idea that the protein offers different binding sites to mono- and polynucleotides.

  15. Sterical recognition by T4 polynucleotide kinase of non-nucleosidic moieties 5'-attached to oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Fontanel, M L; Bazin, H; Téoule, R

    1994-01-01

    The ability of T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK) to phosphorylate non-nucleosidic moieties 5'-attached to oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been investigated. Non-nucleosidic phosphoramidite units were prepared from ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,3-diol backbones. Some of them corresponded to pure enantiomers. They were used to obtain the corresponding 5'-end modified oligothymidylates X(pdT)10. The free primary hydroxyl of the non-nucleosidic moieties (X) of these oligomers was phosphorylated by PNK. We report the stereoselective phosphorylation of the L form of the 5'-end attached non-nucleosidic chiral fragments; the non-chiral moieties were completely phosphorylated. Dimers of glycerol analogue and thymidine 3'-phosphate were not recognized by PNK and the shortest modified ODN able to be phosphorylated was a trinucleotide X(pdT)3. A modified X(pdT)10, bearing a cyclic abasic site (X) at its 5'-end, was prepared by chemical synthesis from 1,2-dideoxyribose phosphoramidite and was phosphorylated with a 90% yield. PMID:8029008

  16. Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three antitumor nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Roth, Stephanie; Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Rouleau, Cecile; Yao, Min; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Lovett, Dennis; Schmid, Steven; Teicher, Beverly A

    2009-05-01

    Nucleoside analogs are rationally designed anticancer agents that disrupt DNA and RNA synthesis. Fludarabine and cladribine have important roles in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Clofarabine is a next generation nucleoside analog which is under clinical investigation. The bone marrow toxicity, tumor cell cytotoxicity and human tumor xenograft activity of fludarabine, cladribine and clofarabine were compared. Mouse and human bone marrow were subjected to colony forming (CFU-GM) assays over a 5-log concentration range in culture. NCI-60 cell line screening data were compared. In vivo, a range of clofarabine doses was compared with fludarabine for efficacy in several human tumor xenografts. The IC90 concentrations for fludarabine and cladribine for mouse CFU-GM were >30 and 0.93 microM, and for human CFU-GM were 8 and 0.11 microM, giving mouse to human differentials of >3.8- and 8.5-fold. Clofarabine produced IC90s of 1.7 microM in mouse and 0.51 microM in human CFU-GM, thus a 3.3-fold differential between species. In the NCI-60 cell line screen, fludarabine and cladribine showed selective cytotoxicity toward leukemia cell lines while for clofarabine there was no apparent selectivity based upon origin of the tumor cells. In vivo, clofarabine produced a dose-dependent increase in tumor growth delay in the RL lymphoma, the RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and HT-29 colon carcinoma models. The PC3 prostate carcinoma was equally responsive to clofarabine and fludarabine. Bringing together bone marrow toxicity data, tumor cell line cytotoxicity data, and human tumor xenograft efficacy provides valuable information for the translation of preclinical findings to the clinic.

  17. Separate nuclear genes encode cytosolic and mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Troll, H; Winckler, T; Lascu, I; Müller, N; Saurin, W; Véron, M; Mutzel, R

    1993-12-05

    We have previously isolated cDNA clones for the gip17 gene encoding the cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, and partial cDNAs for guk, a second member of the NDP kinase gene family (Wallet, V., Mutzel, R., Troll, H., Barzu, O., Wurster, B., Véron, M., and Lacombe, M. L. (1990) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 80, 1199-1202). We now characterize genomic DNA clones for both NDP kinase genes, and we show that guk defines a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial NDP kinase. Isolated D. discoideum mitochondria contain 3% of the total cellular NDP kinase activity. Antibodies which specifically recognize and inhibit the activity of either cytosolic or mitochondrial NDP kinase unambiguously distinguish between these activities. The nascent mitochondrial NDP kinase contains a presequence of 57 amino acids that is removed during import into the organelle as shown by determination of the NH2 terminus of the mature protein from mitochondria. The genes for mitochondrial and cytosolic NDP kinases contain four and two introns, respectively. The positions of the of the introns in the gene for the cytosolic enzyme match exactly the positions of the second and fourth introns in the coding region of its mitochondrial homologue. From these results we conclude that the isozymes diverged from a common ancestor, and we discuss possible phylogenetic pathways for the evolution of cytosolic and organelle NDP kinases.

  18. Chk1 inhibition significantly potentiates activity of nucleoside analogs in TP53-mutated B-lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Zemanova, Jana; Hylse, Ondrej; Collakova, Jana; Vesely, Pavel; Oltova, Alexandra; Borsky, Marek; Zaprazna, Kristina; Kasparkova, Marie; Janovska, Pavlina; Verner, Jan; Kohoutek, Jiri; Dzimkova, Marta; Bryja, Vitezslav; Jaskova, Zuzana; Brychtova, Yvona; Paruch, Kamil; Trbusek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for TP53-mutated lymphoid tumors are very limited. In experimental models, TP53-mutated lymphomas were sensitive to direct inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a pivotal regulator of replication. We initially tested the potential of the highly specific Chk1 inhibitor SCH900776 to synergize with nucleoside analogs (NAs) fludarabine, cytarabine and gemcitabine in cell lines derived from B-cell malignancies. In p53-proficient NALM-6 cells, SCH900776 added to NAs enhanced signaling towards Chk1 (pSer317/pSer345), effectively blocked Chk1 activation (Ser296 autophosphorylation), increased replication stress (p53 and γ-H2AX accumulation) and temporarily potentiated apoptosis. In p53-defective MEC-1 cell line representing adverse chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Chk1 inhibition together with NAs led to enhanced and sustained replication stress and significantly potentiated apoptosis. Altogether, among 17 tested cell lines SCH900776 sensitized four of them to all three NAs. Focusing further on MEC-1 and co-treatment of SCH900776 with fludarabine, we disclosed chromosome pulverization in cells undergoing aberrant mitoses. SCH900776 also increased the effect of fludarabine in a proportion of primary CLL samples treated with pro-proliferative stimuli, including those with TP53 disruption. Finally, we observed a fludarabine potentiation by SCH900776 in a T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1)-driven mouse model of CLL. Collectively, we have substantiated the significant potential of Chk1 inhibition in B-lymphoid cells. PMID:27556692

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors induce DNA damage through nucleoside depletion

    PubMed Central

    Juvekar, Ashish; Hu, Hai; Yadegarynia, Sina; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Ullas, Soumya; Lien, Evan C.; Bellinger, Gary; Son, Jaekyoung; Hok, Rosanna C.; Seth, Pankaj; Daly, Michele B.; Kim, Baek; Scully, Ralph; Asara, John M.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wulf, Gerburg M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that combining a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with a poly-ADP Rib polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor enhanced DNA damage and cell death in breast cancers that have genetic aberrations in BRCA1 and TP53. Here, we show that enhanced DNA damage induced by PI3K inhibitors in this mutational background is a consequence of impaired production of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and DNA repair. Inhibition of PI3K causes a reduction in all four nucleotide triphosphates, whereas inhibition of the protein kinase AKT is less effective than inhibition of PI3K in suppressing nucleotide synthesis and inducing DNA damage. Carbon flux studies reveal that PI3K inhibition disproportionately affects the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway that delivers Rib-5-phosphate required for base ribosylation. In vivo in a mouse model of BRCA1-linked triple-negative breast cancer (K14-Cre BRCA1f/fp53f/f), the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 led to a precipitous drop in DNA synthesis within 8 h of drug treatment, whereas DNA synthesis in normal tissues was less affected. In this mouse model, combined PI3K and PARP inhibition was superior to either agent alone to induce durable remissions of established tumors. PMID:27402769

  20. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Gómez Barroso, J A; Pereira, H; Miranda, M; Pereira, C; Garratt, R C; Aguilar, C F

    2010-07-01

    The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enzymes that are involved in energy management and nucleoside balance in the cell. T. cruzi TcNDPK1, a canonical isoform, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally poly-His-tagged fusion protein and crystallized. Crystals grew after 72 h in 0.2 M MgCl(2), 20% PEG 3350. Data were collected to 3.5 A resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.84, c = 275.49 A. Structure determination is under way and will provide relevant information that may lead to the first step in rational drug design for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  1. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: synthesis and properties of a new class of nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Renpei; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates were synthesized via the condensation reactions of appropriately protected nucleosides with monopyridinium H-boranophosphonate. The condensation reactions gave only the mono-esterified products under the optimized conditions without formation of di-esterified byproducts. Deprotection of the condensation products was achieved under basic conditions to afford the fully-deprotected nucleoside H-boranophosphonates in excellent yields.

  2. Vectorial transport of nucleoside analogs from the apical to the basolateral membrane in double-transfected cells expressing the human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3 and the export pump ABCC4.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Lyko, Frank; Keppler, Dietrich

    2010-07-01

    The identification of the transport proteins responsible for the uptake and the efflux of nucleosides and their metabolites enables the characterization of their vectorial transport and a better understanding of their absorption, distribution, and elimination. Human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs/SLC28A) are known to mediate the transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogs into cells in a sodium-dependent and unidirectional manner. On the other hand, several human multidrug resistance proteins [human ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily C (ABCC)] cause resistance against nucleoside analogs and mediate transport of phosphorylated nucleoside derivatives out of the cells in an ATP-dependent manner. For the integrated analysis of uptake and efflux of these compounds, we established a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cell line stably expressing the human uptake transporter hCNT3 in the apical membrane and the human efflux pump ABCC4 in the basolateral membrane. The direction of transport was from the apical to the basolateral compartment, which is in line with the unidirectional transport and the localization of both recombinant proteins in the MDCKII cells. Recombinant hCNT3 mediated the transport of several known nucleoside substrates, and we identified 5-azacytidine as a new substrate for hCNT3. It is of interest that coexpression of both transporters was confirmed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, which represent an important clinical indication for the therapeutic use of nucleoside analogs. Thus, our results establish a novel cell system for studies on the vectorial transport of nucleosides and their analogs from the apical to the basolateral compartment. The results contribute to a better understanding of the cellular transport characteristics of nucleoside drugs.

  3. Activation of G-proteins by receptor-stimulated nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Bominaar, A A; Molijn, A C; Pestel, M; Veron, M; Van Haastert, P J

    1993-01-01

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase activity on cellular processes might be the result of altered transmembrane signal transduction via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). In the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, extracellular cAMP induces an increase of phospholipase C activity via a surface cAMP receptor and G-proteins. In this paper it is demonstrated that part of the cellular NDP kinase is associated with the membrane and stimulated by cell surface cAMP receptors. The GTP produced by the action of NDP kinase is capable of activating G-proteins as monitored by altered G-protein-receptor interaction and the activation of the effector enzyme phospholipase C. Furthermore, specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit the effect of NDP kinase on G-protein activation. These results suggest that receptor-stimulated NDP kinase contributes to the mediation of hormone action by producing GTP for the activation of GTP-binding proteins. Images PMID:8389692

  4. An intersubunit disulfide bridge stabilizes the tetrameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Fanny; Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Dupuy, Jean-William; Sarger, Claude; Podar, Mircea; Lascu, Ioan; Giraud, Marie-France; Dautant, Alain

    2012-06-01

    The nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside diphosphate. Ndks form hexamers or two types of tetramers made of the same building block, namely, the common dimer. The secondary interfaces of the Type I tetramer found in Myxococcus xanthus Ndk and of the Type II found in Escherichia coli Ndk involve the opposite sides of subunits. Up to now, the few available structures of Ndk from thermophiles were hexameric. Here, we determined the X-ray structures of four crystal forms of the Ndk from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aa-Ndk). Aa-Ndk displays numerous features of thermostable proteins and is made of the common dimer but it is a tetramer of Type I. Indeed, the insertion of three residues in a surface-exposed spiral loop, named the Kpn-loop, leads to the formation of a two-turn α-helix that prevents both hexamer and Type II tetramer assembly. Moreover, the side chain of the cysteine at position 133, which is not present in other Ndk sequences, adopts two alternate conformations. Through the secondary interface, each one forms a disulfide bridge with the equivalent Cys133 from the neighboring subunit. This disulfide bridge was progressively broken during X-ray data collection by radiation damage. Such crosslinks counterbalance the weakness of the common-dimer interface. A 40% decrease of the kinase activity at 60°C after reduction and alkylation of the protein corroborates the structural relevance of the disulfide bridge on the tetramer assembly and enzymatic function.

  5. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    A. polyphaga mimivirus, the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, is the first virus to exhibit a nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene. The expression and crystallization of the viral NDK are reported. The complete sequence of the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, has recently been determined [Raoult et al. (2004 ▶), Science, 306, 1344–1350] and revealed numerous genes not expected to be found in a virus. A comprehensive structural and functional study of these gene products was initiated [Abergel et al. (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. F61, 212–215] both to better understand their role in the virus physiology and to obtain some clues to the origin of DNA viruses. Here, the preliminary crystallographic analysis of the viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein is reported. The crystal belongs to the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter 99.425 Å. The self-rotation function confirms that there are two monomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold non-crystallographic axis and that the unit cell thus contains four biological entities.

  6. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus kinases to sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Cannon, J S; Tanhehco, Y C; Hamzeh, F M; Ambinder, R F

    2001-07-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV(+) Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 microM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 microM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 microM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells.

  7. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Kinases To Sensitize Tumor Cells to Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stacy M.; Cannon, Jennifer S.; Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Hamzeh, Fayez M.; Ambinder, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV+ Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 μM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 μM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 μM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells. PMID:11408227

  8. The nucleoside analog clitocine is a potent and efficacious readthrough agent.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Westley J; Trotta, Christopher R; Tomizawa, Yuki; Zhuo, Jin; Johnson, Briana; Sierra, Jairo; Roy, Bijoyita; Weetall, Marla; Hedrick, Jean; Sheedy, Josephine; Takasugi, James; Moon, Young-Choon; Babu, Suresh; Baiazitov, Ramil; Leszyk, John D; Davis, Thomas W; Colacino, Joseph M; Peltz, Stuart W; Welch, Ellen M

    2017-04-01

    Nonsense mutations resulting in a premature stop codon in an open reading frame occur in critical tumor suppressor genes in a large number of the most common forms of cancers and are known to cause or contribute to the progression of disease. Low molecular weight compounds that induce readthrough of nonsense mutations offer a new means of treating patients with genetic disorders or cancers resulting from nonsense mutations. We have identified the nucleoside analog clitocine as a potent and efficacious suppressor of nonsense mutations. We determined that incorporation of clitocine into RNA during transcription is a prerequisite for its readthrough activity; the presence of clitocine in the third position of a premature stop codon directly induces readthrough. We demonstrate that clitocine can induce the production of p53 protein in cells harboring p53 nonsense-mutated alleles. In these cells, clitocine restored production of full-length and functional p53 as evidenced by induced transcriptional activation of downstream p53 target genes, progression of cells into apoptosis, and impeded growth of nonsense-containing human ovarian cancer tumors in xenograft tumor models. Thus, clitocine induces readthrough of nonsense mutations by a previously undescribed mechanism and represents a novel therapeutic modality to treat cancers and genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. © 2017 Friesen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Structural requirements for efficient phosphorylation of nucleotide analogs by human thymidylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Arnon; Konrad, Manfred

    2004-05-01

    Successive phosphorylation of nucleoside analog prodrugs to their triphosphate forms is required for the pharmacological activity of these compounds in the chemotherapeutic treatment of viral infections and cancer. Human thymidylate kinase (TMPK), apart from its essential physiological role in the biosynthesis of TTP, is also required for the activation of thymidine analogs, such as the clinically used anti-HIV prodrugs AZT and d4T. This enzyme is rate determining in the three-step cascade of AZT phosphorylation. Our structural work on human, yeast and E. coli TMPKs, in conjunction with sequence homology analyses and biochemical data, has demonstrated that three loops are crucial for the function of this enzyme: the first is the highly conserved P-loop motif, which binds and positions the phosphoryl groups of ATP, the second critical loop contains the DR(Y/H) motif that supplies a catalytic arginine and is also important for the binding and positioning of the magnesium ion complexed to ATP, and the third loop is the so-called Lid-region that is a flexible stretch which closes on ATP when it binds. Modifications of the sugar moieties of nucleoside monophosphates are shown to exert drastic effects on the enzyme's conformation and, thus, reduced activity. Our structural work on several TMPKs has formed the basis for generating mutants of human TMPK that are about 100 times more efficient in phosphorylating AZTMP. These enzyme variants could potentially be introduced into HIV-targeted cells in order to significantly improve AZT's antiviral activity.

  10. Nucleotide binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinases: X-ray structure of human NDPK-A in complex with ADP and comparison to protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxing; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Véron, Michel; Moréra, Solange; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Janin, Joel

    2003-09-26

    NDPK-A, product of the nm23-H1 gene, is one of the two major isoforms of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase. We analyzed the binding of its nucleotide substrates by fluorometric methods. The binding of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates was detected by following changes of the intrinsic fluorescence of the H118G/F60W variant, a mutant protein engineered for that purpose. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) substrate binding was measured by competition with a fluorescent derivative of ADP, following the fluorescence anisotropy of the derivative. We also determined an X-ray structure at 2.0A resolution of the variant NDPK-A in complex with ADP, Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate, products of ATP hydrolysis. We compared the conformation of the bound nucleotide seen in this complex and the interactions it makes with the protein, with those of the nucleotide substrates, substrate analogues or inhibitors present in other NDP kinase structures. We also compared NDP kinase-bound nucleotides to ATP bound to protein kinases, and showed that the nucleoside monophosphate moieties have nearly identical conformations in spite of the very different protein environments. However, the beta and gamma-phosphate groups are differently positioned and oriented in the two types of kinases, and they bind metal ions with opposite chiralities. Thus, it should be possible to design nucleotide analogues that are good substrates of one type of kinase, and poor substrates or inhibitors of the other kind.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics studies on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase triphosphate binding site: implications for nucleoside-analog drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Alber, F.; Carloni, P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum-chemical methods are used to shed light on the functional role of residues involved in the resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase against nucleoside-analog drugs. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for models representing the adduct between the triphosphate substrate and the nucleoside binding site. The triphosphate is considered either deprotonated or protonated at the gamma-position. Although the protonated form already experiences large rearrangements in the ps time scale, the fully deprotonated state exhibits a previously unrecognized low-barrier hydrogen bond between Lys65 and gamma-phosphate. Absence of this interaction in Lys65-->Arg HIV-1 RT might play a prominent role in the resistance of this mutant for nucleoside analogs (Gu Z et al., 1994b, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:275-281; Zhang D et al., 1994, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:282-287). Water molecules present in the active site, not detected in the X-ray structure, form a complex H-bond network. Among these waters, one may be crucial for substrate recognition as it bridges Gln151 and Arg72 with the beta-phosphate. Absence of this stabilizing interaction in Gln151-->Met HIV-1 RT mutant may be a key factor for the known drug resistance of this mutant toward dideoxy-type drugs and AZT (Shirasaka T et al., 1995, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:2398-2402: Iversen AK et al., 1996, J Virol 70:1086-1090). PMID:11206075

  12. 3'-Phosphorylated nucleotides are tight binding inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-10-30

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides diphosphates into triphosphates. NDP kinase is also involved in malignant tumors and was shown to activate in vitro transcription of the c-myc oncogene by binding to its NHE sequence. The structure of the complex of NDP kinase with bound ADP shows that the nucleotide adopts a different conformation from that observed in other phosphokinases with an internal H bond between the 3'-OH and the beta-O made free by the phosphate transfer. We use intrinsic protein fluorescence to investigate the inhibitory and binding potential of nucleotide analogues phosphorylated in 3'-OH position of the ribose to both wild type and F64W mutant NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Due to their 3'-phosphate, 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (PAP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) can be regarded as structural analogues of enzyme-bound ADP. The KD of PAPS (10 microM) is three times lower than the KD of ADP. PAPS also acts as a competitive inhibitor toward natural substrates during catalysis, with a KI in agreement with binding data. The crystal structure of the binary complex between Dictyostelium NDP kinase and PAPS was solved at 2.8-A resolution. It shows a new mode of nucleotide binding at the active site with the 3'-phosphate of PAPS located near the catalytic histidine, at the same position as the gamma-phosphate in the transition state. The sulfate group is directed toward the protein surface. PAPS will be useful for the design of high affinity drugs targeted to NDP kinases.

  13. Modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by mammalian nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins.

    PubMed

    Snider, Natasha T; Altshuler, Peter J; Omary, M Bishr

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins comprise a family of ten human isoforms that participate in the regulation of multiple cellular processes via enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. The major enzymatic function of NDPKs is the generation of nucleoside triphosphates, such as guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Mechanisms behind the nonenzymatic NDPK functions are not clear but likely involve context-dependent signaling roles of NDPK within multi-protein complexes. This is most evident for NDPK-A, which is encoded by the human NME1 gene, the first tumor metastasis suppressor gene to be identified. Understanding which protein interactions are most relevant for the biological and metastasis-related functions of NDPK will be important in the potential utilization of NDPK as a disease target. Accumulating evidence suggests that NDPK interacts with and affects various components and regulators of the cytoskeleton, including actin-binding proteins, intermediate filaments, and cytoskeletal attachment structures (adherens junctions, desmosomes, and focal adhesions). We review the existing literature on this topic and highlight outstanding questions and potential future directions that should clarify the impact of NDPK on the different cytoskeletal systems.

  14. Dictyostelium discoideum Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase C Plays a Negative Regulatory Role in Phagocytosis, Macropinocytosis and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Annesley, Sarah J.; Bago, Ruzica; Bosnar, Maja Herak; Filic, Vedrana; Marinović, Maja; Weber, Igor; Mehta, Anil; Fisher, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are ubiquitous phosphotransfer enzymes responsible for producing most of the nucleoside triphosphates except for ATP. This role is important for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins and the metabolism of sugars and lipids. Apart from this housekeeping role NDPKs have been shown to have many regulatory functions in diverse cellular processes including proliferation and endocytosis. Although the protein has been shown to have a positive regulatory role in clathrin- and dynamin-mediated micropinocytosis, its roles in macropinocytosis and phagocytosis have not been studied. The additional non-housekeeping roles of NDPK are often independent of enzyme activity but dependent on the expression level of the protein. In this study we altered the expression level of NDPK in the model eukaryotic organism Dictyostelium discoideum through antisense inhibition and overexpression. We demonstrate that NDPK levels affect growth, endocytosis and exocytosis. In particular we find that Dictyostelium NDPK negatively regulates endocytosis in contrast to the positive regulatory role identified in higher eukaryotes. This can be explained by the differences in types of endocytosis that have been studied in the different systems - phagocytosis and macropinocytosis in Dictyostelium compared with micropinocytosis in mammalian cells. This is the first report of a role for NDPK in regulating macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, the former being the major fluid phase uptake mechanism for macrophages, dendritic cells and other (non dendritic) cells exposed to growth factors. PMID:21991393

  15. Dictyostelium discoideum nucleoside diphosphate kinase C plays a negative regulatory role in phagocytosis, macropinocytosis and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Annesley, Sarah J; Bago, Ruzica; Bosnar, Maja Herak; Filic, Vedrana; Marinović, Maja; Weber, Igor; Mehta, Anil; Fisher, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are ubiquitous phosphotransfer enzymes responsible for producing most of the nucleoside triphosphates except for ATP. This role is important for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins and the metabolism of sugars and lipids. Apart from this housekeeping role NDPKs have been shown to have many regulatory functions in diverse cellular processes including proliferation and endocytosis. Although the protein has been shown to have a positive regulatory role in clathrin- and dynamin-mediated micropinocytosis, its roles in macropinocytosis and phagocytosis have not been studied. The additional non-housekeeping roles of NDPK are often independent of enzyme activity but dependent on the expression level of the protein. In this study we altered the expression level of NDPK in the model eukaryotic organism Dictyostelium discoideum through antisense inhibition and overexpression. We demonstrate that NDPK levels affect growth, endocytosis and exocytosis. In particular we find that Dictyostelium NDPK negatively regulates endocytosis in contrast to the positive regulatory role identified in higher eukaryotes. This can be explained by the differences in types of endocytosis that have been studied in the different systems - phagocytosis and macropinocytosis in Dictyostelium compared with micropinocytosis in mammalian cells. This is the first report of a role for NDPK in regulating macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, the former being the major fluid phase uptake mechanism for macrophages, dendritic cells and other (non dendritic) cells exposed to growth factors.

  16. BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

    2014-11-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Gauri; Aggarwal, Anita; Mittal, Sonia; Singh, Yogendra; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2007-12-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from B. anthracis has been crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Bacillus anthracis nucleoside diphosphate kinase (BaNdk) is an enzyme whose primary function is to maintain deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools by converting deoxynucleotide diphosphates to triphosphates using ATP as the major phosphate donor. Although the structures of Ndks from a variety of organisms have been elucidated, the enzyme from sporulating bacteria has not been structurally characterized to date. Crystals of the B. anthracis enzyme were grown using the vapour-diffusion method from a hanging drop consisting of 2 µl 10 mg ml{sup −1} protein in 50 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA equilibrated against 500 µl reservoir solution consisting of 2.25 M ammonium formate and 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.25. Diffraction data extending to 2.0 Å were collected at room temperature from a single crystal with unit-cell parameters a = b = 107.53, c = 52.3 Å. The crystals are hexagonal in shape and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 2.1 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 36.9%.

  18. Single strand DNA specificity analysis of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase B.

    PubMed

    Agou, F; Raveh, S; Mesnildrey, S; Véron, M

    1999-07-09

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDP kinases) form a family of oligomeric enzymes present in all organisms. Eukaryotic NDP kinases are hexamers composed of identical subunits (approximately 17 kDa). A distinctive property of human NDPK-B encoded by the gene nm23-H2 is its ability to stimulate the gene transcription. This property is independent of its catalytic activity and is possibly related to the role of this protein in cellular events including differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this paper, we report the first characterization of human NDPK-B.DNA complex formation using a filter-binding assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. We analyzed the binding of several oligonucleotides mimicking the promoter region of the c-myc oncogene including variants in sequence, structure, and length of both strands. We show that NDPK-B binds to single-stranded oligonucleotides in a nonsequence specific manner, but that it exhibits a poor binding activity to double-stranded oligonucleotides. This indicates that the specificity of recognition to DNA is a function of the structural conformation of DNA rather than of its specific sequence. Moreover, competition experiments performed with all nucleotides provide evidence for the contribution of the six active sites in the DNA.protein complex formation. We propose a mechanism through which human NDPK-B could stimulate transcription of c-myc or possibly other genes involved in cellular differentiation.

  19. Pre-steady state of reaction of nucleoside diphosphate kinase with anti-HIV nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Sellam, O; Sarfati, R; Janin, J; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-05-08

    The pre-steady-state reaction of Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase with dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTP) and AZT triphosphate was studied by quenching of protein fluorescence after manual mixing or by stopped flow. The fluorescence signal, which is correlated with the phosphorylation state of the catalytic histidine in the enzyme active site, decreases upon ddNTP addition according to a monoexponential time course. The pseudo-first order rate constant was determined for different concentrations of the various ddNTPs and was found to be saturable. The data are compatible with a two-step reaction scheme, where fast association of the enzyme with the dideoxynucleotide is followed by a rate-limiting phosphorylation step. The rate constants and dissociation equilibrium constants determined for each dideoxynucleotide were correlated with the steady-state kinetic parameters measured in the enzymatic assay in the presence of the two substrates. It is shown that ddNTPs and AZT triphosphate are poor substrates for NDP kinase with a rate of phosphate transfer of 0.02 to 3.5 s-1 and a KS of 1-5 mM. The equilibrium dissociation constants for ADP, GDP, ddADP, and ddGDP were also determined by fluorescence titration of a mutant F64W NDP kinase, where the introduction of a tryptophan at the nucleotide binding site provides a direct spectroscopic probe. The lack of the 3'-OH in ddNTP causes a 10-fold increase in KD. Contrary to "natural" NTPs, NDP kinase discriminates between various ddNTPs, with ddGTP the more efficient and ddCTP the least efficient substrate within a range of 100 in kcat values.

  20. Nuclear localization of nucleoside diphosphate kinase type B (nm23-H2) in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kraeft, S K; Traincart, F; Mesnildrey, S; Bourdais, J; Véron, M; Chen, L B

    1996-08-25

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases are metabolic enzymes found ubiquitously in cells. Recently, two known human isoforms of NDP kinase (A and B), identical to the protein products of the genes nm23-H1 and nm23-H2, respectively, have been implicated in cancer metastasis and transcriptional regulation. To date, NDP kinase has been studied extensively in tissue sections and its cellular localization was described as being cytoplasmic. However, the recently discovered role of the nm23-H2 gene product in transcriptional activation of the c-myc proto-oncogene also suggests a nuclear localization of the protein. In this study, we used isoform-specific antibodies against NDPK-B to examine the subcellular localization of the nm23-H2 gene product. The cytoplasmic fluorescence is intense and homogeneous with pronounced labeling in the centromere region. The distribution of NDPK-B in interphase nuclei exhibits a pattern of numerous uniformly dispersed fine dots with reduced staining of the nucleoli. To further characterize the nuclear localization of NDPK-B, in situ sequential extraction of nuclear components was performed. Brief exposure to Triton X-100 and subsequent treatment with RNase A do not change the nuclear staining pattern of NDPK-B. In contrast, treatment of Triton X-100-permeabilized nuclei with DNase I results in a significant loss of fluorescence. In mitotic prophase cells, the protein segregates from forming chromosomes and reappears in newly formed daughter nuclei after cell division. Taken together, the results indicate an association of NDPK-B with chromatin in interphase nuclei, supporting its proposed role in transcription.

  1. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  2. Interactions of nucleoside analogs, caffeine, and nicotine with human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 stably produced in a transport-defective human cell line.

    PubMed

    Lang, Thack T; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E

    2004-04-01

    Pharmacologically important drugs were examined as potential inhibitors or permeants of human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hCNT1)- and 2 (hCNT2)-producing stable transfectants by assessing their abilities to inhibit uridine transport. hCNT1 exhibited high affinities for uridine analogs (5-fluorouridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine) with K(i) values of 22 to 33 microM, whereas hCNT2 exhibited moderate affinities for 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, high affinities for 2'-deoxyuridine and 5-fluorouridine, and low affinity for 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine. The uridine analogs were transported at 2-fold higher rates (at 10 microM) by hCNT1 than by hCNT2. Enantiomeric configuration and the 3'-hydroxyl group of the ribose ring were important determinants for interaction with hCNTs, whereas the 2'-hydroxyl group was less important. Both transporters bound N(6)-(p-aminobenzyl)adenosine with affinities similar to those of adenosine (K(i) = 28-39 microM). Other adenosine receptor ligands, including caffeine, bound better to hCNT1 than to hCNT2 (K(i) = 46 versus 103 microM, respectively), whereas 2-chloroadenosine bound better to hCNT2 than to hCNT1 (K(i) = 37 and 101 microM, respectively). There was a greater than 3-fold difference in binding affinities between hCNT1 and hCNT2 for nicotine (K(i) = 63 versus 227 microM). However, direct measurements of nicotine and caffeine uptake rates (10 microM) failed to demonstrate mediated uptake by either transporter. Although hCNT1 bound several adenosine analogs relatively well, it did not transport 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) or 2-fluoro-9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (fludarabine), whereas hCNT2 transported both, albeit with low activities. The results indicated that although hCNT1 and hCNT2 possess some overlap in transport of several uridine and adenosine analogs, they also exhibit distinct differences in capacity to interact with some adenosine receptor ligands

  3. A novel stage-specific glycosomal nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Los Milagros Camara, Maria de; Bouvier, Leon; Reigada, Chantal; Digirolamo, Fabio A; Saye, Melisa; Pereira, Claudio A

    2017-02-17

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK) are key enzymes involved in the intracellular nucleotide maintenance in all living organisms, especially in trypanosomatids which are unable to synthesise purines de novo. Four putative NDPK isoforms were identified in the Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 genome but only two of them were characterised so far. In this work, we studied a novel isoform from T. cruzi called TcNDPK3. This enzyme presents an atypical N-terminal extension similar to the DM10 domains. In T. cruzi, DM10 sequences targeted other NDPK isoform (TcNDPK2) to the cytoskeleton, but TcNDPK3 was localised in glycosomes despite lacking a typical peroxisomal targeting signal. In addition, TcNDPK3 was found only in the bloodstream trypomastigotes where glycolytic enzymes are very abundant. However, TcNDPK3 mRNA was also detected at lower levels in amastigotes suggesting regulation at protein and mRNA level. Finally, 33 TcNDPK3 gene orthologs were identified in the available kinetoplastid genomes. The characterisation of new glycosomal enzymes provides novel targets for drug development to use in therapies of trypanosomatid associated diseases.

  4. Elucidation of Different Binding Modes of Purine Nucleosides to Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-30

    Purine nucleoside analogues of medicinal importance, such as cladribine, require phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) for pharmacological activity. Structural studies of ternary complexes of human dCK show that the enzyme conformation adjusts to the different hydrogen-bonding properties between dA and dG and to the presence of substituent at the 2-position present in dG and cladribine. Specifically, the carbonyl group in dG elicits a previously unseen conformational adjustment of the active site residues Arg104 and Asp133. In addition, dG and cladribine adopt the anti conformation, in contrast to the syn conformation observed with dA. Kinetic analysis reveals that cladribine is phosphorylated at the highest efficiency with UTP as donor. We attribute this to the ability of cladribine to combine advantageous properties from dA (favorable hydrogen-bonding pattern) and dG (propensity to bind to the enzyme in its anti conformation), suggesting that dA analogues with a substituent at the 2-position are likely to be better activated by human dCK.

  5. Evaluation of serum nucleoside diphosphate kinase A for the detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Estévez, Olalla; De Chiara, Loretta; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Páez de la Cadena, María; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; Cubiella, Joaquín; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Zorzano, Vicenta Soledad

    2016-01-01

    We previously described the over-expression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDKA) in tumours and serum from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, suggesting its use as biomarker. In this study we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum NDKA to detect advanced neoplasia (CRC or advanced adenomas). Furthermore, the performance of NDKA was compared with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT). The study population included a case-control cohort and a screening cohort (511 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of CRC patients that underwent a colonoscopy and a FIT). Serum NDKA was elevated in CRC patients in the case-control cohort (p = 0.002). In the screening cohort, NDKA levels were higher for advanced adenomas (p = 0.010) and advanced neoplasia (p = 0.006) compared to no neoplasia. Moreover, elevated NDKA was associated with severe characteristics of adenomas (≥3 lesions, size ≥ 1 cm or villous component). Setting specificity to 85%, NDKA showed a sensitivity of 30.19% and 29.82% for advanced adenomas and advanced neoplasia, respectively. NDKA combined with FIT (100 ng/mL cut-off) detected advanced adenomas and advanced neoplasia with 45.28% and 49.12% sensitivity, with specificity close to 90%. The combination of serum NDKA and FIT can improve the detection of advanced neoplasia, mainly for lesions located on the proximal colon, in asymptomatic individuals with CRC family-risk. PMID:27222072

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-01-01

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3–4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5′-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  7. Mechanism-based drug combinations with the DNA-strand-breaking nucleoside analog, CNDAC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Yingjun; Nowak, Billie; Hargis, Sarah; Plunkett, William

    2016-01-01

    CNDAC (2’-C-cyano-2’-deoxy-1-β-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl-cytosine, DFP10917) and its orally bioavailable prodrug, sapacitabine, are undergoing clinical trials for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The unique action mechanism of inducing DNA strand breaks distinguishes CNDAC from other deoxycytidine analogs. To optimize the clinical potentials of CNDAC, we explored multiple strategies combining CNDAC with chemotherapeutic agents targeting distinct DNA damage repair pathways that are currently in clinical use. The ability of each agent to decrease proliferative potential, determined by clonogenic assays, was determined in paired cell lines proficient and deficient in certain DNA repair proteins. Subsequently each agent was used in combination with CNDAC at fixed concentration ratios. The clonogenicity was quantitated by median effect analysis, and a combination index was calculated. The c-Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib, had synergy with CNDAC in HCT116 cells, regardless of p53 status. Inhibitors of PARP1 that interfere with homologous recombination (HR) repair or base excision repair (BER) and agents such as temozolomide that cause DNA damage repaired by the BER pathway were also synergistic with CNDAC. The toxicity of the nitrogen mustards, bendamustine and cytoxan, or of platinum compounds, which generate DNA adducts repaired by nucleotide excision repair and HR, was additive with CNDAC. An additive cell killing was also achieved by the combination of CNDAC with taxane mitotic inhibitors (paclitaxel and docetaxel). At concentrations which allow survival of the majority of wild type cells, the synergistic or additive combination effects were selective in HR-deficient cells. This study provides mechanistic rationales for combining CNDAC with other active drugs. PMID:27474148

  8. Synthesis of antisense oligonucleotides containing acyclic alkynyl nucleoside analogs and their biophysical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Aya; Maeda, Yusuke; Ueno, Yoshihito

    2017-04-01

    The synthesis of oligonucleotide (ON) analogs, which can be used as antisense molecules, has recently gained much attention. Here, we report the synthesis and properties of an ON analog containing acyclic thymidine and cytidine analogs with a 4-pentyl-1,2-diol instead of the d-ribofuranose moiety. The incorporation of these analogs into the ON improved its nuclease resistance to 3'-exonucleases. Furthermore, it was found that the incorporation of the acyclic thymidine analog into a DNA/RNA duplex accelerates the RNA cleavage of a DNA/RNA duplex by Escherichia coli RNase H.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfors, Linda; Hansen, Thomas; Meining, Winfried; Schönheit, Peter; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    Nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon M. jannaschii is a member of the PFK-B family which belongs to the ribokinase superfamily. Here, its expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii nucleoside kinase (MjNK) is an ATP-dependent non-allosteric phosphotransferase that shows high catalytic activity for guanosine, inosine and cytidine. MjNK is a member of the phosphofructokinase B family, but participates in the biosynthesis of nucleoside monophosphates rather than in glycolysis. MjNK was crystallized as the apoenzyme as well as in complex with an ATP analogue and Mg{sup 2+}. The latter crystal form was also soaked with fructose-6-phosphate. Synchrotron-radiation data were collected to 1.70 Å for the apoenzyme crystals and 1.93 Å for the complex crystals. All crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry; however, the apoenzyme crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit whereas the complex crystals contain a dimer.

  10. Phospholipid derivatives of nucleoside analogs as prodrugs with enhanced catabolic stability

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, T.; Ryu, E.K.; Hong, C.I.; MacCoss, M.

    1981-07-01

    The nucleoside 5'-diphosphate-L-1,2-dipalmitin derivatives of 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-D), 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A), and tubercidin have been synthesized, and their cytotoxicity has been evaluated against a mouse myeloma cell line (MPC-11) in vitro and against L1210 lymphoid leukemia both in vitro and in vivo. Sonication methods were utilized to solubilize these lipophilic derivatives in aqueous solution in order to facilitate such biological evaluation; the ara-A derivative resisted solubilization by several techniques. (JMT)

  11. Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li-Hau; Zhao, Pei-Li; Liu, Zhi-Min; Sun, Shao-Chun; Xu, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Ji-Dong; Shao, Mei-Hua

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs in inhibiting father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Nucleoside analogs compete with HBV DNA polymerase substrate to inhibit DNA polymerase, thus preventing the replication of HBV DNA. A case group and control group were recruited for the study. Between March 2006 and March 2012 at the Liver Disease Center of Qinhuangdao Third Hospital, a total of 201 couples were recruited for the case group. In each case, the father tested positive the following HBV markers: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibodies against the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and HBV DNA. In total, 189 male patients presented with abnormal liver function (94.0%; 189/201). Prior to pregnancy, all the males in the case group were required to test negative for HBV DNA and exhibit normal liver function, while the females were required to test positive for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). In total, 188 couples comprised the control group. The couples were recruited between March 2006 and March 2012 in the Prenatal Clinic of Qinhuangdao Women's and Children's Hospital. The fathers tested positive for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc and HBV DNA. With regard to the females, HBsAg tests were all negative and anti-HBs tests were positive. In the case group, there were no HBsAg-positive or HBV DNA-positive newborns, while anti-HBs tests were all positive; thus, the father-to-infant HBV vertical transmission was successfully inhibited. In the control group, 147/188 newborns tested positive for anti-HBs at birth, accounting for 78.2%. In addition, 28 newborns were positive for HBV DNA (14.9%), and 19 newborns tested positive for HBsAg (10.1%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to these parameters. However, no statistically significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, birth height, 1- and 8-min

  12. Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Omichinski, J G; Stahl, S; Maloney, D; West, J; Schweitzer, B I

    1999-02-05

    We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.

  13. Evaluation of the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of nucleoside analogs via free energy estimated in quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Z.; Movaffagh, J.

    2010-12-01

    The partition coefficients (log P) of nucleoside analogs determined by the difference in the free energies of hydration and solvation in water-saturated octanol using the thermodynamic integration method are reported. The log P values calculated in this approach are closer to the experimental values compared to other ab initio methods. Solvation free energy in water and octanol, free energy of cavity formation in water and Henry's constants, and some other parameters are estimated at the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock level with 6-31G*, 6-31G, and 6-31+G basis sets. Surface area, mass, refractivity, volume, polarizability, and dipole moment are calculated for some drugs with HF and DFT methods. The results show that log P decreases with the decrease in polarizability and the increase in dipole moment.

  14. Dipyridodiazepinone analogs as human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lv, M; Xu, H

    2010-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS) Report in 2007, 33.2 million people are living with HIV, 2.5 million ones have been newly infected with HIV, and 2.1 million ones died from AIDS, including 330,000 children. Therefore, HIV/AIDS still remains a public health emergency and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is believed that reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of HIV-1, and thereby RT has been the important drug target for antiretroviral (ARV) chemotherapy against AIDS. To our knowledge, dipyridodiazepinone analogs have been considered as one class of potential non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), especially the structurally and chemically related nevirapine (Viramune(R)), which was the first NNRTI approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection for adults in 1996 and for children in 1998. This review mainly highlights the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of dipyridodiazepinone analogs; in the meantime, the mechanism of action is also presented. It will pave the way for the design and development of novel dipyridodiazepinone analogs as NNRTIs in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  15. Mechanistic studies on the synergistic cytotoxicity of the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and clofarabine in multiple myeloma: relevance of p53 and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Benigno C; Wang, Guiyun; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Shah, Jatin; Turturro, Francesco; Wang, Michael; Weber, Donna M; Champlin, Richard E; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H; Andersson, Borje S

    2013-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy. To identify an improved pretransplant conditioning regimen, we investigated the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine (Gem) and clofarabine (Clo) combinations toward MM cell lines and patient cell samples. A strong synergism of the two nucleoside analogs, when combined at their approximate IC10 concentrations, was observed. This synergism could be partly due to the observed Gem-mediated phosphorylation and activation of deoxycytidine kinase, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Gem and Clo. Their cytotoxicity correlated with a robust activation of the DNA damage response pathway. [Gem+Clo] decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant release of proapoptotic factors into the cytoplasm and nucleus and the activation of apoptosis. Exposure of MM cells to [Gem+Clo] also decreased the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which might have resulted in nucleolar stress, as reported previously, and caused a p53-dependent cell death. A reduction by approximately 50% in the cytotoxicity of Gem and Clo was observed in the presence of pifithrin α, a p53 inhibitor. Furthermore, MM cell lines with mutant p53 exhibited greater resistance to Gem and Clo, supporting a role for the p53 protein in these cytotoxic responses. Our results provide a rationale for clinical trials incorporating [Gem+Clo] combinations as part of conditioning therapy for high-risk patients with MM undergoing HSCT.

  16. A structural mechanism for dimeric to tetrameric oligomer conversion in Halomonas sp. nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Tamada, Taro; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is known to form homotetramers or homohexamers. To clarify the oligomer state of NDK from moderately halophilic Halomonas sp. 593 (HaNDK), the oligomeric state of HaNDK was characterized by light scattering followed by X-ray crystallography. The molecular weight of HaNDK is 33,660, and the X-ray crystal structure determination to 2.3 and 2.7 Å resolution showed a dimer form which was confirmed in the different space groups of R3 and C2 with an independent packing arrangement. This is the first structural evidence that HaNDK forms a dimeric assembly. Moreover, the inferred molecular mass of a mutant HaNDK (E134A) indicated 62.1–65.3 kDa, and the oligomerization state was investigated by X-ray crystallography to 2.3 and 2.5 Å resolution with space groups of P21 and C2. The assembly form of the E134A mutant HaNDK was identified as a Type I tetramer as found in Myxococcus NDK. The structural comparison between the wild-type and E134A mutant HaNDKs suggests that the change from dimer to tetramer is due to the removal of negative charge repulsion caused by the E134 in the wild-type HaNDK. The higher ordered association of proteins usually contributes to an increase in thermal stability and substrate affinity. The change in the assembly form by a minimum mutation may be an effective way for NDK to acquire molecular characteristics suited to various circumstances. PMID:22275000

  17. Flagellar Radial Spokes Contain a Ca2+-stimulated Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Takebe, Sachiko; King, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    The radial spokes are required for Ca2+-initiated intraflagellar signaling, resulting in modulation of inner and outer arm dynein activity. However, the mechanochemical properties of this signaling pathway remain unknown. Here, we describe a novel nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) from the Chlamydomonas flagellum. This protein (termed p61 or RSP23) consists of an N-terminal catalytic NDK domain followed by a repetitive region that includes three IQ motifs and a highly acidic C-terminal segment. We find that p61 is missing in axonemes derived from the mutants pf14 (lacks radial spokes) and pf24 (lacks the spoke head and several stalk components) but not in those from pf17 (lacking only the spoke head). The p61 protein can be extracted from oda1 (lacks outer dynein arms) and pf17 axonemes with 0.5 M KI, and copurifies with radial spokes in sucrose density gradients. Furthermore, p61 contains two classes of calmodulin binding site: IQ1 interacts with calmodulin-Sepharose beads in a Ca2+-independent manner, whereas IQ2 and IQ3 show Ca2+-sensitive associations. Wild-type axonemes exhibit two distinct NDKase activities, at least one of which is stimulated by Ca2+. This Ca2+-responsive enzyme, which accounts for ∼45% of total axonemal NDKase, is missing from pf14 axonemes. We found that purified radial spokes also exhibit NDKase activity. Thus, we conclude that p61 is an integral component of the radial spoke stalk that binds calmodulin and exhibits Ca2+-controlled NDKase activity. These observations suggest that nucleotides other than ATP may play an important role in the signal transduction pathway that underlies the regulatory mechanism defined by the radial spokes. PMID:15194815

  18. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hierarchical self-assembly of switchable nucleolipid supramolecular gels based on environmentally-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuthanakanti, Ashok; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G.

    2016-02-01

    Exquisite recognition and folding properties have rendered nucleic acids as useful supramolecular synthons for the construction of programmable architectures. Despite their proven applications in nanotechnology, scalability and fabrication of nucleic acid nanostructures still remain a challenge. Here, we describe a novel design strategy to construct new supramolecular nucleolipid synthons by using environmentally-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogs, based on 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)uracil and 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)uracil cores, as the head group and fatty acids, attached to the ribose sugar, as the lipophilic group. These modified nucleoside-lipid hybrids formed organogels driven by hierarchical structures such as fibers, twisted ribbons, helical ribbons and nanotubes, which depended on the nature of fatty acid chain and nucleobase modification. NMR, single crystal X-ray and powder X-ray diffraction studies revealed the coordinated interplay of various non-covalent interactions invoked by modified nucleobase, sugar and fatty acid chains in setting up the pathway for the gelation process. Importantly, these nucleolipid gels retained or displayed aggregation-induced enhanced emission and their gelation behavior and photophysical properties could be reversibly switched by external stimuli such as temperature, ultrasound and chemicals. Furthermore, the switchable nature of nucleolipid gels to chemical stimuli enabled the selective two channel recognition of fluoride and Hg2+ ions through visual phase transition and fluorescence change. Fluorescent organogels exhibiting such a combination of useful features is rare, and hence, we expect that this innovative design of fluorescent nucleolipid supramolecular synthons could lead to the emergence of a new family of smart optical materials and probes.Exquisite recognition and folding properties have rendered nucleic acids as useful supramolecular synthons for the construction of programmable architectures. Despite their

  20. Hierarchical self-assembly of switchable nucleolipid supramolecular gels based on environmentally-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Nuthanakanti, Ashok; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2016-02-14

    Exquisite recognition and folding properties have rendered nucleic acids as useful supramolecular synthons for the construction of programmable architectures. Despite their proven applications in nanotechnology, scalability and fabrication of nucleic acid nanostructures still remain a challenge. Here, we describe a novel design strategy to construct new supramolecular nucleolipid synthons by using environmentally-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogs, based on 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)uracil and 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)uracil cores, as the head group and fatty acids, attached to the ribose sugar, as the lipophilic group. These modified nucleoside-lipid hybrids formed organogels driven by hierarchical structures such as fibers, twisted ribbons, helical ribbons and nanotubes, which depended on the nature of fatty acid chain and nucleobase modification. NMR, single crystal X-ray and powder X-ray diffraction studies revealed the coordinated interplay of various non-covalent interactions invoked by modified nucleobase, sugar and fatty acid chains in setting up the pathway for the gelation process. Importantly, these nucleolipid gels retained or displayed aggregation-induced enhanced emission and their gelation behavior and photophysical properties could be reversibly switched by external stimuli such as temperature, ultrasound and chemicals. Furthermore, the switchable nature of nucleolipid gels to chemical stimuli enabled the selective two channel recognition of fluoride and Hg(2+) ions through visual phase transition and fluorescence change. Fluorescent organogels exhibiting such a combination of useful features is rare, and hence, we expect that this innovative design of fluorescent nucleolipid supramolecular synthons could lead to the emergence of a new family of smart optical materials and probes.

  1. A Single Deoxynucleoside Kinase Variant from Drosophila melanogaster Synthesizes Monophosphates of Nucleosides That Are Components of an Expanded Genetic System.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mariko F; Winiger, Christian B; Shaw, Ryan W; Kim, Myong-Jung; Kim, Myong-Sang; Daugherty, Ashley B; Chen, Fei; Moussatche, Patricia; Moses, Jennifer D; Lutz, Stefan; Benner, Steven A

    2017-03-17

    Deoxynucleoside kinase from D. melanogaster (DmdNK) has broad specificity; although it catalyzes the phosphorylation of natural pyrimidine more efficiently than natural purine nucleosides, it accepts all four 2'-deoxynucleosides and many analogues, using ATP as a phosphate donor to give the corresponding deoxynucleoside monophosphates. Here, we show that replacing a single amino acid (glutamine 81 by glutamate) in DmdNK creates a variant that also catalyzes the phosphorylation of nucleosides that form part of an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS). By shuffling hydrogen bonding groups on the nucleobases, AEGIS adds potentially as many as four additional nucleobase pairs to the genetic "alphabet". Specifically, we show that DmdNK Q81E creates the monophosphates from the AEGIS nucleosides dP, dZ, dX, and dK (respectively 2-amino-8-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one, dP; 6-amino-3-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-5-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one, dZ; 8-(1'β-d-2'-deoxy-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazine-2(8H)-4(3H)-dione, dX; and 2,4-diamino-5-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-pyrimidine, dK). Using a coupled enzyme assay, in vitro kinetic parameters were obtained for three of these nucleosides (dP, dX, and dK; the UV absorbance of dZ made it impossible to get its precise kinetic parameters). Thus, DmdNK Q81E appears to be a suitable enzyme to catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of AEGIS 2'-deoxynucleoside triphosphates in vitro and, perhaps, in vivo, in a cell able to manage plasmids containing AEGIS DNA.

  2. Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase-C Suppresses cAMP Formation in Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taha, Issam H; Heijman, Jordi; Hippe, Hans-Jörg; Wolf, Nadine M; El-Armouche, Ali; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Schäfer, Marina; Würtz, Christina M; Neef, Stefan; Voigt, Niels; Baczkó, István; Varró, András; Müller, Marion; Meder, Benjamin; Katus, Hugo A; Spiger, Katharina; Vettel, Christiane; Lehmann, Lorenz H; Backs, Johannes; Skolnik, Edward Y; Lutz, Susanne; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wieland, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with altered signal transduction via β-adrenoceptors and G proteins and with reduced cAMP formation. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enriched at the plasma membrane of patients with end-stage HF, but the functional consequences of this are largely unknown, particularly for NDPK-C. Here, we investigated the potential role of NDPK-C in cardiac cAMP formation and contractility. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, (far) Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunocytochemistry were used to study the expression, interaction with G proteins, and localization of NDPKs. cAMP levels were determined with immunoassays or fluorescent resonance energy transfer, and contractility was determined in cardiomyocytes (cell shortening) and in vivo (fractional shortening). NDPK-C was essential for the formation of an NDPK-B/G protein complex. Protein and mRNA levels of NDPK-C were upregulated in end-stage human HF, in rats after long-term isoprenaline stimulation through osmotic minipumps, and after incubation of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with isoprenaline. Isoprenaline also promoted translocation of NDPK-C to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of NDPK-C in cardiomyocytes increased cAMP levels and sensitized cardiomyocytes to isoprenaline-induced augmentation of contractility, whereas NDPK-C knockdown decreased cAMP levels. In vivo, depletion of NDPK-C in zebrafish embryos caused cardiac edema and ventricular dysfunction. NDPK-B knockout mice had unaltered NDPK-C expression but showed contractile dysfunction and exacerbated cardiac remodeling during long-term isoprenaline stimulation. In human end-stage HF, the complex formation between NDPK-C and Gαi2 was increased whereas the NDPK-C/Gαs interaction was decreased, producing a switch that may contribute to an NDPK-C-dependent cAMP reduction in HF. Our findings identify NDPK-C as an essential requirement for both the interaction between NDPK isoforms and between NDPK isoforms

  3. Distortional binding of transition state analogs to human purine nucleoside phosphorylase probed by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.; Itin, Boris; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    Transition state analogs mimic the geometry and electronics of the transition state of enzymatic reactions. These molecules bind to the active site of the enzyme much tighter than substrate and are powerful noncovalent inhibitors. Immucillin-H (ImmH) and 4′-deaza-1′-aza-2′-deoxy-9-methylene Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) are picomolar inhibitors of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hPNP). Although both molecules are electronically similar to the oxocarbenium-like dissociative hPNP transition state, DADMe-ImmH is more potent than ImmH. DADMe-ImmH captures more of the transition state binding energy by virtue of being a closer geometric match to the hPNP transition state than ImmH. A consequence of these similarities is that the active site of hPNP exerts greater distortional forces on ImmH than on DADMe-ImmH to “achieve” the hPNP transition state geometry. By using magic angle spinning solid-state NMR to investigate stable isotope-labeled ImmH and DADMe-ImmH, we have explored the difference in distortional binding of these two inhibitors to hPNP. High-precision determinations of internuclear distances from NMR recoupling techniques, rotational echo double resonance, and rotational resonance, have provided unprecedented atomistic insight into the geometric changes that occur upon binding of transition state analogs. We conclude that hPNP stabilizes conformations of these chemically distinct analogs having distances between the cation and leaving groups resembling those of the known transition state. PMID:24043827

  4. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Peuchant, Evelyne; Bats, Marie-Lise; Moranvillier, Isabelle; Lepoivre, Michel; Guitton, Jérôme; Wendum, Dominique; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Boissan, Mathieu; Dabernat, Sandrine

    2017-04-01

    NME1 (nonmetastatic expressed 1) gene, which encodes nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) A [also known as nonmetastatic clone 23 (NM23)-H1 in humans and NM23-M1 in mice], is a suppressor of metastasis, but several lines of evidence-mostly from plants-also implicate it in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. Here, our aim was to investigate the physiologic relevance of NDPK A with respect to the oxidative stress response in mammals and to study its molecular basis. NME1-knockout mice died sooner, suffered greater hepatocyte injury, and had lower superoxide dismutase activity than did wild-type (WT) mice in response to paraquat-induced acute oxidative stress. Deletion of NME1 reduced total NDPK activity and exacerbated activation of the stress-related MAPK, JNK, in the liver in response to paraquat. In a mouse transformed hepatocyte cell line and in primary cultures of normal human keratinocytes, MAPK activation in response to H2O2 and UVB, respectively, was dampened by expression of NM23-M1/NM23-H1, dependent on its NDPK catalytic activity. Furthermore, excess or depletion of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 NDPK activity did not affect the intracellular bulk concentration of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. NME1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts grew poorly in culture, were more sensitive to stress than WT fibroblasts, and did not immortalize, which suggested that they senesce earlier than do WT fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that the NDPK activity of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 protects cells from acute oxidative stress by inhibiting activation of JNK in mammal models.-Peuchant, E., Bats, M.-L., Moranvillier, I., Lepoivre, M., Guitton, J., Wendum, D., Lacombe, M.-L., Moreau-Gaudry, F., Boissan, M., Dabernat, S. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

  5. Extended spectrum of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutations in patients receiving multiple nucleoside analog inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Matthew J.; Wu, Thomas D.; Taylor, Jonathan; Belitskaya, Ilana; Kantor, Rami; Israelski, Dennis; Chou, Sunwen; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Fessel, W. Jeffrey; Shafer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To characterize reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations by their association with extent of nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) therapy. To identify mutational clusters in RT sequences from persons receiving multiple NRTI. Design A total of 1210 RT sequences from persons with known antiretroviral therapy were analyzed: 641 new sequences were performed at Stanford University Hospital; 569 were previously published. Methods Chi-square tests and logistic regression were done to identify associations between mutations and NRTI therapy. Correlation studies were done to identify mutational clusters. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Results Mutations at 26 positions were significantly associated with NRTI including 17 known resistance mutations (positions 41, 44, 62, 65, 67, 69, 70, 74, 75, 77, 116, 118, 151, 184, 210, 215, 219) and nine previously unreported mutations (positions 20, 39, 43, 203, 208, 218, 221, 223, 228). The nine new mutations correlated linearly with number of NRTI; 777 out of 817 (95%) instances occurred with known drug resistance mutations. Positions 203, 208, 218, 221, 223, and 228 were conserved in untreated persons; positions 20, 39, and 43 were polymorphic. Most NRTI-associated mutations clustered into three groups: (i) 62, 65, 75, 77, 115, 116, 151; (ii) 41, 43, 44, 118, 208, 210, 215, 223; (iii) 67, 69, 70, 218, 219, 228. Conclusions Mutations at nine previously unreported positions are associated with NRTI therapy. These mutations are probably accessory because they occur almost exclusively with known drug resistance mutations. Most NRTI mutations group into one of three clusters, although several (e.g., M184V) occur in multiple mutational contexts. PMID:12660525

  6. Optical isomers of a new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analog (PR-350 series): Radiosensitization efficiency and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Natsuo; Sasai, Keisuke; Shibata, Toru

    1995-08-30

    A new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside radiosensitizer, PR-350 (1-[1{prime},3{prime},4{prime}-trihydroxy-2{prime}-butoxy]-methyl-2-nitroimidazole), has been reported to be as efficient as and less toxic than etanidazole. This compound is racemic, and it was recently optically resolved into two isomers, PR-68 (2{prime}R,3{prime}S type) and PR-69 (2{prime}S,3{prime}R type). The other two isomers, PR-28 (2{prime}S,3{prime}S type) and PR-44 (2{prime}R,3{prime}R type), were asymmetrically synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the properties, sensitizing activity, and toxicity of PR-350 and the four optical isomers in comparison with those of other 2-nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, etanidazole, KU-2285, KIN-804, and RP-170. Because PR-350 and PR-28 can be industrially synthesized, we evaluated whether either of these two drugs are suitable for further investigation. In vivo radiosensitizing activity differed among the four optical isomers, which appeared to be due, at least in part, to differences in lipophilicity. Although PR-28 was the least toxic, its low sensitization efficiency does not warrant clinical trials. Among the PR compounds, PR-68 appears to be most efficient, but optical resolution of PR-68 from PR-350 is expensive, and asymmetrical synthesis of PR-68 is not established. Therefore, PR-350 seems to be most suitable for further investigation among the PR-350 series compounds, considering its higher efficiency compared with PR-28 and PR-44, and established synthesis. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Long term expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase in thymidine kinase 2-deficient mice with no lethal effects caused by nucleotide pool imbalances.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shuba; Paredes, João A; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hultenby, Kjell; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2014-11-21

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion caused by thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency can be compensated by a nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) in mice. We show that transgene expression of Dm-dNK in Tk2 knock-out (Tk2(-/-)) mice extended the life span of Tk2(-/-) mice from 3 weeks to at least 20 months. The Dm-dNK(+/-)Tk2(-/-) mice maintained normal mitochondrial DNA levels throughout the observation time. A significant difference in total body weight due to the reduction of subcutaneous and visceral fat in the Dm-dNK(+/-)Tk2(-/-) mice was the only visible difference compared with control mice. This indicates an effect on fat metabolism mediated through residual Tk2 deficiency because Dm-dNK expression was low in both liver and fat tissues. Dm-dNK expression led to increased dNTP pools and an increase in the catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides but these alterations did not apparently affect the mice during the 20 months of observation. In conclusion, Dm-dNK expression in the cell nucleus expanded the total dNTP pools to levels required for efficient mitochondrial DNA synthesis, thereby compensated the Tk2 deficiency, during a normal life span of the mice. The Dm-dNK(+/-) mouse serves as a model for nucleoside gene or enzyme substitutions, nucleotide imbalances, and dNTP alterations in different tissues.

  8. Nonenantioselectivity Property of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Explained by Structures of the Enzyme in Complex with [subscript L]- and [subscript D]-Nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-31

    Biological molecules are predominantly enantioselective. Yet currently two nucleoside analogue prodrugs (3TC and FTC) with opposite chirality compared to physiological nucleosides are clinically approved for the treatment of HIV infections. These prodrugs require conversion to their triphosphorylated forms to achieve pharmacological activity. The first step in the activation of these agents is catalyzed by human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). This enzyme possesses the ability to phosphorylate nucleosides of the unnatural L-chirality. To understand the molecular basis for the nonenantioselectivity of dCK, we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the L-enantiomer and of its physiological substrate deoxycytidine and with the L-nucleoside analogue FTC. These were compared to a structure solved with D-dC. Our results highlight structural adjustments imposed on the L-nucleosides and properties of the enzyme endowing it with the ability to phosphorylate substrates with nonphysiological chirality. This work reveals the molecular basis for the activation of L-nucleosides by dCK.

  9. Interaction of hexa-His tag with acidic amino acids results in facilitated refolding of halophilic nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Ida, Keiko; Tatsuda, Shuhei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masao

    2011-11-01

    We have previously reported that amino-terminal extension sequence containing hexa-His facilitated refolding and assembly of hexameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase from extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum (NDK). In this study, we made various mutations in both the tag sequence and within NDK molecule. SerNDK, in which hexa-His was replaced with hexa-Ser, showed no facilitated folding. In addition, HisD58GD63G, in which both Asp58 and Asp63 in NDK were replaced with Gly, also showed no refolding enhancement. These results suggest that hexa-His in His-tag interact cooperatively with either Asp58 or Asp63 or both. Furthermore, G114D mutant, which formed a dimer in low salt solution, was strongly stabilized by His-tag to form a stable hexamer.

  10. Discovery of novel inhibitors for Leishmania nucleoside diphosphatase kinase (NDK) based on its structural and functional characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Arjun K.; Singh, Nidhi; Agnihotri, Pragati; Mishra, Shikha; Singh, Saurabh P.; Kolli, Bala K.; Chang, Kwang Poo; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Siddiqi, M. I.; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2017-06-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate moiety from an NTP donor to an NDP acceptor, crucial for maintaining the cellular level of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). The inability of trypanosomatids to synthesize purines de novo and their dependence on the salvage pathway makes NDK an attractive target to develop drugs for the diseases they cause. Here we report the discovery of novel inhibitors for Leishmania NDK based on the structural and functional characterization of purified recombinant NDK from Leishmania amazonensis. Recombinant LaNDK possesses auto-phosphorylation, phosphotransferase and kinase activities with Histidine 117 playing an essential role. LaNDK crystals were grown by hanging drop vapour diffusion method in a solution containing 18% PEG-MME 500, 100 mM Bis-Tris propane pH 6.0 and 50 mM MgCl2. It belongs to the hexagonal space group P6322 with unit cell parameters a = b = 115.18, c = 62.18 Å and α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. The structure solved by molecular replacement methods was refined to crystallographic R-factor and Rfree values of 22.54 and 26.52%, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation -based virtual screening identified putative binding compounds. Protein inhibition studies of selected hits identified five inhibitors effective at micromolar concentrations. One of the compounds showed 45% inhibition of Leishmania promastigotes proliferation. Analysis of inhibitor-NDK complexes reveals the mode of their binding, facilitating design of new compounds for optimization of activities as drugs against leishmaniasis.

  11. Phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase at the active site studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Deville-Bonne, D; Sellam, O; Merola, F; Lascu, I; Desmadril, M; Véron, M

    1996-11-19

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is the enzyme responsible in the cell for the phosphorylation of nucleoside or deoxynucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding triphosphates at the expense of ATP. Transfer of the gamma-phosphate is very fast (turnover number above 1000 s-1) and involves the phosphorylation of a histidine residue at the active site of the enzyme. We have used intrinsic protein fluorescence of the single tryptophan of Dictyostelium discoideum NDP kinase as a sensitive probe for monitoring the interaction of the enzyme with its substrates. We demonstrate that the 20% quenching of steady-state fluorescence observed upon addition of ATP is due to formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. Time-resolved fluorescence indicates that the Trp-137 side chain is rigidly bound to the protein core with a unique lifetime of 4.5 ns for the free enzyme at 20 degrees C and that it remains tightly immobilized during the time course of the reaction. Phosphorylation of this catalytic residue (His-122) in the presence of ATP induces a similar decrease in mean lifetime, due to the splitting of the signal and the appearance of a shorter decay. This splitting is discussed in terms of a slow conformational equilibrium. We demonstrate that, in the wild-type enzyme, the conserved His-55 quenches the fluorescence of Trp-137 as the H55A mutant protein fluorescence displays an increase in quantum yield. Even though H55A mutant enzyme is active, the absence of the imidazole ring prevents the detection of the phosphorylated state of His-122 by Trp-137. We conclude that His-55 serves as a relay between His-122 and Trp-137.

  12. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Reduction by Switching from Long-term Nucleoside/nucleotide Analog Administration to Pegylated Interferon.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Nobuharu; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Atsunori; Orito, Etsuro; Joko, Kouji; Kojima, Yuji; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Yasushi; Hasebe, Chitomi; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Namiki

    2017-02-15

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction during nucleoside/nucleotide analog (NA) therapy is slow and an alternative strategy for patients receiving ongoing NA to facilitate HBsAg reduction is required. We investigated whether switching to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) after long-term NA administration enhances HBsAg reduction. Forty-nine patients who switched from long-term NA to 48 weeks of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were studied. The mean duration of previous NA was 48 months (sequential group). A total of 147 patients who continued NA and matched for baseline characteristics were analyzed for comparison (NA continuation group). The treatment response was defined as HBsAg reduction ≥1.0 logIU/ml at the end of PEG-IFN. HBsAg reduction at week 48 was 0.81 ± 1.1 logIU/ml in the sequential group, which was significantly higher than that in the NA continuation group (0.11 ± 0.3 logIU/ml, p <0.001). The treatment response was achieved in 29% and 2% of the sequential group and NA continuation group (p <0.001), and the odds ratio of sequential therapy for treatment response was 19 compared with NA continuation (p <0.001). In patients positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBeAg seroconversion was higher in the sequential group (44% vs. 8%, p <0.001). In HBeAg negative patients, only patients in the sequential group achieved HBsAg loss. No patient needed to resume NA administration because of HBV DNA increase accompanied by alanine aminotransferase flares. In summary, sequential therapy with PEG-IFN after long-term NA enhances the reduction of HBsAg and may represent a treatment option to promote HBsAg loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, synthesis and anti flaviviridae activity of N(6)-, 5',3'-O- and 5',2'-O-substituted adenine nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Angusti, Angela; Manfredini, Stefano; Durini, Elisa; Ciliberti, Nunzia; Vertuani, Silvia; Solaroli, Nicola; Pricl, Sabrina; Ferrone, Marco; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Loddo, Roberta; Secci, Barbara; Visioli, Anna; Sanna, Tiziana; Collu, Gabriella; Pezzullo, Margherita; La Colla, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    During a random screening of representative libraries of nucleoside analogues we discovered that the adenine derivatives FEVB28 and FEG118 were Flaviviridae inhibitors endowed with potency comparable, if not superior, to that of ribavirin. Those studies prompted us to design a new class of protected nucleoside analogs, reported herein, which displays interesting anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) activity and low cytotoxicity in cell-based assays (4, 23, 29 EC(50): 14, 11, 26 microM respectively, CC(50)>100 microM) and appreciable activity in enzyme assays against the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of BVDV (4, 23, 29, RdRp inhibition activity 27, 16, 15 microM respectively). A molecular modeling study was also carried out to highlight the possible interactions between this compounds class and the corresponding hepatitis C virus (HCV) enzyme.

  14. Replication inhibition by nucleoside analogues of a recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus harboring the herpes thymidine kinase gene driven by the IE-1(0) promoter: a new way to select recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, F; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the thymidine-thymidylate kinase (HSV1-TK), (ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.21) of herpes simplex virus type 1 endows the host cell with a conditional lethal phenotype which depends on the presence of nucleoside analogues metabolized by this enzyme into toxic inhibitors of DNA replication. To generate a recombinant baculovirus that could be selected against by nucleoside analogs, the HSV1-tk coding sequence was placed under the control of the Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) immediate early promoterm IE-1(0), and this construction was introduced via homologous recombination into the polyhedrin locus of AcMNPV. Two recombinant baculoviruses harboring this gene construct at the polyhedrin locus were isolated and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of various concentrations of the nucleoside analog 9-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ganciclovir). Neither Sf9 lepidopteran cell viability nor replication of wild type or beta-Galactosidase-expressing recombinant AcMNPVs were affected by concentrations of Ganciclovir up to 100 microM. In contrast, replication of the recombinant AcMNPV virus harboring the HSV1-tk gene was inhibited by Ganciclovir in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was detectable at 2 microM and complete at 100 microM. This property was exploited in model isolations aimed at purifying new recombinant viruses having lost this counter-selectable gene marker as a result of homologous recombination at the polyhedrin locus after cotransfection of the viral DNA with a replacement vector. After being propagated in the presence of Ganciclovir, the progeny of such co-transfections contained over 85% recombinant viruses, demonstrating that counter-selection of parental HSV1-tk-containing viruses by Ganciclovir constitutes a novel approach for recombinant baculovirus isolation. Images PMID:1335569

  15. Vanadium-Binding Ability of Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase from the Vanadium-Rich Fan Worm, Pseudopotamilla occelata.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Kamino, Kei; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Polychaete fan worms and ascidians accumulate high levels of vanadium ions. Several vanadiumbinding proteins, known as vanabins, have been found in ascidians. However, no vanadium-binding factors have been isolated from the fan worm. In the present study, we sought to identify vanadiumbinding proteins in the branchial crown of the fan worm using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. A nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) homolog was isolated and determined to be a vanadium-binding protein. Kinase activity of the NDK homologue, PoNDK, was suppressed by the addition of V(IV), but was unaffected by V(V). The effect of V(IV) on PoNDK precedes its activation by Mg(II). This is the first report to describe the relationship between NDK and V(IV). PoNDK is located in the epidermis of the branchial crown, and its distribution is very similar to that of vanadium. These results suggest that PoNDK is associated with vanadium accumulation and metabolism in P. occelata.

  16. Pyrimidine non-nucleoside analogs: A direct synthesis of a novel class of N-substituted amino and N-sulfonamide derivatives of pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Elgemeie, Galal H; Salah, Ali M; Abbas, Nermeen S; Hussein, Hoda A; Mohamed, Reham A

    2017-03-04

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of pyrimidine non-nucleoside analogs was developed. This study reports a novel and efficient method for the synthesis of a new type of N-substituted amino methylsulfanylpyrimidines and the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. This series of compounds was designed through the reaction of dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonate with 2-cyano-N'-(thiophen-2-yl-, furan-2-yl- and pyridin-4-ylmethylene)acetohydrazide and N'-(2-cyanoacetyl)arylsulfonohydrazides. The scope and limitation of the method are demonstrated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds were also evaluated.

  17. Determination of nucleoside analog mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates in cellular matrix by solid phase extraction and ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Lane R; Kiser, Jennifer J; Rower, Joseph E; Klein, Brandon; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Ray, Michelle L; Anderson, Peter L

    2011-09-10

    An ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to facilitate the assessment of clinical pharmacokinetics of nucleotide analogs from lysed intracellular matrix. The method utilized a strong anion exchange isolation of mono-(MP), di-(DP), and tri-phosphates (TP) from intracellular matrix. Each fraction was then dephosphorylated to the parent moiety yielding a molar equivalent to the original nucleotide analog intracellular concentration. The analytical portion of the methodology was optimized in specific nucleoside analog centric modes (i.e. tenofovir (TFV) centric, zidovudine (ZDV) centric), which included desalting/concentration by solid phase extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS. Nucleotide analog MP-, DP-, and TP-determined on the TFV centric mode of analysis include TFV, lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitibine (FTC). The quantifiable linear range for TFV was 2.5-2000 fmol/sample, and that for 3TC/FTC was 0.1 200 pmol/sample. Nucleoside analog MP-, DP-, and TP-determined on the ZDV centric mode of analysis included 3TC and ZDV. The quantifiable linear range for 3TC was 0.1 100 pmol/sample, and 5-2000 fmol/sample for ZDV. Stable labeled isotopic internal standards facilitated accuracy and precision in alternative cell matrices, which supported the intended use of the method for MP, DP, and TP determinations in various cell types. The method was successfully applied to clinical research samples generating novel intracellular information for TFV, FTC, ZDV, and 3TC nucleotides. This document outlines method development, validation, and application to clinical research.

  18. [Efficacy of initial antiretroviral therapy based on lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    PubMed

    Zamora, Laura; Gatell, José M

    2014-11-01

    Triple combination regimens consisting of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs continue to be a valid option in initial antiretroviral therapy. Other protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir (and in future with cobicistat) have been introduced, as well as other non-nucleoside analogs (rilpivirin) and 3 integrase inhibitors. None of the new regimens have shown superiority over LPV/r or comparisons are lacking. Therefore, regimens including LPV/r continue to be recommended as initial first-line or alternative strategies in most treatment guidelines. Dual combinations with LPV/r (plus raltegravir or lamivudine) are described in another article and can provide a similar response rate to triple combinations, better tolerance, and an improved cost-efficacy ratio, both for initial therapy and in simplification strategies. In contrast, LPV/r or darunavir/r monotherapy does not seem an acceptable option in treatment-naïve patients and is becoming increasingly less acceptable in simplification strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Label-free offline versus online activity methods for nucleoside diphosphate kinase b using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliana Maria; Salmazo Vieira, Plínio; Cavalcante de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia

    2016-08-07

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Leishmania spp. (LmNDKb) has recently been described as a potential drug target to treat leishmaniasis disease. Therefore, screening of LmNDKb ligands requires methodologies that mimic the conditions under which LmNDKb acts in biological systems. Here, we compare two label-free methodologies that could help screen LmNDKb ligands and measure NDKb activity: an offline LC-UV assay for soluble LmNDKb and an online two-dimensional LC-UV system based on LmNDKb immobilised on a silica capillary. The target enzyme was immobilised on the silica capillary via Schiff base formation (to give LmNDKb-ICER-Schiff) or affinity attachment (to give LmNDKb-ICER-His). Several aspects of the ICERs resulting from these procedures were compared, namely kinetic parameters, stability, and procedure steps. Both the LmNDKb immobilisation routes minimised the conformational changes and preserved the substrate binding sites. However, considering the number of steps involved in the immobilisation procedure, the cost of reagents, and the stability of the immobilised enzyme, immobilisation via Schiff base formation proved to be the optimal procedure.

  20. Heat Stress Response in Pea Involves Interaction of Mitochondrial Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase with a Novel 86-Kilodalton Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Escobar Galvis, Martha L.; Marttila, Salla; Håkansson, Gunilla; Forsberg, Jens; Knorpp, Carina

    2001-01-01

    In this work we have further characterized the first mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase (mtNDPK) isolated from plants. The mitochondrial isoform was found to be especially abundant in reproductive and young tissues. Expression of the pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Oregon sugarpod) mtNDPK was not affected by different stress conditions. However, the pea mtNDPK was found to interact with a novel 86-kD protein, which is de novo synthesized in pea leaves upon exposure to heat. Thus, we have evidence for the involvement of mtNDPK in mitochondrial heat response in pea in vivo. Studies on oligomerization revealed that mtNDPK was found in complexes of various sizes, corresponding to the sizes of e.g. hexamers, tetramers, and dimers, indicating flexibility in oligomerization. This flexibility, also found for other NDPK isoforms, has been correlated with the ability of this enzyme to interact with other proteins. We believe that the mtNDPK is involved in heat stress response in pea, possibly as a modulator of the 86-kD protein. PMID:11351071

  1. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by nucleoside diphosphate kinase pH dependence and role of the active site Lys16 and Tyr56 residues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Babolat, M; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates nucleoside diphosphates with little specificity for the base and the sugar. Although nucleotide analogues used in antiviral therapies are also metabolized to their triphosphate form by NDP kinase, their lack of the 3'-hydroxyl of the ribose, which allows them to be DNA chain terminators, severely impairs the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase. We have analyzed the kinetics parameters of several mutant NDP kinases modified on residues (Lys16, Tyr56, Asn119) interacting with the gamma-phosphate and/or the 3'-OH of the Mg2+-ATP substrate. We compared the relative contributions of the active-site residues and the substrate 3'-OH for point mutations on Lys16, Tyr56 and Asn119. Analysis of additional data from pH profiles identify the ionization state of these residues in the enzyme active form. X-ray structure of K16A mutant NDP kinase shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues of the active site.

  2. Cooperation and Competition between Adenylate Kinase, Nucleoside Diphosphokinase, Electron Transport, and ATP Synthase in Plant Mitochondria Studied by 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, JKM.; Aubert, S.; Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria was studied using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the O2 electrode. Immediately following the addition of ADP, ATP synthesis exceeded the rate of oxidative phosphorylation, fueled by succinate oxidation, due to mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK) activity two to four times the maximum activity of ATP synthase. Only when the AK reaction approached equilibrium was oxidative phosphorylation the primary mechanism for net ATP synthesis. A pool of sequestered ATP in mitochondria enabled AK and ATP synthase to convert AMP to ATP in the presence of exogenous inorganic phosphate. During this conversion, AK activity can indirectly influence rates of oxidation of both succinate and NADH via changes in mitochondrial ATP. Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphokinase, in cooperation with ATP synthase, was found to facilitate phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates other than ADP at rates similar to the maximum rate of oxidative phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that plant mitochondria contain all of the machinery necessary to rapidly regenerate nucleoside triphosphates from AMP and nucleoside diphosphates made during cellular biosynthesis and that AK activity can affect both the amount of ADP available to ATP synthase and the level of ATP regulating electron transport. PMID:12223600

  3. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Lee A.; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Taylor, Christopher J.; Cozza, Giorgio; Lascu, Ioan; Postel, Edith H.; Cassidy, Diane; Trouvé, Pascal; Mehta, Anil; Robson, Louise; Muimo, Richmond

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2) forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36–54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A). Overlay (Far-Western) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351–727). Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive) showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A) peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia. PMID:26950439

  4. Conformational basis for substrate recognition and regulation of catalytic activity in Staphylococcus aureus nucleoside di-phosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar; Rajasree, Kalagiri; Gopal, B

    2011-10-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDK) are characterized by high catalytic turnover rates and diverse substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an effective activator of a pro-drug-an application that has been actively pursued for a variety of therapeutic strategies. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is governed by a conserved histidine that coordinates a magnesium ion at the active site. Despite substantial structural and biochemical information on NDK, the mechanistic feature of the phospho-transfer that leads to auto-phosphorylation remains unclear. While the role of the histidine residue is well documented, the other active site residues, in particular the conserved serine remains poorly characterized. Studies on some homologues suggest no role for the serine residue at the active site, while others suggest a crucial role for this serine in the regulation and quaternary association of this enzyme in some species. Here we report the biochemical features of the Staphylococcus aureus NDK and the mutant enzymes. We also describe the crystal structures of the apo-NDK, as a transition state mimic with vanadate and in complex with different nucleotide substrates. These structures formed the basis for molecular dynamics simulations to understand the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme and the role of active site residues in the phospho-transfer mechanism and oligomerization. Put together, these data suggest that concerted changes in the conformation of specific residues facilitate the stabilization of nucleotide complexes thereby enabling the steps involved in the ping-pong reaction mechanism without large changes to the overall structure of this enzyme.

  5. Nucleophilic activation by positioning in phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, S J; Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Herschlag, D

    1999-04-13

    The nonenzymatic reaction of ATP with a nucleophile to generate ADP and a phosphorylated product proceeds via a dissociative transition state with little bond formation to the nucleophile. Consideration of the dissociative nature of the nonenzymatic transition state leads to the following question: To what extent can the nucleophile be activated in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer? We have addressed this question for the NDP kinase reaction. A mutant form of the enzyme lacking the nucleophilic histidine (H122G) can be chemically rescued for ATP attack by imidazole or other exogenous small nucleophiles. The ATP reaction is 50-fold faster with the wild-type enzyme, which has an imidazole nucleophile positioned for reaction by a covalent bond, than with H122G, which employs a noncovalently bound imidazole nucleophile [(kcat/KM)ATP]. Further, a 4-fold advantage for imidazole positioned in the nucleophile binding pocket created by the mutation is suggested from comparison of the reaction of H122G and ATP with an imidazole versus a water nucleophile, after correction for the intrinsic reactivities of imidazole and water toward ATP in solution. X-ray structural analysis shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues surrounding His 122 upon mutation to Gly 122. The overall rate effect of approximately 10(2)-fold for the covalent imidazole nucleophile relative to water is therefore attributed to positioning of the nucleophile with respect to the reactive phosphoryl group. This is underscored by the more deleterious effect of replacing ATP with AlphaTauPgammaS in the wild-type reaction than in the imidazole-rescued mutant reaction, as follows. For the wild-type, AlphaTauPgammaS presumably disrupts positioning between nucleophile and substrate, resulting in a large thio effect of 300-fold, whereas precise alignment is already disrupted in the mutant because there is no covalent bond to the nucleophile, resulting in a smaller thio effect of 10-fold. In summary, the results

  6. The logic and design of analog-sensitive kinases and their small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Michael S; Kliegman, Joseph I; Shokat, Kevan M

    2014-01-01

    Analog-sensitive AS Kinase technology allows for rapid, reversible, and highly specific inhibition of individual engineered kinases in cells and in mouse models of human diseases. The technique consists of two parts: a kinase containing a space-creating mutation in the ATP-binding pocket and a bulky ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitor that complements the shape of the mutant ATP pocket. This strategy enables dissection of phospho-signaling pathways, elucidation of the physiological function of individual kinases, and characterization of the pharmacology of clinical-kinase inhibitors. Here, we present an overview of AS technology and describe a stepwise approach for generating AS Kinase mutants and identifying appropriate small molecule inhibitors. We also describe commonly encountered technical obstacles and provide strategies to overcome them.

  7. Spectrum of Activity and Mechanisms of Resistance of Various Nucleoside Derivatives against Gammaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Topalis, Dimitri; Snoeck, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibilities of gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and animal rhadinoviruses, to various nucleoside analogs was investigated in this work. Besides examining the antiviral activities and modes of action of antivirals currently marketed for the treatment of alpha- and/or betaherpesvirus infections (including acyclovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, and brivudin), we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of various 5-substituted uridine and cytidine molecules. The antiviral efficacy of nucleoside derivatives bearing substitutions at the 5 position was decreased if the bromovinyl was replaced by chlorovinyl. 1-β-d-Arabinofuranosyl-(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVaraU), a nucleoside with an arabinose configuration of the sugar ring, exhibited no inhibitory effect against rhadinoviruses but was active against EBV. On the other hand, the fluoroarabinose cytidine analog 2′-fluoro-5-iodo-aracytosine (FIAC) showed high selectivity indices against gammaherpesviruses that were comparable to those of brivudin. Additionally, we selected brivudin- and acyclovir-resistant rhadinoviruses in vitro and characterized them by phenotypic and genotypic (i.e., sequencing of the viral thymidine kinase, protein kinase, and DNA polymerase) analysis. Here, we reveal key amino acids in these enzymes that play an important role in substrate recognition. Our data on drug susceptibility profiles of the different animal gammaherpesvirus mutants highlighted cross-resistance patterns and indicated that pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase and purine nucleosides are preferentially activated by the gammaherpesvirus protein kinase. PMID:25267682

  8. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 5-[(18)f]fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides for molecular imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F

    2008-09-25

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU) that have three, four, or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5 were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1- tk) gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed in efficiently synthesizing the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were readily prepared from 3-N-benzoyl-3',5'-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17-35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [(18)F]-labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein and there was negligible uptake in control cells. [(18)F]FPrDU, [(18)F]FBuDU, [(18)F]FPeDU, and [(18)F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite their selective accumulation in HSV1- tk-expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low-to-negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50 > 1000-1209 microM). Ultimately, the results demonstrated that 5-[(18)F]fluoropropyl, [(18)F]fluorobutyl, and [(18)F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have the potential to be in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels.

  9. Post-Translational Phosphorylation of Serine 74 of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Favors the Enzyme Adopting the Open Conformation Making It Competent for Nucleoside Binding and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Szewczak, Andrzej; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2012-03-26

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) uses either ATP or UTP as a phosphoryl donor to catalyze the phosphorylation of nucleoside acceptors. The kinetic properties of human dCK are modulated in vivo by phosphorylation of serine 74. This residue is a part of the insert region and is distant from the active site. Replacing the serine with a glutamic acid (S74E variant) can mimic phosphorylation of Ser74. To understand how phosphorylation affects the catalytic properties of dCK, we examined the S74E variant of dCK both structurally and kinetically. We observe that the presence of a glutamic acid at position 74 favors the adoption by the enzyme of the open conformation. Glu74 stabilizes the open conformation by directly interacting with the indole side chain of Trp58, a residue that is in the proximity of the base of the nucleoside substrate. The open dCK conformation is competent for the binding of nucleoside but not for phosphoryl transfer. In contrast, the closed conformation is competent for phosphoryl transfer but not for product release. Thus, dCK must make the transition between the open and closed states during the catalytic cycle. We propose a reaction scheme for dCK that incorporates the transition between the open and closed states, and this serves to rationalize the observed kinetic differences between wild-type dCK and the S74E variant.

  10. Escherichia coli strains (ndk) lacking nucleoside diphosphate kinase are powerful mutators for base substitutions and frameshifts in mismatch-repair-deficient strains.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey H; Funchain, Pauline; Clendenin, Wendy; Huang, Tiffany; Nguyen, Anh; Wolff, Erika; Yeung, Annie; Chiang, Ju-Huei; Garibyan, Lilit; Slupska, Malgorzata M; Yang, Hanjing

    2002-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is one of the enzymes that maintains triphosphate pools. Escherichia coli strains (ndk) lacking this enzyme have been shown to be modest base substitution mutators, and two members of the human family of NDP kinases act as tumor suppressors. We show here that in E. coli strains lacking NDP kinase high levels of mispairs are generated, but most of these are corrected by the mismatch-repair system. Double mutants that are ndk mutS, lacking both the NDP kinase and mismatch repair, have levels of base substitutions 15-fold higher and levels of certain frameshifts up to 10-fold higher than those of the respective mutations in mutS strains that are NDP kinase proficient. A sequence analysis of the specificity of base substitution mutations generated in ndk and ndk mutS backgrounds as well as other experiments suggests that NDP kinase deficiency stimulates polymerase errors that lead to A:T --> G:C transitions and that the editing capacity of cells may be affected, leading to additional uncorrected mispairs and to A:T --> T:A transversions.

  11. NDP kinase reactivity towards 3TC nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, A; Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Faraj, A; Sommadossi, J P; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-05-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is usually considered as the enzyme responsible for the last step of the cellular phosphorylation pathway leading to the synthesis of biologically active triphospho-derivatives of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies and in particular in the treatment of AIDS. NDP kinase lacks specificity for the nucleobase and can use as substrate both ribo- or 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. However, only nucleoside analogs with a sugar moiety in the D-configuration (e.g. 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T)) have so far been analyzed as substrates of NDP kinase. In contrast, beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), also called lamivudine, is a nucleoside analog that is now widely used in AIDS therapy and has a sugar moiety in the L-configuration. Using protein fluorescence to monitor the phosphotransfer between the enzyme and the nucleotide derivative at the presteady state, we have studied the reactivity of 3TC triphosphate and of other L-dideoxynucleotides with NDP kinase. We found that L-dideoxynucleoside triphosphates have a poor affinity for NDP kinase and that the catalytic efficiency of the phosphorylation of L-dideoxyderivatives is very low as compared with their D-enantiomers. We discuss these results using a computer model of 3TC diphosphate bound to the NDP kinase active site. NDP kinase may not seem to be the major enzyme phosphorylating 3TC-DP, in contrast to current opinion.

  12. Enhanced expression of a gene encoding a nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (OsNDPK1) in rice plants upon infection with bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Song Mi; Shin, Seo Ho; Kim, Kwang Sang; Kim, Young Cheol; Eun, Moo Young; Cho, Baik Ho

    2004-12-31

    A cDNA library was constructed using mRNA extracted from rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a bacterial leaf blight pathogen, to isolate rice genes induced by Xoo infection. Subtractive hybridization and differential screening of the cDNA library led to the isolation of many induced genes including a nucleotide diphosphate kinase 1 (OsNDPK1) and a pathogenesis-related protein 1 (OsPR1) cDNA. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are key metabolic enzymes that maintain the balance between cellular ATP and other nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). Three other OsNDPK genes (NP922751, OsNDPK2 and OsNDPK3) found in databases were obtained by RT-PCR. Three different programs for predicting subcellular targeting indicated that OsNDPK1 and NP922751 were non-organellar, OsNDPK2 plastidic, and OsNDPK3 mitochondrial. Only transcripts of OsNDPK1 accumulated strongly after infection with Xoo. When rice plants were infected with Burkholderia glumae, a bacterial grain/seedling rot pathogen, the pattern of expression of the rice NDPK genes was similar to that following infection with Xoo. OsNDPK1 gene expression was also strongly induced in response to exposure to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid, although the level of transcripts and their pattern of expression depended on the inducer.

  13. DRAM Is Involved in Regulating Nucleoside Analog-Induced Neuronal Autophagy in a p53-Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ziyun; Shan, Junqi; Wang, Bishi; Qiao, Luxin; Chen, Dexi; Zhang, Yulin

    2017-03-06

    The widespread use of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has not decreased the prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a type of neurodegenerative disease, even though cART effectively inhibits virus colonization in the central nervous system. Therefore, anti-retroviral agents cannot be fully excluded from the pathogenesis of HAND. Our previous study reported that long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) exposure induced mitochondrial toxicity in the cortical neurons of HAND patients and mice, but the exact mechanism of NA-associated neurotoxicity has remained unclear. Alteration of autophagy can result in protein aggregation and the accumulation of dysfunctional organelles, which are hallmarks of some neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we first found increased autophagy in cortical autopsy specimens of AIDS patients. We then found that a low dose of NAs could stimulate autophagy in primary cultured neurons, while a high dose of NAs could induce only neuronal apoptosis. The level of NA-induced Bcl-2 and Bax expressions determined whether neuronal autophagy or apoptosis occurred. Furthermore, the level of NA-induced neuronal apoptosis correlated with the dysfunction of cellular DNA polymerase gamma. Damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) overexpression was also involved in NA-induced neuronal autophagy. p53 played a role in the regulation of NA-induced neuronal apoptosis, but its role in NA-associated neuronal autophagy was uncertain. Our results suggest that DRAM is involved in the regulation of NA-induced neuronal autophagy in a p53-independent manner. Further research is needed to investigate the underlying mechanism.

  14. Structure-guided inhibitor design expands the scope of analog-sensitive kinase technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Lopez, Michael S; Dar, Arvin C; Ladow, Eva; Finkbeiner, Steven; Yun, Cai-Hong; Eck, Michael J; Shokat, Kevan M

    2013-09-20

    Engineered analog-sensitive (AS) protein kinases have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting phospho-signaling pathways, for elucidating the cellular function of individual kinases, and for deciphering unanticipated effects of clinical therapeutics. A crucial and necessary feature of this technology is a bioorthogonal small molecule that is innocuous toward native cellular systems but potently inhibits the engineered kinase. In order to generalize this method, we sought a molecule capable of targeting divergent AS-kinases. Here we employ X-ray crystallography and medicinal chemistry to unravel the mechanism of current inhibitors and use these insights to design the most potent, selective, and general AS-kinase inhibitors reported to date. We use large-scale kinase inhibitor profiling to characterize the selectivity of these molecules as well as examine the consequences of potential off-target effects in chemical genetic experiments. The molecules reported here will serve as powerful tools in efforts to extend AS-kinase technology to the entire kinome and the principles discovered may help in the design of other engineered enzyme/ligand pairs.

  15. Synchronized fission yeast meiosis using an ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W.; Smith, Gerald R.; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous cultures are often indispensable for studying meiosis. Here, we present an optimized protocol for induction of synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical inactivation of an ATP analog-sensitive form of the Pat1 kinase (pat1-as2) by adding the ATP-analog 1-NM-PP1 in G1-arrested cells allows induction of synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature (25 °C). Importantly, this protocol eliminates detrimental effects of elevated temperature (34 °C) which is required to inactivate the commonly used temperature-sensitive Pat1 kinase mutant (pat1-114). Addition of the mat-Pc gene to a mat1-M strain further improves chromosome segregation and spore viability. Thus, our protocol offers highly synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature with most characteristics similar to those of wild-type meiosis. The synchronization protocol can be completed in 5 days. PMID:24385151

  16. DNA 3' pp 5' G de-capping activity of aprataxin: effect of cap nucleoside analogs and structural basis for guanosine recognition

    DOE PAGES

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Jacewicz, Agata; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-05-24

    DNA3' pp 5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i)more » GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)–NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.« less

  17. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA sensitizes acute myeloid leukemia cells to a combination of nucleoside analogs and the DNA-alkylating agent busulfan.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiyun; Valdez, Benigno C; Li, Yang; Dominguez, Jose R; Corn, Paul; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2014-07-01

    Fludarabine (Flu), clofarabine (Clo) and busulfan (Bu) are used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). We reported that combining [Flu + Clo + Bu] had a synergistic cytotoxicity in AML cells. We hypothesized that combining [Flu + Clo + Bu] with the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA will further enhance cytotoxicity. We exposed the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines KBM3/Bu250(6) and OCI-AML3 to Flu, Clo, Bu and SAHA alone and in various combinations. [Flu + Clo + Bu + SAHA] resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity, which can be attributed to (1) activated DNA-damage response and cell cycle checkpoint activation through the ATM-CHK2-P53 (or P73) pathway or ATM-CHK2-cdc25-cdc2 pathway, (2) histone modifications and (3) activated apoptosis pathway. The [Flu + Clo + Bu + SAHA] combination causes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, leakage of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo into the cytosol with caspase activation, and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) into the nucleus resulting in nuclear fragmentation and cell death. These results provide a mechanistic basis for using SAHA in future clinical trials with double nucleoside analog-busulfan combinations in pretransplant conditioning therapy.

  18. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and molecular docking of cyclohexenone based analogous as potent non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Abdullah, Muhammad Imran; Badshah, Amir; Mahmood, Asif; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2015-04-01

    The chalcones core in compounds is advantageously chosen effective synthons, which offer exciting perspectives in biological and pharmacological research. The present study reports the successful development of eight new cyclohexenone based anti-reverse transcriptase analogous using rational drug design synthesis principles. These new cyclohexenone derivatives (CDs) were synthesized by following a convenient route of Robinson annulation, and the molecular structure of these CDs were later confirmed by various analytical techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All the synthesized compounds were screened theoretically and experimentally against reverse transcriptase (RT) and found potentially active reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Of the compounds studied, the compound 2FC4 showed high interaction with RT at non-nucleoside binding site, contributing high free binding energy (ΔG -8.01 Kcal) and IC50 (0.207 μg/ml), respectively. Further results revealed that the compounds bearing more halogen groups, with additional hydrophobic character, offered superior anti-reverse transcriptase activity as compared to rest of compounds. It is anticipate that the present study would be very useful for the selection of potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors featuring inclusive pharmacological profiles.

  19. Disaccharide nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimtseva, Ekaterina V.; Mikhailov, Sergei N.

    2004-04-01

    Structural features and biological properties of natural disaccharide nucleosides and related compounds are considered. The main methods for the synthesis of these compounds are described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. These methods include condensations of a protected disaccharide with a heterocyclic base or of a protected nucleoside with an activated monosaccharide.

  20. Design, synthesis and characterization of a highly effective inhibitor for analog-sensitive (as) kinases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael; Morillas, Montse; Vendrell, Alexandre; Brive, Lars; Gebbia, Marinella; Wallace, Iain M; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Posas, Francesc; Grøtli, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Highly selective, cell-permeable and fast-acting inhibitors of individual kinases are sought-after as tools for studying the cellular function of kinases in real time. A combination of small molecule synthesis and protein mutagenesis, identified a highly potent inhibitor (1-Isopropyl-3-(phenylethynyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine) of a rationally engineered Hog1 serine/threonine kinase (Hog1(T100G)). This inhibitor has been successfully used to study various aspects of Hog1 signaling, including a transient cell cycle arrest and gene expression changes mediated by Hog1 in response to stress. This study also underscores that the general applicability of this approach depends, in part, on the selectivity of the designed the inhibitor with respect to activity versus the engineered and wild type kinases. To explore this specificity in detail, we used a validated chemogenetic assay to assess the effect of this inhibitor on all gene products in yeast in parallel. The results from this screen emphasize the need for caution and for case-by-case assessment when using the Analog-Sensitive Kinase Allele technology to assess the physiological roles of kinases.

  1. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of Some Novel MC-1220 Analogs as Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik B; Loddo, Roberta; La Colla, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Some novel MC-1220 analogs were synthesized by condensation of 4,6-dichloro-N-methylpyrimidin-2-amine derivatives (1a,b and 15) and/or 4-chloro-6-methoxy-N,N,5-trimethylpyrimidin-2-amine (2a) with the sodium salt of 2,6-difluorophenylacetonitrile followed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide in methanol, alkylation, reduction, halogenation, and/or acidic hydrolysis. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their activity against HIV-1. The most active compound in this study was compound 7, which showed activity against HIV-1 comparable to that of MC-1220. The only difference in structure between compound 7 and MC-1220 is a fluoro atom instead of a CH3 group.

  2. Protection and rescue from 2',3'-dideoxypyrimidine nucleoside analog toxicity by hemin in human bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D A; Xie, M Y; Sommadossi, J P

    1996-01-01

    Long-term therapy of AIDS patients with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) remains of concern because of resulting hematopoietic toxicity. While the mechanism(s) of this toxicity remains elusive, alternative strategies are being developed to reduce these toxic effects, including combination therapy with nonmyelotoxic antihuman immunodeficiency virus drugs and/or administration of protective or rescue agents, including cytokines and growth factors. By using a particularly relevant human CD34+ liquid culture system, the unique profiles of dideoxynucleoside (ddN) toxicities to both proliferation and differentiation were demonstrated, with decreased potencies in the order of 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (FLT) = 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT) = 2',3'-dideoxycytidine > AZT for inhibition of proliferation and in the order of FLT = AMT > AZT >> 2',3'-dideoxycytidine for inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis. Hemin selectively protected erythroid-lineage human burst-forming unit-erythroid cells from AZT- and AMT-induced inhibition but had no effect on FLT toxicity under similar conditions. Myeloid-lineage human CFU-granulocyte-macrophages were also not protected by hemin against all three ddN analogs. The simultaneous exposure of cells to hemin and AZT resulted in a complete protection of both cell proliferation and hemoglobin synthesis. In contrast, in reversal studies only the inhibition of the percentage of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells returned to control levels, but the inhibition of proliferation of cells previously exposed to AZT was not reversed by hemin. These studies further define the unique and multifactorial mechanism(s) of ddN-induced toxic effects during hematopoietic development of pluripotent stem cells and suggest that the use of hemin could be beneficial in alleviating the toxicity of certain ddN analogs. PMID:8787904

  3. Base-modified nucleosides: etheno derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz; Januszczyk, Piotr; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs..

  4. Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into DNA

    PubMed Central

    SAKAMOTO, KAZUKI; YOKOGAWA, TATSUSHI; UENO, HIROYUKI; OGUCHI, KEI; KAZUNO, HIROMI; ISHIDA, KEIJI; TANAKA, NOZOMU; OSADA, AKIKO; YAMADA, YUKARI; OKABE, HIROYUKI; MATSUO, KENICHI

    2015-01-01

    Trifluridine (FTD) and 2′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FdUrd), a derivative of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are antitumor agents that inhibit thymidylate synthase activity and their nucleotides are incorporated into DNA. However, it is evident that several differences occur in the underlying antitumor mechanisms associated with these nucleoside analogues. Recently, TAS-102 (composed of FTD and tipiracil hydrochloride, TPI) was shown to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer who received a median of 2 prior therapies, including 5-FU. TAS-102 was recently approved for clinical use in Japan. These data suggest that the antitumor activities of TAS-102 and 5-FU proceed via different mechanisms. Thus, we analyzed their properties in terms of thymidine salvage pathway utilization, involving membrane transporters, a nucleoside kinase, a nucleotide-dephosphorylating enzyme, and DNA polymerase α. FTD incorporated into DNA with higher efficiency than FdUrd did. Both FTD and FdUrd were transported into cells by ENT1 and ENT2 and were phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1, which showed a higher catalytic activity for FTD than for FdUrd. deoxyUTPase (DUT) did not recognize dTTP and FTD-triphosphate (F3dTTP), whereas deoxyuridine-triphosphate (dUTP) and FdUrd-triphosphate (FdUTP) were efficiently degraded by DUT. DNA polymerase α incorporated both F3dTTP and FdUTP into DNA at sites aligned with adenine on the opposite strand. FTD-treated cells showed differing nuclear morphologies compared to FdUrd-treated cells. These findings indicate that FTD and FdUrd are incorporated into DNA with different efficiencies due to differences in the substrate specificities of TK1 and DUT, causing abundant FTD incorporation into DNA. PMID:25901475

  5. Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into DNA.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuki; Yokogawa, Tatsushi; Ueno, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Kei; Kazuno, Hiromi; Ishida, Keiji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Osada, Akiko; Yamada, Yukari; Okabe, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Trifluridine (FTD) and 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (FdUrd), a derivative of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are antitumor agents that inhibit thymidylate synthase activity and their nucleotides are incorporated into DNA. However, it is evident that several differences occur in the underlying antitumor mechanisms associated with these nucleoside analogues. Recently, TAS-102 (composed of FTD and tipiracil hydrochloride, TPI) was shown to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer who received a median of 2 prior therapies, including 5-FU. TAS-102 was recently approved for clinical use in Japan. These data suggest that the antitumor activities of TAS-102 and 5-FU proceed via different mechanisms. Thus, we analyzed their properties in terms of thymidine salvage pathway utilization, involving membrane transporters, a nucleoside kinase, a nucleotide-dephosphorylating enzyme, and DNA polymerase α. FTD incorporated into DNA with higher efficiency than FdUrd did. Both FTD and FdUrd were transported into cells by ENT1 and ENT2 and were phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1, which showed a higher catalytic activity for FTD than for FdUrd. deoxyUTPase (DUT) did not recognize dTTP and FTD-triphosphate (F3dTTP), whereas deoxyuridine-triphosphate (dUTP) and FdUrd-triphosphate (FdUTP) were efficiently degraded by DUT. DNA polymerase α incorporated both F3dTTP and FdUTP into DNA at sites aligned with adenine on the opposite strand. FTD-treated cells showed differing nuclear morphologies compared to FdUrd-treated cells. These findings indicate that FTD and FdUrd are incorporated into DNA with different efficiencies due to differences in the substrate specificities of TK1 and DUT, causing abundant FTD incorporation into DNA.

  6. Analogs of cinnamic acid benzyl amide as nonclassical inhibitors of activated JAK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mielecki, Marcin; Milner-Krawczyk, Małgorzata; Grzelak, Krystyna; Mielecki, Damian; Krzysko, Krystiana A; Lesyng, Bogdan; Priebe, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold-based analogs of cinnamic acid benzyl amide (CABA) exhibit pleiotropic effects in cancer cells, and their exact molecular mechanism of action is under investigation. The present study is part of our systemic analysis of interactions of CABA analogs with their molecular targets. These compounds were shown to inhibit Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling and thus are attractive scaffolds for anticancer drug design. To identify the potential mechanisms of action of this class of compounds, direct interactions of the selected CABA analogs with JAK2 kinase were examined. Inhibition of JAK2 enzymatic activity was assessed, and molecular modeling studies of selected compounds-(E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1-phenylethyl]-3-(pyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1065), (E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1-phenylbutyl]- 3-(3-bromopyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1130), and (E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1,4-diphenylbutyl]-3-(3-bromopyridin-2-yl)acrylamide (WP1702)-in the JAK2 kinase domain were used to support interpretation of the experimental data. Our results indicated that the tested CABA analogs are nonclassical inhibitors of activated (phosphorylated) JAK2, although markedly weaker than clinically tested ATP-competitive JAK2 inhibitors. Relatively small structural changes in the studied compounds affected interactions with JAK2, and their mode of action ranged from allosteric-noncompetitive to bisubstratecompetitive. These results demonstrated that direct inhibition of JAK2 enzymatic activity by the WP1065 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 14.8 µM), WP1130 (IC₅₀ = 3.8 µM), and WP1702 (IC₅₀ = 2.9 µM) potentially contributes, albeit minimally, to suppression of the JAK2/STAT signaling pathways in cancer cells and that additional specific structural modifications may amplify JAK2-inhibitory effects.

  7. Homo-C-nucleoside analogs III. Studies on the base-catalyzed dehydrative cyclization of 4-(d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Mohammed A E

    2010-10-13

    Treatment of 4-(d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole with one molar equivalent of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TIBSCl) in pyridine solution afforded the homo-C-nucleoside analog; 4-(2,5-anhydro-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole in 54% yield and 4-(α-d-arabinopyranosyl)-2-phenyl-2H1,2,3-triazole analog in 3% yield. The 4-(5-O-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl)-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole analog was isolated as an intermediate and identified as its tetra-O-acetyl derivative. The 4-(5-chloro-5-deoxy-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole analog was isolated as a byproduct. The structure and anomeric configuration of the products were determined by acylation, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry.

  8. Phosphorothioate analogs of P1,P3-di(nucleosid-5'-yl) triphosphates: Synthesis, assignment of the absolute configuration at P-atoms and P-stereodependent recognition by Fhit hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Korczyński, Dariusz; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Di(nucleosid-5'-yl) polyphosphates (NPnN) are involved in various biological processes, and constitute signaling molecules in the intermolecular purinergic systems. They exert tumor suppression function and are substrates for specific hydrolases (e.g., HIT proteins). Their structural analogs may serve as molecular probes and potential therapeutic agents. Three P1,P3-bis-thio-analogs of symmetrical di(nucleosid-5'-yl) triphosphates (NP3N) bearing adenosine, guanosine or ribavirin residues (6, 7 and 8, respectively), were obtained by direct condensation of corresponding base-protected nucleoside-5'-O-(2-thio-1,3,2-oxathiaphospholane) with anhydrous phosphoric acid in the presence of DBU. Deprotected products 6 and 8 were separated into individual P-diastereoisomers, whereas 7 was partially separated to yield diastereomerically enriched fractions. The absolute configuration at P-stereogenic centers in the separated diastereoisomers was assigned by RP-HPLC analysis of the products of enzymatic digestion with snake venom phosphodiesterase. The Fhit-assisted hydrolysis rates for 6 and 7 are by 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that for the reference AP3A, and depend on the configuration of the stereogenic phosphorus atoms, while 8 occurred to be resistant to this cleavage.

  9. Dynamics of hepatitis B virus quasispecies heterogeneity and virologic response in patients receiving low-to-moderate genetic barrier nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Peveling-Oberhag, J; Herrmann, E; Kronenberger, B; Farnik, H; Susser, S; Sarrazin, C; Zeuzem, S; Hofmann, W-P

    2013-04-01

    We characterized the early dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) quasispecies evolution during the first weeks of antiviral therapy with low-to-moderate genetic barrier antiviral drugs and associated these data with antiviral response patterns. Fifteen chronic hepatitis B patients (men, 10; mean age, 34; HBeAg positive, 6) who received lamivudine or telbivudine for at least 52 weeks were included. HBV DNA was extracted from serum, and a 910-bp fragment covering domains A-F of the reverse transcriptase region was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Parameters of quasispecies heterogeneity, genetic diversity and complexity were calculated and were correlated with complete virologic response, defined as undetectable HBV DNA at week 52. Nine patients achieved complete virologic response during the observational period. While baseline HBV DNA levels and HBeAg status were associated with virologic response, baseline quasispecies complexity and diversity of responders showed no significant difference to those of nonresponders (P > 0.05). However, at week 4, quasispecies complexity of nonresponders was significantly higher compared with that of responders on the nucleotide level (P = 0.01) and the aa level (P = 0.04). The number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site dropped significantly in responders at week 4 (P = 0.04), while there was no difference in nonresponders. The HBV quasispecies complexity at the early stage of antiviral therapy (week 4) with the low-to-moderate genetic barrier nucleoside analogs lamivudine or telbivudine was associated with subsequent virologic response. Further studies are needed to confirm HBV quasispecies evolution as additional predictive marker for beneficial treatment outcome.

  10. DNA 3' pp 5' G de-capping activity of aprataxin: effect of cap nucleoside analogs and structural basis for guanosine recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Jacewicz, Agata; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-05-24

    DNA3' pp 5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i) GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)–NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.

  11. Hybrid MC/QC simulations of water-assisted proton transfer in nucleosides. Guanosine and its analog acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Markova, Nadezhda; Pejov, Ljupco; Stoyanova, Nina; Enchev, Venelin

    2017-05-01

    To provide an in-depth insight into the molecular basis of spontaneous tautomerism in DNA and RNA base pairs, a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)-quantum chemical (QC) methodology is implemented to map two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the reaction coordinates of solvent-assisted proton transfer processes in guanosine and its analog acyclovir in aqueous solution. The solvent effects were simulated by explicit inclusion of water molecules that model the relevant part of the first hydration shell around the solute. The position of these water molecules was estimated by carrying out a classical Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation of dilute water solutions of the guanosine (Gs) and acyclovir (ACV) and subsequently analyzing solute-solvent intermolecular interactions in the statistically-independent MC-generated configurations. The solvent-assisted proton transfer processes were further investigated using two different ab initio MP2 quantum chemical approaches. In the first one, potential energy surfaces of the 'bare' finite solute-solvent clusters containing Gs/ACV and four water molecules (MP2/6-31+G(d,p) level) were explored, while within the second approach, these clusters were embedded in 'bulk' solvent treated as polarizable continuum (C-PCM/MP2/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory). It was found that in the gas phase and in water solution, the most stable tautomer for guanosine and acyclovir is the 1H-2-amino-6-oxo form followed by the 2-amino-6-(sZ)-hydroxy form. The energy barriers of the water-assisted proton transfer reaction in guanosine and in acyclovir are found to be very similar - 11.74 kcal mol(-1) for guanosine and 11.16 kcal mol(-1) for acyclovir, and the respective rate constants (k = 1.5 × 10(1) s(-1), guanosine and k = 4.09 × 10(1) s(-1), acyclovir), are sufficiently large to generate the 2-amino-6-(sZ)-hydroxy tautomer. The analysis of the reaction profiles in both compounds shows that the proton transfer processes occur through the

  12. Molecular-genetic PET imaging using an HSV1-tk mutant reporter gene with enhanced specificity to acycloguanosine nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Amer M; Nishii, Ryuichi; Maxwell, David S; Volgin, Andrei; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Bornmann, William G; Tong, William; Alauddin, Mian; Gelovani, Juri G

    2009-03-01

    Imaging 2 different molecular-genetic events in a single subject by PET is essential in a variety of in vivo applications. Using herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) mutants with narrower substrate specificities in combination with wild-type HSV1-tk (wtHSV1-tk) would enable differential imaging with corresponding radiotracers, namely 2'-deoxy-2'-(18)F-fluoro-5-ethyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-uracil ((18)F-FEAU) and the acycloguanosine derivative 9-(4-(18)F-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ((18)F-FHBG). In this study, we evaluated wtHSV1-tk and the A168H mutant, which has been reported to exhibit enhanced acycloguanosine substrate catalytic activity and diminished pyrimidine phosphorylating activity, as PET reporter genes. Computational analysis was performed to assess the binding mode of FHBG and FEAU to wtHSV1-tk and the A168H variant. U87 cells were stably transduced with wtHSV1-tk or HSV1-tk(A168H) fused with green fluorescent protein and sorted to obtain equivalent transgene expression. In vitro uptake studies were performed to determine rates of substrate accumulation and retention. Nude mice bearing tumors expressing HSV1-tk variants were subsequently imaged using (18)F-FHBG and (18)F-FEAU. Docking results indicate that binding of FHBG to the A168H variant is unaffected whereas the binding of FEAU is hindered because of a steric clash with the bulkier mutant residues. U87 cells expressing HSV1-tk(A168H) accumulated (18)F-FHBG in in vitro uptake studies at a 3-fold higher rate than did cells expressing wtHSV1-tk without any detectable accumulation of (3)H-FEAU. Furthermore, HSV1-tk(A168H) demonstrated no thymidine phosphorylation activity. In contrast, U87 cells expressing wtHSV1-tk preferentially accumulated (3)H-FEAU at an 18-fold higher rate than they did (18)F-FHBG. Tumors expressing wtHSV1-tk or HSV1-tk(A168H) were distinctly imaged with (18)F-FEAU or (18)F-FHBG, respectively. Hence, tumors expressing HSV1-tk(A168H) accumulated 8.4-fold

  13. Interaction of SOS2 with nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 and catalases reveals a point of connection between salt stress and H2O2 signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E; Batelli, Giorgia; Grillo, Stefania; Agius, Fernanda; Kim, Yong-Sig; Zhu, Jianhua; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-11-01

    SOS2, a class 3 sucrose-nonfermenting 1-related kinase, has emerged as an important mediator of salt stress response and stress signaling through its interactions with proteins involved in membrane transport and in regulation of stress responses. We have identified additional SOS2-interacting proteins that suggest a connection between SOS2 and reactive oxygen signaling. SOS2 was found to interact with the H2O2 signaling protein nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) and to inhibit its autophosphorylation activity. A sos2-2 ndpk2 double mutant was more salt sensitive than a sos2-2 single mutant, suggesting that NDPK2 and H2O2 are involved in salt resistance. However, the double mutant did not hyperaccumulate H2O2 in response to salt stress, suggesting that it is altered signaling rather than H2O2 toxicity alone that is responsible for the increased salt sensitivity of the sos2-2 ndpk2 double mutant. SOS2 was also found to interact with catalase 2 (CAT2) and CAT3, further connecting SOS2 to H2O2 metabolism and signaling. The interaction of SOS2 with both NDPK2 and CATs reveals a point of cross talk between salt stress response and other signaling factors including H2O2.

  14. Effect of some new cAMP analogs on cAMP-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Szücs, K; Sági, G; Vereb, G

    1992-06-01

    1. Ten new cAMP analogs were synthesized by replacing the purine ring with with indazole, benzimidazole or benztriazole and/or their nitro and amino derivatives. 2. Each analog proved effective in activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase I (PK-I) purified from rabbit skeletal muscle and cAMP-dependent protein kinase II (PK-II) from bovine heart and chasing 8-[3H]cAMP bound to regulatory subunits in the half-maximal effective concentrations of 2 x 10(-8)-8 x 10(-6) M. 3. The N-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-indazole-3'5'-cyclophosphate(I) proved a very poor chaser and activator of both isoenzymes, but when indazole was attached at its N-2 to ribose (IV) or when its H at C-4 (equivalent to the position of amino-group in adenine) was substituted by an amino-(III) or especially nitro-group (II) its efficiency was dramatically increased. 4. Analogs containing benztriazole ring proved as powerful as cAMP irrespective of the presence of substituents (VII-X). 5. Benzimidazole derivatives with amino-(VI) or nitro-group (V) activated PK-II 3 and 20 times better than PK-I. 6. Attaching of ribose to N-2 of indazole or benztriazole increased the affinity to PK-II 10 and 4 times, respectively. 7. Chasing efficiency of cAMP analogs at half-saturating [3H]cAMP tended to correlate with activating potency only for PK-I but at saturating [3H]cAMP concentration for both isoenzymes. 8. On the basis of synergistic activation with 8-Br-cAMP a site 2-selective binding of nitro-benzimidazole (V) and unsubstituted benztriazole (VII) derivatives to PK-II is suggested.

  15. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  16. Synchronized fission yeast meiosis using an ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W; Smith, Gerald R; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous cultures are often indispensable for studying meiosis. Here we present an optimized protocol for induction of synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical inactivation of an ATP analog-sensitive form of the Pat1 kinase (pat1-as2) by adding the ATP analog 1-NM-PP1 in G1-arrested cells allows the induction of synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature (25°C). Importantly, this protocol eliminates detrimental effects of elevated temperature (34°C), which is required to inactivate the commonly used temperature-sensitive Pat1 kinase mutant (pat1-114). The addition of the mat-Pc gene to a mat1-M strain further improves chromosome segregation and spore viability. Thus, our protocol offers highly synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature, with most characteristics similar to those of wild-type meiosis. The synchronization protocol can be completed in 5 d (not including strain production, which may take as long as 2 or 3 months).

  17. Spectrum of activity and mechanisms of resistance of various nucleoside derivatives against gammaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Topalis, Dimitri; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2014-12-01

    The susceptibilities of gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and animal rhadinoviruses, to various nucleoside analogs was investigated in this work. Besides examining the antiviral activities and modes of action of antivirals currently marketed for the treatment of alpha- and/or betaherpesvirus infections (including acyclovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, and brivudin), we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of various 5-substituted uridine and cytidine molecules. The antiviral efficacy of nucleoside derivatives bearing substitutions at the 5 position was decreased if the bromovinyl was replaced by chlorovinyl. 1-β-D-Arabinofuranosyl-(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVaraU), a nucleoside with an arabinose configuration of the sugar ring, exhibited no inhibitory effect against rhadinoviruses but was active against EBV. On the other hand, the fluoroarabinose cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-aracytosine (FIAC) showed high selectivity indices against gammaherpesviruses that were comparable to those of brivudin. Additionally, we selected brivudin- and acyclovir-resistant rhadinoviruses in vitro and characterized them by phenotypic and genotypic (i.e., sequencing of the viral thymidine kinase, protein kinase, and DNA polymerase) analysis. Here, we reveal key amino acids in these enzymes that play an important role in substrate recognition. Our data on drug susceptibility profiles of the different animal gammaherpesvirus mutants highlighted cross-resistance patterns and indicated that pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase and purine nucleosides are preferentially activated by the gammaherpesvirus protein kinase. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  19. Marine nucleosides: structure, bioactivity, synthesis and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  20. Recent progress for the synthesis of selected carbocyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Bessières, Maxime; Chevrier, Florian; Roy, Vincent; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are extremely useful for the development of therapeutic agents to control viral diseases and cancer. Among the numerous modifications on the nucleoside skeleton, replacement of the oxygen of the furanose ring by a CH2 group resulted in increased flexibility and higher resistance to phosphorylases and led to carbocyclic nucleoside analogs (or carbanucleosides). The broad spectrum of biological activities of carbocyclic nucleosides led to tremendous research interest in their syntheses. The article documents recent strategies for the synthesis of active carbocyclic nucleosides by presenting individual case studies, such as the neplanocins, entecavir and selected fluorinated carbocyclic nucleosides. Furthermore, it provides new insights into new directions for more potent and active carbocyclic nucleoside analogs.

  1. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and DNA demethylation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as exposure-response measures of nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anders, Nicole M; Liu, Jianyong; Wanjiku, Teresia; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Zhou, Jianya; Vaghasia, Ajay; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Rudek, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic and anti-cancer activities of the nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC), azacitidine, and guadecitabine are thought to require cellular uptake, metabolism to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate, and incorporation into DNA. This genomic incorporation can then lead to trapping and degradation of DNMT enzymes, and ultimately, passive loss of DNA methylation. To facilitate measurement of critical exposure-response relationships of nucleoside analog DNMT inhibitors, a sensitive and reliable method was developed to simultaneously quantitate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and genomic 5-methylcytosine content using LC-MS/MS. Genomic DNA was extracted and digested into single nucleosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Thermo Hyperpcarb porous graphite column (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and isocratic elution with a 10mM ammonium acetate:acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (70:30, v/v) mobile phase over a 5min total analytical run time. An AB Sciex 5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for the detection of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxycytidine, and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay range was 2-400ng/mL for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 50-10,000ng/mL for 2'-deoxycytidine, and was 5-1000ng/mL for 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay proved to be accurate (93.0-102.2%) and precise (CV≤6.3%) across all analytes. All analytes exhibited long-term frozen digest matrix stability at -70°C for at least 117 days. The method was applied for the measurement of genomic 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine content following exposure of in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models to decitabine.

  2. Bisubstrate analog probes for the insulin receptor protein tyrosine kinase: molecular yardsticks for analyzing catalytic mechanism and inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Hines, Aliya C; Parang, Keykavous; Kohanski, Ronald A; Hubbard, Stevan R; Cole, Philip A

    2005-08-01

    Bisubstrate analogs have the potential to provide enhanced specificity for protein kinase inhibition and tools to understand catalytic mechanism. Previous efforts led to the design of a peptide-ATP conjugate bisubstrate analog utilizing aminophenylalanine in place of tyrosine and a thioacetyl linker to the gamma-phosphate of ATP which was a potent inhibitor of the insulin receptor kinase (IRK). In this study, we have examined the contributions of various electrostatic and structural elements in the bisubstrate analog to IRK binding affinity. Three types of changes (seven specific analogs in all) were introduced: a Tyr isostere of the previous aminophenylalanine moiety, modifications of the spacer between the adenine and the peptide, and deletions and substitutions within the peptide moiety. These studies allowed a direct evaluation of the hydrogen bond strength between the anilino nitrogen of the bisubstrate analog and the enzyme catalytic base Asp and showed that it contributes 2.5 kcal/mol of binding energy, in good agreement with previous predictions. Modifications of the linker length resulted in weakened inhibitory affinity, consistent with the geometric requirements of an enzyme-catalyzed dissociative transition state. Alterations in the peptide motif generally led to diminished inhibitory potency, and only some of these effects could be rationalized based on prior kinetic and structural studies. Taken together, these results suggest that a combination of mechanism-based design and empirical synthetic manipulation will be necessary in producing optimized protein kinase bisubstrate analog inhibitors.

  3. ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase for synchronous fission yeast meiosis at physiological temperature

    PubMed Central

    Cipak, Lubos; Hyppa, Randy; Smith, Gerald; Gregan, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    To study meiosis, synchronous cultures are often indispensable, especially for physical analyses of DNA and proteins. A temperature-sensitive allele of the Pat1 protein kinase (pat1-114) has been widely used to induce synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but pat1-114-induced meiosis differs from wild-type meiosis, and some of these abnormalities might be due to higher temperature needed to inactivate the Pat1 kinase. Here, we report an ATP analog-sensitive allele of Pat1 [Pat1(L95A), designated pat1-as2] that can be used to generate synchronous meiotic cultures at physiological temperature. In pat1-as2 meiosis, chromosomes segregate with higher fidelity, and spore viability is higher than in pat1-114 meiosis, although recombination is lower by a factor of 2–3 in these mutants than in starvation-induced pat1+ meiosis. Addition of the mat-Pc gene improved chromosome segregation and spore viability to nearly the level of starvation-induced meiosis. We conclude that pat1-as2 mat-Pc cells offer synchronous meiosis with most tested properties similar to those of wild-type meiosis. PMID:22487684

  4. Steroid hormones are novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Coe, Imogen R; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-10

    Nucleoside transport is important for nucleic acid synthesis in cells that cannot synthesize nucleosides de novo, and for entry of many cytotoxic nucleoside analog drugs used in chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that various steroid hormones induce inhibition of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of estradiol (E2) on nucleoside transport using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed inhibitory effects after acute treatment with E2, which lasted in the presence of E2. However, when E2 was removed, the effect immediately disappeared, suggesting that E2 effects are not mediated through the canonical regulatory pathway of steroid hormones, such as transcriptional regulation. We also discovered that E2 could competitively inhibit thymidine uptake and binding of the labeled nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-[4-nitrobenzyl]-6-thioinosine (NBTI), indicating that E2 binds to endogenous nucleoside transporters, leading to inhibition of nucleoside transport. We then tested the effects of various steroids on nucleoside uptake in NBTI-sensitive cells, SH-SY5Y and NBTI-insensitive cells H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. We found E2 and progesterone clearly inhibited both NBTI-sensitive and insensitive uptake at micromolar concentrations. Taken together, we concluded that steroid hormones function as novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of C-5 substituted cytosine and related nucleoside analogs on the formation of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adducts at CG base pairs of DNA.

    PubMed

    Guza, Rebecca; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Murphy, Kristopher; Dissanayake, Thakshila; Lin, Chen; Giambasu, George Madalin; Lad, Rahul R; Wojciechowski, Filip; Amin, Shantu; Sturla, Shana J; Hudson, Robert H E; York, Darrin M; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia Y

    2011-05-01

    Endogenous 5-methylcytosine ((Me)C) residues are found at all CG dinucleotides of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the mutational 'hotspots' for smoking induced lung cancer. (Me)C enhances the reactivity of its base paired guanine towards carcinogenic diolepoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in cigarette smoke. In the present study, the structural basis for these effects was investigated using a series of unnatural nucleoside analogs and a representative PAH diolepoxide, benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE). Synthetic DNA duplexes derived from a frequently mutated region of the p53 gene (5'-CCCGGCACCC GC[(15)N(3),(13)C(1)-G]TCCGCG-3', + strand) were prepared containing [(15)N(3), (13)C(1)]-guanine opposite unsubstituted cytosine, (Me)C, abasic site, or unnatural nucleobase analogs. Following BPDE treatment and hydrolysis of the modified DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides, N(2)-BPDE-dG adducts formed at the [(15)N(3), (13)C(1)]-labeled guanine and elsewhere in the sequence were quantified by mass spectrometry. We found that C-5 alkylcytosines and related structural analogs specifically enhance the reactivity of the base paired guanine towards BPDE and modify the diastereomeric composition of N(2)-BPDE-dG adducts. Fluorescence and molecular docking studies revealed that 5-alkylcytosines and unnatural nucleobase analogs with extended aromatic systems facilitate the formation of intercalative BPDE-DNA complexes, placing BPDE in a favorable orientation for nucleophilic attack by the N(2) position of guanine.

  6. Nucleoside-Diphosphate-Kinase of P. gingivalis is Secreted from Epithelial Cells In the Absence of a Leader Sequence Through a Pannexin-1 Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Kalina; Lee, Jungnam; Roberts, JoAnn; Lee, Kyulim; Ojcius, David M; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X7-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X7-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P. gingivalis-NDK impacts this pathway. Ultrastructural and confocal microscopy of P. gingivalis-co-cultured GECs or green-fluorescent-protein (GFP)-P. gingivalis-NDK transfected GECs revealed a perinuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NDK. eATP stimulation induced NDK recruitment to the cell periphery. Depletion of PNX1 by siRNA or inhibition by probenecid resulted in significant blocking of extracellular NDK activity and secretion using ATPase and ELISA assays. Co-immunoprecipitation-coupled Mass-spectrometry method revealed association of P. gingivalis-NDK to the myosin-9 motor molecule. Interestingly, inhibition of myosin-9, actin, and lipid-rafts, shown to be involved in PNX1-hemichannel function, resulted in marked intracellular accumulation of NDK and decreased NDK secretion from infected GECs. These results elucidate for the first time PNX1-hemichannels as potentially main extracellular translocation pathway for NDKs from an intracellular pathogen, suggesting that PNX1-hemichannels may represent a therapeutic target for chronic opportunistic infections. PMID:27883084

  7. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK, NM23, AWD): recent regulatory advances in endocytosis, metastasis, psoriasis, insulin release, fetal erythroid lineage and heart failure; translational medicine exemplified.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anil; Orchard, Sandra

    2009-09-01

    The guest editor (AM) provides his perspective on the most recent advances on nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK, otherwise known as AWD or NM23) showcasing phospho-histidine biochemistry and its impact on diverse pathology when disordered. His co-author (SO) provides state-of-the-art analyses from the European institute of Bioinformatics in an appendix to support the most recent advances made by the NDPK community. Unfortunately, to those outside the field, NDPK is often dismissed as a tiny 'ancient housekeeper' protein found in marine sponges, social amoebae, worms, fruit flies, rodents and humans but the state-of-the-art papers overviewed here show that NDPK does not act simply in mindless rote, inter-converting cellular 'energy currencies'. That two NDPK isoforms regulate fetal erythroid lineage is a developmental case in point. Seminal Cancer Research UK support is gratefully acknowledged that generated additional resources to enable the NDPK community to meet in Dundee in 2007 ( www.dundee.ac.uk/mchs/ndpk ; next meeting is planned: 2010/Mannheim-Heidelberg). The presented papers illustrate the point that when scientists are left alone 'shut up in the narrow cell of their laboratory' (as the philosopher Ortega once said, a sentiment echoed by Erwin Schrödinger), then progress will ultimately occur bridging the gap between specialization and translation for human benefit. To aid translation, this overview initially introduces the NDPK family to the non-specialist, who serendipitously finds these proteins in their biology. This is immediately followed by examples of the diverse biology generated by this self-aggregating group of multi-functional proteins and finally capped by an emerging idea explaining how this diversity might arise.

  8. Conformational studies of anti-HIV nucleosides: A rationale for the activity of {alpha}-nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Jalluri, R.K.; Yuh, Y.H.; Taylor, E.W.

    1993-12-31

    In the authors` computational studies of nucleosides, it has been found that the O-C-N anomeric effect is a major factor underlying the eastern barrier to pseudorotation, which has been measured by experimental methods (NMR). By adding torsional parameters for the O-C-N anomeric effect to the Kollman force field (SYBYL 5.5 implementation), the eastern barrier and compute realistic pseudorotational energy profiles for various nucleoside analogs can be reproduced. Although the contribution of the anomeric effect is partially neutralized in {beta}-nucleosides (since it is most favorable in the sterically hindered western conformations), in {alpha}-nucleosides it produces a distinct conformational minimum that is not sterically hindered, in which the 5`-CH{sub 2}OH is equatorial. This permits an {alpha}-nucleoside to mimic a {beta}-nucleoside only if the latter has an ap conformation of the 5`-CH{sub 2}OH, if one considers the relative orientations of O5` and the base, and the distance between O5` and the base nitrogen bonded to C1` (N1 or N9). This could account for the unexpected anti-HIV activity possessed by some {alpha}-nucleoside analogs (dioxolanes and oxathiolanes). The authors have also calculated pseudorotational energy profiles for various anti-HIV {beta}-nucleosides (like AZT, 3`-FDT, DDT, BCH-189, etc.), as well as inactive analogs, in order to quantitatively assess the role of conformational factors in anti-HIV activity.

  9. Structural comparison of highly similar nucleoside-diphosphate kinases: Molecular explanation of distinct membrane-binding behavior.

    PubMed

    Francois-Moutal, L; Marcillat, O; Granjon, T

    2014-10-01

    NDPK-A, NDPK-B and NDPK-D are three enzymes which belong to the NDPK group I isoforms and are not only involved in metabolism process but also in transcriptional regulation, DNA cleavage, histidine protein kinase activity and metastasis development. Those enzymes were reported to bind to membranes either in mitochondria where NDPK-D influences cardiolipin lateral organization and is thought to be involved in apoptotic pathway or in cytosol where NDPK-A and NDPK-B membrane association was shown to influence several cellular processes like endocytosis, cellular adhesion, ion transport, etc. However, despite numerous studies, the role of NDPK-membrane association and the molecular details of the binding process are still elusive. In the present work, a comparative study of the three NDPK isoforms allowed us to show that although membrane binding is a common feature of these enzymes, mechanisms differ at the molecular scale. NDPK-A was not able to bind to model membranes mimicking the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, suggesting that its in vivo membrane association is mediated by a non-lipidic partner or other partners than the studied phospholipids. On the contrary, NDPK-B and NDPK-D were shown to bind efficiently to liposomes mimicking plasma membrane and mitochondrial inner membrane respectively but details of the binding mechanism differ between the two enzymes as NDPK-B binding necessarily involved an anionic phospholipid partner while NDPK-D can bind either zwitterionic or anionic phospholipids. Although sharing similar secondary structure and homohexameric quaternary arrangement, tryptophan fluorescence revealed fine disparities in NDPK tertiary structures. Interfacial behavior as well as ANS fluorescence showed further dissimilarities between NDPK isoforms, notably the presence of distinct accessible hydrophobic areas as well as different capacity to form Gibbs monolayers related to their surface activity properties. Those distinct features may contribute to

  10. The Cytidine Analog Fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117) Is Activated by Uridine-Cytidine Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Kees; de Klerk, Daniël; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Meinsma, Rutger; Lee, Young B.; Kim, Deog J.; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117) is an orally available cytidine analog, currently in Phase I clinical trial. RX-3117 has promising antitumor activity in various human tumor xenografts including gemcitabine resistant tumors. RX-3117 is activated by uridine-cytidine kinase (UCK). Since UCK exists in two forms, UCK1 and UCK2, we investigated which form is responsible for RX-3117 phosphorylation. For that purpose we transfected A549 and SW1573 cell lines with UCK-siRNAs. Transfection of UCK1-siRNA efficiently downregulated UCK1-mRNA, but not UCK2-mRNA expression, and did not affect sensitivity to RX-3117. However, transfection of UCK2-siRNA completely downregulated UCK2-mRNA and protein and protected both A549 and SW1573 against RX-3117. UCK enzyme activity in two panels of tumor cell lines and xenograft cells correlated only with UCK2-mRNA expression (r = 0.803 and 0.915, respectively), but not with UCK1-mRNA. Moreover, accumulation of RX-3117 nucleotides correlated with UCK2 expression. In conclusion, RX-3117 is activated by UCK2 which may be used to select patients potentially sensitive to RX-3117. PMID:27612203

  11. Synthesis of small interfering RNAs containing acetal-type nucleoside analogs at their 3'-ends and analysis of their silencing activity and their ability to bind to the Argonaute2 PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Inada, Natsumi; Nakamoto, Kosuke; Yokogawa, Takashi; Ueno, Yoshihito

    2015-10-20

    In this study, we aimed to create small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with increased silencing activities and nuclease resistance properties. Therefore, we designed and synthesized five types of siRNA containing acetal-type nucleoside analogs at their 3'-dangling ends. We found that the siRNA containing 1-O-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-β-D-ribofuranose at the 3'-dangling end was the most potent among the synthesized siRNAs and showed more resistance to nucleolytic degradation by a 3' exonuclease than a natural RNA did. Thus, modification of siRNAs by addition of 1-O-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-β-D-ribofuranose may hold promise as a means of improving the silencing activity and nuclease resistance of siRNAs.

  12. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and DNA demethylation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as exposure-response measures of nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Nicole M.; Liu, Jianyong; Wanjiku, Teresia; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Zhou, Jianya; Vaghasia, Ajay; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Rudek, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic and anti-cancer activities of the nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors decitabine (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, DAC), azacitidine, and guadecitabine are thought to require cellular uptake, metabolism to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine triphosphate, and incorporation into DNA. This genomic incorporation can then lead to trapping and degradation of DNMT enzymes, and ultimately, passive loss of DNA methylation. To facilitate measurement of critical exposure-response relationships of nucleoside analog DNMT inhibitors, a sensitive and reliable method was developed to simultaneously quantitate 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and genomic 5-methylcytosine content using LC-MS/MS. Genomic DNA was extracted and digested into single nucleosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Thermo Hyperpcarb porous graphite column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5μm) and isocratic elution with a 10 mM ammonium acetate:acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (70:30, v/v) mobile phase over a 5 minute total analytical run time. An AB Sciex 5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for the detection of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, 2′-deoxycytidine, and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine. The assay range was 2 – 400 ng/mL for 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, 50 – 10,000 ng/mL for 2′-deoxycytidine, and was 5 – 1,000 ng/mL for 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine. The assay proved to be accurate (93.0–102.2%) and precise (CV ≤ 6.3%) across all analytes. All analytes exhibited long-term frozen digest matrix stability at −70°C for at least 117 days. The method was applied for the measurement of genomic 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine content following exposure of in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models to decitabine. PMID:27082761

  13. Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of Novel 4'-Trifluoromethylated 5'-Deoxycarbocyclic Nucleoside Phosphonic Acids.

    PubMed

    Jee, Jun-Pil; Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Efficient synthetic route to novel 4'-trifluoromethylated 5'-deoxycarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonic acids was described from α-trifluoromethyl-α,β-unsaturated ester. Coupling of purine nucleosidic bases with cyclopentanol using a Mitsunobu reaction gave the nucleoside intermediates which were further phosphonated and hydrolyzed to reach desired nucleoside analogs. Synthesized nucleoside analogs were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine analog 22 shows significant anti-HIV activity (EC50 = 8.3 μM) up to 100 μM.

  14. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel 4'-trifluoromethylated 5'-deoxyapiosyl nucleoside phosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyeon; Kim, Eunae; Lee, Wonjae; Hee Hong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the discovery that the threosyl nucleoside phosphonate PMDTA is a potent anti-HIV compound, we synthesized several 4'-trifluoromethyl-5'-deoxyapiosyl nucleoside phosphonic acids and evaluated their anti-HIV activity. An efficient synthetic route was optimized, starting from an α-trifluoromethyl-α,β-unsaturated ester. Glycosylation of the purine nucleosidic bases with a glycosyl donor yielded modified nucleoside intermediates, which were then phosphonated and hydrolyzed to provide the targeted nucleoside analogs. Once synthesized, the anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities of each analog were evaluated. None of the analogs showed significant anti-HIV activity at concentrations up to 100 μM.

  15. Bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)-DiPPro nucleoside diphosphates of anti-HIV active nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Weinschenk, Lina; Gollnest, Tristan; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Nucleoside analogues are extensively used as antiviral and anticancer agents. Their efficiency is dependent on their metabolism into the ultimately active nucleoside triphosphates. Often one step or even more in the metabolism of the nucleoside to the triphosphate is inefficient. To overcome this hurdle, prodrugs of the nucleotides are needed. Bis(acyloxybenzyl)nucleoside diphosphates have been reported by us as a first example of an efficient nucleoside diphosphate prodrug (DiPPro nucleotides). Here, the synthesis and the properties of bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)nucleoside diphosphates of the nucleoside analogues d4T and AZT are disclosed. The synthesis was achieved by using a phosphoramidite/oxidation route. In chemical hydrolysis studies, most of the compounds formed a nucleoside diphosphate. This was confirmed in CEM cell extracts, although the prodrug stability in extracts was lower than in phosphate buffer. Furthermore, the stability and the amount of nucleoside diphosphate formed were dependent on the substituent in the benzoyl moiety. Some of the compounds were more active against HIV in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK(-) cells than were d4T or AZT. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Variants Other than Aspartic Acid at Codon 69 of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Gene Affect Susceptibility to Nucleoside Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Mark A.; Merigan, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    The T69D mutation in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene has been associated with reduced susceptibility to dideoxycytosine (ddC); however, several other mutations at codon 69 have been observed in antiretroviral drug-treated patients. The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database was interrogated and showed that 23% of patients treated with nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTI) had mutations at codon 69. These variants included T69N, -S, -A, -G, -E, -I, and -K mutations that were present in patients treated with NRTI but not in drug-naive patients. Treatment history information showed that a substantial percentage of these codon 69 changes occurred in patients administered non-ddC-containing regimens. Different and specific patterns of other RT gene mutations were associated with the various codon 69 mutations. Drug susceptibility assays showed that viral constructs containing codon 69 variants could have reduced susceptibility to ddC and other RT inhibitors. These results suggest that the T69D mutation is not the only codon 69 variant associated with drug resistance and that ddC is not the only drug affected. PMID:11451685

  17. Structural modifications of nucleosides in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Parmar, Virinder S.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside chemistry represents an important research area for drug discovery, as many nucleoside analogs are prominent drugs and have been widely applied for cancer and viral chemotherapy. However, the synthesis of modified nucleosides presents a major challenge, which is further aggravated by poor solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents. Most of the currently available methods for nucleoside modification employ toxic high boiling solvents; require long reaction time and tedious workup methods. As such, there is constant effort to develop process chemistry in alternative medium to limit the use of organic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and can be deleterious to human health. One such approach is to use ionic liquids, which are ‘designer materials’ with unique and tunable physico-chemical properties. Studies have shown that methodologies using ionic liquids are highly efficient and convenient for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs, as demonstrated by the preparation of pharmaceutically important anti-viral drugs. This article summarizes recent efforts on nucleoside modification using ionic liquids. PMID:20178825

  18. Modulators of nucleoside metabolism in the therapy of brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the "soft and smart" therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed.

  19. Modulators of Nucleoside Metabolism in the Therapy of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the “soft and smart” therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed. PMID:21401494

  20. Caffeine and the analog CGS 15943 inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Edling, Charlotte E; Selvaggi, Federico; Ghonaim, Ragheda; Maffucci, Tania; Falasca, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a naturally occurring methylxanthine that acts as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. Epidemiological studies demonstrated habitual coffee drinking to be significantly associated with liver cancer survival. We aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine and its analog CGS 15943 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We demonstrate that caffeine and CGS 15943 block proliferation in HCC and PDAC cell lines by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Importantly a kinase profiling assay reveals that CGS 15943 targets specifically the catalytic subunit of the class IB PI3K isoform (p110γ). These data give mechanistic insight into the action of caffeine and its analogs and they identify these compounds as promising lead compounds to develop drugs that can specifically target this PI3K isoform whose key role in cancer progression is emerging. PMID:24521981

  1. CCM3/PDCD10 heterodimerizes with germinal center kinase III (GCKIII) proteins using a mechanism analogous to CCM3 homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Derek F; Laister, Rob C; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Kean, Michelle J; Goudreault, Marilyn; Scott, Ian C; Derry, W Brent; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Sicheri, Frank

    2011-07-15

    CCM3 mutations give rise to cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) of the vasculature through a mechanism that remains unclear. Interaction of CCM3 with the germinal center kinase III (GCKIII) subfamily of Sterile 20 protein kinases, MST4, STK24, and STK25, has been implicated in cardiovascular development in the zebrafish, raising the possibility that dysregulated GCKIII function may contribute to the etiology of CCM disease. Here, we show that the amino-terminal region of CCM3 is necessary and sufficient to bind directly to the C-terminal tail region of GCKIII proteins. This same region of CCM3 was shown previously to mediate homodimerization through the formation of an interdigitated α-helical domain. Sequence conservation and binding studies suggest that CCM3 may preferentially heterodimerize with GCKIII proteins through a manner structurally analogous to that employed for CCM3 homodimerization.

  2. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides for Molecular Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F.

    2014-01-01

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU), having three, four or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5, were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed to efficiently synthesize the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[18F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were prepared readily from 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17–35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [18F]labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein, with negligible uptake in control cells. [18F]FPrDU, [18F]FBuDU, [18F]FPeDU, and [18F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite selective accumulation in HSV1-tk expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low to negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50>1000–209 μM). Ultimately, results demonstrated that 5-[18F]fluoropropyl, [18F]fluorobutyl, and [18F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have potential as in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels. PMID:18800764

  3. Computer-guided design, synthesis, and protein kinase C affinity of a new salicylate-based class of bryostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Nakagawa, Yu; Near, Katherine E; Staveness, Daryl

    2014-10-03

    Bryostatin 1 is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's disease and is a candidate for a first-in-class approach to HIV/AIDS eradication. It is neither readily available nor optimally suited for clinical use. Using a function oriented synthesis strategy, a new class of bryostatin-inspired analogs was designed with a simplified salicylate-derived subunit, enabling step-economical synthesis (23 total steps) of agents exhibiting bryostatin-like affinity to protein kinase C (PKC).

  4. Triptycene analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy (Inventor); Perchellet, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention provides analogs of triptycene which are useful as anticancer drugs, as well as for other uses. The potency of these compounds is in a similar magnitude as daunomycin, a currently used anticancer drug. Each compound of the invention produces one or more desired effects (blocking nucleoside transport, inhibiting nucleic acid or protein syntheses, decreasing the proliferation and viability of cancer cells, inducing DNA fragmentation or retaining their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant tumor cells).

  5. Novel epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) analogs activate AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and target cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Di; Pamu, Sreedhar; Cui, Qiuzhi; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical monitor of cellular energy status and also controls processes related to tumor development, including cell cycle progression, protein synthesis, cell growth and survival. Therefore AMPK as an anti-cancer target has received intensive attention recently. It has been reported that the anti-diabetic drug metformin and some natural compounds, such as quercetin, genistein, capsaicin and green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can activate AMPK and inhibit cancer cell growth. Indeed, natural products have been the most productive source of leads for the development of anti-cancer drugs but perceived disadvantages, such as low bioavailability and week potency, have limited their development and use in the clinic. In this study we demonstrated that synthetic EGCG analogs 4 and 6 were more potent AMPK activators than metformin and EGCG. Activation of AMPK by these EGCG analogs resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, down-regulation of mTOR pathway, and suppression of stem cell population in human breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that novel potent and specific AMPK activators can be discovered from natural and synthetic sources that have potential to be used for anti-cancer therapy in the clinic. PMID:22459208

  6. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite.

    PubMed

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A; Fernández, Facundo M; Gaul, David A; Orlando, Thomas M; Liotta, Charles L; Pasek, Matthew A

    2015-11-26

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  7. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  8. New trends in nucleoside biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mikhailopulo, I A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on new trends in nucleoside biotechnology, which have emerged during the last decade. Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: ( i ) a growing need for large-scale production of natural 2 ' -deoxy- β -D-ribonucleosides as well as their analogs with modifications in the carbohydrate and base fragments, which can then be used for the synthesis and study of oligonucleotides, including short-interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), etc.; ( ii ) a necessity for the development of efficient practical technologies for the production of biologically important analogs of natural nucleosides, including a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs; ( iii ) a need for further study of known and novel enzymatic transformations and their use as tools for the efficient synthesis of new nucloside analogs and derivates with biomedical potential. This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research.

  9. Highly ordered crystals of channel-forming membrane proteins, of nucleoside-monophosphate kinases, of FAD-containing oxidoreductases and of sugar-processing enzymes and their mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, G. E.; Dreyer, M.; Klein, C.; Kreusch, A.; Mittl, P.; Mu¨ller, C. W.; Mu¨ller-Dieckmann, J.; Muller, Y. A.; Proba, K.; Schlauderer, G.; Spu¨rgin, P.; Stehle, T.; Weiss, M. S.

    1992-08-01

    Preparation and crystallization procedures as well as crystal properties are reported for 12 proteins plus numerous site-directed mutants. The proteins are: the integral membrane protein porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus which diffracts to at least 1.8A˚resolution, porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica which diffracts to at least 2.0A˚resolution, adenylate kinase from yeast and mutants, adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and mutants, bovine liver mitochondrial adenylate kinase, guanylate kinase from yeast, uridylate kinase from yeast, glutathione reductase from E. coli and mutants, NADH peroxidase from Streptococcus faecalis containing a sulfenic acid as redox-center, pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum containing FAD and TPP, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans and mutants, and a fuculose aldolase from E. coli.

  10. Piperazine-based nucleic acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Jurgen; Silks, Louis A.; Michalczyk, Ryszard

    2005-01-11

    A novel nucleoside analog is disclosed which comprises a piperazine ring in the place of the ring ribose or deoxyribose sugar. Monomers utilizing a broad variety of nucleobases are disclosed, as well as oligomers comprising the monomers disclosed herein linked by a variety of linkages, including amide, phosphonamide, and sulfonamide linkages. A method of synthesizing the nucleoside analogs is also disclosed.

  11. Synthesis of Pelorol and Its Analogs and Their Inhibitory Effects on Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongjie; Chen, Huixuan; Weng, Jiang; Lu, Gui

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous biologically active substances with novel structures and unique physiological functions in marine organisms. These substances are important sources of new lead compounds. Pelorol is a natural product isolated from marine organisms that possesses a novel structure with high bioactivity. In this paper, the synthesis of pelorol has been completed, and the synthesis of some intermediates has been optimized and scaled up. Five pelorol analogs have also been prepared. Preliminary biological activity testing demonstrated that compounds 5 and 6 might be potential lead compounds for cancer therapy. PMID:27338420

  12. Discovery of highly potent and selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Pyridazinone analogs with improved metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Young, Wendy B; Barbosa, James; Blomgren, Peter; Bremer, Meire C; Crawford, James J; Dambach, Donna; Eigenbrot, Charles; Gallion, Steve; Johnson, Adam R; Kropf, Jeffrey E; Lee, Seung H; Liu, Lichuan; Lubach, Joseph W; Macaluso, Jen; Maciejewski, Pat; Mitchell, Scott A; Ortwine, Daniel F; Di Paolo, Julie; Reif, Karin; Scheerens, Heleen; Schmitt, Aaron; Wang, Xiaojing; Wong, Harvey; Xiong, Jin-Ming; Xu, Jianjun; Yu, Christine; Zhao, Zhongdong; Currie, Kevin S

    2016-01-15

    BTK inhibitor GDC-0834 (1) was found to be rapidly metabolized in human studies, resulting in a suspension of clinical trials. The primary route of metabolism was through cleavage of the acyclic amide bond connecting the terminal tetrahydrobenzothiophene with the central linker aryl ring. SAR studies were focused on reducing metabolic cleavage of this amide, and resulted in the identification of several central aryl linker substituents that conferred improved stability. The most promising substituted aryl linkers were then incorporated into an optimized pyridazinone scaffold, resulting in the identification of lead analog 23, possessing improved potency, metabolic stability and preclinical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An ATP analog-sensitive version of the tomato cell death suppressor protein kinase Adi3 for use in substrate identification.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Anna C Nelson; Devarenne, Timothy P

    2012-02-01

    Adi3 is a protein kinase from tomato that functions as a cell death suppressor and its substrates are not well defined. As a step toward identifying Adi3 substrates we developed an ATP analog-sensitive version of Adi3 in which the ATP-binding pocket is mutated to allow use of bulky ATP analogs. Met385 was identified as the "gatekeeper" residue and the M385G mutation allows for the use of two bulky ATP analogs. Adi3(M385G) can also specifically utilize N(6)-benzyl-ATP to phosphorylate a known substrate and provides a tool for identifying Adi3 substrates.

  14. 6-demethoxynobiletin, a nobiletin-analog citrus flavonoid, enhances extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12D cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Junko; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Degawa, Masakuni; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone isolated from citrus peels, has the potential to improve cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that the generation of intraneuronal amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ oligomers cause deficits in the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling which is critical for consolidation of the memory. Our previous studies revealed that nobiletin activated ERK signaling and subsequent cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcription. In this study, the effects of five nobiletin analogs, 6-demethoxynobiletin, tangeretin, 5-demethylnobiletin, sinensetin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin, isolated from citrus peels were assessed on ERK phosphorylation in PC12D cells, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. PC12D cells were treated with nobiletin or its analogs, and the cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting using an antibody specific to phosphorylated ERK. 6-Demethoxynobiletin markedly enhanced ERK phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results may be useful in developing drugs and functional foods using citrus peels for the treatment of dementia including AD.

  15. Computer-assisted combinatorial design of bicyclic thymidine analogs as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frecer, Vladimir; Seneci, Pierfausto; Miertus, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPKmt) is an essential enzyme for nucleotide metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and thus an attractive target for novel antituberculosis agents. In this work, we have explored the chemical space around the 2',3'-bicyclic thymidine nucleus by designing and in silico screening of a virtual focused library selected via structure based methods to identify more potent analogs endowed with favorable ADME-related properties. In all the library members we have exchanged the ribose ring of the template with a cyclopentane moiety that is less prone to enzymatic degradation. In addition, we have replaced the six-membered 2',3'-ring by a number of five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic rings containing alternative proton donor and acceptor groups, to exploit the interaction with the carboxylate groups of Asp9 and Asp163 as well as with several cationic residues present in the vicinity of the TMPKmt binding site. The three-dimensional structure of the TMPKmt complexed with 5-hydroxymethyl-dUMP, an analog of dTMP, was employed to develop a QSAR model, to parameterize a scoring function specific for the TMPKmt target and to select analogues which display the highest predicted binding to the target. As a result, we identified a small highly focused combinatorial subset of bicyclic thymidine analogues as virtual hits that are predicted to inhibit the mycobacterial TMPK in the submicromolar concentration range and to display favorable ADME-related properties.

  16. Thermus thermophilus nucleoside phosphorylases active in the synthesis of nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Almendros, Marcos; Berenguer, José; Sinisterra, Jose-Vicente

    2012-05-01

    Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities.

  17. Thermus thermophilus Nucleoside Phosphorylases Active in the Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Almendros, Marcos; Sinisterra, Jose-Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities. PMID:22344645

  18. Using thermodynamic integration MD simulation to compute relative protein-ligand binding free energy of a GSK3β kinase inhibitor and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsing-Chou; Hsu, Wen-Chi; Liu, An-Lun; Hsu, Chia-Jen; Sun, Ying-Chieh

    2014-06-01

    Thermodynamic integration molecular dynamics simulation was used to investigate how TI-MD simulation preforms in reproducing relative protein-ligand binding free energy of a pair of analogous GSK3β kinase inhibitors of available experimental data (see Fig. 1), and to predict the affinity for other analogs. The computation for the pair gave a ΔΔG of 1.0 kcal/mol, which was in reasonably good agreement with the experimental value of -0.1 kcal/mol. The error bar was estimated at 0.5 kcal/mol. Subsequently, we employed the same protocol to proceed with simulations to find analogous inhibitors with a stronger affinity. Four analogs with a substitution at one site inside the binding pocket were the first to be tried, but no significant enhancement in affinity was found. Subsequent simulations for another 7 analogs was focused on substitutions at the benzene ring of another site, which gave two analogs (analogs 9 and 10) with ΔΔG values of -0.6 and -0.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Both analogs had a OH group at the meta position and another OH group at the ortho position at the other side of the benzene ring, as shown in Table 3. To explore further, another 4 analogs with this characteristic were investigated. Three analogs with ΔΔG values of -2.2, -1.7 and -1.2 kcal/mol, respectively, were found. Hydrogen bond analysis suggested that the additional hydrogen bonds of the added OH groups with Gln185 and/or Asn64, which did not appear in the reference inhibitor or as an analog with one substitution only in the examined cases, were the main contributors to an enhanced affinity. A prediction for better inhibitors should interest experimentalists of enzyme and/or cell assays. Analysis of the interactions between GSK3β kinase and the investigated analogs will be useful in the design of GSK3β kinase inhibitors for compounds of this class. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of N-parinaroyl analogs of ganglioside GM3 and de-N-acetyl GM3. Interactions with the EGF receptor kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, W.; Welti, R.; Hafner-Strauss, S.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A specific plasma membrane glycosphingolipid, known as ganglioside GM3, can regulate the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor; this modulation is not associated with alterations in hormone binding to the receptor. GM3 inhibits EGF receptor tyrosyl kinase activity in detergent micelles, in plasma membrane vesicles, and in whole cells. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified EGF receptor preparations contain ganglioside GM3 (Hanai et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10915-10921), implying that the glycosphingolipid is intimately associated with the receptor kinase in cell membranes. Both the nature of this association and the molecular mechanism of kinase inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this report, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent analog of ganglioside GM3, in which the native fatty acid was replaced with trans-parinaric acid. This glycosphingolipid inhibited the receptor kinase activity in a manner similar to that of the native ganglioside. A modified fluorescent glycosphingolipid, N-trans-parinaroyl de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, was also prepared. This analog, like the nonfluorescent de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, had no effect on receptor kinase activity. Results from tryptophan fluorescence quenching and steady-state anisotropy measurements in membranes containing these fluorescent probes and the human EGF receptor were consistent with the notion that GM3, but not de-N-acetyl GM3, interacts specifically with the receptor in intact membranes.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of N-parinaroyl analogs of ganglioside GM3 and de-N-acetyl GM3. Interactions with the EGF receptor kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, W.; Welti, R.; Hafner-Strauss, S.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A specific plasma membrane glycosphingolipid, known as ganglioside GM3, can regulate the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor; this modulation is not associated with alterations in hormone binding to the receptor. GM3 inhibits EGF receptor tyrosyl kinase activity in detergent micelles, in plasma membrane vesicles, and in whole cells. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified EGF receptor preparations contain ganglioside GM3 (Hanai et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10915-10921), implying that the glycosphingolipid is intimately associated with the receptor kinase in cell membranes. Both the nature of this association and the molecular mechanism of kinase inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this report, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent analog of ganglioside GM3, in which the native fatty acid was replaced with trans-parinaric acid. This glycosphingolipid inhibited the receptor kinase activity in a manner similar to that of the native ganglioside. A modified fluorescent glycosphingolipid, N-trans-parinaroyl de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, was also prepared. This analog, like the nonfluorescent de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, had no effect on receptor kinase activity. Results from tryptophan fluorescence quenching and steady-state anisotropy measurements in membranes containing these fluorescent probes and the human EGF receptor were consistent with the notion that GM3, but not de-N-acetyl GM3, interacts specifically with the receptor in intact membranes.

  1. Effects of a novel carbocyclic analog of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside on pleiotropic induction of cell death in prostate cancer cells with different androgen responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyewon; Choi, Ko-woon; Lee, Jongbok; Ryou, Chongsuk; Rhee, Hakjune; Lee, Chul-Hoon

    2016-02-15

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is one of the leading causes of male cancer death in the world. Recently, in the course of our screening for a novel anticancer compound, we synthesized carbocyclic analogs of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside; compounds 5, and 6. In the current study, we report the effects of compound 5 on pleiotropic induction of cell death via up-regulation of AR-associated p21(Cip1) protein in prostate cancer cells with different androgen responsiveness, such as LNCaP (androgen-dependent and -sensitive), LNCaP(C4-2) (androgen-independent and -sensitive; androgen-refractory), and DU145 (androgen-independent and -insensitive) cells. The treatment of LNCaP cells with 6 μM compound 5 for 24 h stimulated the androgen receptor (AR) activity and dramatically up-regulated transcription (56-fold) of p21(Cip1), which, in turn, induces typical apoptosis in the cells. However, induction of apoptosis through up-regulation (23-fold) of AR-associated p21(Cip1) achieved in LNCaP(C4-2) cells was possible by intensive cell treatment with compound 5 (9 μM, 48 h), because the cells are less sensitive and independent to androgen than LNCaP cells. Furthermore, 6 μM compound 5-treated DU145 cells, which exhibit extremely low AR activation due to no androgen responsiveness and dependency, showed neither up-regulation of p21(Cip1) nor apoptotic induction. Instead, a different type of cell death, autophagy-like death through the LC3B-associated autophagosome formation, was obviously induced in DU145 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic induction of prostate cancer cell death by compound 5 is determined by how efficiently and how abundantly androgen-dependent activation of the AR occurs, whereas compound 6 shows no induction of apoptosis in LNCaP cells.

  2. The maize (Zea mays L.) nucleoside diphosphate kinase1 (ZmNDPK1) gene encodes a human NM23-H2 homologue that binds and stabilizes G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Kopylov, Mykhailo; Bass, Hank W; Stroupe, M Elizabeth

    2015-03-10

    Noncanonical forms of DNA like the guanine quadruplex (G4) play important roles in regulating transcription and translation through interactions with their protein partners. Although potential G4 elements have been identified in or near genes from species diverse as bacteria, mammals, and plants, little is known about how they might function as cis-regulatory elements or as binding sites for trans-acting protein partners. In fact, until now no G4 binding partners have been identified in the plant kingdom. Here, we report on the cloning and characterization of the first plant-kingdom gene known to encode a G4-binding protein, maize (Zea mays L.) nucleoside diphosphate kinase1 (ZmNDPK1). Structural characterization by X-ray crystallography reveals that it is a homohexamer, akin to other known NDPKs like the human homologue NM23-H2. Further probing into the G4-binding properties of both NDPK homologues suggests that ZmNDPK1 possesses properties distinct from that of NM23-H2, which is known to interact with a G-rich sequence element upstream of the c-myc gene and, in doing so, modulate its expression. Indeed, ZmNDPK1 binds the folded G4 with low nanomolar affinity but corresponding unfolded G-rich DNA more weakly, whereas NM23-H2 binds both folded and unfolded G4 with low nanomolar affinities; nonetheless, both homologues appear to stabilize folded DNAs whether they were prefolded or not. We also demonstrate that the G4-binding activity of ZmNDPK1 is independent of nucleotide binding and kinase activity, suggesting that the G4-binding region and the enzyme active sites are separate. Together, these findings establish a broad evolutionary conservation of some NDPKs as G4-DNA binding enzymes, but with potentially distinct biochemical properties that may reflect divergent evolution or species-specific deployment of these elements in gene regulatory processes.

  3. Nucleosides, nucleotides and their biological applications--XIV International Roundtable. Recent Advances in Nucleosides Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 10-14 September 2000, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Zemlicka, J

    2000-12-01

    This satellite symposium honoring Dr Jack J Fox, provided a forum for reviewing recent advances in nucleoside research. The topics covered were: novel chemistries, applications to current problems in biology, antiviral and antitumor agents, and aspects of enzymology and mechanism of action of important nucleoside analogs.

  4. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  5. Crystal Structure of Human Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Khan,J.; Xiang, S.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel {beta} sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  6. ABC Transporters and their Role in Nucleoside and Nucleotide Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Schuetz, John D.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer drug resistance against a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents, including nucleoside and nucleotide based drugs. While nucleoside based drugs have been used for many years in the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies as well as viral and autoimmune diseases, the potential contribution of ABC transporters has only recently been recognized. This neglect is likely because activation of nucleoside derivatives require an initial carrier-mediated uptake step followed by phosphorylation by nucleoside kinases, and defects in uptake or kinase activation were considered the primary mechanisms of nucleoside drug resistance. However, recent studies demonstrate that members of the ABCC transporter subfamily reduce the intracellular concentration of monophosphorylated nucleoside drugs. In addition to the ABCC subfamily members, ABCG2 has been shown to transport nucleoside drugs and nucleoside-monophosphate derivatives of clinically relevant nucleoside drugs such as cytarabine, cladribine, and clofarabine to name a few. This review will discuss ABC transporters and how they interact with other processes affecting the efficacy of nucleoside based drugs. PMID:22285911

  7. Cyclic AMP Analog Blocks Kinase Activation by Stabilizing Inactive Conformation: Conformational Selection Highlights a New Concept in Allosteric Inhibitor Design*

    PubMed Central

    Badireddy, Suguna; Yunfeng, Gao; Ritchie, Mark; Akamine, Pearl; Wu, Jian; Kim, Choel W.; Taylor, Susan S.; Qingsong, Lin; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Anand, Ganesh S.

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound “B” and C-subunit-bound “H”-conformations. Here we report mechanistic details of cAMP action as yet unknown through a unique approach combining x-ray crystallography with structural proteomics approaches, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange and ion mobility mass spectrometry, applied to the study of a stereospecific cAMP phosphorothioate analog and antagonist((Rp)-cAMPS). X-ray crystallography shows cAMP-bound R-subunit in the B form but surprisingly the antagonist Rp-cAMPS-bound R-subunit crystallized in the H conformation, which was previously assumed to be induced only by C-subunit-binding. Apo R-subunit crystallized in the B form as well but amide exchange mass spectrometry showed large differences between apo, agonist and antagonist-bound states of the R-subunit. Further ion mobility reveals the apo R-subunit as an ensemble of multiple conformations with collisional cross-sectional areas spanning both the agonist and antagonist-bound states. Thus contrary to earlier studies that explained the basis for cAMP action through “induced fit” alone, we report evidence for conformational selection, where the ligand-free apo form of the R-subunit exists as an ensemble of both B and H conformations. Although cAMP preferentially binds the B conformation, Rp-cAMPS interestingly binds the H conformation. This reveals the unique importance of the equatorial oxygen of the cyclic phosphate in mediating conformational transitions from H to B forms highlighting a novel approach for rational structure-based drug design. Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially “select” inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all “binding” constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. PMID:21081668

  8. Cyclic AMP analog blocks kinase activation by stabilizing inactive conformation: conformational selection highlights a new concept in allosteric inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Badireddy, Suguna; Yunfeng, Gao; Ritchie, Mark; Akamine, Pearl; Wu, Jian; Kim, Choel W; Taylor, Susan S; Qingsong, Lin; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Anand, Ganesh S

    2011-03-01

    The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound "B" and C-subunit-bound "H"-conformations. Here we report mechanistic details of cAMP action as yet unknown through a unique approach combining x-ray crystallography with structural proteomics approaches, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange and ion mobility mass spectrometry, applied to the study of a stereospecific cAMP phosphorothioate analog and antagonist((Rp)-cAMPS). X-ray crystallography shows cAMP-bound R-subunit in the B form but surprisingly the antagonist Rp-cAMPS-bound R-subunit crystallized in the H conformation, which was previously assumed to be induced only by C-subunit-binding. Apo R-subunit crystallized in the B form as well but amide exchange mass spectrometry showed large differences between apo, agonist and antagonist-bound states of the R-subunit. Further ion mobility reveals the apo R-subunit as an ensemble of multiple conformations with collisional cross-sectional areas spanning both the agonist and antagonist-bound states. Thus contrary to earlier studies that explained the basis for cAMP action through "induced fit" alone, we report evidence for conformational selection, where the ligand-free apo form of the R-subunit exists as an ensemble of both B and H conformations. Although cAMP preferentially binds the B conformation, Rp-cAMPS interestingly binds the H conformation. This reveals the unique importance of the equatorial oxygen of the cyclic phosphate in mediating conformational transitions from H to B forms highlighting a novel approach for rational structure-based drug design. Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially "select" inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all "binding" constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation.

  9. Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid is slowly metabolized by NDP kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Morera, S; Pasti, C; Angusti, A; Solaroli, N; Véron, M; Janin, J; Manfredini, S; Deville-Bonne, D

    2005-11-01

    NDP kinase catalyzes the last step in the phosphorylation of nucleotides. It is also involved in the activation by cellular kinases of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies. Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid, a close analog of ADP already proposed as an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, was found to be a poor substrate for human NDP kinase, as well as a weak inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 0.6 mM to be compared to 0.025 mM for ADP. The X-ray structure of a complex of adenosine phosphonoacetic acid and the NDP kinase from Dictyostelium was determined to 2.0 A resolution showing that the analog adopts a binding mode similar to ADP, but that no magnesium ion is present at the active site. As ACP may also interfere with other cellular kinases, its potential as a drug targeting NDP kinase or ribonucleotide reductase is likely to be limited due to strong side effects. The design of new molecules with a narrower specificity and a stronger affinity will benefit from the detailed knowledge of the complex ACP-NDP kinase.

  10. Design and synthesis of triazolyl-donor/acceptor unnatural nucleosides and oligonucleotide probes containing triazolyl-phenanthrene nucleoside.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Talukdar, Sangita; Das, Suman Kalyan

    2014-09-08

    In the context of abasic DNA or DNA duplex stabilization, several unnatural nucleosidic/non-nucleosidic base surrogates have been reported. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized triazolyl-aromatic donor chomophores as unnatural nucleoside analogs. These modifications display markedly higher thermal stabilization of abasic DNA duplex in comparison to the stabilization offered by other nucleoside/non-nucleoside base surrogates reported in the literature. The same oligonucleotide probe containing triazolylphenanthrene nucleotide also offers very good stability of the self-pair duplex via π-π stacking interaction and hetero-pair duplex via charge transfer interaction when paired against triazolyl acceptor aromatic nucleoside. Moreover, the probe in the reverse sequence containing triazolylphenanthrene nucleotide has shown FRET efficiency in a chimeric DNA duplex. The triazolyl nucleotides would expectedly show stability toward exonuclease activity. This unit describes protocols for chemical synthesis of unnatural triazolyl nucleosides and one oligonucleotide probe. The unit also provides a summary of various thermal and photophysical applications of triazolylphenantherene-containing oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed Central

    Auling, G; Moss, B

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of exogenous pyrimidine bases and nucleosides was investigated in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Micrococcus luteus with fluorinated analogs and radioactive precursors. Salvage of thymine and thymidine was found in M. luteus, but not in B. ammoniagenes. Exogenous uracil or uracil nucleosides, but not cytosine or cytosine nucleosides, were nucleic acid precursors for both bacteria. By examining the possible nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes, it can be suggested that the pyrimidine salvage pathways in the coryneform bacteria are different from those of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:6202675

  12. 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Blankemeyer, Eric; Lieberman, Brian P; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary in vivo evaluation of novel 5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines ([(18)F]FPrDU, [(18)F]FBuDU, [(18)F]FPeDU; [(18)F]1a-c, respectively) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl uracils ([(18)F]FFPrAU, [(18)F]FFBuAU, [(18)F]FFPeAU; [(18)F]1d-f, respectively) as probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression is described. [(18)F]1a-f were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step one-pot nucleophilic fluorination reaction using 5-O-mesylate precursors and [(18)F]F(-). For in vivo studies, tumor xenografts were grown in nude mice by implanting RG2 cells stably expressing HSV1-tk (RG2TK+) and wild-type cells (RG2). Biodistribution studies at 2 h pi revealed that the uptake of [(18)F]1a-b and [(18)F]1d-e in RG2TK+ tumors was not significantly different from control tumors. However, [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f had an average 1.6- and 1.7-fold higher uptake in RG2TK+ tumors than control RG2 tumors. Blood activity curves for [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f highlight rapid clearance of radioactivity in the blood. Dynamic small animal PET (A-PET) imaging studies of tumor-bearing mice with [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f showed higher initial uptake (3.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in RG2TK+ tumors than in control tumors, with continued washout of activity from both tumors over time. Biological evaluations suggest that [(18)F]1c and [(18)F]1f may have limited potential for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression due to fast washout of activity from the blood, thus significantly decreasing sensitivity and specificity of tracer accumulation in HSV1-tk-expressing tumors.

  13. Molecular biology of nucleoside transporters and their distributions and functions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Fiona E; Damaraju, Vijaya L; Graham, Kathryn; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2011-01-01

    Pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and their derivatives have critical functions and pharmacological applications in the brain. Nucleosides and nucleobases are precursors of nucleotides, which serve as the energy-rich currency of intermediary metabolism and as precursors of nucleic acids. Nucleosides (e.g., adenosine) and nucleotides are key signaling molecules that modulate brain function through interaction with cell surface receptors. Brain pathologies involving nucleosides and their metabolites range from epilepsy to neurodegenerative disorders and psychiatric conditions to cerebrovascular ischemia. Nucleoside analogs are used clinically in the treatment of brain cancer and viral infections. Nucleosides are hydrophilic molecules, and transportability across cell membranes via specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins is a critical determinant of their metabolism and, for nucleoside drugs, their pharmacologic actions. In mammals, there are two types of nucleoside transport process: bidirectional equilibrative processes driven by chemical gradients, and unidirectional concentrative processes driven by sodium (and proton) electrochemical gradients. In mammals, these processes, both of which are present in brain, are mediated by members of two structurally unrelated membrane protein families (ENT and CNT, respectively). In this Chapter, we review current knowledge of cellular, physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of ENT and CNT distribution and function in the mammalian brain, including studies with NT inhibitors and new research involving NT knockout and transgenic mice. We also describe recent progress in functional and molecular studies of ENT and CNT proteins, and summarize emerging evidence of other transporter families with demonstrated or potential roles in the transport of nucleosides and their derivatives in the brain.

  14. [Purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases - remarkable enzymes still not fully understood].

    PubMed

    Bzowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the reversible phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, and are key enzymes of the nucleoside salvage pathway. This metabolic route is the less costly alternative to the de novo synthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides, supplying cells with these important building blocks. Interest in nucleoside phosphorylases is not only due to their important role in metabolism of nucleosides and nucleotides, but also due to the potential medical use of the enzymes (all phosphorylases in activating prodrugs - nucleoside and nucleic base analogs, high-molecular mass purine nucleoside phosphorylases in gene therapy of some solid tumors) and their inhibitors (as selective immunosuppressive, anticancer and antiparasitic agents, and preventing inactivation of other nucleoside drugs). Phosphorylases are also convenient tools for efficient enzymatic synthesis of otherwise inaccessible nucleoside analogues. In this paper the contribution of Professor David Shugar and some of his colleagues and coworkers in studies of these remarkable enzymes carried out over nearly 40 years is discussed on the background of global research in this field.

  15. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer.

  16. Skeletal hybridization and PfRIO-2 kinase modeling for synthesis of α-pyrone analogs as anti-malarial agent.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Afsana; Chakraborty, Arnish; Konreddy, Ananda Kumar; Chakravarty, Harapriya; Sharon, Ashoke; Trivedi, Vishal; Bal, Chandralata

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacophoric hybridization and computational design approach were applied to generate a novel series of α-pyrone analogs as plausible anti-malarial lead candidate. A putative active site in flexible loop close to wing-helix domain of PfRIO2 kinase was explored computationally to understand the molecular basis of ligand binding. All the synthesized molecules (3a-g) exhibited in vitro antimalarial activity. Oxidative stress induced by 3a-d were calculated and found to be significantly higher in case of 3b. Therefore, 3b, which shown most significant result was identified as promising lead for further SAR study to develop potent anti-malarials.

  17. Improved protein kinase C affinity through final step diversification of a simplified salicylate-derived bryostatin analog scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Staveness, Daryl

    2014-10-03

    Bryostatin 1, in clinical trials or preclinical development for cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and a first-of-its-kind strategy for HIV/AIDS eradication, is neither readily available nor optimally suited for clinical use. In preceding work, we disclosed a new class of simplified bryostatin analogs designed for ease of access and tunable activity. Here we describe a final step diversification strategy that provides, in only 25 synthetic steps, simplified and tunable analogs with bryostatin-like PKC modulatory activities.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Golankiewicz, B; Zielonacka-Lis, E; Folkman, W

    1985-01-01

    The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, analogously to simple nucleosides. Unlike majority of other monophosphates studied so far, wyosine 5'-monophosphate is not more stable than respective nucleoside. PMID:4000960

  19. Nucleoside phosphorylation in amide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.; Kokko, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with phosphorylation in possible prebiotic nonaqueous solvents. To this end, phosphorylation of nucleosides using inorganic phosphates in amide solutions is studied at room and elevated temperatures. Reaction proceeds most readily in formamide and N-methylformamide. Products obtained at elevated temperature are nucleotides, nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates, and when the phosphate concentration is high, nucleoside diphosphates. At room temperature, adenosine afforded a mixture of nucleotides, but none of the cyclic nucleotide. Conditions leading to the highest relative percentage of cyclic nucleotide involve the use of low concentrations of phosphate and an excess of nucleoside.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1411-5. Erratum in: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24(4):303. Citation on PubMed Nyhan ...

  1. A Metal-containing Nucleoside That Possesses Both Therapeutic and Diagnostic Activity against Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Maity, Ayan; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside transport is an essential process that helps maintain the hyperproliferative state of most cancer cells. As such, it represents an important target for developing diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can effectively detect and treat cancer, respectively. This report describes the development of a metal-containing nucleoside designated Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside that displays both therapeutic and diagnostic properties against the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB3-1. The cytotoxic effects of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside are both time- and dose-dependent. Flow cytometry analyses validate that the nucleoside analog causes apoptosis by blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M. Fluorescent microscopy studies show rapid accumulation in the cytoplasm within 4 h. However, more significant accumulation is observed in the nucleus and mitochondria after 24 h. This localization is consistent with the ability of the metal-containing nucleoside to influence cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mitochondrial depletion is also observed after longer incubations (Δt ∼48 h), and this effect may produce additional cytotoxic effects. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrate that the nucleoside transporter, hENT1, plays a key role in the cellular entry of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the development of a metal-containing nucleoside that functions as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic agent against cancer. PMID:25713072

  2. An Analog-sensitive Version of the Protein Kinase Slt2 Allows Identification of Novel Targets of the Yeast Cell Wall Integrity Pathway.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Rodríguez, Esmeralda; Fernández-Piñar, Pablo; Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Molina, María; Martín, Humberto

    2016-03-11

    The yeast cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2 mediates the transcriptional response to cell wall alterations through phosphorylation of transcription factors Rlm1 and SBF. However, the variety of cellular functions regulated by Slt2 suggests the existence of a significant number of still unknown substrates for this kinase. To identify novel Slt2 targets, we generated and characterized an analog-sensitive mutant of Slt2 (Slt2-as) that can be specifically inhibited by bulky kinase inhibitor analogs. We demonstrated that Slt2-as is able to use adenosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate analogs to thiophosphorylate its substrates in yeast cell extracts as well as when produced as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Taking advantage of this chemical-genetic approach, we found that Slt2 phosphorylates the MAPK phosphatase Msg5 both in the N-terminal regulatory and C-terminal catalytic domains. Moreover, we identified the calcineurin regulator Rcn2, the 4E-BP (translation initiation factor eIF4E-binding protein) translation repressor protein Caf20, and the Golgi-associated adaptor Gga1 as novel targets for Slt2. The Slt2 phosphorylation sites on Rcn2 and Caf20 were determined. We also demonstrated that, in the absence of SLT2, the GGA1 paralog GGA2 is essential for cells to survive under cell wall stress and for proper protein sorting through the carboxypeptidase Y pathway. Therefore, Slt2-as provides a powerful tool that can expand our knowledge of the outputs of the cell wall integrity MAPK pathway. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The New 4-O-Methylhonokiol Analog GS12021 Inhibits Inflammation and Macrophage Chemotaxis: Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sora; Ka, Sun-O; Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Fei, Xiang; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Seo, Seung-Yong; Bae, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Preventing pathologic tissue inflammation is key to treating obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we synthesized a series of methylhonokiol analogs and reported that compounds with a carbamate structure had inhibitory function against cyclooxygenase-2 in a cell-free enzyme assay. However, whether these compounds could inhibit the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages has not been investigated. Here, we found that a new 4-O-methylhonokiol analog, 3′,5-diallyl-4′-methoxy-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl morpholine-4-carboxylate (GS12021) inhibited LPS- or TNFα-stimulated inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. LPS-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/p65 was significantly decreased, whereas NF-κB luciferase activities were slightly inhibited, by GS12021 treatment in RAW 264.7 cells. Either mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or AP-1 luciferase activity was not altered by GS12021. GS12021 increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α and the expression of sirtuin (SIRT) 1. Inhibition of mRNA expression of inflammatory genes by GS12021 was abolished in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, but not in SIRT1 knockout cells, demonstrating that GS12021 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through AMPKα activation. The transwell migration assay results showed that GS12021 treatment of macrophages prevented the cell migration promoted by incubation with conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes. GS12021 suppression of p65 phosphorylation and macrophage chemotaxis were preserved in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, indicating AMPK is not required for these functions of GS12021. Identification of this novel methylhonokiol analog could enable studies of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds and further evaluation of its in vivo potential for the treatment of insulin-resistant states and other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25706552

  4. An Analog-sensitive Version of the Protein Kinase Slt2 Allows Identification of Novel Targets of the Yeast Cell Wall Integrity Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Rodríguez, Esmeralda; Fernández-Piñar, Pablo; Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Molina, María; Martín, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The yeast cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2 mediates the transcriptional response to cell wall alterations through phosphorylation of transcription factors Rlm1 and SBF. However, the variety of cellular functions regulated by Slt2 suggests the existence of a significant number of still unknown substrates for this kinase. To identify novel Slt2 targets, we generated and characterized an analog-sensitive mutant of Slt2 (Slt2-as) that can be specifically inhibited by bulky kinase inhibitor analogs. We demonstrated that Slt2-as is able to use adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate analogs to thiophosphorylate its substrates in yeast cell extracts as well as when produced as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Taking advantage of this chemical-genetic approach, we found that Slt2 phosphorylates the MAPK phosphatase Msg5 both in the N-terminal regulatory and C-terminal catalytic domains. Moreover, we identified the calcineurin regulator Rcn2, the 4E-BP (translation initiation factor eIF4E-binding protein) translation repressor protein Caf20, and the Golgi-associated adaptor Gga1 as novel targets for Slt2. The Slt2 phosphorylation sites on Rcn2 and Caf20 were determined. We also demonstrated that, in the absence of SLT2, the GGA1 paralog GGA2 is essential for cells to survive under cell wall stress and for proper protein sorting through the carboxypeptidase Y pathway. Therefore, Slt2-as provides a powerful tool that can expand our knowledge of the outputs of the cell wall integrity MAPK pathway. PMID:26786099

  5. Tanshinone IIA enhances bystander cell killing of cancer cells expressing Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase in nuclei and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyang; Zhao, Lei; Dong, Xiaoshen; He, Anning; Zheng, Caiwei; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna; Zheng, Xinyu

    2015-09-01

    Heterologous expression of the Drosophila melanogaster multi-substrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to several cytotoxic nucleoside analogs. Thus, it may be used as a suicide gene in combined gene/chemotherapy treatment of cancer. To further characterize this potential suicide gene, we constructed two retroviral vectors that enabled the expression of Dm-dNK in cancer cells. One vector harbored the wild‑type enzyme that localized to the nucleus. The other vector harbored a mitochondrial localized mutant enzyme that was constructed by deleting the nuclear localization signal and fusing it to a mitochondrial import signal of cytochrome c oxidase. A thymidine kinase-deficient osteosarcoma cell line was transduced with the recombinant viruses. The sensitivity and bystander cell killing in the presence of pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)‑2'‑deoxyuridine and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylthymine were investigated. Tanshinone IIA is a constituent of Danshen; a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study also looked at the influence of Tanshinone IIA on the bystander effect and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that sensitivity of the osteosarcoma cell line to the nucleoside analogs and the efficiency of bystander cell killing were independent of the subcellular localization of Dm-dNK. The enhanced effect of tanshinone IIA on the bystander effect was related to the increased expression of Cx43 and Cx26.

  6. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hang; Hatala, Paul J; Stevens, William C; He, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer) and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer) tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration. PMID:26734098

  7. The Convenient Synthesis of Unsaturated Nucleoside Analogues in Water under Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ran; Sun, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of unsaturated nucleoside analogs in water under microwave irradiation was developed. All pyrimidine and purine nucleoside derivatives were exclusively alkylated at N1 and N9 respectively in good to excellent yields. In addition, this system could tolerate a broad range of functional groups, such as chloro, bromo, iodo, alkyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups. More importantly, the reaction scale could be enlarged to 50 mmol which made this route attractive for industrial application.

  8. In Silico Exploration of 1,7-Diazacarbazole Analogs as Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitors by Using 3D QSAR, Molecular Docking Study, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Han, Liping; Ren, Yujie

    2016-05-05

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important serine/threonine kinase with a self-protection function. The combination of Chk1 inhibitors and anti-cancer drugs can enhance the selectivity of tumor therapy. In this work, a set of 1,7-diazacarbazole analogs were identified as potent Chk1 inhibitors through a series of computer-aided drug design processes, including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. The optimal QSAR models showed significant cross-validated correlation q² values (0.531, 0.726), fitted correlation r² coefficients (higher than 0.90), and standard error of prediction (less than 0.250). These results suggested that the developed models possess good predictive ability. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to highlight the important interactions between the ligand and the Chk1 receptor protein. This study shows that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces are key interactions that confer bioactivity.

  9. Inhibition of ZAP-70 Kinase Activity via an Analog-sensitive Allele Blocks T Cell Receptor and CD28 Superagonist Signaling*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Susan E.; Zhang, Chao; Kadlecek, Theresa A.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    ZAP-70 is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. Both mice and humans deficient in ZAP-70 fail to develop functional T cells, thus demonstrating its necessity for T cell development and function. There is currently no highly specific, cell-permeable, small molecule inhibitor for ZAP-70; therefore, we generated a mutant ZAP-70 allele that retains kinase activity but is sensitive to inhibition by a mutant-specific inhibitor. We validated the chemical genetic inhibitor system in Jurkat T cell lines, where the inhibitor blocked ZAP-70-dependent TCR signaling in cells expressing the analog-sensitive allele. Interestingly, the inhibitor also ablated CD28 superagonist signaling, thereby demonstrating the utility of this system in dissecting the requirement for ZAP-70 in alternative mechanisms of T cell activation. Thus, we have developed the first specific chemical means of inhibiting ZAP-70 in cells, which serves as a valuable tool for studying the function of ZAP-70 in T cells. PMID:18378687

  10. Microbial transformation of nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamba, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving the use of coulter counter in studying the effects of neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes was completed. The purpose of this was to establish proper technique for enumeration of cells per ml. It was found that inhibitory effects on growth of E. coli and A. aerogenes, both gram negative organisms, were directly related to the concentration of neomycin used. However, in case S. aureus, a gram positive organism, a decreased inhibition was noted at higher concentrations. A paper entitled, Use of Coulter Counter in Studying Effect of Drugs on Cells in Culture 1 - Effects of Neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes, is attached in the appendix. Laboratory procedures were also established to study the effects of nucleoside antibiotic cordycepin on He La cell grown in suspension cultures.

  11. The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Loubière, L; Tiraby, M; Cazaux, C; Brisson, E; Grisoni, M; Zhao-Emonet, J; Tiraby, G; Klatzmann, D

    1999-09-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus, equine herpes virus type-4 and Epstein-Barr virus) as suicide genes in association with the nucleoside analogs acyclovir, ganciclovir and bromovinyldeoxyur- idine. Using various murine and human cell lines expressing these viral tk, we show that HSV1- and EHV4tk are the more efficient suicide genes for the different nucleoside analogs tested. Moreover, EHV4tk expressing murine and human cells were three- to 12-fold more sensitive to GCV than HSV1tk expressing cells. This was correlated with the presence of five-fold higher amounts of the toxic triphosphated-GCV in EHV4- versus HSV1tk expressing cells. Altogether, these experiments underline the potential advantages of the EHV4tk as a suicide gene.

  12. Probing the cyclic nucleotide binding sites of cAMP-dependent protein kinases I and II with analogs of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphorothioates.

    PubMed

    Dostmann, W R; Taylor, S S; Genieser, H G; Jastorff, B; Døskeland, S O; Ogreid, D

    1990-06-25

    A set of cAMP analogs were synthesized that combined exocyclic sulfur substitutions in the equatorial (Rp) or the axial (Sp) position of the cyclophosphate ring with modifications in the adenine base of cAMP. The potency of these compounds to inhibit the binding of [3H]cAMP to sites A and B from type I (rabbit skeletal muscle) and type II (bovine myocardium) cAMP-dependent protein kinase was determined quantitatively. On the average, the Sp isomers had a 5-fold lower affinity for site A and a 30-fold lower affinity for site B of isozyme I than their cyclophosphate homolog. The mean reduction in affinities for the equivalent sites of isozyme II were 20- and 4-fold, respectively. The Rp isomers showed a decrease in affinity of approximately 400-fold and 200-fold for site A and B, respectively, of isozyme I, against 200-fold and 45-fold for site A and B of isozyme II. The Sp substitutions therefore increased the relative preference for site A of isozyme I and site B of isozyme II. The Rp substitution, on the other hand, increased the relative preference for site B of both isozymes. These data show that the Rp and Sp substitutions are tolerated differently by the two intrachain sites of isozymes I and II. They also support the hypothesis that it is the axial, and not the previously proposed equatorial oxygen that contributes the negative charge for the ionic interaction with an invariant arginine in all four binding sites. In addition, they demonstrate that combined modifications in the adenine ring and the cyclic phosphate ring of cAMP can enhance the ability to discriminate between site A and B of one isozyme as well as to discriminate between isozyme I and II. Since Rp analogs of cAMP are known to inhibit activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the findings of the present study have implications for the synthesis of analogs having a very high selectivity for isozyme I or II.

  13. Structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity by concentrative nucleoside transporters

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Kiyoun; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Hong, Jiyong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are responsible for cellular entry of nucleosides, which serve as precursors to nucleic acids and act as signaling molecules. CNTs also play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer and antiviral agents. Understanding how CNTs recognize and import their substrates could not only lead to a better understanding of nucleoside-related biological processes but also the design of nucleoside-derived drugs that can better reach their targets. Here, we present a combination of X-ray crystallographic and equilibrium-binding studies probing the molecular origins of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity of a CNT from Vibrio cholerae. We then used this information in chemically modifying an anticancer drug so that it is better transported by and selective for a single human CNT subtype. This work provides proof of principle for utilizing transporter structural and functional information for the design of compounds that enter cells more efficiently and selectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03604.001 PMID:25082345

  14. Homo- and heteroexchange of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides in rat hippocampal slices by the nucleoside transport system

    PubMed Central

    Sperlágh, Beáta; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Baranyi, Mária; Sylvester Vizi, E

    2003-01-01

    Here, we investigated how nucleotides and nucleosides affect the release of tritiated purines and endogenous adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP elicited concentration-dependent [3H]purine efflux from slices preloaded with [3H]adenosine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the effluent showed that the tritium label represented the whole set of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, and ATP significantly increased the outflow of [3H]ATP. Adenosine 5′-diphosphate, adenosine, uridine, uridine 5′-triphosphate, α,β-methylene-ATP and 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP were also active in eliciting [3H]purine release. Adenosine (300 μM) also evoked endogenous ATP efflux from the hippocampal slices. Reverse transcription-coupled-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNAs encoding a variety of P2X and P2Y receptor proteins are expressed in the rat hippocampus. Nevertheless, neither P2 receptor (i.e. pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid, 30 μM, suramin, 300 μM and reactive blue 2, 10 μM), nor adenosine receptor (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 250 nM and dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, 250 nM) antagonists modified the effect of ATP (300 μM) to evoke [3H]purine release. The nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole (10 μM), nitrobenzylthioinosine (10 μM) and adenosine deaminase (2–10 U ml−1), but not the ecto-adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate (200 μM) significantly reduced ATP-evoked [3H]purine efflux. In summary, we found that ATP and other nucleotides and nucleosides promote the release of one another and themselves by the nucleoside transport system. This action could have relevance during physiological and pathological elevation of extracellular purine levels high enough to reverse the nucleoside transporter. PMID:12788822

  15. Fludarabine resistance mediated by aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase-IIa and the structurally related eukaryotic cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrera, Dámaso; Bravo-Navas, Sara; Cabezón, Elena; Arechaga, Ignacio; Cabezas, Matilde; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Pipaón, Carlos

    2017-04-03

    While working with G418-resistant stably transfected cells, we realized the neomycin resistance gene (NeoR), which encodes the aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase-IIa [APH(3')-IIa], also confers resistance to the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Fludarabine is a cytostatic drug widely used in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumors as well as in the conditioning of patients before transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors. We present evidence that NeoR-transfected cells do not incorporate fludarabine, thus avoiding DNA damage caused by the drug, evidenced by a lack of FANCD2 monoubiquitination and impaired apoptosis. A screening of other nucleoside analogs revealed that APH(3')-IIa only protects against ATP purine analogs. Moreover, APH(3')-IIa ATPase activity is inhibited by fludarabine monophosphate, suggesting that APH(3')-IIa blocks fludarabine incorporation into DNA by dephosphorylating its active fludarabine triphosphate form. Furthermore, overexpression of the catalytic subunit of the eukaryotic kinase PKA, which is structurally related to APHs, also provides resistance to fludarabine, anticipating its putative utility as a response marker to the drug. Our results preclude the use of Neo marker plasmids in the study of purine analogs and unveils a new resistance mechanism against these chemotherapeuticals.-Sánchez-Carrera, D., Bravo-Navas, S., Cabezón, E., Arechaga, I., Cabezas, M., Yáñez, L., Pipaón, C. Fludarabine resistance mediated by aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase-IIa and the structurally related eukaryotic cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  16. Anti-HIV Nucleoside Phosphonate GS-9148 and Its Prodrug GS-9131: Scale Up of a 2'-F Modified Cyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate and Synthesis of Selected Amidate Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mackman, Richard L

    2014-03-26

    Nucleoside phosphonate analogs are an important class of antiviral drugs for the treatment of HIV and HBV. The most recent nucleoside phosphonate to progress to clinical development is GS-9131, a cyclic nucleoside phosphonate (CNP). This unit contains procedures for the synthesis of the parent CNP 2'-Fd4AP (GS-9148) and selected monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs, including the monoamidate clinical prodrug GS-9131. The first basic protocol of this unit details improved procedures for the preparation of 2'-Fd4AP and related phosphonate esters by introduction of a hydroxylmethyl phosphonate ester regioselectively and stereoselectively onto a furanose core via a glycal intermediate. The method described is believed to be robust and flexible, allowing for a variety of analogs with other nucleobases or furanose 2'-ring substitutions to be prepared. The preparation of monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs either on the phosphonate diacid or its monophenyl ester is then described in the second and third basic protocols of this unit.

  17. Discovery of β-D-2'-deoxy-2'-α-fluoro-4'-α-cyano-5-aza-7,9-dideaza adenosine as a potent nucleoside inhibitor of respiratory syncytial virus with excellent selectivity over mitochondrial RNA and DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael O; Mackman, Richard; Byun, Daniel; Hui, Hon; Barauskas, Ona; Birkus, Gabriel; Chun, Byoung-Kwon; Doerffler, Edward; Feng, Joy; Karki, Kapil; Lee, Gary; Perron, Michel; Siegel, Dustin; Swaminathan, Swami; Lee, William

    2015-06-15

    Novel 4'-substituted β-d-2'-deoxy-2'-α-fluoro (2'd2'F) nucleoside inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are reported. The introduction of 4'-substitution onto 2'd2'F nucleoside analogs resulted in compounds demonstrating potent cell based RSV inhibition, improved inhibition of the RSV polymerase by the nucleoside triphosphate metabolites, and enhanced selectivity over incorporation by mitochondrial RNA and DNA polymerases. Selectivity over the mitochondrial polymerases was found to be extremely sensitive to the specific 4'-substitution and not readily predictable. Combining the most potent and selective 4'-groups from N-nucleoside analogs onto a 2'd2'F C-nucleoside analog resulted in the identification of β-D-2'-deoxy-2'-α-fluoro-4'-α-cyano-5-aza-7,9-dideaza adenosine as a promising nucleoside lead for RSV.

  18. C-Nucleosides To Be Revisited.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2016-03-24

    Two new C-nucleoside analogues, BCX4430, an imino-C-nucleoside, and GS-6620, a phosphoramidate derivative of 1'-cyano-2'-C-methyl-4-aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine C-nucleoside, have been recently described as effective against filovirus infections (Marburg) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. The first C-nucleoside analogues were described about half a century ago. The C-nucleoside pseudouridine is a natural component of RNA, and various other C-nucleoside analogues have been reported previously for their antiviral and/or anticancer potential, the most prominent being pyrazofurin, tiazofurin, and selenazofurin. In the meantime, showdomycin, formycin, and various triazole, pyrazine, pyridine, dihydroxyphenyl, thienopyrimidine, pyrazolotriazine, and porphyrin C-nucleoside analogues have been described. It would be worth revisiting these C-nucleosides and derivatives thereof, including their phosphoramidates, for their therapeutic potential in the treatment of virus infections and, where appropriate, cancer as well.

  19. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  20. Synthesis, antiviral activity, cytotoxicity and cellular pharmacology of l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-wang; Detorio, Mervi; Herman, Brian D.; Solomon, Sarah; Bassit, Leda; Nettles, James H.; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Tao, Si-jia; Mellors, John W.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Coats, Steven J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted optimized transglycosylation reactions were used to prepare eleven modified l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine nucleosides. These l-nucleoside analogs were evaluated against HIV and hepatitis B virus. The l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurines nucleosides were metabolized to nucleoside 5′-triphosphates in primary human lymphocytes, but exhibited weak or no antiviral activity against HIV-1. The nucleosides were also inactive against HBV in HepG2 cells. Pre-steady-state kinetic experiments demonstrated that the l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine triphosphates could be incorporated by purified HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, although their catalytic efficiency (kpol/Kd) of incorporation was low. Interestingly, a phosphoramidate prodrug of l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity without significant toxicity. PMID:21700368

  1. Effect of bucladesine, Pentoxifylline, and H-89 as cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog, phosphodiesterase and protein kinase A inhibitor on acute pain.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Forouz; Hosseini-Zare, Mahshid Sadat; Aghajani, Haleh; Seyedi, Yalda; Hosseini-Zare, Maryam Sadat; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-07

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its dependent pathway on thermal nociception in a mouse model of acute pain. Here we studied the effect of H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), Bucladesine (Db-cAMP) (membrane permeable analog of cAMP) and pentoxifylline (PTX) (non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) on pain sensation. Different doses of H-89 (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/100g), PTX (5, 10 and 20 mg/100g), and Db-cAMP (50, 100 and 300 nM/mouse) were administered intraperitoneally (I.p.) 15 minutes before a tail-flick test. In combination groups, we injected the first and the second compound 30 and 15 minutes before the tail-flick test, respectively. I.p. administration of H-89 and PTX significantly decreased the thermal-induced pain sensation in their low applied doses. Bucladesine, however, decreased the pain sensation in a dose-dependent manner. The highest applied dose of H-89 (0.5 mg/100g) attenuated the anti-nociceptive effect of Db-cAMP in doses of 50 and 100 nM/mouse. Surprisingly, Db-cAMP decreased the anti-nociceptive effect of the lowest dose of H-89 (0.05mg/100g). All applied doses of PTX reduced the effect of 0.05mg/100g H-89 on pain sensation; however, the highest dose of H-89 compromised the anti-nociceptive effect of 20 mg/100g dose of PTX. Co-administration of Db-cAMP and PTX increased the anti-nociceptive effect of each compound on thermal-induced pain. In conclusion, PTX, H-89, and Db-cAMP affect the thermal-induced pain by probably interacting with intracellular cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual-face nucleoside scaffold featuring a stereogenic all-carbon quaternary center. Intramolecular silicon tethered group-transfer reaction.

    PubMed

    Tambutet, Guillaume; Becerril-Jiménez, Fabiola; Dostie, Starr; Simard, Ryan; Prévost, Michel; Mochirian, Philippe; Guindon, Yvan

    2014-11-07

    The design of a novel nucleoside scaffold that exhibits an all-carbon quaternary center is reported. This allows for both α- and β-anomers of a given 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro nucleoside analog (NA) to have potential biological activity. Using an intramolecular atom-transfer reaction, an all-carbon quaternary center was obtained without the use of heavy metals and/or harsh conditions. The chemistry developed is efficient, easily scalable and leads to novel libraries of molecules.

  3. Design and synthesis of novel distamycin-modified nucleoside analogues as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ma, Chunying; Zhang, Jin; Qian, Ning; Ding, Jingjing; Qiao, Renzhong; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-02-01

    Design and synthesis of nucleoside analogues have persistently attracted extensive interest because of their potential application in the field of antiviral therapy, and its study also receives additional impetus for improvement in the ProTide technology. Previous studies have made great strides in the design and discovery of monophosphorylated nucleoside analogues as potential kinase-independent antiretrovirals. In this work, a series of nucleoside phosphoramidates modified by distamycin analogues was synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-1-infected MT-4 and CEM cells, including variations in nucleoside, alkyl moiety, and the structure of distamycin analogues. These compounds exhibited modest potency with the EC50 value in the range of 1.3- to 6.5-fold lower than their corresponding parent drugs in MT-4 cells, which may be attributed to increasing intracellular availability due to the existence of distamycin analogue with favorable hydrophilic-lipophilic equilibrium. Meanwhile, the length of distamycin analogue was considered and assessed as an important factor that could affect antiviral activity and cytotoxicity. Enzymatic and metabolic stability studies have been performed in order to better understand the antiviral behavior of these compounds. The present work revealed the compounds to have a favorable and selective anti-HIV-1 activity in MT-4 and CEM cells, and helped to develop strategies for design and synthesis of effective monophosphorylated nucleoside analogues, which may be applied to antiretroviral research as NRTIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solution conformations of nucleoside analogues exhibiting antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Sandra; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    1991-01-01

    The molecular-conformational basis for HIV-1 antiviral activity of dideoxynucleoside analogues is unknown. A recent proposal by van Roey [1] that furanose sugar puckering in the C2' -endo family (namely C3' -exo) may account for the enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of azidothymidine (AZT), dideoxythymidine (ddT) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been tested by conformational analysis of these and related agents, using laser Raman spectroscopy of their solutions and crystal structures. The results show that nucleoside analogues exhibiting anti-HIV-1 activity, including AZT, ddT and ddC, exist in solution with C3' -endo as the predominating sugar pucker. The C3' -endo solution conformations differ fundamentally from the C3' -exo conformations observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Accordingly, the crystal conformation cannot be responsible for enhanced recognition of these agents, either by nucleoside kinase or reverse transcriptase, as a mechanism to explain antiviral activity. The present findings suggest that C3' -endo sugear pucker, rather than C3' -exo pucker, or other puckers of the C2' -endo family, is more probably the required conformation for antivaral activity. The present work also shows that nucleoside phosphorylation does not, in general, change the preferred solution conformation of a nucleoside. Therefore, C3' -endo sugar pucker is likely to be the preferred conformation for both nucleoside kinase and reverse transcriptase recognition. In this study, the list of thymidine nucleoside conformation markers available from Raman spectra is extended and additional group frequency assignments for C3' -azido, C3' -deoxy and related nucleoside derivatives are provided.

  5. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  6. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  7. A novel synthesis of antiviral nucleoside phosphoramidate and thiophosphoramidate prodrugs via nucleoside H-phosphonamidates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Li, Xingjian; Gong, Shanshan; Liu, Gang; Shen, Liang; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A novel and efficient method for the preparation of antiviral nucleoside 5'-H-phosphonamidates has been developed. The oxidization of the H-phosphonamidate intermediates with iodine and sulfur afforded nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates and 5'-thiophosphoramidates in high yields.

  8. Synthesis of Purine Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogs as Antiparasitic Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    8217- decnytubercidin (3), which also gave a negative Beilstein flame test in contrast to chloro-derivative 2. The UV spectra of both 2 and 3 were in- distinguishable...crude reaction mixture to catalytic hyrdogenation and tlc showed that a trace ninhydrin -positive spot had formed which may have been the desired 5...found by the silver nitrate test . We decided to convert 7to 5’-deoxynebularine (8) by catalytic hydrogenation over Pd on carbon in the presence of

  9. Cell cycle dependent regulation of deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I activity in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Fyrberg, A; Mirzaee, S; Lotfi, K

    2006-01-01

    Activation of nucleoside analogues is dependent on kinases and 5'-nucleotidases and the balance between the activity of these enzymes. The purpose of this study was to analyze deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and 4 different 5'-nucleotidases during cell cycle progression in MOLT-4 cells. The activity of both kinases was cell cycle dependent and increased during proliferation while the activity of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I decreased. We could show that the kinase activity was higher than the total nucleotidase activity, which was unchanged or decreased during cell cycle progression. These data may be important in designing modern combination therapy with nucleoside analogues.

  10. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine and the nucleoside analog sangivamycin induce apoptosis in caspase-3 deficient breast cancer cells independent of caspase mediated P-glycoprotein cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Cappellini, Alessandra; Chiarini, Francesca; Ognibene, Andrea; McCubrey, James A.; Martelli, Alberto M.

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents is a common clinical problem which can arise during cancer treatment. Drug resistance often involves overexpression of the multidrug resistance MDR1 gene, encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a 170-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transporters. We have recently demonstrated apoptosis-induced, caspase-3-dependent P-gp cleavage in human T-lymphoblastoid CEM-R VBL100 cells. However, P-gp contain many aspartate residues which could be targeted by caspases other than caspase-3. To test whether other caspases could cleave P-gp in vivo, we investigated the fate of P-gp during roscovitine- and sangivamycin- induced apoptosis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells, as they lack functional caspase-3. MCF7 cells were stably transfected with human cDNA encoding P-gp. P-gp was cleaved in vitro by purified recombinant caspase-3, -6 and -7. However, P-gp cleavage was not detected in vivo in MCF7 cells induced to undergoing apoptosis by either roscovitine or sangivamycin, despite activation of both caspase-6 and -7. Interestingly, P-gp overexpressing MCF7 cells were more sensitive to either roscovitine or sangivamycin than wild-type cells, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic strategy against P-gp overexpressing cells. Taken together, our results support the concept that caspase-3 is the only caspase responsible for in vivo cleavage of P-gp and also highlight small molecules which could be effective in treating P-gp overexpressing cancers. PMID:19342873

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a C6 nucleoside analogue for the in vivo imaging of the gene expression of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK).

    PubMed

    Johayem, Anass; Raić-Malić, Silvana; Lazzati, Katia; Schubiger, Pius A; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ametamey, Simon M

    2006-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of '6-(1,3-dihydroxyisobutyl)thymine' (DHBT; 1), which corresponds to 6-[3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, is reported. DHBT (1) was designed as a new substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK). The compound was found to be exclusively phosphorylated by HSV1 TK, and to exhibit good binding affinity (Ki = 35.3+/-1.3 microM). Cell-proliferation assays with HSV1-TK-transduced human osteosarcoma cells (143B-TK+-HSV1-WT) and with both human-thymidine-kinase-1-negative (143B-TK-) and non-transduced parental (MG-63) cells indicate that 1 is less cytotoxic than the standard drug Ganciclovir. Thus, DHBT (1) represents a promising precursor of a nontoxic reporter probe for the monitoring of HSV1 TK gene expression by means of positron-emission tomography (PET).

  12. Staurosporine scaffold-based rational discovery of the wild-type sparing reversible inhibitors of EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutant in lung cancer with analog-sensitive kinase technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xingcai; Ding, Xi

    2017-04-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been established as an attractive target for lung cancer therapy. However, an acquired EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation is frequently observed in patients treated with first-line anticancer agents such as gefitinib and erlotinib to cause drug resistance, largely limiting the application of small-molecule kinase inhibitors in EGFR-targeted chemotherapy. Previously, the reversible pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine and its several analogs such as Gö6976 and K252a have been reported to selectively inhibit the EGFR T790M mutant (EGFR(T790M) ) over wild-type kinase (EGFR(WT) ), suggesting that the staurosporine scaffold is potentially to develop the wild-type sparing reversible inhibitors of EGFR(T790M) . Here, we systematically evaluated the inhibitor response of 28 staurosporine scaffold-based compounds to EGFR T790M mutation at structural, energetic, and molecular levels by using an integrated in silico-in vitro analog-sensitive (AS) kinase technology. With the strategy, we were able to identify 4 novel wild-type sparing inhibitors UCN-01, UCN-02, AFN941, and SB-218078 with high or moderate selectivity of 30-, 45-, 5-, and 8-fold for EGFR(T790M) over EGFR(WT) , respectively, which are comparable with or even better than that of the parent compound staurosporine (24-fold). Molecular modeling and structural analysis revealed that van der Waals contacts and hydrophobic forces can form between the side chain of mutated residue Met790 and the pyrrolidinone moiety of inhibitor ligand UCN-02, which may simultaneously improve the favorable interaction energy between the kinase and inhibitor, and reduce the unfavorable desolvation penalty upon the kinase-inhibitor binding. A hydroxyl group of UCN-02 additional to staurosporine locates at the pyrrolidinone moiety, which can largely alter the electronic distribution of pyrrolidinone moiety and thus promote the intermolecular interaction with Met790 residue. This can well

  13. 3D-QSAR and virtual screening studies of thiazolidine-2,4-dione analogs: Validation of experimental inhibitory potencies towards PIM-1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asati, Vivek; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Budhwani, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The proviral insertion site in moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) is a family of serine/threonine kinase of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) group which is responsible for the activation and regulation of cellular transcription and translation. The three isoforms of PIM kinase (PIM-1, PIM-2 and PIM-3) share high homology and functional idleness are widely expressed and involved in a variety of biological processes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered expression of PIM-1 kinase correlated with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In the present study, atom-based 3D-QSAR, docking and virtual screening studies have been performed on a series of thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as PIM-1 kinase inhibitors. 3D-QSAR and docking approach has shortlisted the most active thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives such as 28, 31, 33 and 35 with the incorporation of more than one structural feature in a single molecule. External validations by various parameters and molecular docking studies at the active site of PIM-1 kinase have proved the reliability of the developed 3D-QSAR model. The generated pharmacophore (AADHR.33) from 3D-QSAR study was used for screening of drug like compounds from ZINC database, where ZINC15056464 and ZINC83292944 showed potential binding affinities at the active site amino acid residues (LYS67, GLU171, ASP128 and ASP186) of PIM-1 kinase (PDB ID: "pdb:4DTK").

  14. Surface-plasmon-resonance-based biosensor with immobilized bisubstrate analog inhibitor for the determination of affinities of ATP- and protein-competitive ligands of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Viht, Kaido; Schweinsberg, Sonja; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Raidaru, Gerda; Lavogina, Darja; Uri, Asko; Herberg, Friedrich W

    2007-03-15

    Interactions between adenosine-oligoarginine conjugates (ARC), bisubstrate analog inhibitors of protein kinases, and catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK Calpha) were characterized with surface-plasmon-resonance-based biosensors. ARC-704 bound to the immobilized kinase with subnanomolar affinity. The immobilization of ARC-704 to the chip surface via streptavidin-biotin complex yielded a high-affinity surface (K(D)=16nM). The bisubstrate character of ARC-704 was demonstrated with various ligands targeted to ATP-binding pocket (ATP and inhibitors H89 and H1152P) and protein-substrate-binding domain of Calpha (RIIalpha and GST-PKIalpha) in competition assays. The experiments performed on surfaces with different immobilization levels of ARC-704 produced similar results. The closeness of the obtained affinities of the tested compounds to the inhibitory potencies and affinities of the compounds measured with other methods demonstrates the applicability of the chip with the immobilized biligand inhibitor for the characterization of both ATP- and substrate protein-competitive ligands of basophilic protein kinases.

  15. Anticancer Conjugates and Cocktails Based on Methotrexate and Nucleoside Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Vortherms, Anthony R.; Dang, Hester N.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Conjugates of methotrexate (MTX) and the nucleoside analogs 3-azidodeoxythymidine (AZT), iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) linked using poly(ethyleneglycol) are presented. In vitro cytotoxicity assays of the conjugates against drug resistant ovarian cell line A2780/AD are preformed and comparisons made to such assays performed for unconjugated (cocktail) systems. All systems tested were inactive, or had low activity, at 24 h. After 72 hr incubation however, the cocktails of MTX and AZT, IUdR or ddC showed high cytotoxicity in the low nanomolar range. The conjugates were only very moderately active with IC50 values in the [0.1 to 1.0 mM] range. Conjugation of the antifolate to the nucleoside analogs has it seems reduced the activity significantly when compared to a cocktail of the components, indicating a conjugate approach is unlikely to translate into success in vivo. The positive note comes from the observation that by combining two of the new conjugates, namely those based on MTX with IUdR or AZT, an IC50 at 24 hours of ~ [180 μM] was produced. PMID:20689607

  16. Quantitative Detection of Nucleoside Analogues by Multi-enzyme Biosensors using Time-Resolved Kinetic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Pravin; Lutz, Stefan

    2016-04-05

    Fast, simple and cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying pharmaceutical agents in patients are highly sought after to replace equipment and labor-intensive analytical procedures. The development of new diagnostic technology including portable detection devices also enables point-of-care by non-specialists in resource-limited environments. We have focused on the detection and dose monitoring of nucleoside analogues used in viral and cancer therapies. Using deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as biosensors, our chemometric model compares observed time-resolved kinetics of unknown analytes to known substrate interactions across multiple enzymes. The resulting dataset can simultaneously identify and quantify multiple nucleosides and nucleoside analogues in complex sample mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nucleoside transporter proteins as biomarkers of drug responsiveness and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Pérez-Torras, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. They translocate nucleosides in a Na+ coupled manner with high affinity and some substrate selectivity, being hCNT1 and hCNT2 pyrimidine- and purine-preferring, respectively, and hCNT3 a broad selectivity transporter. SLC29 genes encode four members, being hENT1 and hENT2 the only two which are unequivocally implicated in the translocation of nucleosides and nucleobases (the latter mostly via hENT2) at the cell plasma membrane. Some nucleoside-derived drugs can also interact with and be translocated by members of the SLC22 gene family, particularly hOCT and hOAT proteins. Inter-individual differences in transporter function and perhaps, more importantly, altered expression associated with the disease itself might modulate the transporter profile of target cells, thereby determining drug bioavailability and action. Drug transporter pharmacology has been periodically reviewed. Thus, with this contribution we aim at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the clinical evidence generated so far supporting the concept that these membrane proteins can indeed be biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and/or prognosis. Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show “transceptor” functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters. PMID:25713533

  18. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; Cleaves, II, H. James; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  19. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves, H., II; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  20. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves II, H.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  1. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; ...

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two ormore » more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.« less

  2. O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

  3. Use of a special Brazilian red-light emitting railroad worm Luciferase in bioassays of NEK7 protein Kinase and Creatine Kinase.

    PubMed

    Marina Perez, Arina; Aquino, Bruno; Viviani, Vadim; Kobarg, Jörg

    2017-07-19

    Luciferases, enzymes that catalyze bioluminescent reactions in different organisms, have been extensively used for bioanalytical purposes. The most well studied bioluminescent system is that of firefly and other beetles, which depends on a luciferase, a benzothiazolic luciferin and ATP, and it is being widely used as a bioanalytical reagent to quantify ATP. Protein kinases are proteins that modify other proteins by transferring phosphate groups from a nucleoside triphosphate, usually ATP. Here, we used a red-light emitting luciferase from Phrixotrix hirtus railroad worm to determine the activity of kinases in a coupled assay, based on luminescence that is generated when luciferase is in the presence of its substrate, the luciferin, and ATP. In this work we used, after several optimization reactions, creatine kinase isoforms as well as NEK7 protein kinase in the absence or presence of ATP analogous inhibitors  to validate this new luminescence method. With this new approach we validated a luminescence method to quantify kinase activity, with different substrates and inhibition screening tests, using a novel red-light emitting luciferase as a reporter enzyme.

  4. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  5. Biocatalytic approaches applied to the synthesis of nucleoside prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Luis E; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Medici, Rosario; Bianchi, Paola; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are valuable bioactive molecules, which display antiviral and antitumour activities. Diverse types of prodrugs are designed to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, however this strategy faces the troublesome selectivity issues of nucleoside chemistry. In this context, the aim of this review is to give an overview of the opportunities provided by biocatalytic procedures in the preparation of nucleoside prodrugs. The potential of biocatalysis in this research area will be presented through examples covering the different types of nucleoside prodrugs: nucleoside analogues as prodrugs, nucleoside lipophilic prodrugs and nucleoside hydrophilic prodrugs.

  6. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the human deoxycytidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Walker, S.; Gribbin, T. ); Chen, E. Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ); Johnson, E.E.; Spychala, J.; Mitchell, B.S. )

    1993-01-15

    Deoxycytidine kinase (NTP:deoxycytidine 5[prime]-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.74) is an enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides and a number of nucleoside analogs that are important in antiviral and cancer chemotherapy. Deficiency of this enzyme activity is associated with resistance to these agents, whereas increased enzyme activity is associated with increased activation of such compounds to cytotoxic nucleoside triphosphate derivatives. To characterize the regulation of expression of this gene, we have isolated genomic clones encompassing its entire coding and 5[prime] flanking regions and delinated all the exon/intron boundaries. The gene extends over more than 34 kilobases on chromosome 4 and the coding region is composed of 7 exons ranging in size from 90 to 1544 base pairs (bp). The 5[prime] flanking region is highly G+C-rich and contains four regions that are potential Sp1 binding sites. A 697-bp fragment encompassing 386 bp of 5[prime] upstream region, the 250-bp first exon, and 61 bp of the first intron was demonstrated to promote chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in a T-lymphoblast cell line and to have >6-fold greater activity in a Jurkat T-lymphoblast than in a Raji B-lymphoblast cell line. Our data suggest that these 5[prime] sequences may contain elements that are important for the tissue-specific differences in deoxycytidine kinase expression. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Synthesis of disaccharide nucleosides by the O-glycosylation of natural nucleosides with thioglycoside donors.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shin; Fukumoto, Taketo; Itoh, Taiki; Kurihara, Masayuki; Saito, Shigeto; Komabiki, Shin-ya

    2015-03-01

    Disaccharide nucleosides constitute an important group of naturally-occurring sugar derivatives. In this study, we report on the synthesis of disaccharide nucleosides by the direct O-glycosylation of nucleoside acceptors, such as adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and cytidine, with glycosyl donors. Among the glycosyl donors tested, thioglycosides were found to give the corresponding disaccharide nucleosides in moderate to high chemical yields with the above nucleoside acceptors using p-toluenesulfenyl chloride (TolSCl) and silver triflate (AgOTf) as promoters. The interaction of these promoters with nucleoside acceptors was examined by (1)H NMR spectroscopic experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  9. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2007-06-08

    In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios.

  10. New ribose-modified fluorescent analogs of adenine and guanine nucleotides available as substrates for various enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, T

    1983-02-15

    The synthesis of fluorescent derivatives of nucleosides and nucleotides, by reaction with isatoic anhydride in aqueous solution at mild pH and temperature, yielding their 3'-O-anthraniloyl derivatives, is here described. The N-methylanthraniloyl derivatives were also synthesized by reaction with N-methylisatoic anhydride. Upon excitation at 330-350 nm these derivatives exhibited maximum fluorescence emission at 430-445 nm in aqueous solution with quantum yields of 0.12-0.24. Their fluorescence was sensitive to the polarity of the solvent; in N,N-dimethylformamide the quantum yields were 0.83-0.93. The major differences between the two fluorophores were the longer wavelength of the emission maximum of the N-methylanthraniloyl group and its greater quantum yield in water. All anthraniloyl derivatives, as well as the N-methylanthraniloyl ones, had virtually identical fluorescent properties, regardless of their base structures. The ATP derivatives showed considerable substrate activity as a replacement of ATP with adenylate kinase, guanylate kinase, glutamine synthetase, myosin ATPase and sodium-potassium transport ATPase. The ADP derivatives were good substrates for creatine kinase and glutamine synthetase (gamma-glutamyl transfer activity). The GMP and adenosine derivatives were substrates for guanylate kinase and adenosine deaminase, respectively. All derivatives had only slightly altered Km values for these enzymes. While more fluorescent in water, the N-methylanthraniloyl derivatives were found to show relatively low substrate activities against some of these enzymes. The results indicate that these ribose-modified nucleosides and nucleotides can be versatile fluorescent substrate analogs for various enzymes.

  11. Intracellular Metabolism of Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analogues: a Bottleneck to Reach Active Drugs on HIV Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrea; Lionne, Corinne; Roy, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    To date, the most effective way to treat HIV is to use a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that combines three or more different drugs. The usual regimen consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either a protease inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Due to the emerging resistance against the nucleoside analogues in use, there is a continuous need for the development of such therapeutic molecules with different structural features. In this review, we would like to summarize the state of knowledge of the antiretroviral nucleoside analogues intracellular metabolism. Indeed, these molecules have to be phosphorylated in the cell, a process that is often a bottleneck, to produce their pharmacologically active triphosphorylated forms. These forms can be used by the HIV reverse transcriptase. Because they lack a 3'-hydroxyl group, they block further extension of the viral DNA, and finally lead to early chain termination. Several kinases can act on the phosphorylation of these drugs; most of them have low nucleoside/nucleotide specificity. On the other hand, there are also nucleotidases in the cell, which can reverse the phosphorylation process, thus shifting the equilibrium from the active triphosphorylated state to the non-active (not-, mono- or di-phosphorylated) states of these analogues. Here, we would like to bring to the attention of the medicinal chemists that they have to take into account the limitation of the intracellular phosphorylation machinery when designing new nucleoside analogue drugs.

  12. Fluorinated nucleosides as antiviral and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nucleosides and analogues with fluoride modifications on the surgar moiety are reviewed, and their biological activities as potential antiviral and anti-tumor agents are also discussed.

  13. Exploring synthetic routes to nucleoside alkynylphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Meurillon, M; Peyrottes, S; Périgaud, C

    2008-01-01

    Alkynylphosphonates belong to a very interesting family as they may be viewed as precursors to a wide range of functionalized derivatives. Considering our ongoing research on 5'-mononucleotides of biological interest, we embarked on the synthesis of such compounds. Despite a limited number of steps, the nucleosidic pathway appeared disappointing. Therefore, an osidic pathway was explored and proved to be interesting. The corresponding optimization study and the synthesis of a new series of nucleoside alkynylphosphonates are described herein.

  14. Involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 in intestinal absorption of trifluorothymidine, a novel antitumor nucleoside, in rats.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Takashige; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Kuwata, Keizo; Komuro, Masahito; Ohta, Shigeru; Nagayama, Sekio

    2012-02-01

    ααα-Trifluorothymidine (TFT), an anticancer nucleoside analog, is a potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor. TFT exerts its antitumor activity primarily by inducing DNA fragmentation after incorporation of the triphosphate form of TFT into the DNA. Although an oral combination of TFT and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor has been clinically developed, there is little information regarding TFT absorption. Therefore, we investigated TFT absorption in the rat small intestine. After oral administration of TFT in rats, more than 75% of the TFT was absorbed. To identify the uptake transport system, uptake studies were conducted by using everted sacs prepared from rat small intestines. TFT uptake was saturable, significantly reduced under Na(+)-free conditions, and strongly inhibited by the addition of an endogenous pyrimidine nucleoside. From these results, we suggested the involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in TFT absorption into rat small intestine. In rat small intestines, the mRNAs coding for rat CNT1 (rCNT1) and rCNT2, but not for rCNT3, were predominantly expressed. To investigate the roles of rCNT1 and rCNT2 in TFT uptake, we conducted uptake assays by using Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 complementary RNA (cRNA) and rCNT2 cRNA. TFT uptake by X. laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 cRNA, and not rCNT2 cRNA, was significantly greater than that by water-injected oocytes. In addition, in situ single-pass perfusion experiments performed using rat jejunum regions showed that thymidine, a substrate for CNT1, strongly inhibited TFT uptake. In conclusion, TFT is absorbed via rCNT1 in the intestinal lumen in rats.

  15. Molecular Modeling Approach to Understanding the Mode of Action of l-Nucleosides as Antiviral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong; Chu, Chung K.

    2001-01-01

    A series of unnatural l-nucleosides such as 3TC, FTC and l-FMAU have been found to be potent antiviral agents. The mode of action of l-nucleosides has been found to be similar to that of d-nucleosides as antiviral agents, despite their unnatural stereochemistry, that is, nucleotide formation by kinases followed by interaction with the reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV or DNA polymerase. To date, the mode of action of nucleoside inhibitors at the molecular level with respect to the active conformations of the 5′-triphosphates as well as the interaction with the RT is not known. Recently, the X-ray crystal structure of the RT-DNA-dTTP catalytic complex has been reported. Computer modeling has been performed for several pairs of d- and l-nucleoside inhibitors using the HIV-1 RT model and crystal coordinate data from a subset of the protein surrounding the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding pocket region. Results from our modeling studies of d-/l-zidovudine, d-/l-3TC, d-/l-dideoxycytosine triphosphates, dTTP and dCTP show that their binding energies correlate with the reported 50% effective concentrations. Modeling results are also discussed with respect to favorable conformations of each inhibitor at the dNTP site in the polymerization process. Additionally, the clinically important M184V mutation, which confers resistance against 3TC and FTC, was studied with our modeling system. The binding energy patterns of nucleoside inhibitors at the M184V mutation site correlate with the reported antiviral data. PMID:11120956

  16. Phosphoryl transfer by a concerted reaction mechanism in UMP/CMP-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, M. C.; Helms, V.

    2000-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by UMP/CMP-kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum was investigated by semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital computations of an active site model system derived from crystal structures that contain a transition state analog or a bisubstrate inhibitor. The computational results suggest that the nucleoside monophosphate must be protonated for the forward reaction while it is unprotonated in the presence of aluminium fluoride, a popular transition state analog for phosphoryl transfer reactions. Furthermore, a compactification of the active site model system during the reaction and for the corresponding complex containing AlF3 was observed. For the active site residues that are part of the LID domain, conformational flexibility during the reaction proved to be crucial. On the basis of the calculations, a concerted phosphoryl transfer mechanism is suggested that involves the synchronous shift of a proton from the monophosphate to the transferred PO3-group. The proposed mechanism is thus analogous to the phosphoryl transfer mechanism in cAMP-dependent protein kinase that phosphorylates the hydroxyl groups of serine residues. PMID:11152133

  17. Expression of deoxynucleoside kinases and 5'-nucleotidases in mouse tissues: implications for mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rylova, Svetlana N; Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Albertioni, Freidoun; Eriksson, Staffan

    2007-06-30

    Anti-HIV nucleoside therapy can result in mitochondrial toxicity affecting muscles, peripheral nerves, pancreas and adipose tissue. The cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase (dCK; EC 2.7.1.74) and thymidine kinase (TK1; EC 2.7.1.21), the mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK; EC 2.7.1.113) as well as 5'-deoxynucleotidases (5'-dNT; EC 3.1.3.5) are enzymes that control rate-limiting steps in formation of intracellular and intra-mitochondrial nucleotides. The mRNA levels and activities of these enzymes were determined in mouse tissues, using real-time PCR and selective enzyme assays. The expression of mRNA for all these enzymes and the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier was detected in all tissues with a 5-10-fold variation. TK1 activities were only clearly detected in spleen and testis, while TK2, dGK and dCK activities were found in all tissues. dGK activities were higher than any other dNK in all tissues, except spleen and testis. In skeletal muscle dGK activity was 5-fold lower, TK2 and dCK levels were 10-fold lower as compared with other tissues. The variation in 5'-dNT activities was about eight-fold with the highest levels in brain and lowest in brown fat. Thus, the salvage of deoxynucleosides in muscles is 5-10-fold lower as compared to other non-proliferating tissues and 100-fold lower compared to spleen. These results may help to explain tissue specific toxicity observed with nucleoside analogs used in HIV treatment as well as symptoms in inherited mitochondrial TK2 deficiencies.

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides by nucleoside phosphorylase co-expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-bao; Ou, Ling; Wei, Dong-zhi; Wei, Xiao-kun; Xu, Yan-mei; Zhang, Chun-yan

    2010-11-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylase is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of nucleosides. In this study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the intact cells were used as a catalyst for the biosynthesis of nucleosides. For protein induction, lactose was used in place of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). When the concentration of lactose was above 0.5 mmol/L, the ability to induce protein expression was similar to that of IPTG. We determined that the reaction conditions of four bacterial strains co-expressing these genes (TUD, TAD, DUD, and DAD) were similar for the biosyntheses of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleoside and 2,6-diaminopurine deoxynucleoside. When the substrate concentration was 30 mmol/L and 0.5% of the recombinant bacterial cell volume was used as the catalyst (pH 7.5), a greater than 90% conversion yield was reached after a 2-h incubation at 50 °C. In addition, several other nucleosides and nucleoside derivatives were efficiently synthesized using bacterial strains co-expressing these recombinant enzymes.

  19. Influence of sugar ring conformation on the transportability of nucleosides by human nucleoside transporters.

    PubMed

    Damaraju, Vijaya L; Mowles, Delores; Smith, Kyla M; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Young, James D; Marquez, Victor E; Cass, Carol E

    2011-12-16

    The conformational preference of human nucleoside transporters (hNTs) with respect to sugar ring was examined using conformationally fixed purine and pyrimidine nucleosides built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template. These fixed-conformation nucleosides, methanocarba-deoxyadenosine or methanocarba-deoxycytidine in North (C3'-endo, N-MCdA and N-MCdC) or South (C2'-endo, S-MCdA and S-MCdC) conformations, were used to study inhibition of equilibrative (hENT1-4) and concentrative (hCNT1-3) nucleoside transport by individual recombinant hNTs produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our results indicated that nucleosides in the North conformation were potent inhibitors of transport mediated by hCNTs whereas South nucleosides were inhibitors of hENTs, thus showing differences in the interaction with the hNTs. In summary, hCNTs exhibited strong preferences for North nucleosides whereas hENTs exhibited slight preferences for South nucleosides, demonstrating for the first time different conformational preferences among members of the two families of hNTs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides by nucleoside phosphorylase co-expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qing-bao; Ou, Ling; Wei, Dong-zhi; Wei, Xiao-kun; Xu, Yan-mei; Zhang, Chun-yan

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylase is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of nucleosides. In this study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the intact cells were used as a catalyst for the biosynthesis of nucleosides. For protein induction, lactose was used in place of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). When the concentration of lactose was above 0.5 mmol/L, the ability to induce protein expression was similar to that of IPTG. We determined that the reaction conditions of four bacterial strains co-expressing these genes (TUD, TAD, DUD, and DAD) were similar for the biosyntheses of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleoside and 2,6-diaminopurine deoxynucleoside. When the substrate concentration was 30 mmol/L and 0.5% of the recombinant bacterial cell volume was used as the catalyst (pH 7.5), a greater than 90% conversion yield was reached after a 2-h incubation at 50 °C. In addition, several other nucleosides and nucleoside derivatives were efficiently synthesized using bacterial strains co-expressing these recombinant enzymes. PMID:21043057

  1. Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sjuvarsson, Elena; Damaraju, Vijaya L; Mowles, Delores; Sawyer, Michael B; Tiwari, Rohit; Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Nakkula, Robin J; Barth, Rolf F; Cass, Carol E; Eriksson, Staffan; Tjarks, Werner

    2013-11-01

    3-[5-{2-(2,3-Dihydroxyprop-1-yl)-o-carboran-1-yl}pentan-1-yl]thymidine (N5-2OH) is a first generation 3-carboranyl thymidine analog (3CTA) that has been intensively studied as a boron-10 ((10)B) delivery agent for neutron capture therapy (NCT). N5-2OH is an excellent substrate of thymidine kinase 1 and its favorable biodistribution profile in rodents led to successful preclinical NCT of rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma. The present study explored cellular influx and efflux mechanisms of N5-2OH, as well as its intracellular anabolism beyond the monophosphate level. N5-2OH entered cultured human CCRF-CEM cells via passive diffusion, whereas the multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 appeared to be a major mediator of N5-2OH monophosphate efflux. N5-2OH was effectively monophosphorylated in cultured murine L929 [thymidine kinase 1 (TK1(+))] cells whereas formation of N5-2OH monophosphate was markedly lower in L929 (TK1(-)) cell variants. Further metabolism to the di- and triphosphate forms was not observed in any of the cell lines. Regardless of monophosphorylation, parental N5-2OH was the major intracellular component in both TK1(+) and TK1(-) cells. Phosphate transfer experiments with enzyme preparations showed that N5-2OH monophosphate, as well as the monophosphate of a second 3-carboranyl thymidine analog [3-[5-(o-carboran-1-yl)pentan-1-yl]thymidine (N5)], were not substrates of thymidine monophosphate kinase. Surprisingly, N5-diphosphate was phosphorylated by nucleoside diphosphate kinase although N5-triphosphate apparently was not a substrate of DNA polymerase. Our results provide valuable information on the cellular metabolism and pharmacokinetic profile of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of equilibrative nucleoside transporters suggests conserved protein structure despite limited sequence identity.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Narendra; Machado, Jerry; Abdulla, Parween; Hilliker, Arthur J; Coe, Imogen R

    2002-10-15

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are a recently characterized and poorly understood group of membrane proteins that are important in the uptake of endogenous nucleosides required for nucleic acid and nucleoside triphosphate synthesis. Despite their central importance in cellular metabolism and nucleoside analog chemotherapy, no human ENT gene has been described and nothing is known about gene structure and function. To gain insight into the ENT gene family, we used experimental and in silico comparative genomic approaches to identify ENT genes in three evolutionarily diverse organisms with completely (or almost completely) sequenced genomes, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We describe the chromosomal location, the predicted ENT gene structure and putative structural topologies of predicted ENT proteins derived from the open reading frames. Despite variations in genomic layout and limited ortholog protein sequence identity (< or =27.45%), predicted topologies of ENT proteins are strikingly similar, suggesting an evolutionary conservation of a prototypic structure. In addition, a similar distribution of protein domains on exons is apparent in all three taxa. These data demonstrate that comparative sequence analyses should be combined with other approaches (such as genomic and proteomic analyses) to fully understand structure, function and evolution of protein families.

  3. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-7-deazapurine nucleosides, their phosphoramidate prodrugs and 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Zhou, Longhu; Zhang, Hongwang; McBrayer, Tamara R; Detorio, Mervi A; Johns, Melissa; Bassit, Leda; Powdrill, Megan H; Whitaker, Tony; Coats, Steven J; Götte, Matthias; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2011-12-01

    Thirty novel α- and β-d-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-7-deazapurine nucleoside analogs were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity. Several α- and β-7-deazapurine nucleoside analogs exhibited modest anti-HCV activity and cytotoxicity. Four synthesized 7-deazapurine nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs (18-21) showed no anti-HCV activity, whereas the nucleoside triphosphates (22-24) demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against both wild-type and S282T mutant HCV polymerases. Cellular pharmacology studies in Huh-7 cells revealed that the 5'-triphosphates were not formed at significant levels from either the nucleoside or the phosphoramidate prodrugs, indicating that insufficient phosphorylation was responsible for the lack of anti-HCV activity. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 activity revealed that an unusual α-form of 7-carbomethoxyvinyl substituted nucleoside (10) had good anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50)=0.71±0.25 μM; EC(90)=9.5±3.3 μM) with no observed cytotoxicity up to 100 μM in four different cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylases from thermophiles: preparation, properties and activity towards purine and pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrui; Szeker, Kathleen; Janocha, Bernd; Böhme, Thomas; Albrecht, Dirk; Mikhailopulo, Igor A; Neubauer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Thermostable nucleoside phosphorylases are attractive biocatalysts for the synthesis of modified nucleosides. Hence we report on the recombinant expression of three 'high molecular mass' purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) derived from the thermophilic bacteria Deinococcus geothermalis, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius and from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix (5'-methythioadenosine phosphorylase; ApMTAP). Thermostability studies, kinetic analysis and substrate specificities are reported. The PNPs were stable at their optimal temperatures (DgPNP, 55 °C; GtPNP, 70 °C; ApMTAP, activity rising to 99 °C). Substrate properties were investigated for natural purine nucleosides [adenosine, inosine and their C2'-deoxy counterparts (activity within 50-500 U·mg(-1))], analogues with 2'-amino modified 2'-deoxy-adenosine and -inosine (within 0.1-3 U·mg(-1)) as well as 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroadenosine (9) and its C2'-arabino diastereomer (10, within 0.01-0.03 U·mg(-1)). Our results reveal that the structure of the heterocyclic base (e.g. adenine or hypoxanthine) can play a critical role in the phosphorolysis reaction. The implications of this finding may be helpful for reaction mechanism studies or optimization of reaction conditions. Unexpectedly, the diastereomeric 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine ribo- and arabino-nucleosides displayed similar substrate properties. Moreover, cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine were found to be moderate substrates of the prepared PNPs, with substrate activities in a range similar to those determined for 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine nucleosides 9 and 10. C2'-modified nucleosides are accepted as substrates by all recombinant enzymes studied, making these enzymes promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of modified nucleosides. Indeed, the prepared PNPs performed well in preliminary transglycosylation reactions resulting in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine ribo- and arabino- nucleosides in moderate yield (24%). © 2013 The Authors Journal

  5. Role of CNT3 in the transepithelial flux of nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Casado, F Javier

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT3 in the establishment of a transepithelial flux of natural nucleosides and their pharmacologically active derivatives in renal epithelial cell lines. Murine PCT cells grown on a transwell dish showed endogenous CNT3 activity at their apical membrane that was responsible for the sodium-dependent transepithelial flux of both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. hCNT3 was also identified in human kidney and its role in the transport of nucleosides was tested. To this end, MDCK cells, lacking endogenous CNT3 activity, were genetically engineered to express the human orthologue of CNT3 (hCNT3-MDCK cells). In these cells, hCNT3 was inserted into the apical membrane, thus generating, as for PCT cells, a transepithelial flux of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs. Apical-to-basolateral transepithelial flux was present in all cells expressing a functional CNT3 transporter and was significantly higher than that found either in PCT cells in absence of sodium or in mock-transfected MDCK cells. Nevertheless in all cases a significant amount of the transported nucleoside was retained and transformed inside cells. However release to the opposite compartment was CNT3 dependent, not only in terms of absolute flux (much higher when an apical CNT3 transporter was active) but also regarding metabolic transformations of the apically absorbed nucleosides. These results underline a critical role of CNT3 in the renal reabsorption of nucleosides and their derivatives as well as in their intracellular metabolism. PMID:17412768

  6. Extending Thymidine Kinase Activity to the Catalytic Repertoire of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Sabini, Eliszbetta; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2009-03-04

    Salvage of nucleosides in the cytosol of human cells is carried out by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Whereas TK1 is only responsible for thymidine phosphorylation, dCK is capable of converting dC, dA, and dG into their monophosphate forms. Using structural data on dCK, we predicted that select mutations at the active site would, in addition to making the enzyme faster, expand the catalytic repertoire of dCK to include thymidine. Specifically, we hypothesized that steric repulsion between the methyl group of the thymine base and Arg104 is the main factor preventing the phosphorylation of thymidine by wild-type dCK. Here we present kinetic data on several dCK variants where Arg104 has been replaced by select residues, all performed in combination with the mutation of Asp133 to an alanine. We show that several hydrophobic residues at position 104 endow dCK with thymidine kinase activity. Depending on the exact nature of the mutations, the enzyme's substrate preference is modified. The R104M-D133A double mutant is a pyrimidine-specific enzyme due to large K{sub m} values with purines. The crystal structure of the double mutant R104M-D133A in complex with the L-form of thymidine supplies a structural explanation for the ability of this variant to phosphorylate thymidine and thymidine analogs. The replacement of Arg104 by a smaller residue allows L-dT to bind deeper into the active site, making space for the C5-methyl group of the thymine base. The unique catalytic properties of several of the mutants make them good candidates for suicide-gene/protein-therapy applications.

  7. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  8. RNA containing pyrrolocytidine base analogs: good binding affinity and fluorescence that responds to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Alexander S; Damha, Masad J; Hudson, Robert H E

    2008-01-01

    6-Phenylpyrrolocytidine and 6-methoxymethylene-pyrrolocytidine are base-modified nucleosides with remarkable fluorescence properties. When incorporated into RNA, these analogs enhance binding affinity towards RNA and DNA targets with a concomitant change in their fluorescence upon duplex formation. The fluorescence response depends on the nature of the 6-substituent and the sequence position of the modified nucleoside. The fluorescence response of these structurally conservative, well-tolerated fluorescent nucleosides may be exploited as probes in the study of nucleic acid processing enzymes.

  9. Synthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphates from 2'-3'-Protected Nucleosides Using Trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-02-05

    Chemists have been attempting to triphosphorylate nucleosides and other alcohols using trimetaphosphate (TriMP) since the 1960s. However, this route appears to have been abandoned due to poor yields. The first practical syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are reported using TriMP as the key reagent. This was achieved by reacting the tetrabutylammonium salt of TriMP with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of DABCO in pyridine followed by the addition of an appropriately protected nucleoside and phthalimide. Quenching the reaction with aqueous buffer followed by hydrolysis of the OH protecting groups gave the NTPs in good yield.

  10. RNA containing pyrrolocytidine base analogs: increased binding affinity and fluorescence that responds to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Alexander S; Damha, Masad J; Hudson, Robert H E

    2008-01-01

    6-Phenylpyrrolocytidine and 6-methoxymethylene-pyrrolocytidine are base-modified nucleosides with remarkable fluorescence properties. These analogs produce increased binding affinity to both RNA and DNA targets when incorporated into oligoribonucleotides. The fluorescence observed for the single-stranded oligomers is quenched upon duplex formation with either RNA or DNA targets. The fluorescence response depends on the nature of the 6-substituent and the sequence position of the modified nucleoside.

  11. 1,2,3-Triazolylalkylribitol derivatives as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, A; McNaughton, M; Bal, G; Surpateanu, G; Van der Veken, P; De Prol, S; Versées, W; Steyaert, J; Apers, S; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2007-05-01

    A range of novel 1,2,3-triazolylalkylribitol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors. The most active compound (11a) has low micromolar potency and is structurally diverse from previously reported nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors, which, along with the simplicity of the chemistry involved in its synthesis, makes it a good lead for the further development of novel nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

  12. The synthesis and transformations of uronic acid nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshchuk, V. A.

    1994-08-01

    The results of studies on the synthesis and transformations of uronic acid nucleosides are surveyed. Various pathways leading to the synthesis of uronic acid nucleoside are examined, including methods involving specific and nonspecific oxidation of nucleosides, and the glycosylation and modification of the sugar residue or the heterocyclic base. The bibliography includes 97 references.

  13. Inhibition of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) by pyrazolopyrimidine analogs decreases establishment and reoccurrence of central nervous system disease by Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rutaganira, Florentine U; Barks, Jennifer; Dhason, Mary Savari; Wang, Qiuling; Lopez, Michael Steven; Long, Shaojun; Radke, Joshua B; Jones, Nathaniel G; Maddirala, Amarendar R; Janetka, James W; El Bakkouri, Majida; Hui, Raymond; Shokat, Kevan M; Sibley, L David

    2017-09-21

    Calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) is an essential enzyme in the opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. CDPK1 controls multiple processes that are essential to the intracellular replicative cycle of T. gondii including secretion of adhesins, motility, invasion, and egress. Remarkably, CDPK1 contains a small glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP binding pocket making it sensitive to ATP-competitive inhibitors with bulky substituents that complement this expanded binding pocket. Here we explored structure-activity relationships of a series of pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitors of CDPK1 with the goals of increasing selectivity over host enzymes, improving anti-parasite potency, and improving metabolic stability. The resulting lead compound 24 exhibits excellent enzyme inhibition and selectivity for CDPK1 and potently inhibited parasite growth in vitro. Compound 24 was also effective at treating acute toxoplasmosis in the mouse, reducing dissemination to the central nervous system, decreasing reactivation of chronic infection in severely immunocompromised mice. These findings provide proof of concept for the development of small molecule inhibitors of CDPK1 for treatment of CNS toxoplasmosis.

  14. First and facile enzymatic synthesis of β-fucosyl-containing disaccharide nucleosides through β-galactosidase-catalyzed regioselective glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Qiang; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-12-15

    β-Galactosidase from bovine liver was purified to homogeneity. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 54kDa by SDS-PAGE, 60kDa by gel permeation chromatography, and 57kDa by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight tandem mass spectrum. This enzyme displayed the highest catalytic efficiency with p-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside (Vmax/Km value, 0.0173min(-1)) as the substrate, lower with p-nitrophenyl β-d-fucopyranoside (0.0156min(-1)) and the lowest with p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside (0.0126min(-1)). With the enzymatic fucosylation of floxuridine as a model reaction, four key reaction conditions were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enzymatic synthesis of a group of β-fucosyl-containing disaccharide nucleosides using the purified β-galactosidase was conducted. The desirable 5'-O-β-d-fucosyl derivatives of pyrimidine nucleosides were obtained with 44-60% yields. Besides, the 5'-regioselectivities decreased markedly with increasing bulk of 5-substituents present in the base moiety of nucleosides. In addition, the enzyme could accept acyclic nucleoside analogs as the substrates and catalyze the enzymatic fucosylation of these nucleosides, furnishing the glycosylated products with the yields of 32-36%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo reshaping the catalytic site of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase for dideoxy- and didehydronucleosides via a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Pierre Alexandre; Dacher, Priscilla; Dugué, Laurence; Pochet, Sylvie

    2008-07-18

    Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of 2-deoxyribose between bases and have been widely used as biocatalysts to synthesize a variety of nucleoside analogs. The genes encoding nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase (ndt) from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum underwent random mutagenesis to select variants specialized for the synthesis of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. An Escherichia coli strain, auxotrophic for uracil and unable to use 2',3'-dideoxyuridine, cytosine, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine as a source of uracil was constructed. Randomly mutated lactobacilli ndt libraries from two species, L. leichmannii and L. fermentum, were screened for the production of uracil with 2',3'-dideoxyuridine as a source of uracil. Several mutants suitable for the synthesis of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides were isolated. The nucleotide sequence of the corresponding genes revealed a single mutation (G --> A transition) leading to the substitution of a small aliphatic amino acid by a nucleophilic one, A15T (L. fermentum) or G9S (L. leichmannii), respectively. We concluded that the "adaptation" of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase activity to 2,3-dideoxyribosyl transfer requires an additional hydroxyl group on a key amino acid side chain of the protein to overcome the absence of such a group in the corresponding substrate. The evolved proteins also display significantly improved nucleoside 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyribosyltransferase activity.

  16. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of modified nucleosides in self-assembled DNA cross-tiles.

    PubMed

    Hakker, Lauren; Marchi, Alexandria N; Harris, Kimberly A; LaBean, Thomas H; Agris, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    DNA Holliday junctions are important natural strand-exchange structures that form during homologous recombination. Immobile four-arm junctions, analogs to Holliday junctions, have been designed to self-assemble into cross-tile structures by maximizing Watson-Crick base pairing and fixed crossover points. The cross-tiles, self-assembled from base pair recognition between designed single-stranded DNAs, form higher order lattice structures through cohesion of self-associating sticky ends. These cross-tiles have 16 unpaired nucleosides in the central loop at the junction of the four duplex stems. The importance of the centralized unpaired nucleosides to the structure's thermodynamic stability and self-assembly is unknown. Cross-tile DNA nanostructures were designed and constructed from nine single-stranded DNAs with four shell strands, four arms, and a central loop containing 16 unpaired bases. The 16 unpaired bases were either 2'-deoxyribothymidines, 2'-O-methylribouridines, or abasic 1',2'-dideoxyribonucleosides. Thermodynamic profiles and structural base-stacking contributions were assessed using UV absorption spectroscopy during thermal denaturation and circular dichroism spectroscopy, respectively, and the resulting structures were observed by atomic force microscopy. There were surprisingly significant changes in the thermodynamic and structural properties of lattice formation as a result of altering only the 16 unpaired, centralized nucleosides. The 16 unpaired 2'-O-methyluridines were stabilizing and produced uniform tubular structures. In contrast, the abasic nucleosides were destabilizing producing a mixture of structures. These results strongly indicate the importance of a small number of centrally located unpaired nucleosides within the structures. Since minor modifications lead to palpable changes in lattice formation, DNA cross-tiles present an easily manipulated structure convenient for applications in biomedical and biosensing devices.

  17. Application of germyldesulfonylation reactions to the synthesis of germanium-containing nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wnuk, Stanislaw F.; Sacasa, Pablo R.; Restrepo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of the protected (E)-5′-deoxy-5′-[(p-toluenesulfonyl)methylene]uridine and adenosine derivatives with tributyl- or triphenylgermane hydride (AIBN/toluene/Δ) effected radical-mediated germyldesulfonylations to give 5′-(tributyl- or triphenylgermyl)methylene-5′-deoxyuridine and adenosine derivatives as single (E)-isomers. Analogous treatment of 2′-deoxy-2′-[(phenylsulfonyl)methylene]uridine with Ph3GeH afforded the corresponding vinyl triphenylgermane product. Stereoselective halodegermylation of the (E)-5′-(tributylgermyl)methylene-5′-deoxy nucleosides with N-iodosuccinimide or N-bromosuccinimide provided the Wittig-type (E)-5′-deoxy-5′-(halomethylene) nucleosides quantitatively, while no halodegermylations was observed with the 5′-deoxy-5′-(triphenylgermyl)methylene counterparts. Treatment of the vinyl trialkylgermanes with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid effected protiodegermylation, while vinyl triarylgermanes were stable under the acidic conditions. PMID:20183601

  18. Eco-friendly Synthesis of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Analogs and Their Anticancer and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Activities.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Wael M; El-Naggar, Abeer; Khalil, Ali; Zeidan, Hala

    2017-04-12

    One of the promising scaffolds in drug discovery is the fused pyrimidine derivatives. Efficient synthesis of a novel series of 18 new 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile, 2-amino pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives via multi-component reactions of aromatic aldehydes, active methylene, and an aromatic amine under microwave irradiation and evaluation of their anticancer activity and possible mechanisms. Only compounds 5 (a-c) had a significant antiproliferative activity in hepatic HepG2 cells at submicromolar concentration (7.5-10 µM). Similarly, only compound 11 (a-c) had a significant activity in breast MCF7 cells at (4-7 µM). Derivatives with one methoxyphenyl substitution (5a and 11a) were not different from derivatives having dimethoxyphenyl substitution (5b and 11b). However, thiophene substitution (5c and 11c) enhanced the anticancer activity in both cells lines examined by 25% in HepG2 and by ~45% in MCF7 cells compared to a and b derivatives. All compounds were safe to both normal human lung cells (WI-38) and RBCs at concentrations up to 40 mM. The antiproliferative activity of compounds 5 (a-c) in HepG2 could be attributed to an induction of intrinsic apoptotic pathway as evidenced from the induction of initiator caspase 9 by ~ 4 folds. While, the activity of compounds 11 (a-c) could be attributed to their potential to inhibit tyrosine kinases (TK) by up to 85%. The IC50 of derivative 11c against TK was at 173 nM. The present study reported that derivatives 5 and 11 have merit for further investigation as anticancer and TK inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

  20. Basolateral uptake of nucleosides by Sertoli cells is mediated primarily by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Klein, David M; Evans, Kristen K; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Dantzler, William H; Wright, Stephen H; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-07-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport.

  1. Antiviral properties of deazaadenine nucleoside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vittori, S; Dal Ben, D; Lambertucci, C; Marucci, G; Volpini, R; Cristalli, G

    2006-01-01

    Viral infections have menaced human beings since time immemorial, and even today new viral strains that cause lethal diseases are being discovered with alarming frequency. One major example is HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS, which spread up in the last two decades. Very recently, other virus based diseases such as avian flu have spread fear around the world, and hemorrhagic fevers from central Africa serious threaten human health because of their very deadly effects. New antiviral agents are still greatly needed to counter these menaces. Many scientists are involved in this field of research, and many of the recently discovered effective antiviral compounds are nucleoside analogues. Among those derivatives, deazapurine nucleoside analogues have demonstrated potent inhibitory effect of viral replication. This review reports on recently generated data from preparing and testing deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as inhibitors in virus replication systems. Although most of the reported data have been produced in antiHIV, antiHCMV, and antiHSV biological testing, very recently other new important fields of application have been discovered, all in topical subjects of strong interest. In fact, deazapurine nucleosides have been found to be active as chemotherapeutics for some veterinary systemic viral infections, for which no antiviral drugs are licensed yet. Furthermore, they demonstrated efficacy in the inhibition of Hepatitis C virus replication. Finally, these compounds showed high potency as virucides against Ebola Virus, curing Ebola infected mice with a single dose administration.

  2. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  3. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Yao, S Y M; Sun, L; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A

    2008-07-01

    1. The human (h) SLC29 family of integral membrane proteins is represented by four members, designated equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) because of the properties of the first-characterized family member, hENT1. They belong to the widely distributed eukaryotic ENT family of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside/nucleobase transporter proteins. 2. A predicted topology of eleven transmembrane helices has been experimentally confirmed for hENT1. The best-characterized members of the family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. hENT3 has a similar broad permeant selectivity for nucleosides and nucleobases and appears to function in intracellular membranes, including lysosomes. 3. hENT4 is uniquely selective for adenosine, and also transports a variety of organic cations. hENT3 and hENT4 are pH sensitive, and optimally active under acidic conditions. ENTs, including those in parasitic protozoa, function in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and, in humans, are also responsible for the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases. 4. By regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, mammalian ENTs additionally influence physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular activity to neurotransmission.

  4. Uridine Nucleoside Thiation: Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The naturally occurring thiated uridine nucleosides, 4-thiouridine (s4Urd) and 2-thiouridine (s2Urd), play important roles in the function and analysis of a variety of RNAs. 2-Thiouridine and its C5 modified analogues are commonly found in tRNAs and are believed to play an important role in codon recognition possibly due to their different structure, which has been shown by NMR to be predominantly C3'-endo. 2-Thiouridine may also play an important role in facilitating nonenzymatic RNA replication and transcription. 4-Thiouridine is a commonly used photoactivatable crosslinker that is often used to study RNA-RNA and RNA-protein cross-linking behavior. Differences in the base pairing between uracil and 4-thiouracil with adenine and guanine are an important factor in their role as a cross linker. The photoactivity of s4Urd may also aid in preventing near-UV lethality in cells. An understanding of their intrinsic structure in the gas-phase may help further elucidate the roles these modified nucleosides play in the regulation of RNAs. In this work, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of s2Urd and s4Urd were collected in the IR fingerprint region. Structural information is determined by comparison with theoretical linear IR spectra generated from density functional theory calculations using molecular modeling to generate low-energy candidate structures. Present results are compared with analogous results for the protonated forms of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine as well as solution phase NMR data and crystal structures.

  5. Labeling of Cellular DNA with a Cyclosal Phosphotriester Pronucleotide Analog of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Ngoc; Dickson, Charlotte; Zencak, Dusan; Hilko, David H; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2015-10-01

    DNA synthesis is a fundamental biological process central to all proliferating cells, and the design of small molecule probes that allow detection of this DNA is important for many applications. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, known as EdU, has become a workhorse for metabolic labeling of DNA in mammalian cells, followed by bioconjugation to a small molecule fluorescent azide using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), click chemistry, to allow detection. In this study, we demonstrate that a cyclosal phosphotriester pronucleotide analog of EdU is suitable for metabolic incorporation into DNA of proliferating cells and subsequent labeling by CuAAC. This analog has two advantages over EdU; first, by delivering EdU with a preinstalled 5'-monophosphate moiety, it bypasses the need for thymidine kinase processing, and second, the increased lipophilicity compared to EdU may enable passive diffusion across the cell membrane and may circumvent the reliance on nucleoside active transport mechanisms for cellular uptake. These advantages pave the way for the development of additional novel pronucleotides to widen experimental opportunities for future bioconjugation applications involving cellular DNA.

  6. Nucleoside transport across the plasma membrane mediated by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 influences metabolism of Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, S; Traub, M; Bernard, C; Salzig, C; Lang, P; Möhlmann, T

    2012-09-01

    The metabolism of nitrogen-rich nucleosides in Arabidopsis seedlings was investigated at the level of import and subsequent salvage or degradation. Uptake and fate of nucleosides imported by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) was analysed and, furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of the effect of exogenously fed nucleosides at the level of metabolic as well as transcriptomic alterations was performed. Expression of nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT3, together with nucleoside import, was increased upon nitrogen limitation. Thereby a role for ENT3, which is expressed mainly in the vasculature of roots and leaves, as a major import route for nucleosides was supported. Exogenously fed nucleosides were able to attenuate nitrogen starvation effects such as chlorophyll breakdown, anthocyanin accumulation, RNA breakdown and reduced levels of amino acids. In response to nucleoside supply, up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen distribution in plants was observed. In addition, genes involved in nucleoside metabolism were identified as regulated upon nitrogen limitation. In summary, an overall beneficial effect of nucleoside supply to Arabidopsis seedlings, especially under limiting nitrogen conditions, was observed. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis and phosphorolysis of 4(2)-thioxo- and 6(5)-azapyrimidine nucleosides by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Stepchenko, Vladimir A; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Seela, Frank; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    The trans-2-deoxyribosylation of 4-thiouracil ((4S)Ura) and 2-thiouracil ((2S)Ura), as well as 6-azauracil, 6-azathymine and 6-aza-2-thiothymine was studied using dG and E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) for the in situ generation of 2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranose-1-phosphate (dRib-1P) followed by its coupling with the bases catalyzed by either E. coli thymidine (TP) or uridine (UP) phosphorylases. (4S)Ura revealed satisfactory substrate activity for UP and, unexpectedly, complete inertness for TP; no formation of 2'-deoxy-2-thiouridine ((2S)Ud) was observed under analogous reaction conditions in the presence of UP and TP. On the contrary, (2S)U, (2S)Ud, (4S)Td and (2S)Td are good substrates for both UP and TP; moreover, (2S)U, (4S)Td and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (Decitabine) are substrates for PNP and the phosphorolysis of the latter is reversible. Condensation of (2S)Ura and 5-azacytosine with dRib-1P (Ba salt) catalyzed by the accordant UP and PNP in Tris∙HCl buffer gave (2S)Ud and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine in 27% and 15% yields, respectively. 6-Azauracil and 6-azathymine showed good substrate properties for both TP and UP, whereas only TP recognizes 2-thio-6-azathymine as a substrate. 5-Phenyl and 5-tert-butyl derivatives of 6-azauracil and its 2-thioxo derivative were tested as substrates for UP and TP, and only 5-phenyl- and 5-tert-butyl-6-azauracils displayed very low substrate activity. The role of structural peculiarities and electronic properties in the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases is discussed.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis and phosphorolysis of 4(2)-thioxo- and 6(5)-azapyrimidine nucleosides by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    Stepchenko, Vladimir A; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Seela, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The trans-2-deoxyribosylation of 4-thiouracil (4SUra) and 2-thiouracil (2SUra), as well as 6-azauracil, 6-azathymine and 6-aza-2-thiothymine was studied using dG and E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) for the in situ generation of 2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranose-1-phosphate (dRib-1P) followed by its coupling with the bases catalyzed by either E. coli thymidine (TP) or uridine (UP) phosphorylases. 4SUra revealed satisfactory substrate activity for UP and, unexpectedly, complete inertness for TP; no formation of 2’-deoxy-2-thiouridine (2SUd) was observed under analogous reaction conditions in the presence of UP and TP. On the contrary, 2SU, 2SUd, 4STd and 2STd are good substrates for both UP and TP; moreover, 2SU, 4STd and 2’-deoxy-5-azacytidine (Decitabine) are substrates for PNP and the phosphorolysis of the latter is reversible. Condensation of 2SUra and 5-azacytosine with dRib-1P (Ba salt) catalyzed by the accordant UP and PNP in Tris∙HCl buffer gave 2SUd and 2’-deoxy-5-azacytidine in 27% and 15% yields, respectively. 6-Azauracil and 6-azathymine showed good substrate properties for both TP and UP, whereas only TP recognizes 2-thio-6-azathymine as a substrate. 5-Phenyl and 5-tert-butyl derivatives of 6-azauracil and its 2-thioxo derivative were tested as substrates for UP and TP, and only 5-phenyl- and 5-tert-butyl-6-azauracils displayed very low substrate activity. The role of structural peculiarities and electronic properties in the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases is discussed. PMID:28144328

  9. Quantitation of endogenous nucleoside triphosphates and nucleosides in human cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dominique; Herold, Nikolas; Keppler, Oliver T; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ferreirós, Nerea

    2015-05-01

    Nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates are the building blocks of nucleic acids and important bioactive metabolites, existing in all living cells. In the present study, two liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed to quantify both groups of compounds from the same sample with a shared extraction procedure. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the nucleosides were separated with reversed phase chromatography on an Atlantis T3 column while for the separation of the nucleoside triphosphates, an anion exchange column (BioBasic AX) was used. No addition of ion pair reagent was required. A 5500 QTrap was used as analyzer, operating as triple quadrupole. The analytical method for the nucleoside triphosphates has been validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration. The lower limit of quantification values were determined as 10 pg on column (0.5 ng/mL in the injection solution) for deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, 20 pg (1 ng/mL) for deoxycytidine triphosphate and thymidine triphosphate, 100 pg (5 ng/mL) for cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, and 500 pg (25 ng/mL) for adenosine triphosphate und uridine triphosphate respectively. This methodology has been applied to the quantitation of nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. As expected, the concentrations for ribonucleosides and ribonucleoside triphophates were considerably higher than those obtained for the deoxy derivatives. Upon T cell receptor activation, the levels of all analytes, with the notable exceptions of deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, were found to be elevated in CD4 T cells.

  10. New fluorescent nucleosides for real-time exploration of nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tor, Yitzhak

    2010-02-01

    Nucleic acids experience a variety of perturbations. These may include strand cleavage and ligation, local conformational changes, base flipping, as well as structural and environmental perturbations that are induced upon protein and low MW ligand binding. Since the native nucleobases are practically non-emissive, synthetic fluorescent nucleoside analogs that are sensitive to their local environment have become powerful tools for investigating nucleic acids structure, dynamics, recognition and damage. Our criteria for "ideal" fluorescent nucleoside analogs include: (a) high structural similarity to the native nucleobases to faithfully mimic their size and shape, as well as hybridization and recognition properties; (b) red shifted absorption (> 290 nm) to minimize overlap with the absorption of the natural bases; (c) red shifted emission (preferably in the visible range); (d) reasonable emission quantum efficiency; and, importantly, (e) sensitivity/responsiveness of one or all photophysical parameters (λem and/or ΦF, τ) to changes in the probe's microenvironment. The design and synthesis of new fluorescent isosteric nucleobase analogs and their utilization for the fabrication of "real-time" fluorescence-based discovery and detection assays are outlined.

  11. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  12. Concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) promotes phenotypic changes relevant to tumor biology in a translocation-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torras, S; Vidal-Pla, A; Cano-Soldado, P; Huber-Ruano, I; Mazo, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside transporters (NTs) mediate the uptake of nucleosides and nucleobases across the plasma membrane, mostly for salvage purposes. The canonical NTs belong to two gene families, SLC29 and SLC28. The former encode equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins (ENTs), which mediate the facilitative diffusion of natural nucleosides with broad selectivity, whereas the latter encode concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), which are sodium-coupled and show high affinity for substrates with variable selectivity. These proteins are expressed in most cell types, exhibiting apparent functional redundancy. This might indicate that CNTs have specific roles in the physiology of the cell beyond nucleoside salvage. Here, we addressed this possibility using adenoviral vectors to restore tumor cell expression of hCNT1 or a polymorphic variant (hCNT1S546P) lacking nucleoside translocation ability. We found that hCNT1 restoration in pancreatic cancer cells significantly altered cell-cycle progression and phosphorylation status of key signal-transducing kinases, promoted poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase hyperactivation and cell death and reduced cell migration. Importantly, the translocation-defective transporter triggered these same effects on cell physiology. Moreover, this study also shows that restoration of hCNT1 expression is able to reduce tumor growth in a mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These data predict a novel role for a NT protein, hCNT1, which appears to be independent of its role as mediator of nucleoside uptake by cells. Thereby, hCNT1 fits the profile of a transceptor in a substrate translocation-independent manner and is likely to be relevant to tumor biology. PMID:23722537

  13. Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, J; Gomez-Angelats, M; del Santo, B; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1996-01-01

    Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux. PMID:8760370

  14. Mass spectrometry analysis of nucleosides and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Ed; Bond, Liz

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely utilised in the study of nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides as components of nucleic acids and as bioactive metabolites in their own right. In this review, the application of mass spectrometry to such analysis is overviewed in relation to various aspects regarding the analytical mass spectrometric and chromatographic techniques applied and also the various applications of such analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synthesis and anti-cancer activities of new sulfonamides 4-substituted-triazolyl nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Soukaina; Dufies, Maeva; Driowya, Mohsine; Demange, Luc; Bougrin, Khalid; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Pagès, Gilles; Benhida, Rachid

    2017-05-01

    Nucleoside analogues are among the most known drugs commonly used in antiviral and anticancer chemotherapies. Among them, those featuring a five-membered ring nucleobase are of utmost interest such as the anti-cancer agent AICAR or the anti-viral drug ribavirin. Despite its low activity in vitro in different cell lines, AICAR is under clinical development for several pathologies, thanks to its original mode of action. Indeed, AICAR induced autophagy cell death and is able, following this mechanism, to circumvent resistance to apoptotic drugs including kinase inhibitors currently on the market. To improve the activity of AICAR, we report herein an efficient synthesis of new series of sulfonamide-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazolyl nucleosides using a Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. All these molecules have been fully characterized and evaluated against two aggressive tumor cell lines, RCC4 and MDA-MB-231. Among them, nucleoside analogue 5i belonging to the ribose series was found to be 19 to 66-fold more active than AICAR. Western blot analyses on RCC4 cells showed that 5i displayed an interesting mode of action by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy cell death, making therefore this class of molecules highly promising for further hit-to-lead optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomic Structure of GRK5 Reveals Distinct Structural Features Novel for G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Komolov, Konstantin E.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Benovic, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are members of the protein kinase A, G, and C families (AGC) and play a central role in mediating G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. One member of the family, GRK5, has been implicated in several human pathologies, including heart failure, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. To gain mechanistic insight into GRK5 function, we determined a crystal structure of full-length human GRK5 at 1.8 Å resolution. GRK5 in complex with the ATP analog 5′-adenylyl β,γ-imidodiphosphate or the nucleoside sangivamycin crystallized as a monomer. The C-terminal tail (C-tail) of AGC kinase domains is a highly conserved feature that is divided into three segments as follows: the C-lobe tether, the active-site tether (AST), and the N-lobe tether (NLT). This domain is fully resolved in GRK5 and reveals novel interactions with the nucleotide and N-lobe. Similar to other AGC kinases, the GRK5 AST is an integral part of the nucleotide-binding pocket, a feature not observed in other GRKs. The AST also mediates contact between the kinase N- and C-lobes facilitating closure of the kinase domain. The GRK5 NLT is largely displaced from its previously observed position in other GRKs. Moreover, although the autophosphorylation sites in the NLT are >20 Å away from the catalytic cleft, they are capable of rapid cis-autophosphorylation suggesting high mobility of this region. In summary, we provide a snapshot of GRK5 in a partially closed state, where structural elements of the kinase domain C-tail are aligned to form novel interactions to the nucleotide and N-lobe not previously observed in other GRKs. PMID:26032409

  17. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  18. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  19. Nucleoside modification with boron clusters and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2009-09-01

    General methods for the synthesis of nucleosides modified with borane clusters and metallacarborane complexes are presented. These include: (1) the click chemistry approach based on Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and (2) tethering of the metallacarborane group to the aglycone of a nucleoside via a dioxane ring opening in oxonium metallacarborane derivatives. The proposed methodologies broaden the availability of nucleoside-borane cluster conjugates and open up new areas for their applications.

  20. Thermal Synthesis of Nucleoside H-Phosphonates Under Mild Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, R. M.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    2005-02-01

    Nucleosides react rapidly with ammonium phosphite ((NH4)2HPO3) at 60 °C to produce good yields of nucleoside-5’-phosphite monoesters within 24 h. Under the same conditions, ammonium phosphate is unreactive, producing low yields of nucleotide only after extended reactions. These results confirm earlier suggestions that nucleoside H-phosphonates and their possible condensation products may have been produced on the primitive earth more easily than nucleotides.

  1. Helicase-primase inhibitors for herpes simplex virus: looking to the future of non-nucleoside inhibitors for treating herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhajit; Sukla, Soumi; Field, Hugh J

    2014-01-01

    Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) are the first new family of potent herpes virus (herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus) inhibitors to go beyond the preliminary stages of investigation since the emergence of the original nucleoside analog inhibitors. To consider the clinical future of HPIs, this review puts the exciting new findings with two HPIs, amenamevir and pritelivir, into the historical context of antiviral development for the prevention and treatment of herpes simplex virus over the last century and, on this basis, the authors speculate on the potential evolution of these and other non-nucleoside inhibitors in the future.

  2. Synthesis of Nucleoside N-Phosphoamino Acids and Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changxue; Fu, Hua; Zhao, Yufen; Cheng, Changmei

    2005-02-01

    Nucleoside N-phosphoamino acids were synthesized through Atherton-Todd reaction of nucleoside H-phosphonate with amino acids, and their structures were confirmed by NMR and ESI-MS. After nucleoside N-phosphoamino acid was incubated in anhydrous methanol at 40 °C for 72 h, di- to tetra-peptide derivatives were detected by ESI-MS, and their structures were further identified by multistage mass spectrometry. These and previously published studies in aqueous solution suggest that nucleoside N-phosphoamino acids could have been prebiotic precursors of oligopeptides.

  3. Presence of nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity in purified virions of reovirus.

    PubMed

    Borsa, J; Grover, J; Chapman, J D

    1970-09-01

    A nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity has been discovered in reovirus virions. This activity converts nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates in vitro. Properties of this enzyme are presented, with evidence that this activity is an integral part of the virion core.

  4. One-Pot Aqueous Synthesis of Nucleoside-Templated Fluorescent Copper Nanoclusters and Their Application for Discrimination of Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Tianxia; Zhuang, Qianfen; Ni, Yongnian

    2017-09-05

    A facile, one-pot synthetic method has been proposed to prepare water-soluble fluorescent copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) templated by nucleosides. The nucleoside-templated fluorescent CuNCs were further characterized by using various analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The role of various reactants such as ascorbic acid, nucleoside, and citrate buffer in the synthesis process of fluorescent CuNCs was explored. The results showed that nucleoside and ascorbic acid were very likey to respectively act as a stabilizer and a reductant to form nanoclusters, and citrate buffer acted as both pH regulator solution and a reducing agent. The fluorescence spectra of various nucleoside-templated CuNCs were finally combined with multivariate chemometrics analysis for discrimination of different nucleosides.

  5. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphoregulation of mitochondrial complex I is inhibited by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Kaleb C. Wallace, Kendall B.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to directly inhibit mitochondrial complex I activity as well as various mitochondrial kinases. Recent observations that complex I activity and superoxide production are modulated through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation suggests a mechanism through which NRTIs may affect mitochondrial respiration via kinase-dependent protein phosphorylation. In the current study, we examine the potential for NRTIs to inhibit the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of complex I and the associated NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase activities and rates of superoxide production using HepG2 cells. Phosphoprotein staining of immunocaptured complex I revealed that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; 10 and 50 {mu}M), AZT monophosphate (150 {mu}M), and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 1 {mu}M) prevented the phosphorylation of the NDUFB11 subunit of complex I. This was associated with a decrease in complex I activity with AZT and AZT monophosphate only. In the presence of succinate, superoxide production was increased with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI; 10 {mu}M) and ddC (1 {mu}M). In the presence of succinate + cAMP, AZT showed an inverse dose-dependent effect on superoxide production. None of the NRTIs examined inhibit PKA activity suggesting that the observed effects are due to a direct interaction with complex I. These data demonstrate a direct effect of NRTIs on cAMP-dependent regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics independent of DNA polymerase-{gamma} activity; in the case of AZT, these observations may provide a mechanism for the observed long-term toxicity with this drug.

  6. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter; Christensen, Kathryn C; Gazzaniga, Francesca; Pletnev, Alexandre A; Brenner, Charles

    2009-01-02

    NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. Nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD+ levels via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by a pathway initiated by splitting the nucleoside into a nicotinamide base followed by nicotinamide salvage. Genetic evidence has established that uridine hydrolase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase are required for Nrk-independent utilization of nicotinamide riboside in yeast. Here we show that mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase but not methylthioadenosine phosphorylase is responsible for mammalian nicotinamide riboside kinase-independent nicotinamide riboside utilization. We demonstrate that so-called uridine hydrolase is 100-fold more active as a nicotinamide riboside hydrolase than as a uridine hydrolase and that uridine hydrolase and mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase cleave nicotinic acid riboside, whereas the yeast phosphorylase has little activity on nicotinic acid riboside. Finally, we show that yeast nicotinic acid riboside utilization largely depends on uridine hydrolase and nicotinamide riboside kinase and that nicotinic acid riboside bioavailability is increased by ester modification.

  7. Role of the transporter regulator protein (RS1) in the modulation of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Veyhl-Wichmann, Mayke; Diepold, Maximilian; Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Pérez-Torras, Sandra; Kipp, Helmut; Koepsell, Hermann; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-07-01

    SLC28 genes encode three plasma membrane transporter proteins, human concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT)1, CNT2, and CNT3, all of which are implicated in the uptake of natural nucleosides and a variety of nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of cancer and viral and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms determining their trafficking toward the plasma membrane are not well known, although this might eventually become a target for therapeutic intervention. The transporter regulator RS1, which was initially identified as a short-term, post-transcriptional regulator of the high-affinity, Na(+)-coupled, glucose transporter sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1, was evaluated in this study as a candidate for coordinate regulation of membrane insertion of human CNT-type proteins. With a combination of studies with mammalian cells, Xenopus laevis oocytes, and RS1-null mice, evidence that RS1 down-regulates the localization and activity at the plasma membrane of the three members of this protein family (CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3) is provided, which indicates the biochemical basis for coordinate regulation of nucleoside uptake ability in epithelia and probably in other RS1-expressing cell types.

  8. Antiviral and Cytostatic Evaluation of 5-(1-Halo-2-sulfonylvinyl)- and 5-(2-Furyl)uracil Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhiwei; Suzol, Sazzad H; Peng, Jufang; Liang, Yong; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Liekens, Sandra; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2017-04-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed halosulfonylation of 5-ethynyl uracil nucleosides provided (E)-5-(1-chloro-2-tosylvinyl)uridines. Tetrabutylammonium fluoride-mediated direct CH arylation of 5-iodouracil nucleosides with furan or 2-heptylfuran gave 5-furyl-substituted nucleosides without the necessity of using the organometallic substrates. These two classes of 5-substituted uracil nucleosides as well their corresponding ester derivatives were tested against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-5-(E)-(1-chloro-2-tosylvinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (24) inhibited the growth of L1210, CEM and HeLa cancer cells in the lower micromolar range. The (β-chloro)vinyl sulfone 24 and 5-(5-heptylfur-2-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (10) displayed micromolar activity against varicella zoster virus (VZV). The 5-(5-heptylfur-2-yl) analog 10 and its 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-protected derivative showed similar activity against the cytomegalovirus (CMV). The 5-(fur-2-yl) derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine and arabino-uridine inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) TK(+) strains while the 5-(5-heptylfur-2-yl) derivative 10 displayed antiviral activity against the parainfluenza virus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Pharmacological Reversal of Histone Methylation Presensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Nucleoside Drugs: In Vitro Optimization and Novel Nanoparticle Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Davis, Franklin; Cho, Jong Hyun; Zastre, Jason; Dhar, Shanta; Chu, Chung K.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of an investigational histone methylation reversal agent, 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), in improving the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (i.e., gemcitabine). DZNep brought delayed but selective cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cells. Co-exposure of DZNep and gemcitabine induced cytotoxic additivity or synergism in both well- and poorly-differentiated pancreatic cell lines by increased apoptosis. In contrast, DZNep exerted antagonism with gemcitabine against HPDE cells with significant reduction in cytotoxicity compared with the gemcitabine-alone regimen. DZNep marginally depended on purine nucleoside transporters for its cytotoxicity, but the transport dependence was circumvented by acyl derivatization. Drug exposure studies revealed that a short priming with DZNep followed by gemcitabine treatment rather than co-treatment of both agents to produce a maximal chemosensitization response in both gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. DZNep rapidly and reversibly decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 but increased trimethylation of lysine 9 in an EZH2- and JMJD1A/2C-dependent manner, respectively. However, DZNep potentiation of nucleoside analog chemosensitization was found to be temporally coupled to trimethylation changes in lysine 27 and not lysine 9. Polymeric nanoparticles engineered to chronologically release DZNep followed by gemcitabine produced pronounced chemosensitization and dose-lowering effects. Together, our results identify that an optimized DZNep exposure can presensitize pancreatic cancer cells to anticancer nucleoside analogs through the reversal of histone methylation, emphasizing the promising clinical utilities of epigenetic reversal agents in future pancreatic cancer combination therapies. PMID:23940717

  10. Successful kinase bypass with new acyclovir phosphoramidate prodrugs.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Christopher; Derudas, Marco; Bugert, Joachim J; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Balzarini, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Novel phosphoramidates of acyclovir have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against acyclovir-sensitive and -resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Unlike the parent nucleoside these novel phosphate prodrugs retain antiviral potency versus the ACV-resistant virus strain, suggesting an efficient bypass of the viral thymidine kinase.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Cyclopropane Nucleoside as Potential Tube Formation Agents.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Norikazu; Igarashi, Junsuke; Takata, Maki; Konishi, Ryoji; Kato, Yoshihisa; Tsukamoto, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Five novel nucleoside analogs with mono or bis-hydroxymethylated cyclopropane rings at the N(9)-position of the 2-chloroadenine moiety (2-chloro-carbocyclic oxetanocin A [COA-Cl] analog) were synthesized and evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. All the prepared compounds (2a-e) showed good to moderate activity with angiogenic potency. cis-2'-(Hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl derivative (2b) at 100 µM had greater angiogenic activity than the other compounds did, with relative tube areas of 2.71±0.45 (mean±standard deviation (S.D.)), which was superior to the potency of COA-Cl (2.30±0.59).

  12. Hypouricemic effects of novel concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 inhibitors through suppressing intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hiratochi, Masahiro; Tatani, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Yu; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kamada, Noboru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki

    2012-09-05

    We have developed concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitors as a novel pharmacological approach for improving hyperuricemia by inhibiting intestinal absorption of purines. Dietary purine nucleosides are absorbed in the small intestines by CNTs expressed in the apical membrane. In humans, the absorbed purine nucleosides are rapidly degraded to their final end product, uric acid, by xanthine oxidase. Based on the expression profile of human CNTs in digestive tract tissues, we established a working hypothesis that mainly CNT2 contributes to the intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides. In order to confirm this possibility, we developed CNT2 inhibitors and found that (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-8-{[3'-(3-aminopropoxy)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (KGO-2142) and 1-[3-(5-{[1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylamino]-methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide (KGO-2173) were inhibitory. These CNT2 inhibitors had potent inhibitory activity against inosine uptake via human CNT2, but they did not potently interfere with nucleoside uptake via human CNT1, CNT3 or equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) in vitro. After oral administration of KGO-2173 along with [(14)C]-inosine, KGO-2173 significantly decreased the urinary excretion of radioactivity at 6 and 24h in rats. Since dietary purine nucleosides are not utilized in the body and are excreted into the urine rapidly, this decrease in radioactivity in the urine represented the inhibitory activity of KGO-2173 toward the absorption of [(14)C]-inosine in the small intestines. KGO-2142 almost completely inhibited dietary RNA-induced hyperuricemia and the increase in urinary excretion of uric acid in cebus monkeys. These novel CNT2 inhibitors, KGO-2142 and KGO-2173, could be useful therapeutic options for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  14. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL) with Nucleoside-Based Bisubstrate Adenylation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Petrelli, Riccardo; De la Mora-Rey, Teresa; Tiwari, Divya; Liu, Feng; Dawadi, Surrendra; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responsible for both latent and symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) remains the second leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Mycobacterial biotin protein ligase (MtBPL) is an essential enzyme in Mtb and regulates lipid metabolism through the post-translational biotinylation of acyl coenzyme A carboxylases. We report the synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of potent nucleoside-based inhibitors of MtBPL that contain modifications to the ribofuranosyl ring of the nucleoside. All compounds were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and shown to bind potently with KD's below 2 nM. Additionally, we obtained high-resolution co-crystal structures for a majority of the compounds. Despite fairly uniform biochemical potency, the whole-cell Mtb activity varied greatly with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.78 to >100 μM. Cellular accumulation studies showed a nearly 10-fold enhanced accumulation of a C-2′-α analog over the corresponding C-2′-β analog, consistent with their differential whole-cell activity. PMID:26299766

  15. Structure of grouper iridovirus purine nucleoside phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, You-Na; Zhang, Yang; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Ting, Jing-Wen; Chang, Chi-Yao; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-02-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from grouper iridovirus was solved at 2.38 Å resolution. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine ribonucleosides to the corresponding free bases and ribose 1-phosphate. The crystal structure of grouper iridovirus PNP (givPNP), corresponding to the first PNP gene to be found in a virus, was determined at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 193.0, c = 105.6 Å, and contained four protomers per asymmetric unit. The overall structure of givPNP shows high similarity to mammalian PNPs, having an α/β structure with a nine-stranded mixed β-barrel flanked by a total of nine α-helices. The predicted phosphate-binding and ribose-binding sites are occupied by a phosphate ion and a Tris molecule, respectively. The geometrical arrangement and hydrogen-bonding patterns of the phosphate-binding site are similar to those found in the human and bovine PNP structures. The enzymatic activity assay of givPNP on various substrates revealed that givPNP can only accept 6-oxopurine nucleosides as substrates, which is also suggested by its amino-acid composition and active-site architecture. All these results suggest that givPNP is a homologue of mammalian PNPs in terms of amino-acid sequence, molecular mass, substrate specificity and overall structure, as well as in the composition of the active site.

  16. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  17. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2011-03-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  18. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2010-10-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  19. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  20. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. Copyright

  1. Cholesterol modified nucleosides as precursors for microtube self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petran, A.; Losensky, L.; Arbuzova, A.; Liebscher, J.

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol-modified nucleotides are interesting components for the preparation of microtubes when mixed with phospholipids. This ability is strongly influenced by the structure of such nucleoside derivatives. In the present publication the synthesis and analytical characterization of new members of cholesterol-modified nucleosides and nucleobases are reported.

  2. From the Chemistry of Epoxy-Sugar Nucleosides to the Discovery of Anti-HIV Agent 4′-ethynylstavudine-Festinavir

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Shingo; Kubota, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiromichi; Hamasaki, Takayuki; Baba, Masanori; Paintsil, Elijah; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Branched sugar nucleosides have attracted much attention due to their biological activities. We have demonstrated that epoxy-sugar nucleosides serve as versatile precursor for the stereo-defined synthesis of these nucleoside derivatives on the basis of its ring opening with organoaluminum or organosilicon reagents. In this review article, novel methods for the synthesis of nucleoside analogues branched at the 1′ and 4′-position will be described. During this study, we could discover an anti-HIV agent, 4′-ethynylstavudine (Festinavir). Festinavir showed more potent anti-HIV activity than the parent compound stavudine (d4T). Other significant properties of Festinavir are as follows: 1) much less toxic to various cells and also to mitochondorial DNA synthesis than d4T, 2) better substrate for human thymidine kinase than d4T, 3) resistant not only to chemical glycosidic bond cleavage but also to catabolism by thymidine phosphorylase, 4) the activity improves in the presence of a major mutation, K103N, associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Detailed profile of the antiviral activities, biology and pharmacology of Festinavir are also described. PMID:23092278

  3. Alkylsulfanylphenyl derivatives of cytosine and 7-deazaadenine nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates: synthesis, polymerase incorporation to DNA and electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Horáková, Petra; Havran, Luděk; Špaček, Jan; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2011-05-16

    Aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of halogenated nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates derived from 5-iodocytosine and 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine with methyl-, benzyl- and tritylsufanylphenylboronic acids gave the corresponding alkylsulfanylphenyl derivatives of nucleosides and nucleotides. The modified nucleoside triphosphates were incorporated into DNA by primer extension by using Vent(exo-) polymerase. The electrochemical behaviour of the alkylsulfanylphenyl nucleosides indicated formation of compact layers on the electrode. Modified nucleotides and DNA with incorporated benzyl- or tritylsulfanylphenyl moieties produced signals in [Co(NH(3))(6)](3+) ammonium buffer, attributed to the Brdička catalytic response, depending on the negative potential applied. Repeated constant current chronopotentiometric scans in this medium showed increased Brdička catalytic response, which suggests the deprotection of the alkylsulfanyl derivatives to free thiols under the conditions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Magnetic chitosan beads for covalent immobilization of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase: application in nucleoside analogues synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Harris, Ruth; Mata-Casar, Iria; Heras, Angeles; de la Mata, Isabel; Arroyo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads were prepared in presence of epichlorohydrin under alkaline conditions, and subsequently incubated with glutaraldehyde in order to obtain an activated support for covalent attachment of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri (LrNDT). Changing the amount of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) led to different macroscopic beads to be used as supports for enzyme immobilization, whose morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, spin electron resonance (ESR), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Once activated with glutaraldehyde, the best support was chosen after evaluation of immobilization yield and product yield in the synthesis of thymidine from 2'-deoxyuridine and thymine. In addition, optimal conditions for highest activity of immobilized LrNDT on magnetic chitosan were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). Immobilized biocatalyst retained 50 % of its maximal activity after 56.3 h at 60 °C, whereas 100 % activity was observed after storage at 40 °C for 144 h. This novel immobilized biocatalyst has been successfully employed in the enzymatic synthesis of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside analogues as well as arabinosyl-nucleosides such as vidarabine (ara-A) and cytarabine (ara-C). Furthermore, this is the first report which describes the enzymatic synthesis of these arabinosyl-nucleosides catalyzed by an immobilized nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase. Finally, the attached enzyme to magnetic chitosan beads could be easily recovered and recycled for 30 consecutive batch reactions with negligible loss of catalytic activity in the synthesis of 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 5-trifluorothymidine.

  5. [Abiogenic nucleoside synthesis in the presence of phosphorus salts].

    PubMed

    Kuzicheva, E A; Tsupkina, N V

    1978-01-01

    By means of UV-spectroscopy, gel-filtration, ion-exchange and thin layer chromatography it has been shown that the action of ionizing radiation on the mixture of dry preparations of adenine and deoxyribose in the presence of the K, Na and Ca phosphates results in the formation of nucleoside-like substances. The phosphates catalyze or inhibit the nucleoside synthesis but they are not phosphorylating agents. The data obtained indicate the reality of abiogenic synthesis of nucleoside-like substances from the mixture of dry preparations of adenine and deoxyribose in the lithosphere during chemical evolution.

  6. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates under potentially prebiological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics and efficiencies of biochemical reactions involving nucleoside 5'-diphosphates and -triphosphates (important substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis) under conditions corresponding to the primitive prebiotic earth are investigated. Urea catalysis of the formation of linear inorganic polyphosphates and metal ions promoting the reactions are discussed. Linear polyphosphate was incubated with Mg(++) in the presence of a nucleoside 5'-phosphate, to yield nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates when products are dried, while Mg(++) prompts depolymerization to trimetaphosphate in aqueous solutions. Plausible biogenetic pathways are examined.

  7. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics.

  8. Comparison of Nanogel Drug Carriers and Their Formulations with Nucleoside 5′-Triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V.; Kohli, Ekta; Zeman, Arin D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To synthesize and characterize nanogel carriers composed of amphiphilic polymers and cationic polyethylenimine for encapsulation and delivery of cytotoxic nucleoside analogs 5′-triphosphates (NTP) into cancer cells. Methods Nanogels were synthesized by a novel micellar approach and compared with carriers prepared by the emulsification/evaporation method. Complexes of nanogels with NTP were prepared; particle size and in vitro drug release were characterized. Resistance of the nanogel-encapsulated NTP to enzymatic hydrolysis was analyzed by ion-pair HPLC. Binding to isolated cellular membranes, cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity were compared using breast carcinoma cell lines CL-66, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. In vivo biodistribution of the 3H-labeled NTP encapsulated in different types of nanogels was evaluated in comparison to the injected NTP alone. Results Nanogels with a particle size of 100–300 nm in the unloaded form and less than 140 nm in the NTP-loaded form were prepared. An in vitro release of NTP was ≥50% during the first 24 h. Nanogel formulations ensured increased NTP drug stability against enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the drug alone. Pluronic®-based nanogels NG(F68), NG(F127), NG(P85) and NGM(P123) demonstrated 2–2.5 times enhanced interaction with cellular membranes and association with various cancer cells compared to NG(PEG). Among them NG(F68) and NG(F127) exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity. Injection of nanogel-formulated NTP significantly modulated the drug accumulation in different mouse organs. Conclusions Nanogels composed of Pluronic® F68 and P123 were shown to display certain advanced properties compared to NG(PEG) as a drug delivery system for NTP analogs. Formulations of nucleoside analogs in active NTP form with these nanogels will improve the delivery of these cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells and the therapeutic potential of this anti-cancer chemotherapy. PMID:16715382

  9. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes.

  10. [Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Joly, V; Yeni, P

    2000-06-01

    The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) directly inhibit the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by binding in a reversible and non-competitive manner to the enzyme. The currently available NNRTIs are nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz; other compounds are under evaluation. NNRTIs are extensively metabolized in the liver through cytochrome P450, leading to pharmacokinetic interactions with compounds utilizing the same metabolic pathway, particularly PIs, whose plasma levels are altered in the presence of NNRTIs. NNRTIs are drugs with a low genetic barrier, i.e. a single mutation in RT genoma induces a high-level of phenotypic resistance, preventing the use of NNRTIs as monotherapy. In naive patients, several trials have shown the value of NNRTIs in combination with nucleosides and/or protease inhibitors. Small pilot studies have shown that NNRTIs may be useful as second-line therapy. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistant virus to these compounds in case of incomplete viral suppression, NNRTIs should not be added to current failing antiretroviral regimen. The most common side-effect reported with nevirapine and delavirdine is rash. The incidence of rash is rather similar under these two compounds, but severe rash is less frequent with delavirdine. The most common adverse reactions reported with efavirenz are central nervous system complaints such as dizziness. Rash is reported less frequently than with nevirapine or delavirdine, and is usually mild. NNRTIs resistance mutations are located in the amino acid residues aligning the NNRTI-binding "pocket" site. High-level resistance is often associated with a single point mutation which develops within this site (especially codon groups 100 - 108 and 181 - 190). Patients failing on one NNRTI are very likely to possess multiple NNRTI resistance mutations. NNRTIs should always be used as part of a potent antiretroviral therapy to insure suppression of viral replication, thus circumventing

  11. Structural and functional features of an NDP kinase from the hyperthermophile crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    PubMed Central

    Pédelacq, Jean-Denis; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Liong, Elaine C.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases are ubiquitous enzymes that transfer γ-phosphates from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates via a ping-pong mechanism. The important role of this large family of enzymes in controlling cellular functions and developmental processes along with their crystallizability has made them good candidates for structural studies. We recently determined the structure of an evolved version of an NDP kinase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum, an extreme thermophile. This NDP kinase has similarity to the 42 other NDP kinases deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) but differs significantly in sequence, structure, and biophysical properties. The P. aerophilum NDP kinase sequence contains two unique segments not present in other NDP kinases, comprising residues 66–100 and 156–165. We show that deletion mutants of the P. aerophilum NDP kinase lacking either or both of these inserts have an altered substrate specificity, allowing dGTP as the phosphate donor. A structural analysis of the evolved NDP kinase in conjunction with mutagenesis experiments suggests that the substrate specificity of the P. aerophilum NDP kinase is related to the presence of these two inserts. PMID:16195547

  12. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and evaluation of their substrate activity with purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-04-01

    6-Methylpurine (MeP) is cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving Escherichia coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug, 9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine, MeP-dR has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify non-toxic MeP prodrugs that could be used in conjunction with E. coli PNP. In this work, we report on the synthesis of 9-(6-deoxy-β-d-allofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) and 9-(6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribo-hexofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (4), and the evaluation of their substrate activity with several phosphorylases. The glycosyl donors; 1,2-di-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-α-d-allofuranose (10) and 1-O-acetyl-3-O-benzyl-2,5-di-O-benzoyl-6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribohexofuran-ose (15) were prepared from 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidine-α-d-glucofuranose in 9 and 11 steps, respectively. Coupling of 10 and 15 with silylated 6-methylpurine under Vorbrüggen glycosylation conditions followed conventional deprotection of the hydroxyl groups furnished 5'-C-methylated-6-methylpurine nucleosides 3 and 4, respectively. Unlike 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talo-furanosyl)-6-methylpurine, which showed good substrate activity with E. coli PNP mutant (M64V), the β-d-allo-furanosyl derivative 3 and the 5'-di-C-methyl derivative 4 were poor substrates for all tested glycosidic bond cleavage enzymes.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  14. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  15. The nucleoside uridine isolated in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2015-03-02

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform (FT) microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2'-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  16. The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase**

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2’-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside. PMID:25683559

  17. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-05-14

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations.

  18. Human DEAD-box ATPase DDX3 shows a relaxed nucleoside substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Franca, Raffaella; Belfiore, Amalia; Spadari, Silvio; Maga, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    Human DDX3 (hDDX3) is a DEAD-box protein shown to possess RNA-unwinding and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities. The hDDX3 protein has been implicated in nuclear mRNA export, cell growth control, and cancer progression. In addition, a role of this protein in the replication of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 and in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus has been recently proposed. Its enzymological properties, however, are largely unknown. In this work, we characterized its ATPase activity. We show that hDDX3 ATPase activity is stimulated by various ribo- and deoxynucleic acids. Comparative analysis with different nucleoside triphosphate analogs showed that the hDDX3 ATPase couples high catalytic efficiency to a rather relaxed substrate specificity, both in terms of base selection and sugar selection. In addition, its ability to recognize the L-stereoisomers of both 3' deoxy- and 2',3' dideoxy-ribose, points to a relaxed stereoselectivity. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize the presence of structural determinants on both the base and the sugar moieties, critical for nucleoside binding to the enzyme. Our results expand the knowledge about the DEAD-box RNA helicases in general and can be used for rational design of selective inhibitors of hDDX3, to be tested as potential antitumor and antiviral agents.

  19. Antimalarial action of nitrobenzylthioinosine in combination with purine nucleoside antimetabolites.

    PubMed

    Gero, A M; Scott, H V; O'Sullivan, W J; Christopherson, R I

    1989-04-01

    The infection of human erythrocytes by two strains of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (FCQ-27 or the multi-drug-resistant strain K-1), markedly changed the transport characteristics of the nucleosides, adenosine and tubercidin, compared to uninfected erythrocytes. A component of the transport of these nucleosides was insensitive to the classical mammalian nucleoside transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). In vitro studies with tubercidin demonstrated ID50 values of 0.43 and 0.51 microM for FCQ-27 and K-1, respectively. In addition, the nucleoside transport inhibitors NBMPR, nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR), dilazep and dipyridamole also independently exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The combination of tubercidin and NBMPR or NBTGR in vitro demonstrated synergistic activity, whilst tubercidin together with dilazep or dipyridamole showed subadditive activity. Analysis by HPLC indicated that NBMPR could permeate the infected cell membrane and provided evidence for the catabolism of NBMPR in vitro, with subsequent alteration of the purine pool in the infected erythrocyte. These observations further indicated the possibility of the utilization of cytotoxic nucleosides against P. falciparum infection in conjunction with a nucleoside transport inhibitor to protect the host tissue.

  20. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  1. Expedient and generic synthesis of imidazole nucleosides by enzymatic transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Vichier-Guerre, S; Dugué, L; Bonhomme, F; Pochet, S

    2016-04-14

    A straightforward route to original imidazole-based nucleosides that makes use of an enzymatic N-transglycosylation step is reported in both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series. To illustrate the scope of this approach, a diverse set of 4-aryl and 4-heteroaryl-1H-imidazoles featuring variable sizes and hydrogen-bonding patterns was prepared using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These imidazole derivatives were examined as possible substrates for the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from L. leichmannii and the purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli. The optimum transglycosylation conditions, including the use of co-adjuvants to address solubility issues, were defined. Enzymatic conversion of 4-(hetero)arylimidazoles to 2'-deoxyribo- or ribo-nucleosides proceeded in good to high conversion yields, except bulky hydrophobic imidazole derivatives. Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase of class II was found to convert the widest range of functionalized imidazoles into 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and was even capable of bis-glycosylating certain heterocyclic substrates. Our findings should enable chemoenzymatic access to a large diversity of flexible nucleoside analogues as molecular probes, drug candidates and original building blocks for synthetic biology.

  2. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu-Fang; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Feng, Bo; Kong, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Lv, Shen; Zheng, Min-Hua; Xu, Guo-Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10 patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%). Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke’s stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32) and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer. PMID:15991285

  3. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A.; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a−) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a−) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1−/− mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization. PMID:25896650

  4. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry; Arnaud, Lionel

    2015-06-04

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization.

  5. The MUC4 mucin mediates gemcitabine resistance of human pancreatic cancer cells via the Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter family

    PubMed Central

    Skrypek, Nicolas; Duchêne, Bélinda; Hebbar, Mohamed; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Jonckheere, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The fluorinated analog of deoxycytidine, Gemcitabine (Gemzar®), is the main chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer, but survival remains weak mainly because of the high resistance of tumors to the drug. Recent works have shown that the mucin MUC4 may confer an advantage to pancreatic tumor cells by modifying their susceptibility to drugs. However, the cellular mechanism(s) responsible for this MUC4-mediated resistance is unknown. The aim of this work was to identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for gemcitabine resistance linked to MUC4 expression. CAPAN-2 and CAPAN-1 adenocarcinomatous pancreatic cancer cell lines were used to establish stable MUC4-deficient clones (MUC4-KD) by shRNA interference. Measurement of the IC50 index using tetrazolium salt test indicated that MUC4-deficient cells were more sensitive to gemcitabine. This was correlated with increased Bax/BclXL ratio and apoptotic cell number. Expression of Equilibrative/Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter (hENT1, hCNT1/3), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1/2) and Multidrug-resistance Protein (MRP3/4/5) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blotting. Alteration of MRP3, MRP4, hCNT1 and hCNT3 expression was observed in MUC4-KD cells but only hCNT1 alteration was correlated to MUC4 expression and sensitivity to gemcitabine. Decreased activation of MAPK, JNK and NF-κB pathways was observed in MUC4-deficient cells in which NF-κB pathway was found to play an important role both in sensitivity to gemcitabine and in hCNT1 regulation. Finally and accordingly to our in vitro data, we found that MUC4 expression was conversely correlated to that of hCNT1 in tissues from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This work describes a new mechanism of pancreatic cancer cell resistance to gemcitabine in which the MUC4 mucin negatively regulates the hCNT1 transporter expression via the NF-κB pathway. Altogether, these data point out to MUC4 and hCNT1 as potential targets

  6. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  7. Oligonucleotide probes containing pyrimidine analogs reveal diminished hydrogen bonding capacity of the DNA adduct O⁶-methyl-G in DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Todor; Dahlmann, Heidi A; Sturla, Shana J

    2013-10-15

    Oligonucleotide hybridization probes containing nucleoside analogs offer a potential strategy for binding specific DNA sequences that bear pro-mutagenic O(6)-G alkylation adducts. To optimize O(6)-Me-G-targeting probes, an understanding of how base pairs with O(6)-Me-G are stabilized is needed. In this study, we compared the ability of O(6)-Me-G and G to hydrogen bond with three pyrimidine-like nucleobases (Z, 4-thio-U, and 3-deaza-C) bearing varied hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups. We found that duplexes containing the pyrimidine analog nucleoside:G pairs were more thermodynamically stable than those containing pyrimidine analog nucleoside:O(6)-alkyl-G pairs. Thus, hydrogen bonding alone was not sufficient to impart selectivity to probes that target O(6)-G alkylation adducts in DNA.

  8. Synthesis of Norcarbovir Analogues, the First Examples of Cyclobutene Nucleosides Unsubstituted at the Vinylic Position.

    PubMed

    Gourdel-Martin, Marie-Edith; Huet, François

    1997-04-04

    Two cyclobutene nucleosides, 27 and 29, analogous to the yet unknown norcarbovir, and with adenine and hypoxanthine as the base moieties, respectively, were synthesized starting from cis-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (6). Its reduction to lactone 9 followed by reaction with ammonia and then Hofmann rearrangement led to cyclic carbamate 15 which was the key intermediate of these syntheses. Its tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative 17 led to the ring opening of the heterocyclic moiety at low temperature. Compound 18 was thus obtained, and the successive benzylation and then treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded hydrochloride 21. Construction of bases was achieved in satisfying overall yields provided that mild experimental conditions from 21 to 27 or 29 were used to restrict the unwanted electrocyclic ring opening. Nitropyrimidine 31 was also prepared from 21 via the intermediate 23.

  9. Chutes and Ladders in Hepatitis C Nucleoside Drug Development§

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Steven J.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel C.; Amblard, Franck; Ehteshami, Maryam; Amiralaei, Sheida; Zhang, Hongwang; Zhou, Longhu; Boucle, Sebastien R. L.; Lu, Xiao; Bondada, Lavanya; Shelton, Jadd R.; Li, Hao; Liu, Peng; Li, Chengwei; Cho, Jong Hyun; Chavre, Satish N.; Zhou, Shaoman; Mathew, Judy; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Chutes and Ladders is an exciting up-and-down-again game in which players race to be the first to the top of the board. Along the way, they will find ladders to help them advance, and chutes that will cause them to move backwards. The development of nucleoside analogs for clinical treatment of hepatitis C presents a similar scenario in which taking shortcuts may help quickly advance a program, but there is always a tremendous risk of being sent backwards as one competes for the finish line. In recent years the treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have expand due to the development of a replicon based in vitro evaluation system, allowing for the identification of multiple drugable viral targets along with a concerted and substantial drug discovery effort. Three major drug targets have reached clinical study for chronic HCV infection: the NS3/4A serine protease, the large phosphoprotein NS5A, and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Recently, two oral HCV protease inhibitors were approved by the FDA and were the first direct acting anti-HCV agents to result from the substantial research in this area. There are currently many new chemical entities from several different target classes that are being evaluated worldwide in clinical trials for their effectiveness at achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) (Pham et al., 2004; Radkowski et al., 2005). Clearly the goal is to develop therapies leading to a cure that are safe, widely accessible and available, and effective against all HCV genotypes (GT), and all stages of the disease. Nucleoside analogs that target the HCV NS5B polymerase that have reached human clinical trials is the focus of this review as they have demonstrated significant advantages in the clinic with broader activity against the various HCV GT and a higher barrier to the development of resistant viruses when compared to all other classes of HCV inhibitors. PMID:24275341

  10. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors, such as the capecitabine catabolite 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA in cancer cells treated with 5′-DFUR represents a collateral transcriptomic effect of the drug, or conversely, AQP3 participates in the activity of genotoxic agents. Methods The role of AQP3 in cell volume increase, cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using loss-of-function approaches. Results 5′-DFUR and gemcitabine, but not cisplatin, stimulated AQP3 expression and cell volume, which was partially and significantly blocked by knockdown of AQP3. Moreover, AQP3 siRNA significantly blocked other effects of nucleoside analogs, including G1/S cell cycle arrest, p21 and FAS up-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. Short incubations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induced AQP3 expression and increased cell volume, and the inhibition of AQP3 expression significantly blocked growth inhibition triggered by this drug. To further establish whether AQP3 induction is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, cells were exposed to long incubations with escalating doses of 5-FU. AQP3 was highly up-regulated at doses associated with cell cycle arrest, whereas at doses promoting apoptosis induction of AQP3 mRNA expression was reduced. Conclusions Based on the results, we propose that the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 is required for cytotoxic activity of 5’-DFUR and gemcitabine in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and is implicated in cell volume increase and cell cycle arrest. PMID:23017148

  11. The thiopurine nucleoside analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr) effectively blocks zika virus replication.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Otavio Valério; Félix, Daniele Mendes; de Mendonça, Leila Rodrigues; de Araújo, Catarina Maria Cataldi Sabino; Franca, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Júnior, Abelardo Silva; Pena, Lindomar José

    2017-08-10

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed autochthonous cases of the disease caused by the virus. The ZIKV-associated neurological manifestations and congenital defects make the development of safe and effective antivirals against ZIKV of utmost importance. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), a thiopurine nucleoside analog derived from the prodrug azathioprine (AZA), against the epidemic ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil. In all the assays, an epithelial (Vero) and an human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cell line were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effective concentrations of 6MMPr against ZIKV. The levels of ZIKV RNA, viral infectious titer and the percentage of infected cells at the presence or absence of 6MMPr was used to determine the antiviral efficacy. We show that 6MMPr decreased ZIKV production by more than 99% in both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent way. Interestingly, 6MMPr was 1.6 times less toxic to SH-SY5Y cells compared to Vero cells, presenting a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 460.3 µM and 291 µM, respectively. The selectivity index of 6MMPr for Vero and SH-SY5Y cells was 11.9 and 22.7, respectively, highlighting the safety profile of the drug to neuronal cells. Taken together, our results identify, for the first time, the thiopurine nucleoside analog 6MMPr as promising antiviral candidate against ZIKV that warrants further in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of boronated nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Modified nucleosides are an emerging class of potentially therapeutic agents. Recently, a number of 2[prime]-deoxynucleosides with boronated bases have been synthesized in this laboratory, including: 2[prime]-deoxy-N7-cyanoborano guanosine (bGua), 2[prime]-deoxy-N3-cyanoborano cytidine (bCyt), and 2[prime]-deoxy-N1-cyanoborano adenosine (bAde). The author has utilized proton NMR spectroscopy to determine the molecular recognition of these boronated nucleosides with their complementary base pairing partners. The self-association as well as heteroassociation were studied by varying the temperature, concentration, and mole fraction of each component. Proton NMR techniques include normal proton studies to measure the chemical shifts and homonuclear 1-D NOE difference to measure through space interactions, all of which help to determine the exact pairing behaviour of these nucleosides. Similar studies have been performed on unboronated nucleosides in order to determine if the boronated nucleosides can form stable Watson-Crick type base pairs; similar to unboronated nucleosides. From the results, the author concludes that bGua forms a stable Watson-Crick type base pair with Cyt. Both bGua and Cyt are able to self associate although the homodimers are less stable than the bGua:Cyt heterodimers. The other two boronated nucleosides because the cyanoborane group blocks the normal base pairing sites. The results are consistent with Hoogsteen pairing. Continuous variation studies suggest the existence of trimers of bCyt with Gua[sub 2] as well as other possible pairing schemes. The ability of bGua to complex with Cyt in a Watson-Crick type base pair suggests that it might be able to be incorporated like normal Gua into DNA.

  13. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  14. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  15. Nucleotide analogs based on pentaerythritol — An hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Alan W.

    1993-06-01

    The synthesis of ribose and ribose-based nucleotides under reasonable prebiotic conditions has not been achieved. Glycerol has been suggested as a structural unit that might have preceded ribose in the evolutionary emergence of RNA. Template-directed oligomerizations of nucleotide analogs based on glycerol, however, have been only partially successful. Recent studies on the effect of ultraviolet irradiation of formaldehyde solutions have shown that the reduced sugar pentaerythritol is formed with great specificity. I argue that pentaerythritol is potentially capable of being converted by simple chemistry into a series of nucleoside analogs related to barbituric acid. These analogs may be able to take part in nucleic acid-like interactions and could therefore be of potential interest as a new class of candidates as RNA precursors.

  16. Highly selective 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-5-carboxamide inhibitors of Sky kinase.

    PubMed

    Powell, Noel A; Hoffman, Jennifer K; Ciske, Fred L; Kaufman, Michael D; Kohrt, Jeffrey T; Quin, John; Sheehan, Derek J; Delaney, Amy; Baxi, Sangita M; Catana, Cornel; McConnell, Patrick; Ohren, Jeff; Perrin, Lisa A; Edmunds, Jeremy J

    2013-02-15

    We report the SAR around a series of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-5-carboxamide inhibitors of Sky kinase. 2-Aminophenethyl analogs demonstrate excellent potency but moderate kinase selectivity, while 2-aminobenzyl analogs that fill the Ala571 subpocket exhibit good inhibition activity and excellent kinase selectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. When Gesture Becomes Analogy.

    PubMed

    Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Analogy researchers do not often examine gesture, and gesture researchers do not often borrow ideas from the study of analogy. One borrowable idea from the world of analogy is the importance of distinguishing between attributes and relations. Gentner (, ) observed that some metaphors highlight attributes and others highlight relations, and called the latter analogies. Mirroring this logic, we observe that some metaphoric gestures represent attributes and others represent relations, and propose to call the latter analogical gestures. We provide examples of such analogical gestures and show how they relate to the categories of iconic and metaphoric gestures described previously. Analogical gestures represent different types of relations and different degrees of relational complexity, and sometimes cohere into larger analogical models. Treating analogical gestures as a distinct phenomenon prompts new questions and predictions, and illustrates one way that the study of gesture and the study of analogy can be mutually informative. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  19. Nucleosides Accelerate Inflammatory Osteolysis, Acting as Distinct Innate Immune Activators

    PubMed Central

    Pan, George; Zheng, Rui; Yang, Pingar; Li, Yao; Clancy, John P.; Liu, Jianzhong; Feng, Xu; Garber, David A; Spearman, Paul; McDonald, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system and its components play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone destruction. Blockade of inflammatory cytokines does not completely arrest bone erosion, suggesting that other mediators also may be involved in osteolysis. Previously we showed that nucleosides promote osteoclastogenesis and bone-resorption activity in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in vitro. The studies described here further demonstrate that selected nucleosides and nucleoside analogues accelerate bone destruction in mice immunized with collagen II alone (CII) but also further enhance bone erosion in mice immunized by collagen II plus complete Freund's adjuvant (CII + CFA). Abundant osteoclasts are accumulated in destructive joints. These data indicate that nucleosides act as innate immune activators distinct from CFA, synergistically accelerating osteoclast formation and inflammatory osteolysis. The potential roles of the surface triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) and the intracellular inflammasome in nucleoside-enhanced osteoclastogenesis have been studied. These observations provide new insight into the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune osteoarthritis. PMID:21472777

  20. Boron-containing nucleosides for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, R.F.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Popenoe, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    There is widespread and increasing interest in the preparation of organoboron compounds for their potential medical application for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The authors approach was to synthesize a boron-containing pyrimidine nucleoside,5-dihydroxyboryl-2'-deoxyuridine (DBDU), which could act as a sensitizing agent in boron neutron-capture reactions. Irradiation of tumor cells that have incorporated boron nucleoside with neutrons would, therefore, principally destroy only tumor tissue. Since the nucleoside would be localized primarily in the nucleus, the greater biological efficacy would permit utilization of lower boron concentrations. Synthetic procedures to novel boron nucleosides and pyrimidines that could be of potential utility for NCT have been worked out. These include the synthesis of 2-thio-5-dihydroxyboryluracil and 2,4-dithio-5-dihydroxyboryluracil, which may be taken up selectively in melanoma cells as analogues of 2-thiouracil; and 6-dihydroxyborylpurine-2'-deoxyriboside, an analogue of 2'-deoxyadenosine. Studies with these compounds will allow the authors to determine the potential use of these boron nucleosides and pyrimidines for boron NCT, with the aim of reducing mortality and increasing life span of patients with diagnosed gliomas, melanomas and other tumors.

  1. Enantioselectivity of human AMP, dTMP and UMP-CMP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Julie A.C.; Roy, Béatrice; Topalis, Dimitri; Pochet, Sylvie; Périgaud, Christian; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    l-Nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine are active for treating viral infections. Like d-nucleosides, the biological activity of the l-enantiomers requires their stepwise phosphorylation by cellular or viral kinases to give the triphosphate. The enantioselectivity of NMP kinases has not been thoroughly studied, unlike that of deoxyribonucleoside kinases. We have therefore investigated the capacity of l-enantiomers of some natural (d)NMP to act as substrates for the recombinant forms of human uridylate-cytidylate kinase, thymidylate kinase and adenylate kinases 1 and 2. Both cytosolic and mitochondrial adenylate kinases were strictly enantioselective, as they phosphorylated only d-(d)AMP. l-dTMP was a substrate for thymidylate kinase, but with an efficiency 150-fold less than d-dTMP. Both l-dUMP and l-(d)CMP were phosphorylated by UMP-CMP kinase although much less efficiently than their natural counterparts. The stereopreference was conserved with the 2′-azido derivatives of dUMP and dUMP while, unexpectedly, the 2′-azido-d-dCMP was a 4-fold better substrate for UMP-CMP kinase than was CMP. Docking simulations showed that the small differences in the binding of d-(d)NMP to their respective kinases could account for the differences in interactions of the l-isomers with the enzymes. This in vitro information was then used to develop the in vivo activation pathway for l-dT. PMID:17626051

  2. 4-Azido-2-pyrimidinone Nucleosides and Related Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kotra, Lakshmi P.; Wang, PingPing; Bartlett, Michael G.; Shanmuganathan, Kirupa; Xu, Zusheng; Cavalcanti, Sócrates; Newton, M. Gary; Chu, Chung K.

    1997-10-17

    As a part of azide prodrug approach, we synthesized a 4-azido analog of ara-C (4) as a prodrug for ara-C. The compound 4 was obtained from 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (1) in three steps. At pH 7.0 and 11.0, a loss of UV absorption of the compound 4 was observed resulting from a transformation that was proved by identifying the transformed product 5 by 1-D, and 2-D NMR as well as tandem mass spectral studies. In NMR studies, changes in the chemical shifts were observed at positions 5, 6, 1', and 2' between the compounds 4 and 5. A molecular peak at m/z 270.1 (MH(+)) was observed in the mass spectra of compounds 4 and the transformed product 5. A fragment at 180.2 was identified to be the compound 6, containing the 6,2'-anhydro linkage of compound 5. The X-ray analysis indicated that compound 4 exists as 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)tetrazolo[4,5-c]pyrimidin-2-one, with the azide moiety cyclized. To understand if the chemical instability of the nucleoside 4 was due to the arabino configuration of 2'-OH or due to the azido moiety, we also studied 1-(2,3-dideoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)tetrazolo[4,5-c]pyrimidin-2-one (11) and 4-azido-1-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (15). At pH 2.0 and 7.0, similar UV profiles were observed for compounds 11 and 15. However, at pH 11.0, lambda(max) shifted slowly to lower wavelength for both compounds 11 and 15. In a separate kinetic study, they were stable at pH 7.4 for up to 2.45 h. From the NMR and high-resolution mass spectral studies, it was concluded that in the presence of ammonium hydroxide, an addition of amine occurred at 6-position of compound 11. Thus, the stability profiles of compounds 4, 11, and 15 were different. The instability and the formation of 2',6-anhydro bond in compound 4 in nonacidic media was due to the presence of 2'-OH in the arabino configuration and probably not due to the azide group.

  3. General approach to the synthesis of specifically deuterium-labeled nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoss, J.J.; Hangeland, J.J.; Townsend, C.A.

    1994-05-20

    Synthesis routes for labelled nucleosides starting with ribose have been studied. The method is viable for producing sufficient quantities of D/T labelled nucleosides for oligonucleotide synthesis. 1 tab.

  4. Murine norovirus (MNV-1) exposure in vitro to the purine nucleoside analog Ribavirin increases quasispecies diversity.

    PubMed

    Julian, Timothy R; Baugher, Joseph D; Rippinger, Christine M; Pinekenstein, Rebecca; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Mehoke, Thomas S; Wobus, Christiane E; Feldman, Andrew B; Pineda, Fernando J; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-01-04

    Ribavirin is a pharmaceutical antiviral used for the treatment of RNA virus infections including norovirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, Lassa virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinovirus. Despite the drug's history and documented efficacy, the antiviral mechanism of Ribavirin remains unclear. Mechanisms proposed include depletion of the intracellular GTP pool, immunomodulatory effects, induction of error catastrophe, inhibition of viral polymerase activity, and/or inhibition of viral capping. In the present study, we leveraged deep sequencing data to demonstrate that Ribavirin increases murine norovirus (MNV-1) viral diversity. By serial passaging MNV-1 in RAW 264.7 cells for twenty generations in the presence of Ribavirin, we demonstrated statistically significant increases in both the number of unique haplotypes and the average pairwise difference (APD). Based on statistically significant differences in the probability of nucleotide mutations based on Roche 454 sequencing, we also demonstrated that single nucleotide substitutions are increased in the presence of Ribavirin. Finally, we demonstrated Ribavirin's impact on statistically significantly reducing the relative proportion of the dominant sequence within the quasispecies.

  5. Identification of Non-nucleoside Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Modulators

    DOE PAGES

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Huff, Sarah E.; Pink, John; ...

    2015-10-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis and is an established cancer target. Drugs targeting RR are mainly nucleoside in nature. In this study, we sought to identify non-nucleoside small-molecule inhibitors of RR. Using virtual screening, binding affinity, inhibition, and cell toxicity, we have discovered a class of small molecules that alter the equilibrium of inactive hexamers of RR, leading to its inhibition. Several unique chemical categories, including a phthalimide derivative, show micromolar IC50s and KDs while demonstrating cytotoxicity. A crystal structure of an active phthalimide binding at the targeted interface supports the noncompetitive mode of inhibitionmore » determined by kinetic studies. Furthermore, the phthalimide shifts the equilibrium from dimer to hexamer. Finally, together, these data identify several novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of human RR which act by stabilizing the inactive form of the enzyme.« less

  6. Identification of Non-nucleoside Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Huff, Sarah E.; Pink, John; Alam, Intekhab; Zhang, Andrew; Perry, Kay; Harris, Michael E.; Misko, Tessianna; Porwal, Suheel K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Miyagi, Masaru; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Dealwis, Chris Godfrey

    2015-10-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis and is an established cancer target. Drugs targeting RR are mainly nucleoside in nature. In this study, we sought to identify non-nucleoside small-molecule inhibitors of RR. Using virtual screening, binding affinity, inhibition, and cell toxicity, we have discovered a class of small molecules that alter the equilibrium of inactive hexamers of RR, leading to its inhibition. Several unique chemical categories, including a phthalimide derivative, show micromolar IC50s and KDs while demonstrating cytotoxicity. A crystal structure of an active phthalimide binding at the targeted interface supports the noncompetitive mode of inhibition determined by kinetic studies. Furthermore, the phthalimide shifts the equilibrium from dimer to hexamer. Finally, together, these data identify several novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of human RR which act by stabilizing the inactive form of the enzyme.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nucleoside peptides: Toward chemical ribonucleases. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, J.K.; Gard, J.K.; Modak, A.S. )

    1990-08-17

    Site-selective cleavage of nucleic acids by chemical analogues of nuclease enzymes is an area of major interest. Since imidazole is known to catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA in a sequence specific manner, utilizing complementarity, the natural nucleic acid recognition mechanism. The authors report here the synthesis and complete characterization of a series of uridine-imidazole conjugates which are based on C-5 substituted deoxyuridine. The nucleoside is joined with a variable-length linker arm to histidine or related imidazole-containing moieties, and protecting groups were employed to allow the subsequent conversion of the nucleoside-peptides into phosphoramidites suitable for oligonucleotide synthesis. Extensive multidimensional NMR characterization of the novel nucleoside-peptides is reported.

  8. RNA nucleosides as chiral sensing agents in NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lokesh, N; Sachin, S L; Narendra, L V; Arun, K; Suryaprakash, N

    2015-07-14

    The study reports chiral sensing properties of RNA nucleosides. Adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine are used as chiral derivatizing agents to differentiate chiral 1°-amines. A three component protocol has been adopted for complexation of nucleosides and amines. The chiral differentiating ability of nucleosides is examined for different amines based on the (1)H NMR chemical shift differences of diastereomers (Δδ(R,S)). Enantiomeric differentiation has been observed at multiple chemically distinct proton sites. Adenosine and guanosine exhibit large chiral differentiation (Δδ(R,S)) due to the presence of a purine ring. The diastereomeric excess (de) measured by using adenosine is in good agreement with the gravimetric values.

  9. Mutant strains of Tetrahymena thermophila defective in thymidine kinase activity: Biochemical and genetic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.V.; Pearlman, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three mutant strains, one conditional, of Tetrahymena thermophila were defective in thymidine phosphorylating activity in vivo and in thymidine kinase activity in vitro. Nucleoside phosphotransferase activity in mutant cell extracts approached wild-type levels, suggesting that thymidine kinase is responsible for most, if not all, thymidine phosphorylation in vivo. Thymidine kinase activity in extracts of the conditional mutant strain was deficient when the cells were grown or assayed or both at the permissive temperature, implying a structural enzyme defect. Analysis of the reaction products from in vitro assays with partially purified enzymes showed that phosphorylation by thymidine kinase and nucleoside phosphotransferase occurred at the 5' position. Genetic analyses showed that the mutant phenotype was recessive and that mutations in each of the three mutant strains did not complement, suggesting allelism.

  10. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  11. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  12. Design and divergent synthesis of aza nucleosides from a chiral imino sugar.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Ganesan, Muthupandian; Ramesh, Namakkal G; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel

    2012-05-18

    Several novel nucleoside analogues as potential inhibitors of glycosidases and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) have been synthesized via selective coupling of an appropriate nucleobase at different positions of an orthogonally protected imino sugar as a common precursor. This synthetic strategy offers a straightforward protocol for the assembly of imino sugar containing nucleosides, establishing a new repertoire of molecules as potential therapeutics.

  13. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Khalafi-Nezhad, Ali; Behrouz, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Summary The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E)-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z)-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E)-isomers had the lower heats of formation. PMID:20563270

  14. Synthesis of L-enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Yoshimura, Y; Sakata, S; Miura, S; Machida, H; Matsuda, A

    1998-05-05

    L-Enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized from D-xylose. Methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-xylofuranoside 6 was converted to the corresponding xylitol 7, which was treated with MsCl and then Na2S to give 1,4-anhydro-L-4-thioarabitol 8. As previously reported, Pummerer rearrangement of 8 followed by glycosylation with a silylated thymine and N4-acetylcytosine derivative and deprotection gave the corresponding alpha- and beta-L-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

  15. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  16. The role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 on the cellular transport of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and CP-4200 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hascher, Antje; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Sandvold, Marit Liland; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lyko, Frank; Rius, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [¹⁴C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na⁺-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative 5-azacytidine-5'-elaidate (CP-4200), a nucleoside transporter-independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter-related 5-azacytidine resistances.

  17. A convenient synthesis of 6-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one and related 4,6-disubstituted pyrazolopyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, H B; Revankar, G R; Robins, R K

    1983-01-01

    The glycosylation of 4,6-dichloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine and 4-chloro-6-methylthiopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine via the corresponding trimethylsilyl intermediate and tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranose in the presence of trimethylsilyl triflate as a catalyst, gave selective glycosylation at N1 as the only nucleoside product. The intermediates 4,6-dichloro-1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine 7 and 4-chloro-6-methylthio-1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine 13 gave new and convenient synthetic routes to the inosine analog 1, the guanosine analog 2, the adenosine analog 3, and the isoguanosine analog 16. Glycosylation of the trimethylsilyl derivative of 6-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-one unexpectedly gave the N2-glycosyl isomer 20 as the major product. A number of new 4,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine nucleosides were prepared from these glycosyl intermediates. PMID:6835838

  18. Two Nucleoside Uptake Systems in Lactococcus lactis: Competition between Purine Nucleosides and Cytidine Allows for Modulation of Intracellular Nucleotide Pools

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Jan; Wadskov-Hansen, Steen L. L.; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    A method for measuring internal nucleoside triphosphate pools of lactococci was optimized and validated. This method is based on extraction of 33P-labeled nucleotides with formic acid and evaluation by two-dimensional chromatography with a phosphate buffer system for the first dimension and with an H3BO3-LiOH buffer for separation in the second dimension. We report here the sizes of the ribo- and deoxyribonucleotide pools in laboratory strain MG1363 during growth in a defined medium. We found that purine- and pyrimidine-requiring strains may be used to establish physiological conditions in batch fermentations with altered nucleotide pools and growth rates by addition of nucleosides in different combinations. Addition of cytidine together with inosine to a purine-requiring strain leads to a reduction in the internal purine nucleotide pools and a decreased growth rate. This effect was not seen if cytidine was replaced by uridine. A similar effect was observed if cytidine and inosine were added to a pyrimidine-requiring strain; the UTP pool size was significantly decreased, and the growth rate was reduced. To explain the observed inhibition, the nucleoside transport systems in Lactococcus lactis were investigated by measuring the uptake of radioactively labeled nucleosides. The Km for for inosine, cytidine, and uridine was determined to be in the micromolar range. Furthermore, it was found that cytidine and inosine are competitive inhibitors of each other, whereas no competition was found between uridine and either cytidine or inosine. These findings suggest that there are two different high-affinity nucleoside transporters, one system responsible for uridine uptake and another system responsible for the uptake of all purine nucleosides and cytidine. PMID:12591866

  19. Regioselective and stereoselective route to N2-β-tetrazolyl unnatural nucleosides via SN2 reaction at the anomeric center of Hoffer's chlorosugar.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Talukdar, Sangita; Anjali, S J

    2016-04-15

    We are reporting a regioselective and stereoselective route to N2-β-tetrazolyl aromatic donor/acceptor unnatural nucleosides as new class of possible DNA base analogs. The SN2 substitution reaction at the anomeric center of Hoffer's chlorosugar with various 5-substituted aromatic tetrazoles in THF in presence of K2CO3 proceeds with regioselectivity at N2-tetrazoles and stereoselectivity at α-chlorosugar with very good yield. The stereoelectronic and steric effects play a crucial role for the observed outcome which is also supported from a theoretical (DFT) study. The methodology is simple, eco-compatible and the tetrazolyl unnatural nucleosides might find applications in decorating DNA for various biotechnological and DNA based material science applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of novel 2',3'-difluorinated 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunae; Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of 2',3'-difluorinated 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleosides from glyceraldehyde using the Horner-Emmons reaction in the presence of triethyl α-fluorophosphonoacetate is described. The second fluorination at the 2'-position was an electrophilic reaction performed using N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide. Glycosylation reactions between the nucleosidic bases and glycosyl donor 9 generated nucleosides that were further phosphonated and hydrolyzed to produce the desired nucleoside analogues. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 13, 16, 20, and 23 were tested for anti- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine derivative 16 showed significant anti-HIV activity up to 100 μM.

  1. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  2. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  3. The Analogical Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Keith J.; Thagard, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The use of analogy in human thinking is examined from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory that postulates similarity, structure, and purpose as three kinds of constraints. The theory has been implemented in computational simulations of the analogical human mind using the Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction (ACME) model. (SLD)

  4. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  5. Nucleoside-Based Diarylethene Photoswitches: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Xi, Dan-Dan; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Hui-Xuan; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Diarylethene photoswitches based on the natural nucleoside deoxyadenosine were designed and synthesized. In aqueous solution, some of them exhibited good photochromic properties, including clear changes in color upon irradiation at 365 nm, red-shifts of the absorption wavelength, with good fatigue resistance, thermal stability, conversion efficiency, and base-pairing properties.

  6. Intranuclear protein transduction through a nucleoside salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James E; Tse, Chung-Ming; Chan, Grace; Heinze, Emil R; Nishimura, Robert N; Weisbart, Richard H

    2007-07-20

    Regulation of gene expression by intranuclear transduction of macromolecules such as transcription factors is an alternative to gene therapy for the treatment of numerous diseases. The identification of an effective intranuclear delivery vehicle and pathway for the transport of therapeutic macromolecules across plasma and nuclear membranes, however, has posed a significant challenge. The anti-DNA antibody fragment 3E10 Fv has received attention as a novel molecular delivery vehicle due to its penetration into living cells with specific nuclear localization, absence of toxicity, and successful delivery of therapeutic cargo proteins in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the pathway that allows 3E10 Fv to cross cell membranes is critical to the development of new molecular therapies. Here we show that 3E10 Fv penetrates cells through a nucleoside salvage transporter. 3E10 Fv is unable to penetrate into cells deficient in the equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2, and reconstitution of ENT2 into ENT2-deficient cells restores 3E10 Fv transport into cell nuclei. Our results represent the first demonstration of protein transport through a nucleoside salvage pathway. We expect that our finding will facilitate a variety of methods of gene regulation in the treatment of human diseases, open up new avenues of research in nucleoside salvage pathways, and enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana nucleosidase mutants provide new insights into nucleoside degradation

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Heike; Geserick, Claudia; Zrenner, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A central step in nucleoside and nucleobase salvage pathways is the hydrolysis of nucleosides to their respective nucleobases. In plants this is solely accomplished by nucleosidases (EC 3.2.2.x). To elucidate the importance of nucleosidases for nucleoside degradation, general metabolism, and plant growth, thorough phenotypic and biochemical analyses were performed using Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants lacking expression of the previously identified genes annotated as uridine ribohydrolases (URH1 and URH2). Comprehensive functional analyses of single and double mutants demonstrated that both isoforms are unimportant for seedling establishment and plant growth, while one participates in uridine degradation. Rather unexpectedly, nucleoside and nucleotide profiling and nucleosidase activity screening of soluble crude extracts revealed a deficiency of xanthosine and inosine hydrolysis in the single mutants, with substantial accumulation of xanthosine in one of them. Mixing of the two mutant extracts, and by in vitro activity reconstitution using a mixture of recombinant URH1 and URH2 proteins, both restored activity, thus providing biochemical evidence that at least these two isoforms are needed for inosine and xanthosine hydrolysis. This mutant study demonstrates the utility of in vivo systems for the examination of metabolic activities, with the discovery of the new substrate xanthosine and elucidation of a mechanism for expanding the nucleosidase substrate spectrum. PMID:21599668

  8. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Advances in the enantioselective synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Boutureira, Omar; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2013-06-21

    Carbocyclic nucleosides are nucleoside analogues in which the furanosidic moiety has been replaced by a carbocycle. Several members of this family have been isolated from natural sources and include a 5-membered ring carbocycle. The aim of this review is to examine critically the different methodologies for the enantioselective construction of 3- to 6-membered rings, with a particular focus on 5-membered rings and their modifications. The procedures for bonding the heterocyclic moiety and the carbohydrate are treated separately. The methods for synthesising the carbocyclic moiety mainly focus on the construction of the cycle, although precise details about the functionalisation are provided in some cases. The selected methods aim to provide an overview of the synthesis of carbocycles related to the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. The methods of synthesis of 5-membered rings are classified into two types: methods in which the cyclopentane ring is formed by ring closing reactions (C=C and C-C formation) and methods that start from preformed 5-membered rings, based mainly on cycloaddition reactions. With respect to the methods of synthesis of 3-, 4- and 6-membered ring carbocyclic nucleosides, a selection of the more relevant enantioselective procedures is presented in a systematic manner.

  10. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Purine Salvage in Two Halophilic Archaea: Characterization of Salvage Pathways and Isolation of Mutants Resistant to Purine Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Nygaard, Per

    1998-01-01

    In exponentially growing cultures of the extreme halophile Halobacterium halobium and the moderate halophile Haloferax volcanii, growth characteristics including intracellular protein levels, RNA content, and nucleotide pool sizes were analyzed. This is the first report on pool sizes of nucleoside triphosphates, NAD, and PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate) in archaea. The presence of a number of salvage and interconversion enzymes was determined by enzymatic assays. The levels varied significantly between the two organisms. The most significant difference was the absence of GMP reductase activity in H. halobium. The metabolism of exogenous purines was investigated in growing cultures. Both purine bases and nucleosides were readily taken up and were incorporated into nucleic acids. Growth of both organisms was affected by a number of inhibitors of nucleotide synthesis. H. volcanii was more sensitive than H. halobium, and purine base analogs were more toxic than nucleoside analogs. Growth of H. volcanii was inhibited by trimethoprim and sulfathiazole, while these compounds had no effect on the growth of H. halobium. Spontaneous mutants resistant to purine analogs were isolated. The most frequent cause of resistance was a defect in purine phosphoribosyltransferase activity coupled with reduced purine uptake. A single phosphoribosyltransferase seemed to convert guanine as well as hypoxanthine to nucleoside monophosphates, and another phosphoribosyltransferase had specificity towards adenine. The differences in the metabolism of purine bases and nucleosides and the sensitivity to purine analogs between the two halobacteria were reflected in differences in purine enzyme levels. Based on our results, we conclude that purine salvage and interconversion pathways differ just as much between the two archaeal species as among archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. PMID:9457844

  12. Identification of the plant ribokinase and discovery of a role for Arabidopsis ribokinase in nucleoside metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    Riggs, John W.; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Cavales, Philip C.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Ribose can be used for energy or as a component of several important biomolecules, but for it to be used in either capacity it must first be phosphorylated by ribokinase (RBSK). RBSK proteins are part of the phosphofructokinase-B (pfkB) family of carbohydrate kinases. Sequence comparisons of pfkB proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with the human and Escherichia coli RBSK identified a single candidate RBSK, At1g17160 (AtRBSK). AtRBSK is more similar to predicted RBSKs from other plant species and known mammalian and prokaryotic RBSK than to all other PfkB proteins in Arabidopsis. AtRBSK contains a predicted chloroplast transit peptide,more » and we confirmed plastid localization using AtRBSK fused to YFP. Structure prediction software verified that the AtRBSK sequence mapped onto a known RBSK structure. Kinetic parameters of purified recombinant AtRBSK were determined to be Kmribose = 150 μm ± 17 μm, KmATP = 45 μm ± 5.6 μm, and kcat = 2.0 s₋1. Substrate inhibition was observed for AtRBSK (KiATP = 2.44 mm ± 0.36 mm), as has been demonstrated for other RBSK proteins. Ribose accumulated in Arabidopsis plants lacking AtRBSK. Such plants grew normally unless media was supplemented with ribose, which led to chlorosis and growth inhibition. Both chlorosis and ribose accumulation were abolished upon the introduction of a transgene expressing AtRBSK-MYC, demonstrating that the loss of protein is responsible for ribose hypersensitivity. Lastly, ribose accumulation in plants lacking AtRBSK was reduced in plants also deficient in the nucleoside ribohydrolase NSH1, linking AtRBSK activity to nucleoside metabolism.« less

  13. Sensing metal ions with DNA building blocks: fluorescent pyridobenzimidazole nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T

    2006-05-10

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer's chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154 degrees and 140 degrees , respectively. In methanol compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm, respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of 17 monovalent, divalent, and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with 10 of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au(+), Au(3+)), strong quenching (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pt(2+)), and substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with red shifts (Ag(+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+)). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a red shift in fluorescence (Ag(+)), a blue shift (Cd(2+)), strong quenching (Pd(2+), Pt(2+)), and substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blue shift (Zn(2+)). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs.

  14. Sensing Metal Ions with DNA Building Blocks: Fluorescent Pyridobenzimidazole Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer’s chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry, and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154° and 140°, respectively. In methanol the compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of seventeen monovalent, divalent and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with ten of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au+, Au3+), strong quenching (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with redshifts (Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a redshift in fluorescence (Ag+), a blueshift (Cd2+), strong quenching (Pd2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blueshift (Zn2+). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution, and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for at multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs. PMID:16669686

  15. Use of a Novel 5′-Regioselective Phosphitylating Reagent for One-Pot Synthesis of Nucleoside 5′-Triphosphates from Unprotected Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Caton-Williams, Julianne; Hoxhaj, Rudiona; Fiaz, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    The 5′-triphosphates are the building blocks for the enzymatic synthesis of DNAs and RNAs. This unit presents a protocol for the convenient synthesis of 2′-deoxyribo- and ribo-nucleoside 5′-triphosphates (dNTPs and NTPs) containing all the natural bases and the modified bases. This one-pot synthesis can also be applied to prepare the triphosphate analogs that contain sulfur or selenium atoms replacing the non-bridging oxygen atoms of the alpha phosphates of the triphosphates. These S- or Se-modified dNTPs and NTPs can be used to prepare diastereomerically-pure phosphorothioate nucleic acids (PS-NAs) or phosphoroselenoate nucleic acids (PSe-NAs, i.e., one type of selenium-derivatized nucleic acids: SeNA). Even without extensive purification, the synthesized dNTPs or NTPs are of high quality and can be directly used in DNA polymerization or RNA transcription. Synthesis and purification of the 5′-triphosphates, analysis and confirmation of natural and sulfur-or selenium-modified nucleic acids are described in this protocol unit. PMID:23512692

  16. Enzymatically stable 5' mRNA cap analogs: synthesis and binding studies with human DcpS decapping enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kalek, Marcin; Jemielity, Jacek; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew M; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Davis, Richard E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2006-05-01

    Four novel 5' mRNA cap analogs have been synthesized with one of the pyrophosphate bridge oxygen atoms of the triphosphate linkage replaced with a methylene group. The analogs were prepared via reaction of nucleoside phosphor/phosphon-1-imidazolidates with nucleoside phosphate/phosphonate in the presence of ZnCl2. Three of the new cap analogs are completely resistant to degradation by human DcpS, the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of free cap resulting from 3' to 5' cellular mRNA decay. One of the new analogs has very high affinity for binding to human DcpS. Two of these analogs are Anti Reverse Cap Analogs which ensures that they are incorporated into mRNA chains exclusively in the correct orientation. These new cap analogs should be useful in a variety of biochemical studies, in the analysis of the cellular function of decapping enzymes, and as a basis for further development of modified cap analogs as potential anti-cancer and anti-parasite drugs.

  17. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo antitumor activity in D54 tumor expressing M64V-Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-01-27

    Impressive antitumor activity has been observed with fludarabine phosphate against tumors that express Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) due to the liberation of 2-fluoroadenine in the tumor tissue. 6-Methylpurine (MeP) is another cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving E. coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug 9-(2-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (1) [MeP-dR] has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify a combination of non-toxic MeP prodrugs and non-human adenosine glycosidic bond cleaving enzymes. The two best MeP-based substrates with M64V-E coli PNP, a mutant which was engineered to tolerate modification at the 5'-position of adenosine and its analogs, were 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) [methyl(talo)-MeP-R] and 9-(α-l-lyxofuranosyl)6-methylpurine (4) [lyxo-MeP-R]. The detailed synthesis methyl(talo)-MeP-R and lyxo-MeP-R, and the evaluation of their substrate activity with 4 enzymes not normally associated with cancer patients is described. In addition, we have determined the intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic (ip-PK) properties of methyl(talo)-MeP-R and have determined its in vivo bystander activity in mice bearing D54 tumors that express M64V PNP. The observed good in vivo bystander activity of [methyl(talo)-MeP-R/M64V-E coli PNP combination suggests that these agents could be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  18. The Role of Deoxycytidine Kinase (dCK) in Radiation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rui; Xin, Rui; Chen, Zongyan; Liang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a key enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage and the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs. dCK is activated in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and it is phosphorylated on Serine 74 by the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase in order to activate the cell cycle G2/M checkpoint. However, whether dCK plays a role in radiation-induced cell death is less clear. In this study, we genetically modified dCK expression by knocking down or expressing a WT (wild-type), S74A (abrogates phosphorylation) and S74E (mimics phosphorylation) of dCK. We found that dCK could decrease IR-induced total cell death and apoptosis. Moreover, dCK increased IR-induced autophagy and dCK-S74 is required for it. Western blotting showed that the ratio of phospho-Akt/Akt, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, phospho-P70S6K/P70S6K significantly decreased in dCK-WT and dCK-S74E cells than that in dCK-S74A cells following IR treatment. Reciprocal experiment by co-immunoprecipitation showed that mTOR can interact with wild-type dCK. IR increased polyploidy and decreased G2/M arrest in dCK knock-down cells as compared with control cells. Taken together, phosphorylated and activated dCK can inhibit IR-induced cell death including apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, and promote IR-induced autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:27879648

  19. The Role of Deoxycytidine Kinase (dCK) in Radiation-Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rui; Xin, Rui; Chen, Zongyan; Liang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-21

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a key enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage and the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs. dCK is activated in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and it is phosphorylated on Serine 74 by the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase in order to activate the cell cycle G2/M checkpoint. However, whether dCK plays a role in radiation-induced cell death is less clear. In this study, we genetically modified dCK expression by knocking down or expressing a WT (wild-type), S74A (abrogates phosphorylation) and S74E (mimics phosphorylation) of dCK. We found that dCK could decrease IR-induced total cell death and apoptosis. Moreover, dCK increased IR-induced autophagy and dCK-S74 is required for it. Western blotting showed that the ratio of phospho-Akt/Akt, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, phospho-P70S6K/P70S6K significantly decreased in dCK-WT and dCK-S74E cells than that in dCK-S74A cells following IR treatment. Reciprocal experiment by co-immunoprecipitation showed that mTOR can interact with wild-type dCK. IR increased polyploidy and decreased G2/M arrest in dCK knock-down cells as compared with control cells. Taken together, phosphorylated and activated dCK can inhibit IR-induced cell death including apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, and promote IR-induced autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  20. Determination of acid-base dissociation constants of amino- and guanidinopurine nucleotide analogs and related compounds by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Solínová, Veronika; Kasicka, Václav; Koval, Dusan; Cesnek, Michal; Holý, Antonín

    2006-03-01

    CZE has been applied for determination of acid-base dissociation constants (pKa) of ionogenic groups of newly synthesized amino- and (amino)guanidinopurine nucleotide analogs, such as acyclic nucleoside phosphonate, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diesters and other related compounds. These compounds bear characteristic pharmacophores contained in various important biologically active substances, such as cytostatics and antivirals. The pKa values of ionogenic groups of the above compounds were determined by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimentally measured pH dependence of their effective electrophoretic mobilities. The effective mobilities were measured by CZE performed in series of BGEs in a broad pH range (3.50-11.25), at constant ionic strength (25 mM) and temperature (25 degrees C). pKa values were determined for the protonated guanidinyl group in (amino)guanidino 9-alkylpurines and in (amino)guanidinopurine nucleotide analogs, such as acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diesters, for phosphonic acid to the second dissociation degree (-2) in acyclic nucleoside phosphonates of amino and (amino)guanidino 9-alkylpurines, and for protonated nitrogen in position 1 (N1) of purine moiety in acyclic nucleoside phosphonates of amino 9-alkylpurines. Thermodynamic pKa of protonated guanidinyl group was estimated to be in the range of 7.75-10.32, pKa of phosphonic acid to the second dissociation degree achieved values of 6.64-7.46, and pKa of protonated nitrogen in position 1 of purine was in the range of 4.13-4.89, depending on the structure of the analyzed compounds.

  1. Probing the Binding Site of the A1 Adenosine Receptor Reengineered for Orthogonal Recognition by Tailored Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Krishnan K.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Greaves, Rebecca; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Besada, Pedro; Kim, Hea Ok; Kim, Ae Yil; Choe, Seung Ah; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    His272 (7.43) in the seventh transmembrane domain (TM7) of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR) interacts with the 3′ position of nucleosides, based on selective affinity enhancement at a H272E mutant A3 AR (neoceptor) of 3′-ureido, but not 3′-OH, adenosine analogues. Here, mutation of the analogous H278 of the human A1 AR to Ala, Asp, Glu, or Leu enhanced the affinity of novel 2′- and 3′-ureido adenosine analogues, such as 10 (N6-cyclopentyl-3′-ureido-3′-deoxyadenosine), by >100-fold, while decreasing the affinity or potency of adenosine and other 3′-OH adenosine analogues. His278 mutant receptors produced a similar enhancement regardless of the charge character of the substituted residue, implicating steric rather than electrostatic factors in the gain of function, a hypothesis supported by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling. It was also demonstrated that this interaction was orientationally specific; i.e., mutations at the neighboring Thr277 did not enhance the affinity for a series of 2′- and 3′-ureido nucleosides. Additionally, H-bonding groups placed on substituents at the N6 or 5′ position demonstrated no enhancement in the mutant receptors. These reengineered human A1 ARs revealed orthogonality similar to that of the A3 but not the A2A AR, in which mutation of the corresponding residue, His278, to Asp did not enhance nucleoside affinity. Functionally, the H278D A1 AR was detectable only in a measure of membrane potential and not in calcium mobilization. This neoceptor approach should be useful for the validation of molecular modeling and the dissection of promiscuous GPCR signaling. PMID:17542617

  2. Mutational analysis of UMP kinase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bucurenci, N; Serina, L; Zaharia, C; Landais, S; Danchin, A; Bârzu, O

    1998-02-01

    UMP kinase from Escherichia coli is one of the four regulatory enzymes involved in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidine nucleotides. This homohexamer, with no counterpart in eukarya, might serve as a target for new antibacterial drugs. Although the bacterial enzyme does not show sequence similarity with any other known nucleoside monophosphate kinase, two segments between amino acids 35 to 78 and 145 to 194 exhibit 28% identity with phosphoglycerate kinase and 30% identity with aspartokinase, respectively. Based on these similarities, a number of residues of E. coli UMP kinase were selected for site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Biochemical, kinetic, and spectroscopic analysis of the modified proteins identified residues essential for catalysis (Asp146), binding of UMP (Asp174), and interaction with the allosteric effectors, GTP and UTP (Arg62 and Asp77).

  3. Purine nucleoside transport and metabolism in isolated rat jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Stow, R A; Bronk, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. The absorption and metabolism of purine nucleosides and their constituent bases has been investigated by perfusion through the lumen of isolated loops of rat jejunum. In control perfusions and those with luminal purines or purine nucleosides, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed uric acid as the only detectable purine in the mucosal epithelial layer and the serosal secretions unless the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol was present. 2. Adenosine (0.5 mM) was quantitatively deaminated to inosine in the lumen after perfusion for 30 min. 3. Luminal inosine and hypoxanthine (0.15-1.0 mM) increased the serosal uric acid concentration significantly (P < 0.001); at 0.5 and 1.0 mM the nucleoside gave a significantly greater (P < 0.01) rate of serosal uric acid appearance than the base. 4. Luminal guanosine (0.05-0.50 mM) and guanine (0.05-0.15 mM) increased the serosal uric acid concentration significantly (P < 0.001); with 0.15 mM nucleoside the serosal uric acid appeared significantly faster (P < 0.01) than it did from the base. 5. Luminal allopurinol (0.3 mM) inhibited xanthine oxidase by 80% and reduced serosal purine appearance significantly (P < 0.01) from luminal guanine, hypoxanthine and inosine. With allopurinol, guanosine (0.1 and 0.15 mM) and inosine (0.1-1.0 mM) gave significantly higher (P < 0.01) total serosal purine concentrations than their respective bases. 6. Inosine and guanosine were cleaved to their respective bases plus ribose phosphate by the action of a cytoplasmic nucleoside phosphorylase, which was found to have widely different Michaelis constants (Km; 318 +/- 45 and 41.4 +/- 3.6 microM for inosine and guanosine, respectively) and maximum velocities (Vmax; 79.3 +/- 4.0 and 20.5 +/- 0.05 mumol min-1 (mg protein)-1 for inosine and guanosine, respectively). 7. We conclude that hypoxanthine and guanine absorbed by rat small intestine are oxidized to uric acid which is released in the serosa. The corresponding nucleosides are

  4. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  5. Mouse equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (mENT2) transports nucleosides and purine nucleobases differing from human and rat ENT2.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Kyotani, Yoji; Hifumi, Natsuko; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2007-05-01

    Several mammalian nucleoside transporters have been identified at the molecular level. Human and rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hENT2 and rENT2, respectively) was previously reported to have the dual ability of transporting both nucleosides and nucleobases. In the present study, we characterized the transport of a variety of nucleosides and nucleobases via recombinant mouse ENT2 (mENT2). Cloned mENT2 mediated the uptake of nucleosides and purine nucleobases, but not pyrimidine nucleobases. The mENT2-mediated uptake of adenosine was significantly inhibited by nucleosides and nucleobases, irrespective of purine and pyrimidine. The K(m) values for the uptake of nucleosides and purine nucleobases mediated by mENT2 varied between 1.24 and 16.3 microM, and the transport clearances of adenosine and hypoxanthine via the transporter were greater than those of other substrates. Therefore, we concluded that mENT2 is nucleoside and purine nucleobase transporter, and pyrimidine nucleobases are blockers for the transporter, differing from hENT2 and rENT2 that were reported to also transport pyrimidine nucleobases.

  6. Analog Frame Store Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-15

    information in analog form for periods up to ten (i0)seconds. The storage element is a state-of-the-art monolithic charge coupled device (CCD) which...Analog Field Storage Device The Analog Field Storage Device is a solid state monolithic array operating on the "charge coupled" principle. It consists...the implementation of the corrective action. A three-month slip in delivery of the full system will result with integration test taking place in June

  7. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  8. Analog synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  9. Analog without fear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagrange, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Analog circuitry, also referred to as Linear, has been nearly run over by the digital/computer bandwagon. This is unfortunate because tremendous advances are being made in the field of analog integrated circuitry. Each year's progress raises the state-of-the-art, bringing achievements not possible even the year before. Many of the traditional prejudices against analog circuitry are no longer valid. This report attempts to summarize what is available now and what can (and can't) be done with analog integrated circuitry.

  10. Synthesis and properties of mRNA cap analogs containing phosphorothioate moiety in 5',5'-triphosphate chain.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Wojcik, Jacek; Cohen, Lean S; Davis, Richard E; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Nucleosides and oligonucleotides with an oxygen replaced by sulfur atom are an interesting class of compounds because of their improved stability toward enzymatic cleavage by nucleases. We have synthesized several dinucleotide mRNA cap analogs containing a phosphorothioate moiety in the alpha, beta, or gamma position of 5',5'-triphosphate chain [m7Gp(s)ppG, m7Gpp(s)pG, and m7Gppp(s)G]. These are the first examples of the biologically important 5'mRNA cap analogs containing a phosphorothioate moiety, and these compounds may be useful in a variety of biochemical and biotechnological applications. Incorporation of a sulfur atom in the alpha or gamma position within the dinucleotide cap analog was achieved using PSCl3 in a nucleoside phosphorylation reaction followed by coupling the phosphorothioate of nucleoside with a second nucleotide. Synthesis of cap analogs with the phosphorothioate moiety in beta position was performed using an organic phosphorothioate salt in a coupling reaction with an activated nucleotide. The structures of newly synthesized compounds was confirmed using MS and 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. We present here the results of preliminary studies on their interaction with translation initiation factor eIF4E and enzymatic hydrolysis with human and nematode DcpS scavengers.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of indazole based analog sensitive Akt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Okuzumi, Tatsuya; Ducker, Gregory S; Zhang, Chao; Aizenstein, Brian; Hoffman, Randy; Shokat, Kevan M

    2010-08-01

    The kinase Akt is a key signaling node in regulating cellular growth and survival. It is implicated in cancer by mutation and its role in the downstream transmission of aberrant PI3K signaling. For these reasons, Akt has become an increasingly important target of drug development efforts and several inhibitors are now reaching clinical trials. Paradoxically it has been observed that active site kinase inhibitors of Akt lead to hyperphosphorylation of Akt itself. To investigate this phenomenon we here describe the application of a chemical genetics strategy that replaces native Akt with a mutant version containing an active site substitution that allows for the binding of an engineered inhibitor. This analog sensitive strategy allows for the selective inhibition of a single kinase. In order to create the inhibitor selective for the analog sensitive kinase, a diversity of synthetic approaches was required, finally resulting in the compound PrINZ, a 7-substituted version of the Abbott Labs Akt inhibitor A-443654.

  12. Assessment of the Activation State of RAS and Map Kinase in Human Breast Cancer Specimens (96Breast)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    20-25, 1999. 20. del Peso, L., Hernmndez-Alcoceba, R., Embade , N., Carnero, A., Esteve, P., Paje, C., and Lacal, J.C. Rho proteins induce metastatic...converting it to ATP using the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and ATP was measured by the luciferase/luciferin system according

  13. Prostacyclin analogs inhibit fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tadashi; Liu, Xiangde; Kim, Hui Jung; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Ertl, Ronald F; Wen, Fu-Qiang; Takizawa, Hajime; Rennard, Stephen I

    2002-08-01

    The controlled accumulation of fibroblasts to sites of inflammation is crucial to effective tissue repair after injury. Either inadequate or excessive accumulation of fibroblasts could result in abnormal tissue function. Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is a potent mediator in the coagulation and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PGI(2) on chemotaxis of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1). Using the blind well chamber technique, we found that the PGI(2) analog carbaprostacyclin (10(-6) M) inhibited HFL-1 chemotaxis to human plasma fibronectin (20 microg/ml) 58.0 +/- 13.2% (P < 0.05) and to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB (10 ng/ml) 48.7 +/- 4.6% (P < 0.05). Checkerboard analysis demonstrated that carbaprostacyclin inhibits both directed and undirected migration. The inhibitory effect of the carbaprostacyclin was concentration dependent and blocked by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720, suggesting that a cAMP-PKA pathway may be involved in the process. Two other PGI(2) analogs, ciprostene and dehydro-15-cyclohexyl carbaprostacyclin (both 10(-6) M), significantly inhibited fibroblast migration to fibronectin. In summary, PGI(2) appears to inhibit fibroblast chemotaxis to fibronectin and PDGF-BB. Such an effect may contribute to the regulation of fibroblasts in wound healing and could contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by abnormal tissue repair remodeling.

  14. An antigenic domain within a catalytically active Leishmania infantum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1) is a target of inhibitory antibodies.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Detoni, Michelle de Lima; Emídio, Nayara Braga; Marconato, Danielle Gomes; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Fessel, Melissa Regina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Marques, Marcos José; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2013-02-01

    We identified a shared B domain within nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) of plants and parasites. Now, an NTPDase activity not affected by inhibitors of adenylate kinase and ATPases was detected in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. By non-denaturing gel electrophoresis of detergent-homogenized promastigote preparation, an active band hydrolyzing nucleosides di- and triphosphate was visualized and, following SDS-PAGE and silver staining was identified as a single polypeptide of 50kDa. By Western blots, it was recognized by immune sera raised against potato apyrase (SA), r-pot B domain (SB), a recombinant polypeptide derived from the potato apyrase, and LbB1LJ (SC) or LbB2LJ (SD), synthetic peptides derived from the Leishmania NTPDase 1, and by serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, identifying the antigenic L. infantum NTPDase 1 and, also, its conserved B domain (r83-122). By immunoprecipitation assays and Western blots, immune sera SA and SB identified the catalytically active NTPDase 1 in promastigote preparation. In addition, the immune sera SB (44%) and SC or SD (87-99%) inhibited its activity, suggesting a direct effect on the B domain. By ELISA, 37%, 45% or 50% of 38 infected dogs were seropositive for r-pot B domain, LbB1LJ and LbB2LJ, respectively, confirming the B domain antigenicity.

  15. Synthesis and cytostatic activity of purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Several new purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose were prepared according to Vorbrüggen method, starting from 1,2,5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-allofuranose and using 1,2,3,5,6-pentaacetoxy-β-D-allofuranose as key intermediate. The synthesized allofuranosyl nucleosides, as well as some acetyl derivatives, were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Hela-229 and HL-60). Among the studied compounds the 9-(2,3,5,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-allofuranosyl)-2,6-dichloropurine (9) was the most potent one on the three cell lines evaluated, being its activity against HL-60 cells similar to cisplatin.

  16. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Surette, M; Gill, T; MacLean, S

    1990-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was isolated and purified from cell extracts of Proteus vulgaris recovered from spoiling cod fish (Gadus morhua). The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 120,000 +/- 2,000 and pH 6.8. The Michaelis constant for inosine as substrate was 3.9 x 10(-5). Guanosine also served as a substrate (Km = 2.9 x 10(-5). However, the enzyme was incapable of phosphorylizing adenosine. Adenosine proved to be useful as a competitive inhibitor and was used as a ligand for affinity chromatography of purine nucleoside phosphorylase following initial purification steps of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2111121

  17. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  18. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  19. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dellafiore, María A; Montserrat, Javier M; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  20. Silica - Boronate affinity material for quick enrichment of intracellular nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxia; Li, Huihui; Guan, Xiujuan; Cheng, Ting; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-05-01

    Boronic acid modified materials have been widely used to adsorb nucleosides, but their adsorption capacities require further improvement. Most cis-diol containing biomolecules are in very low abundance along with interfering components in real samples, and need to be enriched specially. In this study, we synthesize a kind of silica absorbent modified with boronic acid derivative, using amorphous silica as raw material and obtaining high adsorption capacity for adenosine. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium can be completed within 10s and 1min for the desorption. Finally, the material was successfully applied to enrich nucleosides from cells and the spiked recoveries were found between 82.21% and 118.9%. The results showed that the prepared adsorbent has potential to effectively enrich cis-diol substances from cell samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  2. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  3. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  4. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 5'-O-Dicarboxylic Fatty Acyl Monoester Derivatives of Anti-HIV Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pemmaraju, Bhanu; Agarwal, Hitesh K; Oh, Donghoon; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W; Tiwari, Rakesh; Parang, Keykavous

    2014-03-19

    A number of 5'-O-dicarboxylic fatty acyl monoester derivatives of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (stavudine, d4T), and 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (alovudine, FLT) were synthesized to improve the lipophilicity and potentially the cellular delivery of parent polar 2', 3'-dideoxynucleoside (ddN) analogues. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Three different fatty acids with varying chain length of suberic acid (octanedioic acid), sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), and dodecanedioic acid were used for the conjugation with the nucleosides. The compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity. All dicarboxylic ester conjugates of nucleosides exhibited significantly higher anti-HIV activity than that of the corresponding parent nucleoside analogs. Among all the tested conjugates, 5'-O-suberate derivative of AZT (EC50 = 0.10 nM) was found to be the most potent compound and showed 80-fold higher anti-HIV activity than AZT without any significant toxicity (TC50 > 500 nM).

  6. Expression, purification and functional characterization of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1 (hENT1) protein from Sf9 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-10-01

    Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) is the major plasma membrane transporter involved in transportation of natural nucleosides as well as nucleoside analog drugs, used in anti-cancer and anti-viral therapies. Despite extensive biochemical and pharmacological studies, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this protein. The major obstacles to purification include a low endogenous expression level, the lack of an efficient expression and purification protocol, and the hydrophobic nature of the protein. Here, we report protein expression, purification and functional characterization of hENT1 from Sf9 insect cells. hENT1 expressed by Sf9 cells is functionally active as demonstrated by saturation binding with a Kd of 1.2±0.2nM and Bmax of 110±5pmol/mg for [(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR). We also demonstrate purification of hENT1 using FLAG antibody affinity resin in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol detergent with a Kd of 4.3±0.7nM. The yield of hENT1 from Sf9 cells was ∼0.5mg active transporter per liter of culture. The purified protein is functionally active, stable, homogenous and appropriate for further biophysical and structural studies.

  7. Metabolism of Pyrimidines and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christoph F.; Ingraham, John L.; Neuhard, Jan; Thomassen, Elisabeth

    1972-01-01

    The pathways by which uracil, cytosine, uridine, cytidine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized by Salmonella typhimurium are established. The various 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues are shown to exert their toxic effects only after having been converted to the nucleotide level, and these conversions are shown to be catalyzed by the same enzymes which similarly convert the natural substrates. Methods for isolating mutant strains blocked in various steps of metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides are described. PMID:4259664

  8. The interaction of aflatoxins with purines and purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Janet I.; Rees, K. R.

    1967-01-01

    From measurements of thermal hyperchromicity and the behaviour of an aflatoxin–DNA mixture on a Sephadex column it was concluded that aflatoxin B1 is capable of weak binding to single-stranded DNA. The interactions of the aflatoxins (B1, G1 and G2) with nucleosides result in difference spectra and suggest that the purine bases and the amino group play a role in the binding of all the aflatoxins to DNA. PMID:6032981

  9. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  10. The rational of catalytic activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase. a combined biochemical and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Sulpizi, M; Schelling, P; Folkers, G; Carloni, P; Scapozza, L

    2001-06-15

    Most antiherpes therapies exploit the large substrate acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK(HSV1)) relative to the human isoenzyme. The enzyme selectively phosphorylates nucleoside analogs that can either inhibit viral DNA polymerase or cause toxic effects when incorporated into viral DNA. To relate structural properties of TK(HSV1) ligands to their chemical reactivity we have carried out ab initio quantum chemistry calculations within the density functional theory framework in combination with biochemical studies. Calculations have focused on a set of ligands carrying a representative set of the large spectrum of sugar-mimicking moieties and for which structural information of the TK(HSV1)-ligand complex is available. The k(cat) values of these ligands have been measured under the same experimental conditions using an UV spectrophotometric assay. The calculations point to the crucial role of electric dipole moment of ligands and its interaction with the negatively charged residue Glu(225). A striking correlation is found between the energetics associated with this interaction and the k(cat) values measured under homogeneous conditions. This finding uncovers a fundamental aspect of the mechanism governing substrate diversity and catalytic turnover and thus represents a significant step toward the rational design of novel and powerful prodrugs for antiviral and TK(HSV1)-linked suicide gene therapies.

  11. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  12. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  13. [Determination of Nucleosides and HPLC Fingerprints of Cordyceps].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Li, Ning; Dong, Ting-xia; Zhan, Hua-qiang

    2015-05-01

    To establish the HPLC fingerprints method of Cordyceps and to determine the contents of uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine. The HPLC separation was performed on a Grace Prevail C18 column( 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in a gradient elution mode with a mixture consisting of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 260 nm, the column temperature was 25 degrees C. The contents of four nucleosides were determined in Cordyceps from different habitats, and the HPLC fingerprint of Cordyceps was set up with 13 common peaks. Among of them, uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine were identified. The similarities of ten fingerprints were greater than 0.95 with good separation of each chromatographic peak, and met the requirement of the fingerprints. There were similar results in cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the major nucleosides and the fingerprints of 10 batches of Cordyceps. The results of sample classification in principal component analysis showed a good similarity with cluster analysis. This method showed the information of chemical composition in Cordyceps, with good repeatability and similarity between samples, indicating that the stable chemical distribution and proportion of the major nucleosides in the medical materials. Fingerprints, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, which are applied to identify the different sources of Cordyceps, provide an experimental basis for establishing the characteristics evaluation methodology of medicinal materials.

  14. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  15. Analogies for Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskozim, Paul S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews analogies used to try to capture the concept of the magnitude of Avogadro's number, including analogies related to small/tiny objects, counting, people, water, and money. Also presents several new ones which are based on modern computers and printers. (JN)

  16. Challenges in Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  17. Analog synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Sarpeshkar, R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog–digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA–protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  18. Challenges in Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  19. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  20. Training in Analogical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Experiments involving a componential approach to analogy training were conducted with 36 fourth, 34 eighth, and 96 tenth graders. Results indicate a significant positive effect on all students' verbal analogy skills and no significant effect on fourth graders' inferential skills. In-class training and reading/language arts instruction implications…

  1. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  2. Analog pulse processor

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  3. Synthesis, anti-HIV activity, and metabolic stability of new alkenyldiarylmethane HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo-Liang; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Fanwick, Phillip E; Cushman, Mark

    2005-09-22

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs) are part of the combination therapy currently used to treat HIV infection. Based on analogy with known HIV-1 NNRT inhibitors, 18 novel alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) containing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl, 3-cyanophenyl, or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups were synthesized and evaluated as HIV inhibitors. Their stabilities in rat plasma have also been investigated. Although introducing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups into alkenyldiarylmethanes does not maintain the antiviral potency, the structural modification of alkenyldiarylmethanes with a 3-cyanophenyl substituent can be made without a large decrease in activity. The oxazolidinonyl group was introduced into the alkenyldiarylmethane framework and found to confer enhanced metabolic stability in rat plasma.

  4. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strength of the effect was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.

  5. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.; ...

    2017-04-19

    In this work, the effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strengthmore » of the effect was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.« less

  6. A general approach to the synthesis of 5-S-functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Kananovich, Dzmitry G; Reino, Alli; Ilmarinen, Kaja; Rõõmusoks, Marko; Karelson, Mati; Lopp, Margus

    2014-08-14

    A general and efficient approach was developed for the introduction of S-functionality at the C-5 position of cytosine and uracil nucleosides and their analogues. The key step is a palladium-catalyzed C-S coupling of the corresponding 5-bromo nucleoside derivative and alkyl thiol. The butyl 3-mercaptopropionate coupling products were further converted to the corresponding disulphides, the stable precursors of 5-mercaptopyrimidine nucleosides.

  7. Synthesis of Pyridone-based Nucleoside Analogues as Substrates or Inhibitors of DNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Tauraitė, Daiva; Ražanas, Rytis; Mikalkėnas, Algirdas; Serva, Saulius; Meškys, Rolandas

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel acyclic and cyclic pyridone-based nucleosides and nucleotides is described. In total, seven nucleosides and four nucleotides were synthesized. None of the tested nucleosides showed inhibitory properties against Klenow exo- polymerase and M.MuLV and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases. The nucleotides containing 4-chloro- and 4-bromo-2-pyridone as a nucleobase were accepted by the Klenow fragment, but at the expense of fidelity and extension efficiency.

  8. Seven-Membered Ring Nucleoside Analogues: Stereoselective Synthesis and Studies on Their Conformational Properties.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Maryam; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Portella, Guillem; Chua, Zhijie; Bohle, D Scott; Orozco, Modesto; Damha, Masad J

    2015-11-06

    The synthesis of a novel series of seven-membered ring nucleoside analogues as candidates for biological screening and gene silencing applications is described. The key step in the synthetic approach is a stereoselective synthesis of an epoxide that is used as a common synthetic intermediate to prepare functionalized oxepane nucleoside derivatives. The conformational landscape and preferred ring-puckering of selected oxepane nucleosides was also studied by NMR, X-ray crystallography, and quantum mechanical calculations.

  9. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  10. Facile synthesis of boronate-decorated polyethyleneimine-grafted hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for the highly selective enrichment of modified nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites.