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Sample records for nucleoside triphosphatase activity

  1. Human coronavirus 229E nonstructural protein 13: characterization of duplex-unwinding, nucleoside triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin A; Ziebuhr, John

    2004-07-01

    The human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) replicase gene-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) contains an N-terminal zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal superfamily 1 helicase domain. A histidine-tagged form of nsp13, which was expressed in insect cells and purified, is reported to unwind efficiently both partial-duplex RNA and DNA of up to several hundred base pairs. Characterization of the nsp13-associated nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities revealed that all natural ribonucleotides and nucleotides are substrates of nsp13, with ATP, dATP, and GTP being hydrolyzed most efficiently. Using the NTPase active site, HCoV-229E nsp13 also mediates RNA 5'-triphosphatase activity, which may be involved in the capping of viral RNAs.

  2. Characterization of nucleoside triphosphatase activity in isolated pea nuclei and its photoreversible regulation by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. R.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) present in highly purified preparations of pea nuclei was partially characterized. The activity of this enzyme was stimulated by divalent cations (Mg2+ = Mn2+ > Ca2+), but was not affected by the monovalent cations, Na+ and K+. The Mg(2+)-dependent activity was further stimulated by concentrations of Ca2+ in the low micromolar range. It could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP, all with a pH optimum of 7.5. The nuclear NTPase activity was not inhibited by vanadate, oligomycin, or nitrate, but was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of quercetin and the calmodulin inhibitor, compound 48/80. The NTPase was stimulated more than 50% by red light, and this effect was reversed by subsequent irradiation with far-red light. The photoreversibility of the stimulation indicated that the photoreceptor for this response was phytochrome, an important regulator of photomorphogenesis and gene expression in plants.

  3. Age- and sex-related differences in nuclear lipid content and nucleoside triphosphatase activity in the JCR:LA-cp corpulent rat.

    PubMed

    Czubryt, M P; Russell, J C; Sarantopoulos, J; Gilchrist, J S; Pierce, G N

    1997-11-01

    The putative role of the nuclear nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) is to provide energy to the nuclear pore complex for poly A(+) mRNA export. Previous work has demonstrated that liver nuclear NTPase activity is greater in 6 month old corpulent (cp/cp) female JCR:LA rats, a hyperlipidemic rat model, compared to lean (+/?) animals. This increase appeared to be related to increases in nuclear membrane cholesterol content. The current study extended these initial data to compare NTPase activity as a function of age and sex in isolated JCR:LA-cp rat liver nuclei, to further test the hypothesis that nuclear membrane cholesterol may modulate NTPase activity. NTPase activity was increased in cp/cp female animals compared to +/? females at all ages studied, with Vmax values increased by 60-176%. Membrane integrity of cp/cp female nuclei was reduced compared to +/? female nuclei. Nuclear membrane cholesterol levels increased linearly with age by 50, 150 and 250% in 3, 6 and 9 month old cp/cp females over leans. In contrast, nuclei from cp/cp males exhibited only minor, isolated changes in NTPase activity. Furthermore, there were no significant changes in nuclear cholesterol content or membrane integrity in the less hyperlipidemic male animals at any age. These data suggest that altered lipid metabolism may lead to changes in nuclear membrane structure, which in turn may alter NTPase activity and functioning of the nuclear pore complex.

  4. [Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of a soluble nucleoside triphosphatase from bovine kidneys].

    PubMed

    Sivuk, V F; Rusina, I M; Luchko, T A; Makarchikov, A F

    2008-01-01

    Soluble nucleoside triphosphatase differing in its properties from all known proteins with NTPase activity was partially purified from bovine kidneys. The enzyme has pH optimum of 7.5, molecular mass of 60 kDa, as estimated by gel chromatography, and shows an absolute dependence on divalent metal ions. NTPase obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the range of substrate concentration tested from 45 to 440 microM; the apparent Km for inosine-5'-triphosphate was calculated to be 23.3 microM. The enzyme was found to possess a broad substrate specificity, being capable of hydrolyzing various nucleoside-5'-tri- as well as diphosphates.

  5. [Thiamine triphosphatase activity in mammalian mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from bovine kidney and brain as well as the liver and the brain of rat show thiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase) activity. The activity was determined from the particles by freezing-thawing suggesting that a soluble enzyme is involved. The liberation patterns of ThTPase and marker enzyme activities from mitochondria under osmotic shock or treatment with increasing Triton X-100 concentrations indicate the presence of ThTPase both in the matrix and intermembrane space. It was found, basing on gel filtration behavior, that the mitochondrial ThTPase has the same molecular mass as specific cytosolic ThTPase (EC 3.6.1.28). The enzymes, however, were clearly distinguishable in Km values, the mitochondrial one showing a higher apparent affinity for substrate. These results imply the existence of ThTPase multiple forms in mammalian cells.

  6. Molecular cloning, encoding sequence, and expression of vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J F; Kahn, J S; Esteban, M

    1986-01-01

    A rabbit poxvirus genomic library contained within the expression vector lambda gt11 was screened with polyclonal antiserum prepared against vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-I enzyme. Five positive phage clones containing from 0.72- to 2.5-kilobase-pair (kbp) inserts expressed a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that was reactive by immunoblotting with the NTPase-I antibody. Hybridization analysis allowed the location of this gene within the vaccinia HindIIID restriction fragment. From the known nucleotide sequence of the 16-kbp vaccinia HindIIID fragment, we identified a region that contains a 1896-base open reading frame coding for a 631-amino acid protein. Analysis of the complete sequence revealed a highly basic protein, with hydrophilic COOH and NH2 termini, various hydrophobic domains, and no significant homology to other known proteins. Translational studies demonstrate that NTPase-I belongs to a late class of viral genes. This protein is highly conserved among Orthopoxviruses. Images PMID:3025846

  7. Purification and characteristics of functional properties of soluble nucleoside triphosphatase (apyrase) from bovine brain.

    PubMed

    Sivuk, V F; Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F

    2008-09-01

    Soluble NTPase, differing in its properties from known proteins exhibiting NTPase activity, was purified from bovine brain to homogeneity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 7.5 and shows absolute dependence on bivalent cations and broad substrate specificity towards nucleoside-5 -tri- and -diphosphates, characteristics of apyrases. The NTPase follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the range of investigated substrate concentrations, the apparent K(m) values for UTP, ITP, GTP, CTP, CDP, and ATP being 86, 25, 41, 150, 500, and 260 microM, respectively. According to gel-filtration and SDS-PAGE data, the molecular mass of the enzyme is 60 kD. The NTPase is localized in the cytosol fraction and expressed in different bovine organs and tissues. Total NTPase activity of extracts of bovine organs and tissues decreases in the following order: liver > heart > skeletal muscle > lung > brain > spleen > kidney ~ small intestine. The enzyme activity can be regulated by acetyl-CoA, alpha-ketoglutarate, and fructose-1,6-diphosphate acting as activators in physiological concentrations, whereas propionate exhibits an inhibitory effect.

  8. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  9. Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity on the Chloroplast Envelope in Tendrils of Pisum sativum1

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Dinkar D.; Gordon, Mildred; Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    When samples of pea tendril tissue were incubated in the Wachstein-Meisel medium for the demonstration of adenosine triphosphatases, deposits of lead reaction product were localized between the membranes of the chloroplast envelope. The presence of Mg2+ was necessary for adenosine triphosphatase activity, and Ca2+ could not substitute for this requirement. Varying the pH of incubation to 5.5 or 9.4 inhibited enzyme activity, as did the addition of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or N-ethylmaleimide. The adenosine triphosphatase was apparently inactivated or degraded when the plants were grown in the dark for 24 hours prior to incubation. The enzyme was substrate-specific for adenosine triphosphate; no reaction was obtained with adenosine diphosphate, uridine triphosphate, inosine triphosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and sodium β-glycerophosphate. Sites of nonspecific depositions of lead are described. The adenosine triphosphatase on the chloroplast envelope may be involved in the light-induced contraction of this organelle. Images PMID:4245003

  10. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  11. Thermus thermophilus Nucleoside Phosphorylases Active in the Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Almendros, Marcos; Sinisterra, Jose-Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities. PMID:22344645

  12. Separation of adenosine diphosphate--adenosine triphosphate-exchange activity from the cerebral microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Stahl, W L; Sattin, A; McIlwain, H

    1966-05-01

    1. A microsomal fraction from ox cerebral cortex catalysed [(14)C]ADP-ATP exchange at a speed similar to that at which it liberated P(i) from ATP in the presence of Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+). 2. Repeated washing the fraction with MgATP solutions solubilized most of the exchange activity and left the adenosine triphosphatase insoluble and little changed in activity. The exchange activity was accompanied by negligible adenosine-triphosphatase activity and was enriched by precipitation at chosen pH and by DEAE-Sephadex. At no stage was its activity affected by Na(+), K(+) or ouabain. 3. The washed microsomal fraction was exposed to a variety of reagents; a sodium iodide-cysteine treatment increased both adenosine-triphosphatase and exchange activities, as also did a synthetic zeolite. Preparations were obtained with exchange activities less than 3% of their Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase activity. Some contribution to the residual exchange activity was made by an adenylate kinase. 4. Thus over 95% of the microsomal ADP-ATP-exchange activity does not take part in the Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase reaction. Participation of some of the residual 3% of the ADP-ATP-exchange activity has not been excluded, but there appears no firm evidence for its participation in the adenosine triphosphatase; the bearing of this conclusion on mechanisms proposed for the Na(+)-plus-K(+)-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase is indicated.

  13. Separation of adenosine diphosphate-adenosine triphosphate–exchange activity from the cerebral microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, W. L.; Sattin, A.; McIlwain, H.

    1966-01-01

    1. A microsomal fraction from ox cerebral cortex catalysed [14C]ADP–ATP exchange at a speed similar to that at which it liberated Pi from ATP in the presence of Na+, K+ and Mg2+. 2. Repeated washing the fraction with MgATP solutions solubilized most of the exchange activity and left the adenosine triphosphatase insoluble and little changed in activity. The exchange activity was accompanied by negligible adenosine-triphosphatase activity and was enriched by precipitation at chosen pH and by DEAE-Sephadex. At no stage was its activity affected by Na+, K+ or ouabain. 3. The washed microsomal fraction was exposed to a variety of reagents; a sodium iodide–cysteine treatment increased both adenosine-triphosphatase and exchange activities, as also did a synthetic zeolite. Preparations were obtained with exchange activities less than 3% of their Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase activity. Some contribution to the residual exchange activity was made by an adenylate kinase. 4. Thus over 95% of the microsomal ADP–ATP-exchange activity does not take part in the Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine-triphosphatase reaction. Participation of some of the residual 3% of the ADP–ATP-exchange activity has not been excluded, but there appears no firm evidence for its participation in the adenosine triphosphatase; the bearing of this conclusion on mechanisms proposed for the Na+-plus-K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase is indicated. PMID:4223577

  14. Renal Sodium- and Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase and Sodium Reabsorption in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adrian I.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between net tubular reabsorption of sodium and renal microsomal sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) was evaluated in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Tubular sodium reabsorption per gram of kidney was lower in thyroidectomized rats than in controls (186±14 vs. 246±12 μeq/min; P < 0.005) and was accompanied by a quantitatively similar reduction in Na-K-ATPase specific activity (49.4±2.4 vs. 65.8±2.3 μmol inorganic phosphate (Pt)/mg protein per h; P < 0.001). This decrement was present in both cortex and outer medulla, and was limited to Na-K-ATPase since other representative enzymes not involved in sodium transport (magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase [Mg-ATPase], glucose-6-phosphatase, 5′-nucleotidase) remained unchanged or increased in the hypothyroid animals. Conversely, Na-K-ATPase rose when sodium reabsorption increased in euthyroid rats treated with triiodothyronine. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine to what extent the decrease in Na-K-ATPase is due to lack of thyroid hormone per se or to an adaptive response to decreased reabsorptive sodium load. Triiodothyronine in concentrations of 10-12 to 10-5 M had no effect in vitro on microsomal Na-K-ATPase of either thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats. When hypothyroid rats were uninephrectomized or treated with methylprednisolone, sodium reabsorption per gram kidney increased markedly and was similar to that of intact controls. Despite persistence of the hypothyroid state, Na-K-ATPase specific activity also increased to levels not significantly different from euthyroid animals. These data suggest that decreased tubular sodium transport is a major determinant of the reduction in renal Na-K-ATPase in thyroid deficiency since the latter can be reversed by increasing sodium reabsorption during continuing hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the modest sodium leak of hypothyroid animals does not appear to

  15. High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria and Mammalian Cells: Identification of the Enzymes Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lakaye, Bernard; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Scholer, Georges; Fillet, Marianne; Elias, Benjamin; Derochette, Jean-Michel; Crommen, Jacques; Wins, Pierre; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPPi) is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPPi but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. Conclusions and General Significance We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPPi in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPPi, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca2+, thereby interfering with Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22984449

  16. NTPase and 5'-RNA triphosphatase activities of Chikungunya virus nsP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Aher, Pankaj P; Lole, Kavita S

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an insect borne virus (genus: Alphavirus) which causes acute febrile illness in humans followed by a prolonged arthralgic disease that affects the joints of the extremities. Re-emergence of the virus in the form of outbreaks in last 6-7 years has posed a serious public health problem. CHIKV has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome of about 12,000 nt. Open reading frame 1 of the viral genome encodes a polyprotein precursor, nsP1234, which is processed further into different non structural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4). Sequence based analyses have shown helicase domain at the N-terminus and protease domain at C-terminus of nsP2. A detailed biochemical analysis of NTPase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA phosphatase activities of recombinant CHIKV-nsP2T protein (containing conserved NTPase/helicase motifs in the N-terminus and partial papain like protease domain at the C-terminus) was carried out. The protein could hydrolyze all NTPs except dTTP and showed better efficiency for ATP, dATP, GTP and dGTP hydrolysis. ATP was the most preferred substrate by the enzyme. CHIKV-nsP2T also showed 5'-triphosphatase (RTPase) activity that specifically removes the γ-phosphate from the 5' end of RNA. Both NTPase and RTPase activities of the protein were completely dependent on Mg(2+) ions. RTPase activity was inhibited by ATP showing sharing of the binding motif by NTP and RNA. Both enzymatic activities were drastically reduced by mutations in the NTP binding motif (GKT) and co-factor, Mg(2+) ion binding motif (DEXX) suggesting that they have a common catalytic site.

  17. The RNA Helicase and Nucleotide Triphosphatase Activities of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NS3 Protein Are Essential for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Baohua; Liu, Changbao; Lin-Goerke, Juili; Maley, Derrick R.; Gutshall, Lester L.; Feltenberger, Cynthia A.; Del Vecchio, Alfred M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) motifs have been identified in many RNA virus genomes. Similarly, all the members of the Flaviviridae family contain conserved helicase/NTPase motifs in their homologous NS3 proteins. Although this suggests that this activity plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, the precise role of the helicase/NTPase in virus replication or whether it is essential for virus replication is still unknown. To determine the role of the NS3 helicase/NTPase in the viral life cycle, deletion and point mutations in the helicase/NTPase motifs of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) NS3 protein designed to abolish either helicase activity alone (motif II, DEYH to DEYA) or both NTPase and helicase activity (motif I, GKT to GAT and deletion of motif VI) were generated. The C-terminal domain of NS3 (BVDV amino acids 1854 to 2362) of these mutants and wild type was expressed in bacteria, purified, and assayed for RNA helicase and ATPase activity. These mutations behaved as predicted with respect to RNA helicase and NTPase activities in vitro. When engineered back into an infectious cDNA for BVDV (NADL strain), point mutations in either the GKT or DEYH motif or deletion of motif VI yielded RNA transcripts that no longer produced infectious virus upon transfection of EBTr cells. Further analysis indicated that these mutants did not synthesize minus-strand RNA. These findings represent the first report unequivocably demonstrating that helicase activity is essential for minus-strand synthesis. PMID:10644352

  18. Increased sodium plus potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity in erythrocyte membranes in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, D A; Oeswein, J Q; Prunty, M E; Hisle, K C; Markesbery, W R

    1978-07-01

    Dopa-decarboxylase, acetylcholinesterase, sodium plus potassium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ + K+-ATPase), and membrane-bound protein kinase were compared in the erythrocytes of patients with Huntington's disease and normal controls. All these enzymes also exist in the basal ganglia. The Na+ +K+-ATPase level was elevated (p less than 0.05) in Huntington's disease, while no significant changes were observed in the other enzymes. This finding is consistent with the concept that Huntington's disease is associated with a general membrane abnormality.

  19. Synthesis and cytostatic activity of purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Several new purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose were prepared according to Vorbrüggen method, starting from 1,2,5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-allofuranose and using 1,2,3,5,6-pentaacetoxy-β-D-allofuranose as key intermediate. The synthesized allofuranosyl nucleosides, as well as some acetyl derivatives, were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Hela-229 and HL-60). Among the studied compounds the 9-(2,3,5,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-allofuranosyl)-2,6-dichloropurine (9) was the most potent one on the three cell lines evaluated, being its activity against HL-60 cells similar to cisplatin.

  20. Improving nucleoside diphosphate kinase for antiviral nucleotide analogs activation.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Chen, Yuxing; Giacomoni-Fernandes, Veronique; Mulard, Laurence; Morera, Solange; Janin, Joel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Veron, Michel

    2002-10-18

    Antiviral nucleoside analog therapies rely on their incorporation by viral DNA polymerases/reverse transcriptase leading to chain termination. The analogs (3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), and other dideoxynucleosides) are sequentially converted into triphosphate by cellular kinases of the nucleoside salvage pathway and are often poor substrates of these enzymes. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates the diphosphate derivatives of the analogs with an efficiency some 10(4) lower than for its natural substrates. Kinetic and structural studies of Dictyostelium and human NDP kinases show that the sugar 3'-OH, absent from all antiviral analogs, is required for catalysis. To improve the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase on the analogs, we engineered several mutants with a protein OH group replacing the sugar 3'-OH. The substitution of Asn-115 in Ser and Leu-55 in His results in an NDP kinase mutant with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate antiviral derivatives. Transfection of the mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli results in an increased sensitivity to AZT. An x-ray structure at 2.15-A resolution of the Dictyostelium enzyme bearing the serine substitution in complex with the R(p)-alpha-borano-triphosphate derivative of AZT shows that the enhanced activity reflects an improved geometry of binding and a favorable interaction of the 3'-azido group with the engineered serine.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a dinucleoside triphosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brevet, A; Chen, J; Fromant, M; Blanquet, S; Plateau, P

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme able to cleave dinucleoside triphosphates has been purified 3,750-fold from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to the enzymes previously shown to catabolize Ap4A in yeast, this enzyme is a hydrolase rather than a phosphorylase. The dinucleoside triphosphatase molecular ratio estimated by gel filtration is 55,000. Dinucleoside triphosphatase activity is strongly stimulated by the presence of divalent cations. Mn2+ displays the strongest stimulating effect, followed by Mg2+, Co2+, Cd2+, and Ca2+. The Km value for Ap3A is 5.4 microM (50 mM Tris-HCl [pH 7.8], 5 mM MgCl2, and 0.1 mM EDTA; 37 degrees C). Dinucleoside polyphosphates are substrates of this enzyme, provided that they contain more than two phosphates and that at least one of the two bases is a purine (Ap3A, Ap3G, Ap3C, Gp3G, Gp3C, m7Gp3A, m7Gp3G, Ap4A, Ap4G, Ap4C, Ap4U, Gp4G, and Ap5A are substrates; AMP, ADP, ATP, Ap2A, and Cp4U are not). Among the products, a nucleoside monophosphate is always formed. The specificity of cleavage of methylated dinucleoside triphosphates and the molecular weight of dinucleoside triphosphatase indicate that this enzyme is different from the mRNA decapping enzyme previously characterized (A. Stevens, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:2005-2010, 1988). Images PMID:1653209

  2. Role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the activation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Deville-Bonne, D; Véron, M

    2000-06-01

    Nucleoside analogs are currently used in antiretrovirus therapies. The best known example is AZT one of the first drug to be used for the treatment of AIDS. However, only the triphosphate derivatives of these compounds act as substrates of the viral reverse transcriptase. Since they do not enter cells, nucleoside analogs are administered and phosphorylated by cellular kinases. The last step in this phosphorylation pathway is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase. The incorporation of the nucleoside triphosphates into nascent viral DNA chain results in termination of the elongation process. We have performed kinetics studies of the phosphorylation reaction by NDP kinase of dideoxynucleoside diphosphates such as 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-azidothymidine diphosphate (AZT-DP) and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine diphosphate (d4T-DP). We show that the catalytic efficiency is strongly decreased and, therefore, that the reaction step catalyzed by NDP kinase constitutes a bottleneck in the processing pathway of anti-HIV compounds. In addition, the affinity of the analogs in the absence of catalysis was determined using a catalytically inactive NDP kinase mutant, showing a reduction of affinity by a factor of 2 to 30, depending on the analog. The structure of NDP kinase provides a structural explanation for these results. Indeed, all nucleoside analogs acting as chain terminators must lack a 3'-OH in the nucleotide deoxyribose. Unfortunately, this same substitution is detrimental for their capacity to be phosphorylated by NDP kinase. This defines the framework for the design of new nucleoside analogs with increased efficiency in antiretroviral therapies.

  3. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin.

  4. Temperature differentially affects adenosine triphosphatase activity in Hsc70 orthologs from Antarctic and New Zealand notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Place, Sean P; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2005-01-01

    To test the temperature sensitivity of molecular chaperones in poikilothermic animals, we purified the molecular chaperone Hsc70 from 2 closely related notothenioid fishes--the Antarctic species Trematomus bernacchii and the temperate New Zealand species Notothenia angustata--and characterized the effect of temperature on Hsc70 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. Hsc70 ATPase activity was measured using [alpha-32P]-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based in vitro assays followed by separation of adenylates by thin-layer chromatography. For both species, a significant increase in Hsc70 ATPase activity was observed across a range of temperatures that was ecologically relevant for each respective species. Hsc70 from T bernacchii hydrolyzed 2-fold more ATP than did N angustata Hsc70 at 0 degrees C, suggesting that the Antarctic molecular chaperone may be adapted to function more efficiently at extreme cold temperatures. In addition, Q10 measurements indicate differential temperature sensitivity of the ATPase activity of Hsc70 from these differentially adapted fish that correlates with the temperature niche inhabited by each species. Hsc70 from T bernacchii was relatively temperature insensitive, as indicated by Q10 values calculated near 1.0 across each temperature range measured. In the case of Hsc70 purified from N angustata, Q10 values indicated thermal sensitivity across the temperature range of 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C, with a Q10 of 2.714. However, Hsc70 from both T bernacchii and N angustata exhibited unusually high thermal stabilities with ATPase activity at temperatures that far exceeded temperatures encountered by these fish in nature. Overall, as evidenced by in vitro ATP hydrolysis, Hsc70 from T bernacchii and N angustata displayed biochemical characteristics that were supportive of molecular chaperone function at ecologically relevant temperatures.

  5. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  6. Ouabain-specific antibodies: immunochemical properties and reversal of Na+, K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas W.

    1972-01-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the cardiac glycoside ouabain were raised in rabbits. The antigen used was a conjugate of ouabain linked through its rhamnose moiety to terminal α-amino groups of poly D,L alanyl-human serum albumin. Ouabain-specific antibodies were present as early as 3 wk, and rose steadily in titer over the initial 20-33 wk of immunization. Levels as high as 6.5 mg specific immunoglobulin per ml antiserum were reached in one rabbit at the end of 45 wk. The average intrinsic association constants for ouabain were 1.3 × 109 M-1 and 1.6 × 109 M-1 in antisera studied in detail, and there was evidence of restricted heterogeneity of binding site affinities. A high degree of specificity was demonstrated. Significant cross-reactivity occurred only with other cardioactive steroid compounds such as acetyl strophanthidin, digoxin, and digitoxin, while endogenous steroids did not cross-react even when present in 1000-fold excess. A rapid and convenient radioimmunoassay procedure for plasma or urine ouabain concentrations was developed using these antibodies. Competition between ouabain-3H tracer and unlabeled ouabain for specific antibody binding sites allowed the measurement of ouabain concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml or less without need for extraction procedures. The high association constants observed in these studies permit antibody reversal of established myocardial effects of ouabain. Both blockade and reversal of ouabain inhibition of canine myocardial microsomal Na+, K+-activated ATPase by antibody were documented, suggesting a possible mechanism for reversal of cellular effects. PMID:4260123

  7. Chemoenzymatic Syntheses and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Glucose-Nucleoside Conjugates as Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Tatiana; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S.; Detorio, Mervi; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Phosphodiester linked conjugates of various nucleosides such as d4U, d4T, IdUrd, ddI, ddA, virazole, ara-A and ara-C containing a glucosyl moiety have been described. These compounds were designed to act as prodrugs, where the corresponding 5′-monophosphates may be generated intracellularly. The synthesis of the glycoconjugates was achieved in good yields by condensation of a glucosyl phosphoramidite 7 with nucleosides in the presence of an activating agent. It was demonstrated that the glucose-conjugates improve water solubility of the nucleoside analogues, for example up to 31-fold for ara-A conjugate compared to ara-A alone. The new conjugates were tested for their anti-HIV-1 activity in human lymphocytes. These derivatives offer a convenient design for potential prodrug candidates with the possibility to improve the physicochemical properties and therapeutic activity of nucleoside analogues. PMID:21077659

  8. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  9. The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active Against RNA Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-15

    5012 62770A 62770A8,1. AH 355 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active...broad-spectrum antiviral agent has stimulated a great deal of effort toward the chemical synthesis of nucleosides of other azole heterocycles. During the...4 II. Chemistry and Discussion . . .. .. . 6 1. Synthesis of Certain 5’-Substituted Derivatives of Ribavirin and Tiazofurin . . .. . 6 2

  10. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Thermotoga maritima

    SciTech Connect

    Awwad, Khaldeyah; Desai, Anna; Smith, Clyde; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2013-02-01

    A 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of TM0159 with bound IMP and enzyme-kinetic data are presented. This noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase from T. maritima helps to maintain a correct pool of DNA and RNA precursor molecules. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a noncanonical nucleoside triphosphatase that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP) into inosine monophosphate (IMP), deoxyinosine monophosphate (IMP) and xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), respectively. The k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values determined at 323 and 353 K fall between 1.31 × 10{sup 4} and 7.80 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. ITP and dITP are slightly preferred over XTP. Activity towards canonical nucleoside triphosphates (ATP and GTP) was not detected. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg{sup 2+} as a cofactor and has a preference for alkaline conditions. A protein X-ray structure of the enzyme with bound IMP was obtained at 2.15 Å resolution. The active site houses a well conserved network of residues that are critical for substrate recognition and catalysis. The crystal structure shows a tetramer with two possible dimer interfaces. One of these interfaces strongly resembles the dimer interface that is found in the structures of other noncanonical nucleoside pyrophosphatases from human (human ITPase) and archaea (Mj0226 and PhNTPase)

  12. Comparison between calcium transport and adenosine triphosphatase activity in membrane vesicles derived from rabbit kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, A; Nachbin, L; de Dios-Abad, E; Goldfeld, M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; de Moraes, L

    1986-03-25

    plasma reduced Ca2+-stimulated ATP hydrolysis to one-half of its maximal rate. This indicates that peritubular Ca2+ may play a role in the regulation of Ca2+ transport across the tubular epithelium. ATP could not be replaced by ITP as a substrate for Ca2+ uptake, and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)ITPase activity of soluble enzyme was 25-fold lower than in the presence of ATP. This is an indication that the active Ca2+ pumping mechanism in proximal tubules is critically dependent on the nucleoside moiety of the substrate.

  13. Nucleoside Diphosphatase and 5′-Nucleotidase Activities of Soybean Root Nodules and Other Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Doremus, Holly D.; Blevins, Dale G.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphatase and 5′-nucleotidase activities were both found to be very high in extracts of soybean (Glycine max L.) root nodules. Both activities increased early in soybean nodule development, prior to the rise in leghemoglobin, and both were found at equivalent levels in nitrogenfixing and nonfixing nodules. Based on a survey of other tissues, these activities were both highest in soybean nodules (1300 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, nucleoside diphosphatase and 500 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, 5′-nucleotidase), but they were not always associated with each other; in some tissues one was high and the other low. Neither activity correlated well with ureide production; both seem, rather, to be primarily involved in some other metabolic function. Both the nucleoside diphosphatase and 5′-nucleotidase of soybean nodules were soluble proteins, and neither appeared to be associated with plastids, mitochondria, or bacteroids. PMID:16666122

  14. Activation of anti-reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase: improvement by alpha-boranophosphate substitution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Sarfati, S; Mulard, L; Guerreiro, C; Boretto, J; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Canard, B

    2001-01-01

    Nucleoside activation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase and inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were studied comparatively for a new class of nucleoside analogs with a borano (BH3-) or a thio (SH) group on the alpha-phosphate. Both the alpha-Rp-borano derivatives of AZT and d4T improved phosphorylation by NDP kinase, inhibition of reverse transcription as well as stability of alpha-borano nonophosphate derivatives in terminated viral DNA chain.

  15. Thyroid-induced alterations in myocardial sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding.

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, G D; Crowley, T J; Smith, T W

    1977-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone on guinea pig myocardial NaK-ATPase activity, transmembrane monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding were were examined. NaK-ATPase activities of left atrial and left ventricular homogenates of control and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated animals were determined, and compared to activities of skeletal muscle and liver. T3 administration was associated with a significant increase of 18% in left atrial and left ventricular NaK-ATPase specific activities. This increment was less than that noted in skeletal muscle (+42%) and liver (+30%). To determine if enhanced NaK-ATPase activity was accompanied by increased monovalent cation active transport, in vitro 86Rb+ uptake by left atrial strips and hemidiaphragms was measured. Transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state resulted in a 68% increase in active 86Rb+ uptake by left atrium, and a 62% increase in active uptake by diaphragm. Passive 86Rb+ uptake was not affected in either tissue. Ouabain binding by atrial and ventricular homogenates of T3-treated animals was increased by 19 and 17%, respectively, compared to controls, in close agreement with thyroid-induced increments in NaK-ATPase activiey. Taken together, these results are consistent with enhanced myocardial NaK-ATPase activity and monovalent cation activt transport due to an increase in the number of functional enzyme complexes. PMID:138689

  16. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and evaluation of their substrate activity with purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-04-01

    6-Methylpurine (MeP) is cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving Escherichia coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug, 9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine, MeP-dR has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify non-toxic MeP prodrugs that could be used in conjunction with E. coli PNP. In this work, we report on the synthesis of 9-(6-deoxy-β-d-allofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) and 9-(6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribo-hexofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (4), and the evaluation of their substrate activity with several phosphorylases. The glycosyl donors; 1,2-di-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-α-d-allofuranose (10) and 1-O-acetyl-3-O-benzyl-2,5-di-O-benzoyl-6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribohexofuran-ose (15) were prepared from 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidine-α-d-glucofuranose in 9 and 11 steps, respectively. Coupling of 10 and 15 with silylated 6-methylpurine under Vorbrüggen glycosylation conditions followed conventional deprotection of the hydroxyl groups furnished 5'-C-methylated-6-methylpurine nucleosides 3 and 4, respectively. Unlike 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talo-furanosyl)-6-methylpurine, which showed good substrate activity with E. coli PNP mutant (M64V), the β-d-allo-furanosyl derivative 3 and the 5'-di-C-methyl derivative 4 were poor substrates for all tested glycosidic bond cleavage enzymes.

  17. 5-(Dimethoxymethyl)-2′-Deoxyuridine: A Novel Gem Diether Nucleoside with Anti-Orthopoxvirus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xuesen; Zhang, Xinying; Zhou, Longhu; Keith, Kathy A.; Kern, Earl R.; Torrence, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    To provide potential new leads for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, the 5-position of the pyrimidine nucleosides have been modified with a gem diether moiety to yield the following new nucleosides: 5-(dimethoxymethyl)-2′-deoxyuridine (2b), 5-(diethoxymethyl)-2′-deoxyuridine (3b), 5-formyl-2′-deoxyuridine ethylene acetal (4b), and 5-formyl-2′-deoxyuridine propylene acetal (5b). These were evaluated in human foreskin fibroblast cells challenged with the vaccinia virus or cowpox virus. Of the four gem diether nucleosides, only the dimethyl gem diether congener showed significant antiviral activity against both viruses. This antiviral activity did not appear to be related to the decomposition to the 5-formyl-2′-deoxyuridine, which was itself devoid of anti-orthopoxvirus activity in these assays. Moreover, at the pH of the in vitro assays, 2b was very stable with a decomposition (to aldehyde) half-life of >15 d. The anti-orthopoxvirus activity of pyrimidine may be favored by the introduction of hydrophilic moieties to the 5-position side chain. PMID:16722657

  18. Synthesis and anti-cancer activities of new sulfonamides 4-substituted-triazolyl nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Soukaina; Dufies, Maeva; Driowya, Mohsine; Demange, Luc; Bougrin, Khalid; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Pagès, Gilles; Benhida, Rachid

    2017-03-09

    Nucleoside analogues are among the most known drugs commonly used in antiviral and anticancer chemotherapies. Among them, those featuring a five-membered ring nucleobase are of utmost interest such as the anti-cancer agent AICAR or the anti-viral drug ribavirin. Despite its low activity in vitro in different cell lines, AICAR is under clinical development for several pathologies, thanks to its original mode of action. Indeed, AICAR induced autophagy cell death and is able, following this mechanism, to circumvent resistance to apoptotic drugs including kinase inhibitors currently on the market. To improve the activity of AICAR, we report herein an efficient synthesis of new series of sulfonamide-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazolyl nucleosides using a Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. All these molecules have been fully characterized and evaluated against two aggressive tumor cell lines, RCC4 and MDA-MB-231. Among them, nucleoside analogue 5i belonging to the ribose series was found to be 19 to 66-fold more active than AICAR. Western blot analyses on RCC4 cells showed that 5i displayed an interesting mode of action by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy cell death, making therefore this class of molecules highly promising for further hit-to-lead optimization.

  19. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. Objective: To evaluate red blood cell (RBC) membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. Results: We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg2+ ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na+/K+ ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion: The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism of glucose

  20. Crystal Structure of Baculovirus RNA Triphosphatase Complexed with Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, Anita; Martin, Alexandra; Shuman, Stewart; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-03-05

    Baculovirus RNA 5'-triphosphatase (BVP) exemplifies a family of RNA-specific cysteine phosphatases that includes the RNA triphosphatase domains of metazoan and plant mRNA capping enzymes. Here we report the crystal structure of BVP in a phosphate-bound state at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. BVP adopts the characteristic cysteine-phosphatase {alpha}/{beta} fold and binds two phosphate ions in the active site region, one of which is proposed to mimic the phosphate of the product complex after hydrolysis of the covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate. The crystal structure highlights the role of backbone amides and side chains of the P-loop motif {sup 118}HCTHGXNRT{sup 126} in binding the cleavable phosphate and stabilizing the transition state. Comparison of the BVP structure to the apoenzyme of mammalian RNA triphosphatase reveals a concerted movement of the Arg-125 side chain (to engage the phosphate directly) and closure of an associated surface loop over the phosphate in the active site. The structure highlights a direct catalytic role of Asn-124, which is the signature P-loop residue of the RNA triphosphatase family and a likely determinant of the specificity of BVP for hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride linkages.

  1. Structure–function analysis of Plasmodium RNA triphosphatase and description of a triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme superfamily that includes Cet1-like RNA triphosphatases and CYTH proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chunling; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    RNA triphosphatase catalyzes the first step in mRNA capping. The RNA triphosphatases of fungi and protozoa are structurally and mechanistically unrelated to the analogous mammalian enzyme, a situation that recommends RNA triphosphatase as an anti-infective target. Fungal and protozoan RNA triphosphatases belong to a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases exemplified by yeast Cet1. The Cet1 active site is unusually complex and located within a topologically closed hydrophilic β-barrel (the triphosphate tunnel). Here we probe the active site of Plasmodium falciparum RNA triphosphatase by targeted mutagenesis and thereby identify eight residues essential for catalysis. The functional data engender an improved structural alignment in which the Plasmodium counterparts of the Cet1 tunnel strands and active-site functional groups are located with confidence. We gain insight into the evolution of the Cet1-like triphosphatase family by noting that the heretofore unique tertiary structure and active site of Cet1 are recapitulated in recently deposited structures of proteins from Pyrococcus (PBD 1YEM) and Vibrio (PDB 2ACA). The latter proteins exemplify a CYTH domain found in CyaB-like adenylate cyclases and mammalian thiamine triphosphatase. We conclude that the tunnel fold first described for Cet1 is the prototype of a larger enzyme superfamily that includes the CYTH branch. This superfamily, which we name “triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme,” is distributed widely among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal taxa. It is now clear that Cet1-like RNA triphosphatases did not arise de novo in unicellular eukarya in tandem with the emergence of caps as the defining feature of eukaryotic mRNA. They likely evolved by incremental changes in an ancestral tunnel enzyme that conferred specificity for RNA 5′-end processing. PMID:16809816

  2. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-02-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP.

  3. Estrogen enhancement of Ca-, Mg-, and Ca-Mg-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the chick shell gland.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H; Porter, D W; Holt, S B; Martin, W G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on Ca-, Mg-, and Ca-Mg-ATPase activity was investigated in the shell gland of 6-week-old chicks. In the first study, each of 42 birds was implanted with three E2 (Compudose-200) pellets. An additional 6 sham-implanted birds served as controls for measurements of body weight and concentrations of E2 and Ca in plasma. The activities of Mg-, Ca-, and Ca-Mg-ATPase peaked coincident with maximum plasma E2 concentrations 8 days after implantation and then progressively declined in concert with the decline in plasma E2. By 29 days after implantation, the ATPase activities were similar to those measured in birds whose E2 pellets had been removed for 11 days. Concentrations of plasma E2 dropped from peak values of 1676 +/- 317 at Day 8 to 611 +/- 180 pg/ml at Day 29. When birds whose E2 pellets had been removed were reimplanted with three pellets per bird, plasma E2 again increased to 1637 +/- 227 pg/ml. ATPase activity in these reimplanted birds also was greater (P < 0.05) than activities measured in E2-removed or E2-maintained birds. In a second study the Ca-ATPase Km and Vmax were determined in E2-implanted chicks (three pellets per bird) and compared to E2-withdrawn chicks. Five days after reimplantation of chicks with E2, there was a significant increase in both Vmax (3.38 +/- 0.21 vs 2.37 +/- 0.28 micrograms Pi/mg protein/min; P < 0.05) and Km (0.31 +/- 0.02 vs 0.25 +/- 0.01 mM Ca; P < .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  5. A Specific Inorganic Triphosphatase from Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Delvaux, David; Murty, Mamidanna R. V. S.; Gabelica, Valérie; Lakaye, Bernard; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Kohn, Gregory; Wins, Pierre; De Pauw, Edwin; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often form a closed β-barrel, they are also referred to as triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes (TTM). Functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. These proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions depending on their origin. Here we investigate structural and catalytic properties of the recombinant TTM protein from Nitrosomonas europaea (NeuTTM), a 19-kDa protein. Crystallographic data show that it crystallizes as a dimer and that, in contrast to other TTM proteins, it has an open β-barrel structure. We demonstrate that NeuTTM is a highly specific inorganic triphosphatase, hydrolyzing tripolyphosphate (PPPi) with high catalytic efficiency in the presence of Mg2+. These data are supported by native mass spectrometry analysis showing that the enzyme binds PPPi (and Mg-PPPi) with high affinity (Kd < 1.5 μm), whereas it has a low affinity for ATP or thiamine triphosphate. In contrast to Aeromonas and Yersinia CyaB proteins, NeuTTM has no adenylyl cyclase activity, but it shares several properties with other enzymes of the CYTH superfamily, e.g. heat stability, alkaline pH optimum, and inhibition by Ca2+ and Zn2+ ions. We suggest a catalytic mechanism involving a catalytic dyad formed by Lys-52 and Tyr-28. The present data provide the first characterization of a new type of phosphohydrolase (unrelated to pyrophosphatases or exopolyphosphatases), able to hydrolyze inorganic triphosphate with high specificity. PMID:21840996

  6. Arginine kinase shows nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity toward deoxythymidine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Hernandez-Flores, Jose M; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) (ATP: L-arginine phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.3.3) catalyzes the reversible transfer of ATP γ-phosphate group to L-arginine to synthetize phospho-arginine as a high-energy storage. Previous studies suggest additional roles for AK in cellular processes. Since AK is found only in invertebrates and it is homologous to creatine kinase from vertebrates, the objective of this work was to demonstrate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for shrimp AK. For this, AK from marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) was purified and its activity was assayed for phosphorylation of TDP using ATP as phosphate donor. Moreover, by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) the phosphate transfer reaction was followed. Also, LvAK tryptophan fluorescence emission changes were detected by dTDP titration, suggesting that the hydrophobic environment of Trp 221, which is located in the top of the active site, is perturbed upon dTDP binding. The kinetic constants for both substrates Arg and dTDP were calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Besides, docking calculations suggested that dTDP could bind LvAK in the same cavity where ATP bind, and LvAK basic residues (Arg124, 126 and 309) stabilize the dTDP phosphate groups and the pyrimidine base interact with His284 and Ser122. These results suggest that LvAK bind and phosphorylate dTDP being ATP the phosphate donor, thus describing a novel alternate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for this enzyme.

  7. Activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) on undernourished and renourished rats' thymus.

    PubMed

    Feliu, M S.; Slobodianik, N H.

    2001-02-01

    We studied the effect of administration of a low quality dietary protein, from weaning onwards, on the thymus of undernourished rats and the posterior effect of refeeding with a high quality dietary protein. Changes in thymus weight and the activity of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) and Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) on thymus, were determined. Wistar rats were suckled in groups of 14-16 per dam since birth to weaning (23 days) to obtain undernutrition. At weaning, a group of 14-16 rats received pre-cooked maize flour (Protein content: 6.5%) for 18 days. One group was sacrificed (M) and the other rats were refed with the casein diet (Protein content: 20%) during 20 days (R). The age-matched control groups were fed stock diet since 40 (C40) and 60 (C60) days of age, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, body (Bw) and thymus weight were determined. ADA and PNP activities were determined in thymocyte suspensions. Highly significant differences in thymus weight-expressed as mg or mg/Bw(0.75)-and the activity of ADA and PNP were observed in rats fed the experimental diet containing maize flour, when compared to the respective age-matched control. No statistical differences were observed between R and C60.The administration of a high quality dietary protein to undernourished weanling rats is capable to reverse the damage produced by the low quality dietary protein on thymus weight and ADA and PNP thymus activities.

  8. Directed evolution of an orthogonal nucleoside analog kinase via fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingfeng; Li, Yongfeng; Liotta, Dennis; Lutz, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Nucleoside analogs (NAs) represent an important category of prodrugs for the treatment of viral infections and cancer, yet the biological potency of many analogs is compromised by their inefficient activation through cellular 2'-deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). We herein report the directed evolution and characterization of an orthogonal NA kinase for 3'-deoxythymidine (ddT), using a new FACS-based screening protocol in combination with a fluorescent analog of ddT. Four rounds of random mutagenesis and DNA shuffling of Drosophila melanogaster 2'-deoxynucleoside kinase, followed by FACS analysis, yielded an orthogonal ddT kinase with a 6-fold higher activity for the NA and a 20-fold k(cat)/K(M) preference for ddT over thymidine, an overall 10,000-fold change in substrate specificity. The contributions of individual amino acid substitutions in the ddT kinase were evaluated by reverse engineering, enabling a detailed structure-function analysis to rationalize the observed changes in performance. Based on our results, kinase engineering with fluorescent NAs and FACS should prove a highly versatile method for evolving selective kinase:NA pairs and for studying fundamental aspects of the structure-function relationship in dNKs.

  9. Amphiphilic cationic nanogels as brain-targeted carriers for activated nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Warren, G; Makarov, E; Lu, Y; Senanayake, T; Rivera, K; Gorantla, S; Poluektova, LY; Vinogradov, SV

    2015-01-01

    Progress in AIDS treatment shifted emphasis towards limiting adverse effects of antiviral drugs while improving the treatment of hard-to-reach viral reservoirs. Many therapeutic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) have a limited access to the central nervous system (CNS). Increased NRTI levels induced various complications during the therapy, including neurotoxicity, due to the NRTI toxicity to mitochondria. Here, we describe an innovative design of biodegradable cationic cholesterol-ε-polylysine nanogel carriers for delivery of triphosphorylated NRTIs that demonstrated high anti-HIV activity along with low neurotoxicity, warranting minimal side effects following systemic administration. Efficient CNS targeting was achieved by nanogel modification with brain-specific peptide vectors. Novel dual and triple-drug nanoformulations, analogous to therapeutic NRTI cocktails, displayed equal or higher antiviral activity in HIV-infected macrophages compared to free drugs. Our results suggest potential alternative approach to HIV-1 treatment focused on the effective nanodrug delivery to viral reservoirs in the CNS and reduced neurotoxicity. PMID:25559020

  10. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of acyclic fleximer nucleoside analogues with anti-coronavirus activity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Hannah L; Jochmans, Dirk; de Wilde, Adriaan H; Posthuma, Clara C; Snijder, Eric J; Neyts, Johan; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    A series of doubly flexible nucleoside analogues were designed based on the acyclic sugar scaffold of acyclovir and the flex-base moiety found in the fleximers. The target compounds were evaluated for their antiviral potential and found to inhibit several coronaviruses. Significantly, compound 2 displayed selective antiviral activity (CC50 >3× EC50) towards human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, but not severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. In the case of HCoV-NL63 the activity was highly promising with an EC50 <10 μM and a CC50 >100 μM. As such, these doubly flexible nucleoside analogues are viewed as a novel new class of drug candidates with potential for potent inhibition of coronaviruses.

  11. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo antitumor activity in D54 tumor expressing M64V-Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-01-27

    Impressive antitumor activity has been observed with fludarabine phosphate against tumors that express Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) due to the liberation of 2-fluoroadenine in the tumor tissue. 6-Methylpurine (MeP) is another cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving E. coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug 9-(2-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (1) [MeP-dR] has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify a combination of non-toxic MeP prodrugs and non-human adenosine glycosidic bond cleaving enzymes. The two best MeP-based substrates with M64V-E coli PNP, a mutant which was engineered to tolerate modification at the 5'-position of adenosine and its analogs, were 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) [methyl(talo)-MeP-R] and 9-(α-l-lyxofuranosyl)6-methylpurine (4) [lyxo-MeP-R]. The detailed synthesis methyl(talo)-MeP-R and lyxo-MeP-R, and the evaluation of their substrate activity with 4 enzymes not normally associated with cancer patients is described. In addition, we have determined the intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic (ip-PK) properties of methyl(talo)-MeP-R and have determined its in vivo bystander activity in mice bearing D54 tumors that express M64V PNP. The observed good in vivo bystander activity of [methyl(talo)-MeP-R/M64V-E coli PNP combination suggests that these agents could be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Nanomolar Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul; Ho, C. Kiong; Takagi, Yuko; Djaballah, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryal taxa differ with respect to the structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) component of the mRNA capping apparatus. Protozoa, fungi, and certain DNA viruses have a metal-dependent RTPase that belongs to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily. Because the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms of the TTM-type RTPases differ from those of mammalian RTPases, the TTM RTPases are potential targets for antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antiviral drug discovery. Here, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown methods to show that Trypanosoma brucei RTPase Cet1 (TbCet1) is necessary for proliferation of procyclic cells in culture. We then conducted a high-throughput biochemical screen for small-molecule inhibitors of the phosphohydrolase activity of TbCet1. We identified several classes of chemicals—including chlorogenic acids, phenolic glycopyranosides, flavonoids, and other phenolics—that inhibit TbCet1 with nanomolar to low-micromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). We confirmed the activity of these compounds, and tested various analogs thereof, by direct manual assays of TbCet1 phosphohydrolase activity. The most potent nanomolar inhibitors included tetracaffeoylquinic acid, 5-galloylgalloylquinic acid, pentagalloylglucose, rosmarinic acid, and miquelianin. TbCet1 inhibitors were less active (or inactive) against the orthologous TTM-type RTPases of mimivirus, baculovirus, and budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our results affirm that a TTM RTPase is subject to potent inhibition by small molecules, with the caveat that parallel screens against TTM RTPases from multiple different pathogens may be required to fully probe the chemical space of TTM inhibition. PMID:26908574

  13. 3'-Phosphorylated nucleotides are tight binding inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-10-30

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides diphosphates into triphosphates. NDP kinase is also involved in malignant tumors and was shown to activate in vitro transcription of the c-myc oncogene by binding to its NHE sequence. The structure of the complex of NDP kinase with bound ADP shows that the nucleotide adopts a different conformation from that observed in other phosphokinases with an internal H bond between the 3'-OH and the beta-O made free by the phosphate transfer. We use intrinsic protein fluorescence to investigate the inhibitory and binding potential of nucleotide analogues phosphorylated in 3'-OH position of the ribose to both wild type and F64W mutant NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Due to their 3'-phosphate, 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (PAP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) can be regarded as structural analogues of enzyme-bound ADP. The KD of PAPS (10 microM) is three times lower than the KD of ADP. PAPS also acts as a competitive inhibitor toward natural substrates during catalysis, with a KI in agreement with binding data. The crystal structure of the binary complex between Dictyostelium NDP kinase and PAPS was solved at 2.8-A resolution. It shows a new mode of nucleotide binding at the active site with the 3'-phosphate of PAPS located near the catalytic histidine, at the same position as the gamma-phosphate in the transition state. The sulfate group is directed toward the protein surface. PAPS will be useful for the design of high affinity drugs targeted to NDP kinases.

  14. Silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties. Effects of nucleoside type on the photosensitizing efficiencies and in vitro photodynamic activities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Shen, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Bin; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-06-01

    A series of new silicon(IV) phthalocyanines (SiPcs) di-substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties have been synthesized and evaluated for their singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) and in vitro photodynamic activities. The adenosine-substituted SiPc shows a lower photosensitizing efficiency (ΦΔ=0.35) than the uridine- and cytidine-substituted analogs (ΦΔ=0.42-0.44), while the guanosine-substituted SiPc exhibits a weakest singlet oxygen generation efficiency with a ΦΔ value down to 0.03. On the other hand, replacing axial adenosines with chloro-modified adenosines and purines can result in the increase of photogenerating singlet oxygen efficiencies of SiPcs. The formed SiPcs 1 and 2, which contain monochloro-modified adenosines and dichloro-modified purines respectively, appear as efficient photosensitizers with ΦΔ of 0.42-0.44. Both compounds 1 and 2 present high photocytotoxicities against HepG2 and BGC823 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 9nM to 33nM. The photocytotoxicities of these two compounds are remarkably higher than the well-known anticancer photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (IC50=752nM against HepG2 cells) in the same condition. As revealed by confocal microscopy, for both cell lines, compound 1 can essentially bind to mitochondria, while compound 2 is just partially localized in mitochondria. In addition, the two compounds induce cell death of HepG2 cells likely through apoptosis.

  15. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Pérez-Milicua, Myrna Barjau; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal-Vertiz, Jaime A; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. PNP metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas XO catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. In humans, PNP activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and XO activity to be low in plasma; however, XO activity increases after ischemic events. XO activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and voluntary associated apneas. The objective of this study was to analyze circulating PNP and XO activities in marine mammals adapted to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving (bottlenose dolphin, northern elephant seal) in comparison with semiaquatic (river otter) and terrestrial mammals (human, pig). PNP activities in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as XO activity in plasma, from all species were quantified by spectrophotometry. No clear relationship in circulating PNP or XO activity could be established between marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Erythrocytes from bottlenose dolphins and humans are highly permeable to nucleosides and glucose, intraerythrocyte PNP activity may be related to a release of purine nucleotides from the liver. High-energy costs will probably mean a higher ATP degradation rate in river otters, as compared to northern elephant seals or dolphins. Lower erythrocyte PNP activity and elevated plasma XO activity in northern elephant seal could be associated with fasting and/or sleep- and dive-associated apneas.

  16. Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+ hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011

  17. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of novel cyclopentenyl nucleoside analogues of 8-azapurine.

    PubMed

    Canoa, Pilar; González-Moa, María J; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen; Uriarte, Eugenio; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik

    2006-10-01

    Novel nucleoside analogues of structure 3-5 were synthesized starting from (+/-)-cis-2-amino-3-cyclopentenylmethanol (1). The chlorine derivative 3 inhibited both HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication in MT-4 cells with IC(50) values of 10.67 microM and of 13.79 microM, respectively.

  18. Biocatalytic approaches applied to the synthesis of nucleoside prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Luis E; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Medici, Rosario; Bianchi, Paola; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are valuable bioactive molecules, which display antiviral and antitumour activities. Diverse types of prodrugs are designed to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, however this strategy faces the troublesome selectivity issues of nucleoside chemistry. In this context, the aim of this review is to give an overview of the opportunities provided by biocatalytic procedures in the preparation of nucleoside prodrugs. The potential of biocatalysis in this research area will be presented through examples covering the different types of nucleoside prodrugs: nucleoside analogues as prodrugs, nucleoside lipophilic prodrugs and nucleoside hydrophilic prodrugs.

  19. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Peuchant, Evelyne; Bats, Marie-Lise; Moranvillier, Isabelle; Lepoivre, Michel; Guitton, Jérôme; Wendum, Dominique; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Boissan, Mathieu; Dabernat, Sandrine

    2017-04-01

    NME1 (nonmetastatic expressed 1) gene, which encodes nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) A [also known as nonmetastatic clone 23 (NM23)-H1 in humans and NM23-M1 in mice], is a suppressor of metastasis, but several lines of evidence-mostly from plants-also implicate it in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. Here, our aim was to investigate the physiologic relevance of NDPK A with respect to the oxidative stress response in mammals and to study its molecular basis. NME1-knockout mice died sooner, suffered greater hepatocyte injury, and had lower superoxide dismutase activity than did wild-type (WT) mice in response to paraquat-induced acute oxidative stress. Deletion of NME1 reduced total NDPK activity and exacerbated activation of the stress-related MAPK, JNK, in the liver in response to paraquat. In a mouse transformed hepatocyte cell line and in primary cultures of normal human keratinocytes, MAPK activation in response to H2O2 and UVB, respectively, was dampened by expression of NM23-M1/NM23-H1, dependent on its NDPK catalytic activity. Furthermore, excess or depletion of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 NDPK activity did not affect the intracellular bulk concentration of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. NME1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts grew poorly in culture, were more sensitive to stress than WT fibroblasts, and did not immortalize, which suggested that they senesce earlier than do WT fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that the NDPK activity of NM23-M1/NM23-H1 protects cells from acute oxidative stress by inhibiting activation of JNK in mammal models.-Peuchant, E., Bats, M.-L., Moranvillier, I., Lepoivre, M., Guitton, J., Wendum, D., Lacombe, M.-L., Moreau-Gaudry, F., Boissan, M., Dabernat, S. Metastasis suppressor NM23 limits oxidative stress in mammals by preventing activation of stress-activated protein kinases/JNKs through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

  20. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  1. Human DEAD-box ATPase DDX3 shows a relaxed nucleoside substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Franca, Raffaella; Belfiore, Amalia; Spadari, Silvio; Maga, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    Human DDX3 (hDDX3) is a DEAD-box protein shown to possess RNA-unwinding and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities. The hDDX3 protein has been implicated in nuclear mRNA export, cell growth control, and cancer progression. In addition, a role of this protein in the replication of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 and in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus has been recently proposed. Its enzymological properties, however, are largely unknown. In this work, we characterized its ATPase activity. We show that hDDX3 ATPase activity is stimulated by various ribo- and deoxynucleic acids. Comparative analysis with different nucleoside triphosphate analogs showed that the hDDX3 ATPase couples high catalytic efficiency to a rather relaxed substrate specificity, both in terms of base selection and sugar selection. In addition, its ability to recognize the L-stereoisomers of both 3' deoxy- and 2',3' dideoxy-ribose, points to a relaxed stereoselectivity. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize the presence of structural determinants on both the base and the sugar moieties, critical for nucleoside binding to the enzyme. Our results expand the knowledge about the DEAD-box RNA helicases in general and can be used for rational design of selective inhibitors of hDDX3, to be tested as potential antitumor and antiviral agents.

  2. An antigenic domain within a catalytically active Leishmania infantum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1) is a target of inhibitory antibodies.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Detoni, Michelle de Lima; Emídio, Nayara Braga; Marconato, Danielle Gomes; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Fessel, Melissa Regina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Marques, Marcos José; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2013-02-01

    We identified a shared B domain within nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) of plants and parasites. Now, an NTPDase activity not affected by inhibitors of adenylate kinase and ATPases was detected in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. By non-denaturing gel electrophoresis of detergent-homogenized promastigote preparation, an active band hydrolyzing nucleosides di- and triphosphate was visualized and, following SDS-PAGE and silver staining was identified as a single polypeptide of 50kDa. By Western blots, it was recognized by immune sera raised against potato apyrase (SA), r-pot B domain (SB), a recombinant polypeptide derived from the potato apyrase, and LbB1LJ (SC) or LbB2LJ (SD), synthetic peptides derived from the Leishmania NTPDase 1, and by serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, identifying the antigenic L. infantum NTPDase 1 and, also, its conserved B domain (r83-122). By immunoprecipitation assays and Western blots, immune sera SA and SB identified the catalytically active NTPDase 1 in promastigote preparation. In addition, the immune sera SB (44%) and SC or SD (87-99%) inhibited its activity, suggesting a direct effect on the B domain. By ELISA, 37%, 45% or 50% of 38 infected dogs were seropositive for r-pot B domain, LbB1LJ and LbB2LJ, respectively, confirming the B domain antigenicity.

  3. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 genotype, cytidine deaminase activity and age predict gemcitabine plasma clearance in patients with solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Gusella, Milena; Pasini, Felice; Bolzonella, Caterina; Meneghetti, Silvia; Barile, Carmen; Bononi, Antonio; Toso, Silvia; Menon, Daniela; Crepaldi, Giorgio; Modena, Yasmina; Stievano, Laura; Padrini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM Gemcitabine (GEM) enters normal and tumour cells via concentrative (CNT) and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT) and is subsequently deaminated to the inactive difluorodeoxyurine (dFdU) by cytidine deaminase (CDA). The aim of our study was to ascertain whether the nucleoside transporter genotype and the CDA activity phenotype can predict total GEM plasma clearance. METHODS Forty-seven patients received GEM 1000–1250 mg m−2 i.v. over 30 min. Plasma concentrations of GEM and dFdU were measured and individual pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. CDA activity was measured ex vivo in plasma samples. The two most common hENT1 and hCNT1 polymorphisms were determined from genomic DNA. RESULTS Multivariate analysis revealed that GEM plasma clearance (CL) was positively correlated with the end of infusion dFdU : GEM ratio (P < 0.0001), which is a marker of in vivo CDA activity. The ENT1 genotype characterized by high transport capacity (G/G) and age were inversely correlated with CL (P= 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). A strong correlation was found between end of infusion GEM concentration and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0,∞)) (r2= 0.77). CONCLUSIONS Our results confirm the role of CDA and age on the interindividual variability of GEM CL and show the contribution of the hENT1 genotype for the first time. PMID:21284703

  4. Inhibition of a metal-dependent viral RNA triphosphatase by decavanadate.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Isabelle; Bisaillon, Martin

    2006-09-15

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus, a large DNA virus that replicates in unicellular Chlorella-like algae, encodes an RNA triphosphatase which is involved in the synthesis of the RNA cap structure found at the 5' end of the viral mRNAs. The Chlorella virus RNA triphosphatase is the smallest member of the metal-dependent RNA triphosphatases that include enzymes from fungi, DNA viruses, protozoans and microsporidian parasites. In the present study, we investigated the ability of various vanadate oxoanions to inhibit the phosphohydrolase activity of the enzyme. Fluorescence spectroscopy and CD studies were used to directly monitor the binding of decavanadate to the enzyme. Moreover, competition assays show that decavanadate is a potent non-competitive inhibitor of the phosphohydrolase activity, and mutagenesis studies indicate that the binding of decavanadate does not involve amino acids located in the active site of the enzyme. In order to provide additional insight into the relationship between the enzyme structure and decavanadate binding, we correlated the effect of decavanadate binding on protein structure using both CD and guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation as structural indicators. Our data indicated that no significant modification of the overall protein architecture was occurring upon decavanadate binding. However, both fluorescence spectroscopy and CD experiments clearly revealed that the binding of decavanadate to the enzyme significantly decreased the structural stability of the enzyme. Taken together, these studies provide crucial insights into the inhibition of metal-dependent RNA triphosphatases by decavanadate.

  5. Base-modified nucleosides: etheno derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz; Januszczyk, Piotr; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs..

  6. Hepatic xanthine oxidase activity and purine nucleosides levels as physiological mediators to analyze a subcutaneous treatment with (PhSe)2 in mice infected by Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Doleski, Pedro H; Leal, Daniela B R; Machado, Vanessa S; Bottari, Nathieli B; Casali, Emerson A; Moritz, Cesar E J; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of purine nucleosides and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the liver of mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii and treated with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. For this experiment, forty Swiss mice were used. Twenty animals were orally infected by approximately 50 bradizoites of a cystogenic ME-49 strain of T. gondii, and the same number of uninfected mice was used as a control group. Ten infected and ten uninfected mice were subcutaneously treated twice (days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI)) with 5 μmol kg(-1) of (PhSe)2. On day 30 PI, liver samples were collected to measure the levels of hypoxanthine (HYPO), xanthine (XAN), uric acid (UA), and XO activity. Infected animals showed increased (P < 0.05) levels of hepatic XAN and UA, as well as XO activity compared to uninfected animals. The use of (PhSe)2 in healthy mice increased the levels of all nucleosides, but decreased XO activity compared to healthy untreated animals. The group of infected and treated animals showed increased XAN and UA levels, and XO activity compared to the healthy control group, however infected and treated mice showed a decrease in the XO activity compared to the infected untreated group. We conclude that chronic infection caused by T. gondii can induce hepatic changes, such as increased UA levels and XO activity, that can increase the pro-oxidative profile. The (PhSe)2 treatment of healthy animals altered the levels of nucleosides, possibly due to low XO activity that decreased nucleoside degradation. Finally, (PhSe)2 treatment decreased XO activity in the infected group and increased nucleoside levels; however it was unable to reduce the UA levels found during the infection.

  7. Direct synthesis of imino-C-nucleoside analogues and other biologically active iminosugars

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; Meanwell, Michael; Britton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Iminosugars have attracted increasing attention as chemical probes, chaperones and leads for drug discovery. Despite several clinical successes, their de novo synthesis remains a significant challenge that also limits their integration with modern high-throughput screening technologies. Herein, we describe a unique synthetic strategy that converts a wide range of acetaldehyde derivatives into iminosugars and imino-C-nucleoside analogues in two or three straightforward transformations. We also show that this strategy can be readily applied to the rapid production of indolizidine and pyrrolizidine iminosugars. The high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity, excellent overall yields, convenience and broad substrate scope make this an appealing process for diversity-oriented synthesis, and should enable drug discovery efforts. PMID:25903019

  8. Phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase at the active site studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Deville-Bonne, D; Sellam, O; Merola, F; Lascu, I; Desmadril, M; Véron, M

    1996-11-19

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is the enzyme responsible in the cell for the phosphorylation of nucleoside or deoxynucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding triphosphates at the expense of ATP. Transfer of the gamma-phosphate is very fast (turnover number above 1000 s-1) and involves the phosphorylation of a histidine residue at the active site of the enzyme. We have used intrinsic protein fluorescence of the single tryptophan of Dictyostelium discoideum NDP kinase as a sensitive probe for monitoring the interaction of the enzyme with its substrates. We demonstrate that the 20% quenching of steady-state fluorescence observed upon addition of ATP is due to formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. Time-resolved fluorescence indicates that the Trp-137 side chain is rigidly bound to the protein core with a unique lifetime of 4.5 ns for the free enzyme at 20 degrees C and that it remains tightly immobilized during the time course of the reaction. Phosphorylation of this catalytic residue (His-122) in the presence of ATP induces a similar decrease in mean lifetime, due to the splitting of the signal and the appearance of a shorter decay. This splitting is discussed in terms of a slow conformational equilibrium. We demonstrate that, in the wild-type enzyme, the conserved His-55 quenches the fluorescence of Trp-137 as the H55A mutant protein fluorescence displays an increase in quantum yield. Even though H55A mutant enzyme is active, the absence of the imidazole ring prevents the detection of the phosphorylated state of His-122 by Trp-137. We conclude that His-55 serves as a relay between His-122 and Trp-137.

  9. Effects of static magnetic field on specific adenosine-5{prime}-triphosphatase activities and bioelectrical and biomechanical properties in the rat diaphragm muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Itegin, M.; Guenay, I.; Logoglu, G.; Isbir, T.

    1995-08-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the effects of chronically applied static magnetic field (200 Gauss) on specific ATPase activities and bioelectrical and biomechanical responses in the isolated rat diaphragm muscle. The mean activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase and Ca{sup 2+} ATPase determined from the diaphragm homogenates were significantly higher in the magnetic field exposed group (n = 20), but that of Mg{sup 2+} ATPase was nonsignificantly lower compared to the control group (n = 13). Resting membrane potential, amplitude of muscle action potential, and overshoot values (mean {+-} SE) in the control group were found to be {minus}76.5 {+-} 0.6, 100 {+-} 0.8, and 23.5 {+-} 0.6 mV, respectively; these values were determined to be {minus}72.8 {+-} 0.4, 90.3 {+-} 0.5, and 17.2 {+-} 0.4 mV in the magnetic field-exposed group, respectively. The latency was determined to increase in the experimental group, and all the above-mentioned bioelectrical differences between the groups were significant statistically. Force of muscle twitch was found to decrease significantly in the magnetic field-exposed group, and this finding was attributed to the augmenting effect of magnetic field on Ca{sup 2+} ATPase activity. These results suggest that magnetic field exposure changes specific ATPase activities and, thence, bioelectrical and biomechanical properties in the rat diaphragm muscle.

  10. Design, synthesis and anti flaviviridae activity of N(6)-, 5',3'-O- and 5',2'-O-substituted adenine nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Angusti, Angela; Manfredini, Stefano; Durini, Elisa; Ciliberti, Nunzia; Vertuani, Silvia; Solaroli, Nicola; Pricl, Sabrina; Ferrone, Marco; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Loddo, Roberta; Secci, Barbara; Visioli, Anna; Sanna, Tiziana; Collu, Gabriella; Pezzullo, Margherita; La Colla, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    During a random screening of representative libraries of nucleoside analogues we discovered that the adenine derivatives FEVB28 and FEG118 were Flaviviridae inhibitors endowed with potency comparable, if not superior, to that of ribavirin. Those studies prompted us to design a new class of protected nucleoside analogs, reported herein, which displays interesting anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) activity and low cytotoxicity in cell-based assays (4, 23, 29 EC(50): 14, 11, 26 microM respectively, CC(50)>100 microM) and appreciable activity in enzyme assays against the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of BVDV (4, 23, 29, RdRp inhibition activity 27, 16, 15 microM respectively). A molecular modeling study was also carried out to highlight the possible interactions between this compounds class and the corresponding hepatitis C virus (HCV) enzyme.

  11. Determination of 6-thioguanosine diphosphate and triphosphate and nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity in erythrocytes: novel targets for thiopurine therapy?

    PubMed

    Karner, Susanne; Shi, Shaojun; Fischer, Christine; Schaeffeler, Elke; Neurath, Markus F; Herrlinger, Klaus R; Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    6-Thioguanine nucleotides are the sum of 6-thioguanosine 5'-monophosphate (TGMP), -diphosphate (TGDP), and -triphosphate (TGTP) representing essential metabolites involved in drug action of thiopurines. Elevated levels of TGDP have been associated with poor response to azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The conversion of TGDP to TGTP is supposed to be catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK). The aim of this work was to investigate simultaneously individual 6-thioguanosine phosphate levels and NDPK activity in red blood cells (RBCs) of patients on azathioprine therapy. Ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography methods with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection were applied to quantify individual levels of 6-thioguanosine 5'-phosphates and NDPK activity, respectively, in RBCs. Recombinantly expressed NDPK isoforms A and B were unequivocally identified to catalyze the formation of TGTP (30.6 +/- 3.88 nmol x min x mg for NDPK A versus 41.2 +/- 1.05 nmol x min x mg for NDPK B). Comprehensive analyses on the stability of TGMP, TGDP, and TGTP and the reproducibility of NDPK activity in RBCs were performed to provide a reliable sampling protocol for clinical practice. Of note, isolation of RBCs within 6 hours followed by immediate storage at -80 degrees C is crucial for prevention of degradation of 5'-phosphates. In a clinical study of 37 patients on azathioprine, TGTP was the predominant 6-thioguanosine phosphate in RBCs. In contrast, three patients showed TGTP/(TGDP + TGTP) ratios of 57.2%, 64.3%, and 66% corresponding to elevated TGDP levels. NDPK activity ranged from 4.1 to 11.3 nmol x min x mg hemoglobin. No correlation between NDPK activity and the 6-thioguanosine phosphate levels was found. The question whether interindividual variability of NDPK activity may explain differences in 6-thioguanosine 5'-phosphates levels has to be investigated in a prospective large-scale study.

  12. Conformational basis for substrate recognition and regulation of catalytic activity in Staphylococcus aureus nucleoside di-phosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar; Rajasree, Kalagiri; Gopal, B

    2011-10-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDK) are characterized by high catalytic turnover rates and diverse substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an effective activator of a pro-drug-an application that has been actively pursued for a variety of therapeutic strategies. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is governed by a conserved histidine that coordinates a magnesium ion at the active site. Despite substantial structural and biochemical information on NDK, the mechanistic feature of the phospho-transfer that leads to auto-phosphorylation remains unclear. While the role of the histidine residue is well documented, the other active site residues, in particular the conserved serine remains poorly characterized. Studies on some homologues suggest no role for the serine residue at the active site, while others suggest a crucial role for this serine in the regulation and quaternary association of this enzyme in some species. Here we report the biochemical features of the Staphylococcus aureus NDK and the mutant enzymes. We also describe the crystal structures of the apo-NDK, as a transition state mimic with vanadate and in complex with different nucleotide substrates. These structures formed the basis for molecular dynamics simulations to understand the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme and the role of active site residues in the phospho-transfer mechanism and oligomerization. Put together, these data suggest that concerted changes in the conformation of specific residues facilitate the stabilization of nucleotide complexes thereby enabling the steps involved in the ping-pong reaction mechanism without large changes to the overall structure of this enzyme.

  13. Label-free offline versus online activity methods for nucleoside diphosphate kinase b using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliana Maria; Salmazo Vieira, Plínio; Cavalcante de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia

    2016-08-07

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Leishmania spp. (LmNDKb) has recently been described as a potential drug target to treat leishmaniasis disease. Therefore, screening of LmNDKb ligands requires methodologies that mimic the conditions under which LmNDKb acts in biological systems. Here, we compare two label-free methodologies that could help screen LmNDKb ligands and measure NDKb activity: an offline LC-UV assay for soluble LmNDKb and an online two-dimensional LC-UV system based on LmNDKb immobilised on a silica capillary. The target enzyme was immobilised on the silica capillary via Schiff base formation (to give LmNDKb-ICER-Schiff) or affinity attachment (to give LmNDKb-ICER-His). Several aspects of the ICERs resulting from these procedures were compared, namely kinetic parameters, stability, and procedure steps. Both the LmNDKb immobilisation routes minimised the conformational changes and preserved the substrate binding sites. However, considering the number of steps involved in the immobilisation procedure, the cost of reagents, and the stability of the immobilised enzyme, immobilisation via Schiff base formation proved to be the optimal procedure.

  14. Chk1 inhibition significantly potentiates activity of nucleoside analogs in TP53-mutated B-lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Zemanova, Jana; Hylse, Ondrej; Collakova, Jana; Vesely, Pavel; Oltova, Alexandra; Borsky, Marek; Zaprazna, Kristina; Kasparkova, Marie; Janovska, Pavlina; Verner, Jan; Kohoutek, Jiri; Dzimkova, Marta; Bryja, Vitezslav; Jaskova, Zuzana; Brychtova, Yvona; Paruch, Kamil; Trbusek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for TP53-mutated lymphoid tumors are very limited. In experimental models, TP53-mutated lymphomas were sensitive to direct inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a pivotal regulator of replication. We initially tested the potential of the highly specific Chk1 inhibitor SCH900776 to synergize with nucleoside analogs (NAs) fludarabine, cytarabine and gemcitabine in cell lines derived from B-cell malignancies. In p53-proficient NALM-6 cells, SCH900776 added to NAs enhanced signaling towards Chk1 (pSer317/pSer345), effectively blocked Chk1 activation (Ser296 autophosphorylation), increased replication stress (p53 and γ-H2AX accumulation) and temporarily potentiated apoptosis. In p53-defective MEC-1 cell line representing adverse chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Chk1 inhibition together with NAs led to enhanced and sustained replication stress and significantly potentiated apoptosis. Altogether, among 17 tested cell lines SCH900776 sensitized four of them to all three NAs. Focusing further on MEC-1 and co-treatment of SCH900776 with fludarabine, we disclosed chromosome pulverization in cells undergoing aberrant mitoses. SCH900776 also increased the effect of fludarabine in a proportion of primary CLL samples treated with pro-proliferative stimuli, including those with TP53 disruption. Finally, we observed a fludarabine potentiation by SCH900776 in a T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1)-driven mouse model of CLL. Collectively, we have substantiated the significant potential of Chk1 inhibition in B-lymphoid cells. PMID:27556692

  15. Fluorinated nucleosides as antiviral and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nucleosides and analogues with fluoride modifications on the surgar moiety are reviewed, and their biological activities as potential antiviral and anti-tumor agents are also discussed.

  16. Efficacy of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in Thai HIV-infected children aged two years or less.

    PubMed

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Aurpibul, Linda; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sirisanthana, Virat

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-six Thai HIV-infected children, aged 2 years or less were prospectively enrolled to receive non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-two children (85%) had World Health Organization clinical stage 3 or 4. The median baseline CD4 cell percentage and plasma HIV RNA were 17% and 5.9 log 10 copies/mL, respectively. The median age at HAART initiation was 9.8 months (range, 1.5-24.0). One child died. The mean CD4 cell percentages at 24, 48, and 96 weeks of treatment were 26%, 31%, and 37%, respectively. The proportions of children with virologic suppression (<400 copies/mL) at week 24 and 48 were 14/26 (54%) and 19/26 (73%), respectively. Non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor-based HAART is safe and effective in HIV-infected young children in a resource-limited setting.

  17. A comparative study on phosphotransferase activity of acid phosphatases from Raoultella planticola and Enterobacter aerogenes on nucleosides, sugars, and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Médici, Rosario; Garaycoechea, Juan I; Valino, Ana L; Pereira, Claudio A; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2014-04-01

    Natural and modified nucleoside-5'-monophosphates and their precursors are valuable compounds widely used in biochemical studies. Bacterial nonspecific acid phosphatases (NSAPs) are a group of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of phosphoester bonds, and some of them exhibit phosphotransferase activity. NSAP containing Enterobacter aerogenes and Raoultella planticola whole cells were evaluated in the phosphorylation of a wide range of nucleosides and nucleoside precursors using pyrophosphate as phosphate donor. To increase the productivity of the process, we developed two genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli which overexpressed NSAPs of E. aerogenes and R. planticola. These new recombinant microorganisms (E. coli BL21 pET22b-phoEa and E. coli BL21 pET22b-phoRp) showed higher activity than the corresponding wild-type strains. Reductions in the reaction times from 21 h to 60 min, from 4 h to 15 min, and from 24 h to 40 min in cases of dihydroxyacetone, inosine, and fludarabine, respectively, were obtained.

  18. Effects of DDT on eggshell quality and calcium adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kolaja, G J; Hinton, D E

    1977-11-01

    Adult mallard ducks were fed a diet containing 50 ppm DDT for 6 months. Eggs laid during this period were collected and eggshell weight, thickness, and calcium were determined. Chronic ingestion of DDT resulted in production of eggshells that were significantly thinner and lighter than those of controls. Total calcium of thinned eggshells was also reduced; however, calcium per gram of eggshell was not altered, indicating that other eggshell constituents were not incorporated as well. Calcium adenosine triphosphatase activity in the microsomal fraction of eggshell gland epithelium was assayed in control and DDT-fed ducks. Enzyme activity in DDT-fed ducks was reduced to 65% of control values. Since Ca-ATPase has been shown to be associated with calcium transport, enzyme inhibition may be responsible for decreased eggshell weight and thickness. Electron microscopic evaluation of microsomal fractions showed elements of the plasma membrane, including cilia and microvilli, as well as rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Inhibition of calcium transport at the plasma membrane of mucosal epithelium is proposed as a possible mechanism of DDT-induced eggshell thinning.

  19. Design of an adenosine phosphorylase by active-site modification of murine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Enzyme kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation of Asn-243 and Lys-244 substitutions of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Maynes, J T; Yam, W; Jenuth, J P; Gang Yuan, R; Litster, S A; Phipps, B M; Snyder, F F

    1999-12-01

    Our objective was to alter the substrate specificity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase such that it would catalyse the phosphorolysis of 6-aminopurine nucleosides. We modified both Asn-243 and Lys-244 in order to promote the acceptance of the C6-amino group of adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp substitution resulted in an 8-fold increase in K(m) for inosine from 58 to 484 microM and a 1000-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m). The Asn-243-Asp construct catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 45 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) 8-fold that with inosine. The Lys-244-Gln construct showed only marginal reduction in k(cat)/K(m), 83% of wild type, but had no activity with adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln construct had a 14-fold increase in K(m) with inosine and 7-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m) as compared to wild type. This double substitution catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 42 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) twice that of the single Asn-243-Asp substitution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the engineered proteins with adenine as substrate revealed favourable hydrogen bond distances between N7 of the purine ring and the Asp-243 carboxylate at 2.93 and 2.88 A, for Asn-243-Asp and the Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln constructs respectively. Simulation also supported a favourable hydrogen bond distance between the purine C6-amino group and Asp-243 at 2.83 and 2.88 A for each construct respectively. The Asn-243-Thr substitution did not yield activity with adenosine and simulation gave unfavourable hydrogen bond distances between Thr-243 and both the C6-amino group and N7 of the purine ring. The substitutions were not in the region of phosphate binding and the apparent S(0.5) for phosphate with wild type and the Asn-243-Asp enzymes were 1.35+/-0.01 and 1.84+/-0.06 mM, respectively. Both proteins exhibited positive co-operativity with phosphate giving Hill coefficients of 7.9 and 3.8 respectively.

  20. Design of an adenosine phosphorylase by active-site modification of murine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Enzyme kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation of Asn-243 and Lys-244 substitutions of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed Central

    Maynes, J T; Yam, W; Jenuth, J P; Gang Yuan, R; Litster, S A; Phipps, B M; Snyder, F F

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to alter the substrate specificity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase such that it would catalyse the phosphorolysis of 6-aminopurine nucleosides. We modified both Asn-243 and Lys-244 in order to promote the acceptance of the C6-amino group of adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp substitution resulted in an 8-fold increase in K(m) for inosine from 58 to 484 microM and a 1000-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m). The Asn-243-Asp construct catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 45 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) 8-fold that with inosine. The Lys-244-Gln construct showed only marginal reduction in k(cat)/K(m), 83% of wild type, but had no activity with adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln construct had a 14-fold increase in K(m) with inosine and 7-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m) as compared to wild type. This double substitution catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 42 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) twice that of the single Asn-243-Asp substitution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the engineered proteins with adenine as substrate revealed favourable hydrogen bond distances between N7 of the purine ring and the Asp-243 carboxylate at 2.93 and 2.88 A, for Asn-243-Asp and the Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln constructs respectively. Simulation also supported a favourable hydrogen bond distance between the purine C6-amino group and Asp-243 at 2.83 and 2.88 A for each construct respectively. The Asn-243-Thr substitution did not yield activity with adenosine and simulation gave unfavourable hydrogen bond distances between Thr-243 and both the C6-amino group and N7 of the purine ring. The substitutions were not in the region of phosphate binding and the apparent S(0.5) for phosphate with wild type and the Asn-243-Asp enzymes were 1.35+/-0.01 and 1.84+/-0.06 mM, respectively. Both proteins exhibited positive co-operativity with phosphate giving Hill coefficients of 7.9 and 3.8 respectively. PMID:10567244

  1. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  2. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  3. Nucleophilic activation by positioning in phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, S J; Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Herschlag, D

    1999-04-13

    The nonenzymatic reaction of ATP with a nucleophile to generate ADP and a phosphorylated product proceeds via a dissociative transition state with little bond formation to the nucleophile. Consideration of the dissociative nature of the nonenzymatic transition state leads to the following question: To what extent can the nucleophile be activated in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer? We have addressed this question for the NDP kinase reaction. A mutant form of the enzyme lacking the nucleophilic histidine (H122G) can be chemically rescued for ATP attack by imidazole or other exogenous small nucleophiles. The ATP reaction is 50-fold faster with the wild-type enzyme, which has an imidazole nucleophile positioned for reaction by a covalent bond, than with H122G, which employs a noncovalently bound imidazole nucleophile [(kcat/KM)ATP]. Further, a 4-fold advantage for imidazole positioned in the nucleophile binding pocket created by the mutation is suggested from comparison of the reaction of H122G and ATP with an imidazole versus a water nucleophile, after correction for the intrinsic reactivities of imidazole and water toward ATP in solution. X-ray structural analysis shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues surrounding His 122 upon mutation to Gly 122. The overall rate effect of approximately 10(2)-fold for the covalent imidazole nucleophile relative to water is therefore attributed to positioning of the nucleophile with respect to the reactive phosphoryl group. This is underscored by the more deleterious effect of replacing ATP with AlphaTauPgammaS in the wild-type reaction than in the imidazole-rescued mutant reaction, as follows. For the wild-type, AlphaTauPgammaS presumably disrupts positioning between nucleophile and substrate, resulting in a large thio effect of 300-fold, whereas precise alignment is already disrupted in the mutant because there is no covalent bond to the nucleophile, resulting in a smaller thio effect of 10-fold. In summary, the results

  4. N-h and N-C bond activation of pyrimidinic nucleobases and nucleosides promoted by an osmium polyhydride.

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; García-Raboso, Jorge; Oliván, Montserrat; Oñate, Enrique

    2012-05-21

    Complex OsH(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (1) reacts with 1-methylthymine and 1-methyluracil to give OsH(3)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)(nucleobase') (2, 3) containing the deprotonated nucleobases (nucleobase') κ(2)-N,O coordinated by the nitrogen atom at position 3 and the oxygen bonded to the carbon atom of the ring at position 4. Similarly, the reactions of 1 with thymidine, 5-methyluridine, deoxyuridine, and uridine lead to OsH(3)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)(nucleoside') (4-7) with the deprotonated nucleoside (nucleoside') κ(2)-N,O coordinated by the nitrogen atom at position 3 and the oxygen bonded to the carbon atom at position 4 of the nucleobases. Treatment of complexes 5 and 7, containing nucleosides derived from ribose, with OsH(2)Cl(2)(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (8) in the presence of Et(3)N affords dinuclear species OsH(3)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)(nucleobase')-(ribose)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)H(2)Os (9, 10) formed by two different metal fragments. Complex 1 also promotes the cleavage of the N-C bond of 2-7 to give the dinuclear species {OsH(3)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)}(2)(nucleobase'') (11, 12) with the nucleobase skeleton (nucleobase'') κ(2)-N,O coordinated to both metal fragments. These compounds can be also prepared by reaction of 1 with 0.5 equiv of thymine and uracil. The use of 1:1 hexahydride:nucleobase molar ratios gives rise to the preferred formation of the mononuclear complexes OsH(3)(P(i)Pr(3))(2)(nucleobase''') (13, 14; nucleobase''' = monodeprotonated thymine or uracil). The X-ray structures of complexes 6, 11, and 14 are also reported.

  5. Large steric effect in the substitution reaction of amines with phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Stronach, M. W.; Ketner, R. J.; Hurley, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Aliphatic amines react with phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine (ImpN) by replacing the imidazole group. The kinetics of reaction of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with glycine ethyl ester, glycinamide, 2-methoxyethylamine, n-butylamine, morpholine, dimethylamine (Me2NH), ethylmethylamine (EtNHMe), diethylamine (Et2NH), pyrrolidine, and piperidine were determined in water at 37 degrees C. With primary amines, a plot of the logarithm of the rate constant for attack by the amine on the protonated substrate, log kSH(A), versus the pKa of the amine exhibits a good linear correlation with a Bronsted slope, beta nuc = 0.48. Most of the secondary amines tested react with slightly higher reactivity than primary amines of similar pKa. Interestingly, some secondary amines show substantially lower reactivity than might be expected: EtNHMe reacts about eight times, and Et2NH at least 100 times, more slowly than Me2NH although all three amines are of similar basicity. For comparison, the kinetics of reaction of guanosine 5'-phosphoimidazolide (ImpG) and cytidine 5'-phosphoimidazolide (ImpC) were determined with Me2NH, EtNHMe, and Et2NH, and similar results were obtained. These results establish that the increased steric hindrance observed with the successive addition of ethyl groups are not due to any special steric requirements imposed by the guanosine or the methyl on the 2-methylimidazole leaving group of 2-MeImpG. It is concluded that addition of ethyl and, perhaps, groups larger than ethyl dramatically increases the kinetic barrier for addition of aliphatic secondary amines to the P-N bond of ImpN. This study supports the observation that the primary amino groups on the natural polyamines are at least 2 orders of magnitude more reactive than the secondary amino groups in the reaction with ImpN.

  6. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by nucleoside diphosphate kinase pH dependence and role of the active site Lys16 and Tyr56 residues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Babolat, M; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates nucleoside diphosphates with little specificity for the base and the sugar. Although nucleotide analogues used in antiviral therapies are also metabolized to their triphosphate form by NDP kinase, their lack of the 3'-hydroxyl of the ribose, which allows them to be DNA chain terminators, severely impairs the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase. We have analyzed the kinetics parameters of several mutant NDP kinases modified on residues (Lys16, Tyr56, Asn119) interacting with the gamma-phosphate and/or the 3'-OH of the Mg2+-ATP substrate. We compared the relative contributions of the active-site residues and the substrate 3'-OH for point mutations on Lys16, Tyr56 and Asn119. Analysis of additional data from pH profiles identify the ionization state of these residues in the enzyme active form. X-ray structure of K16A mutant NDP kinase shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues of the active site.

  7. Protective Mechanisms of S. lycopersicum Aqueous Fraction (Nucleosides and Flavonoids) on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Pereira, Jaime; Alarcón, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Claudio; Pérez, Pablo; Astudillo, Luis; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms of antiplatelet action of bioactive principle from S. lycopersicum. Aqueous fraction had a high content of nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate) by HPLC analysis. Also aqueous fraction presented flavonoids content. Aqueous fraction inhibited platelet activation by 15 ± 6% (P < 0.05). Fully spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of aqueous fraction was inhibited from 15 ± 1 to 9 ± 1 μm2 (P < 0.001). After incubation of whole blood with aqueous fraction, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 55 ± 12% (P < 0.001). Platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by the aqueous fraction. At the same concentrations that aqueous fraction inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L significantly decreased and the intraplatelet cAMP levels increased. In addition, SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, attenuated the effect of aqueous fraction toward ADP-induced platelet aggregation and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Platelet aggregation ex vivo (human study) and thrombosis formation in vivo (murine model) were inhibited by aqueous fraction. Finally, aqueous fraction may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities (nucleosides and flavonoids) to processed foods. PMID:24159349

  8. Protective Mechanisms of S. lycopersicum Aqueous Fraction (Nucleosides and Flavonoids) on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Pereira, Jaime; Alarcón, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Claudio; Pérez, Pablo; Astudillo, Luis; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms of antiplatelet action of bioactive principle from S. lycopersicum. Aqueous fraction had a high content of nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, and adenosine 5'-monophosphate) by HPLC analysis. Also aqueous fraction presented flavonoids content. Aqueous fraction inhibited platelet activation by 15 ± 6% (P < 0.05). Fully spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of aqueous fraction was inhibited from 15 ± 1 to 9 ± 1  μ m(2) (P < 0.001). After incubation of whole blood with aqueous fraction, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 55 ± 12% (P < 0.001). Platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by the aqueous fraction. At the same concentrations that aqueous fraction inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L significantly decreased and the intraplatelet cAMP levels increased. In addition, SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, attenuated the effect of aqueous fraction toward ADP-induced platelet aggregation and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Platelet aggregation ex vivo (human study) and thrombosis formation in vivo (murine model) were inhibited by aqueous fraction. Finally, aqueous fraction may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities (nucleosides and flavonoids) to processed foods.

  9. The Synthesis and Study of New Ribavirin Derivatives and Related Nucleoside Azole Carboxamides as Agents Active against RNA Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DAMDt779-C 9046 FG65 N EhEmhEEEEmhhEI mhEEomhhEEEmhEI mmEEmmhhhEE smmhhmhohEEmhh Eu....momo L3 2 L .: 1111.25 I i4A . MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST...during the course of this synthetic study. Most of the compounds synthesized were tested at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases...nucleosides with the antiviral potency of pyrazofurin but with much less toxicity may be prepared. The problem of design- ing and synthesizing an azole

  10. Design, synthesis, anticancer, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of theophylline containing acetylenes and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ruddarraju, Radhakrishnam Raju; Murugulla, Adharvana Chari; Kotla, Ravindar; Chandra Babu Tirumalasetty, Muni; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Donthabakthuni, Shobha; Maroju, Ravichandar; Baburao, K; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy

    2016-11-10

    A new series of theophylline containing acetylene derivatives (6a-6b and 7-13) and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives (20-32) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Further the computational docking and 2D QSAR were performed using MOE software to identify novel scaffolds. The results showed that compound 29 and 30 exhibit significant cytotoxic effect on all four cancer cells such as lung (A549), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and melanoma (A375) with IC50 values of 2.56, 2.19, 1.89, 4.89 μM and 3.57, 2.90, 2.10, 5.81 μM respectively. Whereas quite different results were observed for these compounds in antimicrobial studies. Compounds 11, 21 and 26 have exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The docking studies demonstrate that compound 27, 28, 29 and 30 have good dock score and binding affinities with various therapeutic targets in cancer cell proliferation. In addition these compounds have shown acceptable correlation with bioassay results in the regression plots generated in 2D QSAR models. This is the first report to demonstrate the theophylline containing acetylene derivatives and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazole nucleoside hybrids as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents with comprehensive in silico analysis.

  11. Chlorella Virus Encoded Deoxyuridine triphosphatases Exhibit different Temperature Optima

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Y.; Moriyama, H.; Homma, K.; Van Etten, J.

    2005-01-01

    A putative deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) gene from chlorella virus PBCV-1 was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein has dUTPase activity and requires Mg{sup 2+} for optimal activity, while it retains some activity in the presence of other divalent cations. Kinetic studies of the enzyme revealed a K{sub m} of 11.7 {mu}M, a turnover k{sub cat} of 6.8 s{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.8 x 105 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. dUTPase genes were cloned and expressed from two other chlorella viruses IL-3A and SH-6A. The two dUTPases have similar properties to PBCV-1 dUTPase except that IL-3A dUTPase has a lower temperature optimum (37{sup o}C) than PBCV-1 dUTPase (50{sup o}C). The IL-3A dUTPase differs from the PBCV-1 enzyme by nine amino acids, including two amino acid substitutions, Glu81{yields}Ser81 and Thr84{yields}Arg84, in the highly conserved motif III of the proteins. To investigate the difference in temperature optima between the two enzymes, homology modeling and docking simulations were conducted. The results of the simulation and comparisons of amino acid sequence suggest that adjacent amino acids are important in the temperature optima. To confirm this suggestion, three site-directed amino acid substitutions were made in the IL-3A enzyme: Thr84{yields}Arg84, Glu81{yields}Ser81, and Glu81{yields}Ser81 plus Thr84{yields}Arg84. The single substitutions affected the optimal temperature for enzyme activity. The temperature optimum increased from 37 to 55{sup o}C for the enzyme containing the two amino acid substitutions. We postulate that the change in temperature optimum is due to reduction in charge and balkiness in the active cavity that allows more movement of the ligand and protein before the enzyme and substrate complex is formed.

  12. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Yao, S Y M; Sun, L; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A

    2008-07-01

    1. The human (h) SLC29 family of integral membrane proteins is represented by four members, designated equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) because of the properties of the first-characterized family member, hENT1. They belong to the widely distributed eukaryotic ENT family of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside/nucleobase transporter proteins. 2. A predicted topology of eleven transmembrane helices has been experimentally confirmed for hENT1. The best-characterized members of the family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. hENT3 has a similar broad permeant selectivity for nucleosides and nucleobases and appears to function in intracellular membranes, including lysosomes. 3. hENT4 is uniquely selective for adenosine, and also transports a variety of organic cations. hENT3 and hENT4 are pH sensitive, and optimally active under acidic conditions. ENTs, including those in parasitic protozoa, function in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and, in humans, are also responsible for the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases. 4. By regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, mammalian ENTs additionally influence physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular activity to neurotransmission.

  13. Modulatory action of α-tocopherol on erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase against radiation damage in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Chitra, Subramaniam; Shyamaladevi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the possible effects of α-tocopherol on erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatases against radiation damage in oral cancer patients. Adenosine triphosphatase activities were analysed in oral cancer patients before and after radiotherapy (at a dosage of 6000 cGY in five fractions per week for a period of six weeks) and after supplemented with α-tocopherol (400 IU per day for entire period of radiotherapy). The membrane bound enzymes such as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and some trace elements were altered in oral cancer patients before and after radiotherapy. Supplemented with α-tocopherol modulates the erythrocyte membrane which is damaged by radiotherapy which suggests that α-tocopherol protects the erythrocyte membrane from radiation damage in oral cancer patients.

  14. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  15. Bile acids alter the subcellular localization of CNT2 (concentrative nucleoside cotransporter) and increase CNT2-related transport activity in liver parenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Huber-Ruano, Isabel; Aymerich, Ivette; Duflot, Sylvie; Casado, F. Javier; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2006-01-01

    CNT2 (concentrative nucleoside cotransporter) is a plasma membrane high-affinity Na+-coupled adenosine transporter, also localized in intracellular structures. This transporter protein may play additional roles other than nucleoside salvage, since it has recently been shown to be under purinergic control via KATP channels, by a mechanism that does not seem to involve changes in its subcellular localization. In an attempt to identify the agents that promote CNT2 trafficking, bile acids were found to increase CNT2-related transport activity in a KATP channel-independent manner in both Fao hepatoma and rat liver parenchymal cells. A maximum effect was recorded after treatment with hydrophilic anions such as TCA (taurocholate). However, this effect did not involve changes in the amount of CNT2 protein, it was instead associated with a subcellular redistribution of CNT2, resulting in an accumulation of the transporter at the plasma membrane. This was deduced from subcellular fractionation studies, biotinylation of plasma membrane proteins and subsequent CNT2 detection in streptavidin precipitates and in vivo confocal microscopic analysis of the distribution of a YFP (yellow fluorescent protein)–CNT2 construct. The induction of CNT2 translocation, triggered by TCA, was inhibited by wortmannin, dibutyryl-AMPc, PD98059 and colchicine, thus suggesting the involvement of the PI3K/ERK (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/extracellular-signal related kinase) pathway in microtubule-dependent activation of recombinant CNT2. These are novel effects of bile-acid physiology and provide the first evidence for short-term regulation of CNT2 translocation into and from the plasma membrane. PMID:16390326

  16. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1411-5. Erratum in: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24(4):303. Citation on PubMed Nyhan ...

  17. Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

  18. Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatase signaling in B cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mele, Silvia; Devereux, Stephen; Ridley, Anne J

    2014-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells proliferate predominantly in niches in the lymph nodes, where signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR) and the surrounding microenvironment are critical for disease progression. In addition, leukemic cells traffic constantly from the bloodstream into the lymph nodes, migrate within lymphatic tissues and egress back to the bloodstream. These processes are driven by chemokines and their receptors, and depend on changes in cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. Here we describe how Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) contribute to both BCR signaling and chemokine receptor signaling, particularly by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and integrin activity. We propose that new inhibitors of BCR-activated kinases are likely to affect CLL cell trafficking via Rho and Rap GTPases, and that upstream regulators or downstream effectors could be good targets for therapeutic intervention in CLL.

  19. The significance of inhibitor-resistant alkaline phosphatase in the cytochemical demonstration of transport adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Firth, J A; Marland, B Y

    1975-08-01

    The hydrolysis of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 9.0 by slices of formaldehydee-fixed rat renal cortex was investigated by colorimetric estimation of the nitrophenol liberated. It was found that three types of activity could be identified on the basis of their responses to inhibitors and cations: (a) alkaline phosphatase sensitive to inhibition by L-tetramisole; (b) potassium-dependent phosphatase, probably identifiable with the phosphatase component of sodium-potassium-dependent transport adenosine triphosphatase (?Na-K-ATPase); and (c) alkaline phosphatase insensitive to L-tetramisole. It was found that in the presence of strontium ions, as used in Na-K-ATPase cytochemistry, the activities of the second and third types of enzyme were approximately equal. The implications of these findings for the cytochemical demonstration of Na-K-ATPase are discussed.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-8 aryl and heteroaryl inosines and determination of their inhibitory activities against Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Alba; Priego, Eva-María; Sánchez-Carrasco, Paula; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Vande Voorde, Johan; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús

    2014-07-23

    8-Arylinosines have been scarcely studied for therapeutic purposes, probably due to difficulties in their synthesis. The recently described direct arylation reaction at position 8 of purine nucleosides has been employed to synthesize a series of 8-aryl and 8-pyridylinosines. These compounds have been studied for hydrolytic stability and subjected to biological evaluation. Three compounds have shown a pronounced specific inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum-encoded purine nucleoside phosphorylase, an important target for antimalarial chemotherapy.

  1. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and molecular docking of cyclohexenone based analogous as potent non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Abdullah, Muhammad Imran; Badshah, Amir; Mahmood, Asif; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2015-04-01

    The chalcones core in compounds is advantageously chosen effective synthons, which offer exciting perspectives in biological and pharmacological research. The present study reports the successful development of eight new cyclohexenone based anti-reverse transcriptase analogous using rational drug design synthesis principles. These new cyclohexenone derivatives (CDs) were synthesized by following a convenient route of Robinson annulation, and the molecular structure of these CDs were later confirmed by various analytical techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All the synthesized compounds were screened theoretically and experimentally against reverse transcriptase (RT) and found potentially active reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Of the compounds studied, the compound 2FC4 showed high interaction with RT at non-nucleoside binding site, contributing high free binding energy (ΔG -8.01 Kcal) and IC50 (0.207 μg/ml), respectively. Further results revealed that the compounds bearing more halogen groups, with additional hydrophobic character, offered superior anti-reverse transcriptase activity as compared to rest of compounds. It is anticipate that the present study would be very useful for the selection of potential reverse transcriptase inhibitors featuring inclusive pharmacological profiles.

  2. A specific inorganic triphosphatase from Nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, David; Murty, Mamidanna R V S; Gabelica, Valérie; Lakaye, Bernard; Lunin, Vladimir V; Skarina, Tatiana; Onopriyenko, Olena; Kohn, Gregory; Wins, Pierre; De Pauw, Edwin; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2011-09-30

    The CYTH superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. Because these proteins often form a closed β-barrel, they are also referred to as triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes (TTM). Functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. These proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions depending on their origin. Here we investigate structural and catalytic properties of the recombinant TTM protein from Nitrosomonas europaea (NeuTTM), a 19-kDa protein. Crystallographic data show that it crystallizes as a dimer and that, in contrast to other TTM proteins, it has an open β-barrel structure. We demonstrate that NeuTTM is a highly specific inorganic triphosphatase, hydrolyzing tripolyphosphate (PPP(i)) with high catalytic efficiency in the presence of Mg(2+). These data are supported by native mass spectrometry analysis showing that the enzyme binds PPP(i) (and Mg-PPP(i)) with high affinity (K(d) < 1.5 μm), whereas it has a low affinity for ATP or thiamine triphosphate. In contrast to Aeromonas and Yersinia CyaB proteins, NeuTTM has no adenylyl cyclase activity, but it shares several properties with other enzymes of the CYTH superfamily, e.g. heat stability, alkaline pH optimum, and inhibition by Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. We suggest a catalytic mechanism involving a catalytic dyad formed by Lys-52 and Tyr-28. The present data provide the first characterization of a new type of phosphohydrolase (unrelated to pyrophosphatases or exopolyphosphatases), able to hydrolyze inorganic triphosphate with high specificity.

  3. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV-activated prodrugs of anti-varicella zoster virus bicyclic nucleoside analogues containing different self-cleavage spacer systems.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2012-09-01

    A new type of double prodrug of the antiviral family of bicyclic nucleoside analogues (BCNA) bearing cyclization self-cleavage spacers between the Val-Pro dipeptide sequence as well as the parent compound were synthesized and evaluated with regard to activation by the DPPIV/CD26 enzyme and for their stability in human and bovine serum. In buffer solution, carbamate and ester prodrugs were found to be chemically stable. Most prodrugs containing a dipeptidyl linker efficiently converted into the BCNA parent drug. In contrast, the Val-Pro alkyldiamino prodrugs converted predominantly into their alkyldiamino prodrug intermediates in the presence of CD26 and human serum. A marked increase in water solubility was observed for all prodrugs. In contrast to the parent compound, a tetrapeptide prodrug containing the Val-Val dipeptide as a self-cleavage spacer released substantial amounts of the BCNA parent drug at the basolateral side of Caco-2 cell cultures and exhibited 15- to 20-fold increased bioavailability in mice relative to the poorly bioavailable parent compound.

  5. DNA 3' pp 5' G de-capping activity of aprataxin: effect of cap nucleoside analogs and structural basis for guanosine recognition

    DOE PAGES

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Jacewicz, Agata; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-05-24

    DNA3' pp 5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i)more » GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)–NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.« less

  6. Antimalarial action of nitrobenzylthioinosine in combination with purine nucleoside antimetabolites.

    PubMed

    Gero, A M; Scott, H V; O'Sullivan, W J; Christopherson, R I

    1989-04-01

    The infection of human erythrocytes by two strains of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (FCQ-27 or the multi-drug-resistant strain K-1), markedly changed the transport characteristics of the nucleosides, adenosine and tubercidin, compared to uninfected erythrocytes. A component of the transport of these nucleosides was insensitive to the classical mammalian nucleoside transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). In vitro studies with tubercidin demonstrated ID50 values of 0.43 and 0.51 microM for FCQ-27 and K-1, respectively. In addition, the nucleoside transport inhibitors NBMPR, nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR), dilazep and dipyridamole also independently exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The combination of tubercidin and NBMPR or NBTGR in vitro demonstrated synergistic activity, whilst tubercidin together with dilazep or dipyridamole showed subadditive activity. Analysis by HPLC indicated that NBMPR could permeate the infected cell membrane and provided evidence for the catabolism of NBMPR in vitro, with subsequent alteration of the purine pool in the infected erythrocyte. These observations further indicated the possibility of the utilization of cytotoxic nucleosides against P. falciparum infection in conjunction with a nucleoside transport inhibitor to protect the host tissue.

  7. Improving nucleoside analogs via lipid conjugation: Is fatter any better?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Kucera, Gregory; Pardee, Timothy S

    2016-04-01

    In the past few decades, nucleoside analog drugs have been used to treat a large variety of cancers. These anti-metabolite drugs mimic nucleosides and interfere with chain lengthening upon incorporation into the DNA or RNA of actively replicating cells. However, efficient delivery of these drugs is limited due to their pharmacokinetic properties, and tumors often develop drug resistance. In addition, nucleoside analogs are generally hydrophilic, resulting in poor bioavailability and impaired blood-brain barrier penetration. Conjugating these drugs to lipids modifies their pharmacokinetic properties and may improve in vivo efficacy. This review will cover recent advances in the field of conjugation of phospholipids to nucleoside analogs. This includes conjugation of myristic acid, 12-thioethyldodecanoic acid, 5-elaidic acid esters, phosphoramidate, and self-emulsifying formulations. Relevant in vitro and in vivo data will be discussed for each drug, as well as any available data from clinical trials.

  8. Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, J; Gomez-Angelats, M; del Santo, B; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1996-01-01

    Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux. PMID:8760370

  9. Microbial transformation of nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamba, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving the use of coulter counter in studying the effects of neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes was completed. The purpose of this was to establish proper technique for enumeration of cells per ml. It was found that inhibitory effects on growth of E. coli and A. aerogenes, both gram negative organisms, were directly related to the concentration of neomycin used. However, in case S. aureus, a gram positive organism, a decreased inhibition was noted at higher concentrations. A paper entitled, Use of Coulter Counter in Studying Effect of Drugs on Cells in Culture 1 - Effects of Neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes, is attached in the appendix. Laboratory procedures were also established to study the effects of nucleoside antibiotic cordycepin on He La cell grown in suspension cultures.

  10. Structure-activity relationships of β-hydroxyphosphonate nucleoside analogues as cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II potential inhibitors: synthesis, in vitro evaluation and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Meurillon, Maïa; Marton, Zsuzsanna; Hospital, Audrey; Jordheim, Lars Petter; Béjaud, Jérôme; Lionne, Corinne; Dumontet, Charles; Périgaud, Christian; Chaloin, Laurent; Peyrottes, Suzanne

    2014-04-22

    The cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II) has been proposed as an attractive molecular target for the development of novel drugs circumventing resistance to cytotoxic nucleoside analogues currently used for treating leukemia and other malignant hemopathies. In the present work, synthesis of β-hydroxyphosphonate nucleoside analogues incorporating modifications either on the sugar residue or the nucleobase, and their in vitro evaluation towards the purified enzyme were carried out in order to determine their potency towards the inhibition of cN-II. In addition to the biochemical investigations, molecular modeling studies revealed important structural features for binding affinities towards the target enzyme.

  11. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  12. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  13. Cholinergic stimulation of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase as revealed by microphysiometry.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D L; Olson, J C; Parce, J W; Owicki, J C

    1993-01-01

    The activation of a wide range of cellular receptors has been detected previously using a novel instrument, the microphysiometer. In this study microphysiometry was used to monitor the basal and cholinergic-stimulated activity of the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (the Na+/K+ pump) in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671. Manipulations of Na+/K+ ATPase activity with ouabain or removal of extracellular K+ revealed that this ion pump was responsible for 8.8 +/- 0.7% of the total cellular energy utilization by those cells as monitored by the production of acid metabolites. Activation of the pump after a period of inhibition transiently increased the acidification rate above baseline, corresponding to increases in intracellular [Na+] ([Na+]i) occurring while the pump was off. The amplitude of this transient was a function of the total [Na+]i excursion in the absence of pump activity, which in turn depended on the duration of pump inhibition and the Na+ influx rate. Manipulations of the mode of energy metabolism in these cells by changes of the carbon substrate and use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that, unlike some other cells studied, the Na+/K+ ATPase in TE671 cells does not depend on any one mode of metabolism for its adenosine triphosphate source. Stimulation of cholinergic receptors in these cells with carbachol activated the Na+/K+ ATPase via an increase in [Na+]i rather than a direct activation of the ATPase. PMID:8386019

  14. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-09-26

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells.

  15. Prolonged lifespan with enhanced exploratory behavior in mice overexpressing the oxidized nucleoside triphosphatase hMTH1.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Gabriele; Ventura, Ilenia; Sanghez, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cacci, Emanuele; Martire, Alberto; Popoli, Patrizia; Falcone, Germana; Michelini, Flavia; Crescenzi, Marco; Degan, Paolo; Minghetti, Luisa; Bignami, Margherita; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2013-08-01

    The contribution that oxidative damage to DNA and/or RNA makes to the aging process remains undefined. In this study, we used the hMTH1-Tg mouse model to investigate how oxidative damage to nucleic acids affects aging. hMTH1-Tg mice express high levels of the hMTH1 hydrolase that degrades 8-oxodGTP and 8-oxoGTP and excludes 8-oxoguanine from both DNA and RNA. Compared to wild-type animals, hMTH1-overexpressing mice have significantly lower steady-state levels of 8-oxoguanine in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of several organs, including the brain. hMTH1 overexpression prevents the age-dependent accumulation of DNA 8-oxoguanine that occurs in wild-type mice. These lower levels of oxidized guanines are associated with increased longevity and hMTH1-Tg animals live significantly longer than their wild-type littermates. Neither lipid oxidation nor overall antioxidant status is significantly affected by hMTH1 overexpression. At the cellular level, neurospheres derived from adult hMTH1-Tg neural progenitor cells display increased proliferative capacity and primary fibroblasts from hMTH1-Tg embryos do not undergo overt senescence in vitro. The significantly lower levels of oxidized DNA/RNA in transgenic animals are associated with behavioral changes. These mice show reduced anxiety and enhanced investigation of environmental and social cues. Longevity conferred by overexpression of a single nucleotide hydrolase in hMTH1-Tg animals is an example of lifespan extension associated with healthy aging. It provides a link between aging and oxidative damage to nucleic acids.

  16. DNA 3' pp 5' G de-capping activity of aprataxin: effect of cap nucleoside analogs and structural basis for guanosine recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Jacewicz, Agata; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-05-24

    DNA3' pp 5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i) GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)–NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.

  17. Guanosine triphosphatases as novel therapeutic targets in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rajni; Meena, Laxman S

    2010-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the aerobic microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv. Despite the availability of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS), TB is a leading cause of death and affects a third of the world's population. The most important factor associated with disease severity is the development of antibiotic-resistant strains, including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. In order to understand disease pathogenesis, it is necessary to delineate the specific features of M. tuberculosis that enable it to evade the host defense system and contribute to its virulence. Here, we have reviewed the various characteristics, such as cell wall components, virulence genes, and the role of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) in the pathogenesis of TB. GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the survival and pathogenesis of various pathogens. The key role of these proteins involves interference in phagosome maturation arrest, enabling pathogens to survive by escaping from lysozymes and toxic free radicals. This observation provides a new avenue for the development of anti-TB drugs.

  18. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M; Shuman, Stewart; Lima, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The bound CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an "Spt5 CTD code" in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on-off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.

  19. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code

    SciTech Connect

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M.; Shuman, Stewart; Lima, Christopher D.

    2014-11-20

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The bound CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an “Spt5 CTD code” in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on–off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.

  20. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase reads an Spt5 CTD code

    DOE PAGES

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M.; ...

    2014-11-20

    mRNA capping enzymes are directed to nascent RNA polymerase II (Pol2) transcripts via interactions with the carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) of Pol2 and transcription elongation factor Spt5. Fission yeast RNA triphosphatase binds to the Spt5 CTD, comprising a tandem repeat of nonapeptide motif TPAWNSGSK. Here we report the crystal structure of a Pct1·Spt5-CTD complex, which revealed two CTD docking sites on the Pct1 homodimer that engage TPAWN segments of the motif. Each Spt5 CTD interface, composed of elements from both subunits of the homodimer, is dominated by van der Waals contacts from Pct1 to the tryptophan of the CTD. The boundmore » CTD adopts a distinctive conformation in which the peptide backbone makes a tight U-turn so that the proline stacks over the tryptophan. We show that Pct1 binding to Spt5 CTD is antagonized by threonine phosphorylation. Our results fortify an emerging concept of an “Spt5 CTD code” in which (i) the Spt5 CTD is structurally plastic and can adopt different conformations that are templated by particular cellular Spt5 CTD receptor proteins; and (ii) threonine phosphorylation of the Spt5 CTD repeat inscribes a binary on–off switch that is read by diverse CTD receptors, each in its own distinctive manner.« less

  1. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  2. Identification of a novel family of nucleosides that specifically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Lobatón, E; Bonache, M C; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J; Velázquez, S; San-Félix, A; Camarasa, M J

    2001-12-03

    N-3-Benzyloxycarbonylmethyl- and N-3-carboxymethyl-TBDMS-substituted nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for activity against HIV replication. It was found that the N-3-carboxymethyl-TBDMS-substituted nucleosides were specific inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. They should be considered as members of a novel and original class of NNRTIs.

  3. Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel erythrofuranosyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine C-nucleosides constructed via palladium coupling of iodoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and dihydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan S; Williams, John D; Drach, John C; Townsend, Leroy B

    2003-04-10

    2,5,6-Trichloro-1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (TCRB) and certain analogues have shown significant activity against human cytomegalovirus. The metabolic instability of the glycosidic linkage in TCRB prompted us to synthesize the structurally similar imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine erythrofuranosyl C-nucleosides. As an approach to the synthesis of polychlorinated imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine C-3-erythrofuranosides, a palladium-based methodology for coupling 2,3-dihydrofuran with chlorinated 3-iodoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines was developed and optimized to give 80-90% yields of 2,6-dichloro- and 2,6,7-trichloro-3-(2,3-dideoxy-2,3-didehydro-d/l-erythrofuranosyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine. Dihydroxylation of these didehydro derivatives with osmium tetroxide or with AD-mix alpha gave a mixture of erythrofuranosyl C-nucleosides that were separated by standard and then chiral chromatography. When screened for anti-HCMV and HSV-1 activity, the alpha-d anomer of 2,6,7-trichloro-3-(erythrofuranosyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine proved to be the most active member of the series, while the beta-anomers all proved to be inactive.

  4. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hang; Hatala, Paul J; Stevens, William C; He, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer) and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer) tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration. PMID:26734098

  5. Characterization of a Partially Purified Adenosine Triphosphatase from a Corn Root Plasma Membrane Fraction 1

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Frances M.; Burke, Linda L.; Spanswick, Roger M.

    1981-01-01

    The (K+,Mg2+)-ATPase was partially purified from a plasma membrane fraction from corn roots (WF9 × Mol7) and stored in liquid N2 without loss of activity. Specific activity was increased 4-fold over that of the plasma membrane fraction. ATPase activity resembled that of the plasma membrane fraction with certain alterations in cation sensitivity. The enzyme required a divalent cation for activity (Co2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Ca2+) when assayed at 3 millimolar ATP and 3 millimolar divalent cation at pH 6.3. When assayed in the presence of 3 millimolar Mg2+, the enzyme was further activated by monovalent cations (K+, NH4+, Rb+ ≫ Na+, Cs+, Li+). The pH optima were 6.5 and 6.3 in the absence and presence of 50 millimolar KCl, respectively. The enzyme showed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the substrate ATP-Mg, with a Km of 1.3 millimolar in the absence and 0.7 millimolar in the presence of 50 millimolar KCl. Stimulation by K+ approached simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km of approximately 4 millimolar KCl. ATPase activity was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate. Half-maximal inhibition was at 150 and 35 micromolar in the absence and presence of 50 millimolar KCl. The enzyme required the substrate ATP. The rate of hydrolysis of other substrates, except UDP, IDP, and GDP, was less than 20% of ATP hydrolysis. Nucleoside diphosphatase activity was less than 30% of ATPase activity, was not inhibited by vanadate, was not stimulated by K+, and preferred Mn2+ to Mg2+. The results demonstrate that the (K+,Mg2+)-ATPase can be clearly distinguished from nonspecific phosphohydrolase and nucleoside diphosphatase activities of plasma membrane fractions prepared from corn roots. PMID:16661634

  6. Homo- and heteroexchange of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides in rat hippocampal slices by the nucleoside transport system

    PubMed Central

    Sperlágh, Beáta; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Baranyi, Mária; Sylvester Vizi, E

    2003-01-01

    Here, we investigated how nucleotides and nucleosides affect the release of tritiated purines and endogenous adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP elicited concentration-dependent [3H]purine efflux from slices preloaded with [3H]adenosine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the effluent showed that the tritium label represented the whole set of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, and ATP significantly increased the outflow of [3H]ATP. Adenosine 5′-diphosphate, adenosine, uridine, uridine 5′-triphosphate, α,β-methylene-ATP and 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP were also active in eliciting [3H]purine release. Adenosine (300 μM) also evoked endogenous ATP efflux from the hippocampal slices. Reverse transcription-coupled-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNAs encoding a variety of P2X and P2Y receptor proteins are expressed in the rat hippocampus. Nevertheless, neither P2 receptor (i.e. pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid, 30 μM, suramin, 300 μM and reactive blue 2, 10 μM), nor adenosine receptor (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 250 nM and dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, 250 nM) antagonists modified the effect of ATP (300 μM) to evoke [3H]purine release. The nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole (10 μM), nitrobenzylthioinosine (10 μM) and adenosine deaminase (2–10 U ml−1), but not the ecto-adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate (200 μM) significantly reduced ATP-evoked [3H]purine efflux. In summary, we found that ATP and other nucleotides and nucleosides promote the release of one another and themselves by the nucleoside transport system. This action could have relevance during physiological and pathological elevation of extracellular purine levels high enough to reverse the nucleoside transporter. PMID:12788822

  7. Synthesis of small interfering RNAs containing acetal-type nucleoside analogs at their 3'-ends and analysis of their silencing activity and their ability to bind to the Argonaute2 PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Inada, Natsumi; Nakamoto, Kosuke; Yokogawa, Takashi; Ueno, Yoshihito

    2015-10-20

    In this study, we aimed to create small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with increased silencing activities and nuclease resistance properties. Therefore, we designed and synthesized five types of siRNA containing acetal-type nucleoside analogs at their 3'-dangling ends. We found that the siRNA containing 1-O-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-β-D-ribofuranose at the 3'-dangling end was the most potent among the synthesized siRNAs and showed more resistance to nucleolytic degradation by a 3' exonuclease than a natural RNA did. Thus, modification of siRNAs by addition of 1-O-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-β-D-ribofuranose may hold promise as a means of improving the silencing activity and nuclease resistance of siRNAs.

  8. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β /α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49 and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M−1 s−1. These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK represents a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. PMID:23161756

  9. A broad specificity nucleoside kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Sarah R; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W; Columbus, Linda

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 Å resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β/α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, fructokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49, and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M(-1) s(-1) . These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK is a member of a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. Proteins 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  11. Marine nucleosides: structure, bioactivity, synthesis and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  12. Cytostatic evaluations of nucleoside analogs related to unnatural base pairs for a genetic expansion system.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Michiko; Moriyama, Kei; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hirao, Ichiro

    2007-10-15

    The introduction of an unnatural base pair into DNA enables the expansion of genetic information. To apply unnatural base pairs to in vivo systems, we evaluated the cytostatic toxicity of several nucleoside analogs by an MTT assay. Several nucleoside analogs based on two types of unnatural base pairs were tested. One is a hydrogen-bonded base pair between 2-amino-6-(2-thienyl)purine (s) and pyridin-2-one (y), and the other is a hydrophobic base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa). Among the nucleoside analogs, the ribonucleoside of 6-(2-thienyl)purine possessed the highest cytostatic activity against CCRF-CEM and especially HT-1080, as well as the normal fibroblast cell line, WI-38. The other analogs, including its 2'-deoxy, 2-amino, and 1-deazapurine nucleoside derivatives, were less active against CCRF-CEM and HT-1080, and the toxicity of these nucleosides toward WI-38 was low. The nucleosides of y and Pa were inactive against CCRF-CEM, HT-1080, and WI-38. In addition, no cytostatic synergism was observed with the combination of the pairing nucleosides of s and y or Ds and Pa.

  13. Substrate specificity of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases of NP-II family probed by X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Prokofev, I. I.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases, which are widely used in the biotechnological production of nucleosides, have different substrate specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. An interesting feature of these enzymes is that the three-dimensional structure of thymidine-specific nucleoside phosphorylase is similar to the structure of nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase. The three-dimensional structures of thymidine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium and nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis in complexes with a sulfate anion were determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography. An analysis of the structural differences between these enzymes demonstrated that Lys108, which is involved in the phosphate binding in pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, corresponds to Met111 in thymidine phosphorylases. This difference results in a decrease in the charge on one of the hydroxyl oxygens of the phosphate anion in thymidine phosphorylase and facilitates the catalysis through SN2 nucleophilic substitution. Based on the results of X-ray crystallography, the virtual screening was performed for identifying a potent inhibitor (anticancer agent) of nonspecific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, which does not bind to thymidine phosphorylase. The molecular dynamics simulation revealed the stable binding of the discovered compound—2-pyrimidin-2-yl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid—to the active site of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  14. Synthesis of cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides via a metal-free radical route.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Chao; Xia, Ran; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-04

    An efficient route to synthesize cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides was developed. This metal-free C-H activation was accomplished by a tBuOOtBu initiated radical reaction. By adjusting the amount of tBuOOtBu and reaction time, the selective synthesis of C6-monocycloalkyl or C6,C8-dicycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides could be realized. Furthermore, uracil and related nucleosides were also suitable substrates, giving the C5-cyclohexyl substituted uracil derivatives in good yields with excellent regioselectivities.

  15. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Francesco; Giannecchini, Michela; Sgarrella, Francesco; Carta, Maria Caterina; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Camici, Marcella

    2007-02-01

    The brain depends on both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for maintenance of ATP pools. Astrocytes play an integral role in brain functions providing trophic supports and energy substrates for neurons. In this paper, we report that human astrocytoma cells (ADF) undergoing ischemic conditions may use both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as energy source to slow down cellular damage. The cells are subjected to metabolic stress conditions by exclusion of glucose and incubation with oligomycin (an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation). This treatment brings about a depletion of the ATP pool, with a concomitant increase in the AMP levels, which results in a significant decrease of the adenylate energy charge. The presence of purine nucleosides in the culture medium preserves the adenylate energy charge, and improves cell viability. Besides purine nucleosides, also pyrimidine nucleosides, such as uridine and, to a lesser extent, cytidine, are able to preserve the ATP pool. The determination of lactate in the incubation medium indicates that nucleosides can preserve the ATP pool through anaerobic glycolysis, thus pointing to a relevant role of the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of nucleosides which generates, without energy expense, the phosphorylated pentose, which through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis can be converted to energetic intermediates also in the absence of oxygen. In fact, ADF cells possess both purine nucleoside phosphorylase and uridine phosphorylase activities.

  16. Coupling between catalysis and oligomeric structure in nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Mesnildrey, S; Agou, F; Karlsson, A; Bonne, D D; Véron, M

    1998-02-20

    A dimeric Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate kinase has been stabilized by the double mutation P100S-N150stop which targets residues involved in the trimer interface (Karlsson, A., Mesnildrey, S., Xu, Y., Moréra, S., Janin, J., and Veron, M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19928-19934). The reassociation of this dimeric form into a hexamer similar to the wild-type enzyme is induced by the presence of a nucleotide substrate. Equilibrium sedimentation and gel filtration experiments, as well as enzymatic activity measurements, show that reactivation of the enzyme closely parallels its reassociation. A phosphorylatable intermediate with low activity participates in the association pathway while the dimeric form is shown totally devoid of enzymatic activity. Our results support the hypothesis that different oligomeric species of nucleoside diphosphate kinase are involved in different cellular processes where the enzymatic activity is not required.

  17. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  18. New trends in nucleoside biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mikhailopulo, I A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on new trends in nucleoside biotechnology, which have emerged during the last decade. Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: ( i ) a growing need for large-scale production of natural 2 ' -deoxy- β -D-ribonucleosides as well as their analogs with modifications in the carbohydrate and base fragments, which can then be used for the synthesis and study of oligonucleotides, including short-interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), etc.; ( ii ) a necessity for the development of efficient practical technologies for the production of biologically important analogs of natural nucleosides, including a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs; ( iii ) a need for further study of known and novel enzymatic transformations and their use as tools for the efficient synthesis of new nucloside analogs and derivates with biomedical potential. This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research.

  19. O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

  20. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  1. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  2. Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors of human herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Lora; Zhi, Yun; Cheng, Hoyee; Ghosh, Ayantika; Piazza, Paolo; Yee, Michael B.; Kumar, Santosh; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bloom, David C.; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Kinchington, Paul R.; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; D’Aiuto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality through lifelong recurrent cycles of lytic and latent infection in several tissues, including the human nervous system. Acyclovir (ACV) and its prodrug, the current antivirals of choice for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, to some extent, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections are nucleoside analogues that inhibit viral DNA replication. Rising viral resistance and the need for more effective second-line drugs have motivated searches for additional antiviral agents, particularly non-nucleoside based agents. We evaluated the antiviral activity of five compounds with predicted lysosomotropic activity using conventional and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal (iPSC-neurons) cultures. Their potency and toxicity were compared with ACV and the lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Out of five compounds tested, micromolar concentrations of 30N12, 16F19, and 4F17 showed antiviral activity comparable to ACV (50μM) during lytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections, reduced viral DNA copy number, and reduced selected HSV-1 protein levels. These compounds also inhibited the reactivation of ‘quiescent’ HSV-1 infection established in iPSC-neurons, but did not inhibit viral entry into host cells. The same compounds had greater potency than ACV against lytic VZV infection; they also inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus. The anti-herpetic effects of these non-nucleoside agents merit further evaluation in vivo. PMID:26079681

  3. Possible mechanism for the inhibition of gastric (H+ + K+)-adenosine triphosphatase by the proton pump inhibitor AG-1749

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaya, H.; Satoh, H.; Kubo, K.; Maki, Y.

    1989-02-01

    Mechanisms related to the inhibition of (H+ + K+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) by 2-(((3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl)methyl) sulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole (AG-1749) were studied using canine gastric microsomes. AG-1749 (1-100 microM) inhibited the K+-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and vesicular accumulation of H+. AG-1749 bound to the microsomes concentration-dependently and decreased the number of free SH groups; the binding correlating with the enzyme inhibition. Both the binding and inhibition were antagonized by dithiothreitol. N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the (H+ + K+)-ATPase and decreased the binding of (/sup 14/C)AG-1749 to the microsomes. The inhibitory effect of AG-1749 gradually increased with incubation time, and was enhanced by lowering the pH. AG-2000 and AG-1812, acid-induced rearrangement products of AG-1749, inhibited (H+ + K+)-ATPase potently, rapidly and independently of pH; the inhibition was antagonized by dithiothreitol. We propose that AG-1749 is transformed into its active forms within the acidic compartment of the parietal cells and that the active compounds inhibit (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity by reacting with the SH groups of the enzyme.

  4. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dellafiore, María A; Montserrat, Javier M; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  5. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  6. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  7. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  8. The human concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporter families, SLC28 and SLC29.

    PubMed

    Young, James D; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Baldwin, Jocelyn M; Cass, Carol E; Baldwin, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside transport in humans is mediated by members of two unrelated protein families, the SLC28 family of cation-linked concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) and the SLC29 family of energy-independent, equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). These families contain three and four members, respectively, which differ both in the stoichiometry of cation coupling and in permeant selectivity. Together, they play key roles in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis. Moreover, they facilitate cellular uptake of several nucleoside and nucleobase drugs used in cancer chemotherapy and treatment of viral infections. Thus, the transporter content of target cells can represent a key determinant of the response to treatment. In addition, by regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, nucleoside transporters modulate many physiological processes ranging from neurotransmission to cardiovascular activity. This review describes the molecular and functional properties of the two transporter families, with a particular focus on their physiological roles in humans and relevance to disease treatment.

  9. Lipases in green chemistry: acylation and alcoholysis on steroids and nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Baldessari, Alicia; Iglesias, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of lipases in acylation and alcoholysis reactions on steroids and nucleosides. In the field of steroids, a variety of acetyl and fatty acid derivatives of androstanes, pregnanes, and cholestanes have been prepared through lipase-catalyzed acylation and alcoholysis reactions taking advantage of the high regio- and stereoselectivity of these enzymes. The substrates as well as the products show a high degree of biological activity as neurosteroids, hormones, and glucocorticoids. The regioselective preparation of diacylated nucleosides by means of an enzymatic alcoholysis allowed the synthesis of nucleosides prodrugs or modified nucleosides. The quantitative full deacylation and dealkoxycarbonylation of nucleosides and steroids is a mild synthetic method for the deprotection of these labile compounds. Some of the reported steroid and nucleoside products are novel, and it is not possible to obtain them satisfactorily by following traditional synthetic procedures. The advantages presented by this methodology, such as selectivity, mild reaction conditions, and low environmental impact, make the lipases an important tool in the application of the principles of Green Chemistry, offering a convenient way to prepare derivatives of natural compounds with a great potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Exploring synthetic routes to nucleoside alkynylphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Meurillon, M; Peyrottes, S; Périgaud, C

    2008-01-01

    Alkynylphosphonates belong to a very interesting family as they may be viewed as precursors to a wide range of functionalized derivatives. Considering our ongoing research on 5'-mononucleotides of biological interest, we embarked on the synthesis of such compounds. Despite a limited number of steps, the nucleosidic pathway appeared disappointing. Therefore, an osidic pathway was explored and proved to be interesting. The corresponding optimization study and the synthesis of a new series of nucleoside alkynylphosphonates are described herein.

  11. Differential inhibition of calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase and Ca++-adenosine triphosphatase by chlorpromazine-linked calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Wallace, T.L.; Weiss, B.

    1987-10-01

    Upon irradiation with UV light, chlorpromazine binds irreversibly to calmodulin and inactivates it. To determine whether this chlorpromazine-calmodulin (CPZ-CaM) complex can inhibit the actions of native calmodulin, we examined its effects on the activity of calmodulin-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from rat brain and on the Ca++-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of human erythrocyte membranes. The CPZ-CaM complex was prepared by irradiating purified bovine brain calmodulin in the presence of chlorpromazine and Ca++. The sample was then dialyzed extensively to remove reversibly bound chlorpromazine and then assayed for its ability to activate calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase and Ca++-ATPase, and for its ability to block the stimulatory effects of native calmodulin on these enzymes. The CPZ-CaM complex had no effect on the basal activity of either enzyme; it neither activated nor inhibited the enzymes when assayed in the absence of calmodulin. However, it affected differentially the activation of the two enzymes by native calmodulin. The CPZ-CaM complex totally inhibited calmodulin-stimulated phosphodiesterase but had no effect on the activation of the ATPase by calmodulin. Other studies showed that CPZ-CaM increased the activation constant (Ka) for the interaction of calmodulin with phosphodiesterase but did not affect the maximal activation (Vmax) of the enzyme by calmodulin. Neither calmodulin nor CPZ-CaM altered the Km for the interaction between phosphodiesterase and cyclic AMP. These results suggest that CPZ-CaM inhibits the calmodulin-induced activation of phosphodiesterase by competing with calmodulin for regulatory sites on the enzyme and not by interacting with calmodulin itself or by blocking the interaction of cyclic AMP with the enzyme.

  12. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  13. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  14. A simple statistical approach to the boyer model of the molecular motor adenosine triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, E. B. Pikin, S. A.

    2006-03-15

    A physical description of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1} adenosine triphosphatase as a rotating motor is proposed. The catalytic center and the ion-conducting membrane are considered within the classical Boyer model for the rotor and the catalytic parts of the motor, thereby allowing application of a simple three-pole model, which decreases the number of parameters significantly. The stochastic character of the processes occurring in motors is described by the Fokker-Planck equations. Various dependences of the rotation speed on the degree of excitation, localization of excitations, and the amplitude of the potential are reported.

  15. Characterization of a Trifunctional Mimivirus mRNA Capping Enzyme and Crystal Structure of the RNA Triphosphatase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Benarroch,D.; Smith, P.; Shuman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) components of the mRNA capping apparatus are a bellwether of eukaryal taxonomy. Fungal and protozoal RTPases belong to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) family, exemplified by yeast Cet1. Several large DNA viruses encode metal-dependent RTPases unrelated to the cysteinyl-phosphatase RTPases of their metazoan host organisms. The origins of DNA virus RTPases are unclear because they are structurally uncharacterized. Mimivirus, a giant virus of amoeba, resembles poxviruses in having a trifunctional capping enzyme composed of a metal-dependent RTPase module fused to guanylyltransferase (GTase) and guanine-N7 methyltransferase domains. The crystal structure of mimivirus RTPase reveals a minimized tunnel fold and an active site strikingly similar to that of Cet1. Unlike homodimeric fungal RTPases, mimivirus RTPase is a monomer. The mimivirus TTM-type RTPase-GTase fusion resembles the capping enzymes of amoebae, providing evidence that the ancestral large DNA virus acquired its capping enzyme from a unicellular host.

  16. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  17. Cladribine Analogues via O⁶-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J; Montemayor, Michelle M Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2015-10-09

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O⁶-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH₂-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  18. Magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase as a marker enzyme for the plasma membrane of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J; DeChatelet, L R; Iverson, D B; McCall, C E

    1977-02-01

    The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were studied with an assay that monitored the release of 32P-labeled inorganic pyrophosphate (32P1) from gamma-[32P]adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). In cell homogenates, (Na+ + K+)-sensitive, ouabain-inhibitable ATPase comprised an insignificant fraction of the total ATPase activity. Additions of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate (substrates for nonspecific acid and alkaline phosphatases) and of tartrate (inhibitor of acid phosphatase) gave no indication of inhibition. This suggested that the assay was relatively specific for ATP hydrolysis. The activity was found to have a pH optimum of 8.7 and a Km for ATP of 0.6 mM. There was an absolute requirement for Mg2+, with other divalent cations substituting less efficiently. When the Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity of intact cells was compared with that in homogenized cells, no significant difference was observed. The activity in intact cells was linear with respect to incubation time up to at least l0 min. Trypan blue staining and lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed that greater than 92% of the PMNL remained intact and viable during the assay. No soluble ATPase was released from the cells under assay conditions. In following the distribution of gamma[32P]ATP and 32P2 counts became cell associated. Since the experimental evidence supports the observation that PMNL remain intact and viable and that ATP does not penetrate the cell under assay conditions, it is proposed that greater than 90% of the Mg2+-dependent ATPase of the human PMNL is associated with a plasma membrnae enzyme. This would qualify the enzyme for the role of a plasma membrane marker for future fractionation and isolation attempts.

  19. Basal Expression of Nucleoside Transporter mRNA Differs Among Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers and is Differentially Altered by Ruminal or Abomasal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ruminants, microbial-derived nucleic acids are a major source of N and are absorbed as nucleosides by small intestinal epithelia. Although the biochemical activities of 2 nucleoside transport systems have been described for cattle, little is known regarding the regulation of their gene expression...

  20. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J.; Gil, Victor A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2′-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2′-CMA), 2′-C-methyladenosine (2′-CMA), and 2′-C-methylcytidine (2′-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2′-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2′-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2′-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2′-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2′-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2′-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2′-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2′-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  1. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  2. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  3. Site specific replacements of a single loop nucleoside with a dibenzyl linker may switch the activity of TBA from anticoagulant to antiproliferative

    PubMed Central

    Scuotto, Maria; Rivieccio, Elisa; Varone, Alessia; Corda, Daniela; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Vellecco, Valentina; Cirino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Antonella; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo; Borbone, Nicola; Varra, Michela; Mayol, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Many antiproliferative G-quadruplexes (G4s) arise from the folding of GT-rich strands. Among these, the Thrombin Binding Aptamer (TBA), as a rare example, adopts a monomolecular well-defined G4 structure. Nevertheless, the potential anticancer properties of TBA are severely hampered by its anticoagulant action and, consequently, no related studies have appeared so far in the literature. We wish to report here that suitable chemical modifications in the TBA sequence can preserve its antiproliferative over anticoagulant activity. Particularly, we replaced one residue of the TT or TGT loops with a dibenzyl linker to develop seven new quadruplex-forming TBA based sequences (TBA-bs), which were studied for their structural (CD, CD melting, 1D NMR) and biological (fibrinogen, PT and MTT assays) properties. The three-dimensional structures of the TBA-bs modified at T13 (TBA-bs13) or T12 (TBA-bs12), the former endowed with selective antiproliferative activity, and the latter acting as potently as TBA in both coagulation and MTT assays, were further studied by 2D NMR restrained molecular mechanics. The comparative structural analyses indicated that neither the stability, nor the topology of the G4s, but the different localization of the two benzene rings of the linker was responsible for the loss of the antithrombin activity for TBA-bs13. PMID:26250112

  4. Modulators of Nucleoside Metabolism in the Therapy of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the “soft and smart” therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed. PMID:21401494

  5. Acyclonucleosides, modified seco-nucleosides, and salicyl- or catechol-derived acyclic 5-fluorouracil O,N-acetals: antiproliferative activities, cellular differentiation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Juan A; Núñez, María C; Aránega, Antonia; Gallo, Miguel A; Espinosa, Antonio; Campos, Joaquín M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of cancer chemotherapy with classical drugs - the destruction of the tumor cells - is often complicated by significant toxicity. As an alternative, induced differentiation modulates the cell programme by transforming malignant cells into mature cells with no proliferative potential. Our data demonstrate that (+/-)-1-{[3-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1-isopropoxy]propyl}-5-fluorouracil inhibits proliferation, induces myogenic differentiation, increases the expression of proteins specifically present in normally differentiated skeletal muscle cells, and modifies the adhesion capacity of these cells against the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD. From a designing point of view, a benzene ring was fused to the side chain in order to increase the lipophilicity and anticancer activity of our molecules. Herein we report the preparation and biological activity of three compounds having the general formula (+/-)-1-[2-(5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzyloxy)-1-methoxyethyl]-5-fluorouracils. A catechol-derived compound such as (+/-)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-1-methoxypropyl]-5-fluorouracil and two salicyl-derived compounds such as (+/-)-(Z)-1-[4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxy-but-3-enyl]-5-fluorouracil [(Z)-43] and its dihydrogenated derivative (+/-)-1-[4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxybutyl]-5-fluorouracil were prepared to complete the set of six O,N-acetals. The most active compound against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was (+/-)-(Z)-43 with an IC(50) = 9.40 +/- 0.64 microM. Differentiated breast cancer cells generate fat deposits within the cytoplasm. The MCF-7 cells trea-ed with (+/-)-(Z)-43 caused an increase in the lipid content over control cells after 3 days of treatment. Our results suggest that there may be significant potential advantages in the use of this new differentiating agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. GS-5734 and its parent nucleoside analog inhibit Filo-, Pneumo-, and Paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Michael K.; Jordan, Robert; Arvey, Aaron; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Hotard, Anne L.; Flint, Mike; McMullan, Laura K.; Siegel, Dustin; Clarke, Michael O.; Mackman, Richard L.; Hui, Hon C.; Perron, Michel; Ray, Adrian S.; Cihlar, Tomas; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2017-01-01

    GS-5734 is a monophosphate prodrug of an adenosine nucleoside analog that showed therapeutic efficacy in a non-human primate model of Ebola virus infection. It has been administered under compassionate use to two Ebola patients, both of whom survived, and is currently in Phase 2 clinical development for treatment of Ebola virus disease. Here we report the antiviral activities of GS-5734 and the parent nucleoside analog across multiple virus families, providing evidence to support new indications for this compound against human viruses of significant public health concern. PMID:28262699

  7. Recent advances on the enantioselective synthesis of C-nucleosides inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH).

    PubMed

    Merino, Pedro; Ghirardello, Mattia; Tejero, Tomas; Delso, Ignacio; Matute, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This review will describe the recent advances in the synthesis of C-nucleosides with inhibitory activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. The review will cover synthetic approaches of structural analogues showing modifications in the furanose ring as well as in the heterocyclic base. Heterocyclic sugar nucleoside analogues in which the furanose ring has been replaced by a different heterocyclic ring including aza analogues, thioanalogues as well as dioxolanyl and isoxazolidinyl analogues are also considered.

  8. Novel anticancer compound [trifluoromethyl-substituted pyrazole N-nucleoside] inhibits FLT3 activity to induce differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ayman M; Taha, Mutasem O; Aziz, Mohammad A; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; AbuTayeh, Reem F; Rizvi, Syed A

    2016-06-01

    Anticancer properties of chemically synthesized compounds have continuously been optimized for better efficacy and selectivity. Derivatives of heterocyclic compounds are well known to have selective antiproliferative effect against many types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the ability of an indigenously synthesized anticancer molecule, G-11 [1-(2",3",4",6"-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-4-(3'-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazono)-3-trifluoromethyl-1,4-dihydropyrazol-5-one], to cause selective cytotoxicity and induce differentiation in the acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. G-11 was able to exert cytotoxic effect on hematological (Jurkat, U937, K562, HL-60, CCRF-SB) and solid tumor (MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, Caco-2) cell lines, with IC50 values significantly lower than noncancerous cells (HEK-293, BJ and Vero) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. G-11 induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages by inhibiting the activation of FLT3 (CD135 tyrosine kinase). ITD-FLT3 mutation found in many acute myeloid leukemia patients could also be targeted by G-11 as exhibited by its inhibitory effect on MOLM-13 and MV4-11 cell lines. Molecular docking studies suggest the involvement of Leu616, Asp698, Cys694 and Cys828 residues in binding of G-11 to FLT3. The ability of G-11 to cause selective cytotoxicity and induce differentiation in cancer cells could be clinically relevant for therapeutic gains.

  9. Involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 in intestinal absorption of trifluorothymidine, a novel antitumor nucleoside, in rats.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Takashige; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Kuwata, Keizo; Komuro, Masahito; Ohta, Shigeru; Nagayama, Sekio

    2012-02-01

    ααα-Trifluorothymidine (TFT), an anticancer nucleoside analog, is a potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor. TFT exerts its antitumor activity primarily by inducing DNA fragmentation after incorporation of the triphosphate form of TFT into the DNA. Although an oral combination of TFT and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor has been clinically developed, there is little information regarding TFT absorption. Therefore, we investigated TFT absorption in the rat small intestine. After oral administration of TFT in rats, more than 75% of the TFT was absorbed. To identify the uptake transport system, uptake studies were conducted by using everted sacs prepared from rat small intestines. TFT uptake was saturable, significantly reduced under Na(+)-free conditions, and strongly inhibited by the addition of an endogenous pyrimidine nucleoside. From these results, we suggested the involvement of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) in TFT absorption into rat small intestine. In rat small intestines, the mRNAs coding for rat CNT1 (rCNT1) and rCNT2, but not for rCNT3, were predominantly expressed. To investigate the roles of rCNT1 and rCNT2 in TFT uptake, we conducted uptake assays by using Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 complementary RNA (cRNA) and rCNT2 cRNA. TFT uptake by X. laevis oocytes injected with rCNT1 cRNA, and not rCNT2 cRNA, was significantly greater than that by water-injected oocytes. In addition, in situ single-pass perfusion experiments performed using rat jejunum regions showed that thymidine, a substrate for CNT1, strongly inhibited TFT uptake. In conclusion, TFT is absorbed via rCNT1 in the intestinal lumen in rats.

  10. Docking and 3-D QSAR studies on indolyl aryl sulfones. Binding mode exploration at the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside binding site and design of highly active N-(2-hydroxyethyl)carboxamide and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)carbohydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ragno, Rino; Artico, Marino; De Martino, Gabriella; La Regina, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Antonio; Di Pasquali, Alessandra; Silvestri, Romano

    2005-01-13

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3-D QSAR) studies and docking simulations were developed on indolyl aryl sulfones (IASs), a class of novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (Silvestri, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 2482-2493) highly active against wild type and some clinically relevant resistant strains (Y181C, the double mutant K103N-Y181C, and the K103R-V179D-P225H strain, highly resistant to efavirenz). Predictive 3-D QSAR models using the combination of GRID and GOLPE programs were obtained using a receptor-based alignment by means of docking IASs into the non-nucleoside binding site (NNBS) of RT. The derived 3-D QSAR models showed conventional correlation (r(2)) and cross-validated (q(2)) coefficients values ranging from 0.79 to 0.93 and from 0.59 to 0.84, respectively. All described models were validated by an external test set compiled from previously reported pyrryl aryl sulfones (Artico, et al. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 522-530). The most predictive 3-D QSAR model was then used to predict the activity of novel untested IASs. The synthesis of six designed derivatives (prediction set) allowed disclosure of new IASs endowed with high anti-HIV-1 activities.

  11. Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues: classification, target enzymes, mechanisms of action and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, E. S.; Khandazhinskaya, A. P.; Kochetkov, Sergei N.

    2012-08-01

    Key biological targets (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, herpes virus DNA polymerase and hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase) and the mechanisms of action of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are considered. Structural types of analogues are discussed. Methods of synthesis for the most promising compounds and the spectrum of their biological activities are described. The bibliography includes 126 references.

  12. Non-nucleoside structures retain full anti-HCMV potency of the dideoxy furanopyrimidine family.

    PubMed

    Bidet, Olivier; McGuigan, Christopher; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2004-11-01

    We have recently reported that 2',3'dideoxy analogues of our exquisitely potent anti-VZV furanopyrimidine deoxynucleosides are shifted to selective anti-HCMV agents. We now find that the fully deoxygenated 2',3',5'-trideoxy analogue is fully antivirally active. This is taken as proof that these agents act by a novel non-nucleoside mechanism of action.

  13. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 transfection with ultrasound and microbubbles in nucleoside transport deficient HEK293 cells greatly increases gemcitabine uptake.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    method to reverse gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic tumors that have little nucleoside transport activity which are resistant to almost all current anticancer therapies.

  14. A nucleoside triphosphate-dependent deoxyribonuclease from Bacillus laterosporus. Purification and characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Anai, M; Mihara, T; Yamanaka, M; Shibata, T; Takagi, Y

    1975-07-01

    A deoxyribonuclease, which requires nucleoside triphosphate for reaction, has been purified about 150-fold from extracts of Bacillus laterosporus. Potassium phosphate and ethylene glycol stabilize the purified enzyme. The enzyme degrades double-stranded DNA about 100 times faster than heat-denatured DNA in the presence of nucleoside triphosphate. Double-stranded DNA is not degraded to any measurable extent in the absence of ATP, but the enzyme exhibits activity toward denatured DNA in the absence of nucleoside triphosphate, and this activity seems to be an intrinsic property of this enzyme protein. The optimum pH is 8.5 and the maximum activity is obtained in the copresence of Mg2+ (8.0 X 10(-3)M) and Mn2+ (7.0 X 10(-5)M). ATP and dATP are most effective and nucleoside di- or monophosphates are ineffective. ATP is converted to ADP and inorganic phosphate during the reaction and the ratio of the amount of ATP cleaved to that of hydrolyzed phosphodiester bonds of DNA is about 3:1. An inhibitor of the enzyme was observed in bacterial extracts prepared by sonic disruption; the inhibitory substance is produced in the bacteria in the later stages of cell growth. Preliminary results show that the inhibitor emerged near the void volume of a Sephadex G-200 column, and was relatively heat-stable, RNase-resistant, and DNase-sensitive.

  15. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  16. Nucleoside modification with boron clusters and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2009-09-01

    General methods for the synthesis of nucleosides modified with borane clusters and metallacarborane complexes are presented. These include: (1) the click chemistry approach based on Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and (2) tethering of the metallacarborane group to the aglycone of a nucleoside via a dioxane ring opening in oxonium metallacarborane derivatives. The proposed methodologies broaden the availability of nucleoside-borane cluster conjugates and open up new areas for their applications.

  17. Aspartic acid based nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Munmun; Maiti, Mohitosh; Rozenski, Jef; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-05-14

    In view of a persistent threat to mankind, the development of nucleotide-based prodrugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a constant effort in many medicinal chemistry groups. In an attempt to identify novel nucleoside phosphoramidate analogues for improving the anti-HCV activity, we have explored, for the first time, aspartic acid (Asp) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) esters as amidate counterparts by considering three 2'-C-methyl containing nucleosides, 2'-C-Me-cytidine, 2'-C-Me-uridine and 2'-C-Me-2'-fluoro-uridine. Synthesis of these analogues required protection for the vicinal diol functionality of the sugar moiety and the amino group of the cytidine nucleoside to regioselectively perform phosphorylation reaction at the 5'-hydroxyl group. Anti-HCV data demonstrate that the Asp-based phosphoramidates are ∼550 fold more potent than the parent nucleosides. The inhibitory activity of the Asp-ProTides was higher than the Ala-ProTides, suggesting that Asp would be a potential amino acid candidate to be considered for developing novel antiviral prodrugs.

  18. Phosphorylation of nucleoside-metallacarborane and carborane conjugates by nucleoside kinases.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2013-01-01

    A library of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides modified with carborane or metallacarborane boron clusters at different locations, consisting of new molecules as well as already described compounds, was prepared. The compounds were tested as substrates for human deoxynucleoside kinases. Some conjugates, with modification attached to N3 of thymidine via a linker containing the triazole moiety, were efficiently phosphorylated by cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 and mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. Higher phosphorylation levels were observed with thymidine kinase 1, the phosphorylation of nucleosides modified with metallacarboranes was observed for the first time.

  19. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors inhibit dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase).

    PubMed

    Otomo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Osada, Kenichi; Nakashima, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2008-08-01

    Neuronal dynamin I plays a critical role in the recycling of synaptic vesicles, and thus in nervous system function. We expressed and purified dynamin I to explore potentially clinically useful endocytosis inhibitors and to examine the mechanism of their action. We estimated the IC(50) of nineteen psychotropic drugs for dynamin I. The IC(50) values of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline and fluvoxamine) were 7.3+/-1.0 and 14.7+/-1.6 microM, respectively. Kinetic analyses revealed that fluvoxamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) with respect to guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and a competitive inhibitor with respect to L-phosphatidylserine (PS). Fluvoxamine may compete with PS for binding to the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin I. On the other hand, sertraline was a mixed type inhibitor with respect to both GTP and PS. Our results indicate that sertraline and fluvoxamine may regulate the transportation of neurotransmitters by modulating synaptic vesicle endocytosis via the inhibition of dynamin I GTPase.

  20. Crystallization and Crystal-Packing Studies of Chlorella Virus Deoxyuridine Triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, K.; Moriyama, H

    2009-01-01

    The 141-amino-acid deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) from the algal Chlorella virus IL-3A and its Glu81Ser/Thr84Arg-mutant derivative Mu-22 were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method at 298 K with polyethylene glycol as the precipitant. An apo IL-3A dUTPase with an amino-terminal T7 epitope tag and a carboxy-terminal histidine tag yielded cubic P2{sub 1}3 crystals with unit-cell parameter a = 106.65 {angstrom}. In the presence of dUDP, the enzyme produced thin stacked orthorhombic P222 crystals with unit-cell parameters a = 81.0, b = 96.2, c = 132.8 {angstrom}. T7-histidine-tagged Mu-22 dUTPase formed thin stacked rectangular crystals. Amino-terminal histidine-tagged dUTPases did not crystallize but formed aggregates. Glycyl-seryl-tagged dUTPases yielded cubic P2{sub 1}3 IL-3A crystals with unit-cell parameter a = 105.68 {angstrom} and hexagonal P6{sub 3} Mu-22 crystals with unit-cell parameters a = 132.07, c = 53.45 {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}. Owing to the Thr84Arg mutation, Mu-22 dUTPase had different monomer-to-monomer interactions to those of IL-3A dUTPase.

  1. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent purine nucleoside transport activity. Thus, the liver must express, at least, a second nucleoside transporter which should be pyrimidine-preferring. Homology cloning using RT-PCR revealed that a second isoform is indeed present in liver. This second isoform turned out to be identical to the 'epithelial-specific isoform' called cNT1, which shows in fact high specificity for pyrimidine nucleosides. Although cNT1 mRNA is present at lower amounts than SPNT mRNA, the amounts of cNT1 protein, when measured using isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies, were even higher than the SPNT protein levels. Moreover, partially purified basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from liver were enriched in the SPNT but not in the cNT1 protein, which suggests that the subcellular localization of these carrier proteins is different. SPNT and cNT1 protein amounts in crude membrane extracts from 6 h-regenerating rat livers are higher than in the preparations from sham-operated controls (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively). These results suggest that liver parenchymal cells express at least two different isoforms of concentrative nucleoside carriers, the cNT1 and SPNT proteins, which show differential regulation and subcellular localization. PMID:9480921

  2. Thermostability of mammalian brain ribosomes and the effects of nucleoside triphosphates on their heat-sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Grove, B K; Johnson, T C; Gilbert, B E

    1974-02-01

    Mammalian brain ribosomes were found to be heat-labile. On preincubation of the ribosomes at 37 degrees C, their ability to participate in polypeptide-synthesis reactions was substantially diminished. Despite the sensitivity of ribosomal protein synthesis to heat-inactivation, preincubation resulted in no significant alterations in ribosomal sedimentation profiles or changes in the integrity of the ribosomal RNA. The thermolability of brain ribosomes was shown to be associated with their inability to bind both template RNA and aminoacyl-tRNA. Similar experiments with brain ribosomal subunits demonstrated that the small (40S) subunit was more sensitive to heat-inactivation than the large (60S) subunit. The presence of ATP (1mm) protected ribosomes from thermal inactivation, although this protection was shown to be temporary. The protection appeared to be specific to nucleoside triphosphates, since GTP and UTP also stabilized ribosomes to thermal denaturation whereas nucleoside diphosphates (ADP) and nucleoside monophosphates (AMP and cyclic AMP) did not alter ribosomal sensitivity to heat. Although 1mm concentrations of nucleoside triphosphates protected ribosomes from heat-inactivation, the presence of higher concentrations resulted in complete inactivation of ribosomal activity.

  3. X-ray structure and activities of an essential Mononegavirales L-protein domain

    PubMed Central

    Paesen, Guido C.; Collet, Axelle; Sallamand, Corinne; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The L protein of mononegaviruses harbours all catalytic activities for genome replication and transcription. It contains six conserved domains (CR-I to -VI; Fig. 1a). CR-III has been linked to polymerase and polyadenylation activity, CR-V to mRNA capping and CR-VI to cap methylation. However, how these activities are choreographed is poorly understood. Here we present the 2.2-Å X-ray structure and activities of CR-VI+, a portion of human Metapneumovirus L consisting of CR-VI and the poorly conserved region at its C terminus, the +domain. The CR-VI domain has a methyltransferase fold, which besides the typical S-adenosylmethionine-binding site (SAMP) also contains a novel pocket (NSP) that can accommodate a nucleoside. CR-VI lacks an obvious cap-binding site, and the SAMP-adjoining site holding the nucleotides undergoing methylation (SUBP) is unusually narrow because of the overhanging +domain. CR-VI+ sequentially methylates caps at their 2′O and N7 positions, and also displays nucleotide triphosphatase activity. PMID:26549102

  4. Rare 2-Substituted Purine Nucleosides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    acetonyinosine, AVS-002159) has been found to have very high activity (TI > 1000) against the Sandfly Fever Virus (Phlebovirus). Another compound (2...propenyl group is occurring at the slow step of the reaction, i.e. the transmetalation stage. Temperature appears to be an important factor in...exclusive formation of the 1-propenyl compound 79 is realized when the temperature is raised to 110 °C. Deprotection of 79 with trimethyIsilyl iodide in

  5. Flaviviridae viruses use a common molecular mechanism to escape nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Valdés, James J; Butterill, Philip T; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-03-18

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of Flaviviridae viruses are crucial for replication. The Flaviviridae polymerase is organized into structural motifs (A-G), with motifs F, A, C and E containing interrogating, priming and catalytic substrate-interacting sites. Modified nucleoside analogues act as antiviral drugs by targeting Flaviviridae polymerases and integrating into the synthesized product causing premature termination. A threonine mutation of a conserved serine residue in motif B of Flaviviridae polymerases renders resistance to 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogues. The mechanism how this single mutation causes Flaviviridae viruses to escape nucleoside analogues is not yet known. Given the pivotal position of the serine residue in motif B that supports motif F, we hypothesized the threonine mutation causes alterations in nucleoside exploration within the entry tunnel. Implementing a stochastic molecular software showed the all-atom 2'-C-methylated analogue reaction within the active sites of wild type and serine-threonine mutant polymerases from Hepacivirus and Flavivirus. Compared with the wild type, the serine-threonine mutant polymerases caused a significant decrease of analogue contacts with conserved interrogating residues in motif F and a displacement of metal ion cofactors. The simulations significantly showed that during the analogue exploration of the active site the hydrophobic methyl group in the serine-threonine mutant repels water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the 2'-C-methylated analogue, causing a concentration of water-mediated bonds at the substrate-interacting sites. Collectively, the data are an insight into a molecular escape mechanism by Flaviviridae viruses from 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

  6. Identification of amino acid residues responsible for the pyrimidine and purine nucleoside specificities of human concentrative Na(+) nucleoside cotransporters hCNT1 and hCNT2.

    PubMed

    Loewen, S K; Ng, A M; Yao, S Y; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A; Young, J D

    1999-08-27

    hCNT1 and hCNT2 mediate concentrative (Na(+)-linked) cellular uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside drugs by human cells and tissues. The two proteins (650 and 658 residues, 71 kDa) are 72% identical in sequence and contain 13 putative transmembrane helices (TMs). When produced in Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit), whereas hCNT2 is selective for purine nucleosides (system cif). Both transport uridine. We have used (i) chimeric constructs between hCNT1 and hCNT2, (ii) sequence comparisons with a newly identified broad specificity concentrative nucleoside transporter (system cib) from Eptatretus stouti, the Pacific hagfish (hfCNT), and (iii) site-directed mutagenesis of hCNT1 to identify two sets of adjacent residues in TMs 7 and 8 of hCNT1 (Ser(319)/Gln(320) and Ser(353)/Leu(354)) that, when converted to the corresponding residues in hCNT2 (Gly(313)/Met(314) and Thr(347)/Val(348)), changed the specificity of the transporter from cit to cif. Mutation of Ser(319) in TM 7 of hCNT1 to Gly enabled transport of purine nucleosides, whereas concurrent mutation of Gln(320) to Met (which had no effect on its own) augmented this transport. The additional mutation of Ser(353) to Thr in TM 8 converted hCNT1/S319G/Q320M, from cib to cif, but with relatively low adenosine transport activity. Additional mutation of Leu(354) to Val (which had no effect on its own) increased the adenosine transport capability of hCNT1/S319G/Q320M/S353T, producing a full cif-type transporter phenotype. On its own, the S353T mutation converted hCNT1 into a transporter with novel uridine-selective transport properties. Helix modeling of hCNT1 placed Ser(319) (TM 7) and Ser(353) (TM 8) within the putative substrate translocation channel, whereas Gln(320) (TM 7) and Leu(354) (TM 8) may exert their effects through altered helix packing.

  7. In vivo reshaping the catalytic site of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase for dideoxy- and didehydronucleosides via a single amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Pierre Alexandre; Dacher, Priscilla; Dugué, Laurence; Pochet, Sylvie

    2008-07-18

    Nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of 2-deoxyribose between bases and have been widely used as biocatalysts to synthesize a variety of nucleoside analogs. The genes encoding nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase (ndt) from Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus fermentum underwent random mutagenesis to select variants specialized for the synthesis of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. An Escherichia coli strain, auxotrophic for uracil and unable to use 2',3'-dideoxyuridine, cytosine, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine as a source of uracil was constructed. Randomly mutated lactobacilli ndt libraries from two species, L. leichmannii and L. fermentum, were screened for the production of uracil with 2',3'-dideoxyuridine as a source of uracil. Several mutants suitable for the synthesis of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides were isolated. The nucleotide sequence of the corresponding genes revealed a single mutation (G --> A transition) leading to the substitution of a small aliphatic amino acid by a nucleophilic one, A15T (L. fermentum) or G9S (L. leichmannii), respectively. We concluded that the "adaptation" of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase activity to 2,3-dideoxyribosyl transfer requires an additional hydroxyl group on a key amino acid side chain of the protein to overcome the absence of such a group in the corresponding substrate. The evolved proteins also display significantly improved nucleoside 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyribosyltransferase activity.

  8. Revaluation of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol derivatives for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues

    PubMed Central

    Sidi Mohamed, Bemba; Périgaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The racemic synthesis of new carbocyclic nucleoside methylphosphonate analogues bearing purine bases (adenine and guanine) was accomplished using bio-sourced furfuryl alcohol derivatives. All compounds were prepared using a Mitsunobu coupling between the heterocyclic base and an appropriate carbocyclic precursor. After deprotection, the compounds were evaluated for their activity against a large number of viruses. However, none of them showed significant antiviral activity or cytotoxicity. PMID:28326134

  9. Revaluation of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol derivatives for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues.

    PubMed

    Sidi Mohamed, Bemba; Périgaud, Christian; Mathé, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The racemic synthesis of new carbocyclic nucleoside methylphosphonate analogues bearing purine bases (adenine and guanine) was accomplished using bio-sourced furfuryl alcohol derivatives. All compounds were prepared using a Mitsunobu coupling between the heterocyclic base and an appropriate carbocyclic precursor. After deprotection, the compounds were evaluated for their activity against a large number of viruses. However, none of them showed significant antiviral activity or cytotoxicity.

  10. A Transmembrane Segment Determines the Steady-State Localization of an Ion-Transporting Adenosine Triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Lisa A.; Aronson, Paul; Caplan, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The H,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of gastric parietal cells is targeted to a regulated membrane compartment that fuses with the apical plasma membrane in response to secretagogue stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated that the α subunit of the H,K-ATPase encodes localization information responsible for this pump's apical distribution, whereas the β subunit carries the signal responsible for the cessation of acid secretion through the retrieval of the pump from the surface to the regulated intracellular compartment. By analyzing the sorting behaviors of a number of chimeric pumps composed of complementary portions of the H,K-ATPase α subunit and the highly homologous Na,K-ATPase α subunit, we have identified a portion of the gastric H,K-ATPase, which is sufficient to redirect the normally basolateral Na,K-ATPase to the apical surface in transfected epithelial cells. This motif resides within the fourth of the H,K-ATPase α subunit's ten predicted transmembrane domains. Although interactions with glycosphingolipid-rich membrane domains have been proposed to play an important role in the targeting of several apical membrane proteins, the apically located chimeras are not found in detergent-insoluble complexes, which are typically enriched in glycosphingolipids. Furthermore, a chimera incorporating the Na,K-ATPase α subunit fourth transmembrane domain is apically targeted when both of its flanking sequences derive from H,K-ATPase sequence. These results provide the identification of a defined apical localization signal in a polytopic membrane transport protein, and suggest that this signal functions through conformational interactions between the fourth transmembrane spanning segment and its surrounding sequence domains. PMID:10684257

  11. Enzymatic synthesis and phosphorolysis of 4(2)-thioxo- and 6(5)-azapyrimidine nucleosides by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    Stepchenko, Vladimir A; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Seela, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The trans-2-deoxyribosylation of 4-thiouracil (4SUra) and 2-thiouracil (2SUra), as well as 6-azauracil, 6-azathymine and 6-aza-2-thiothymine was studied using dG and E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) for the in situ generation of 2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranose-1-phosphate (dRib-1P) followed by its coupling with the bases catalyzed by either E. coli thymidine (TP) or uridine (UP) phosphorylases. 4SUra revealed satisfactory substrate activity for UP and, unexpectedly, complete inertness for TP; no formation of 2’-deoxy-2-thiouridine (2SUd) was observed under analogous reaction conditions in the presence of UP and TP. On the contrary, 2SU, 2SUd, 4STd and 2STd are good substrates for both UP and TP; moreover, 2SU, 4STd and 2’-deoxy-5-azacytidine (Decitabine) are substrates for PNP and the phosphorolysis of the latter is reversible. Condensation of 2SUra and 5-azacytosine with dRib-1P (Ba salt) catalyzed by the accordant UP and PNP in Tris∙HCl buffer gave 2SUd and 2’-deoxy-5-azacytidine in 27% and 15% yields, respectively. 6-Azauracil and 6-azathymine showed good substrate properties for both TP and UP, whereas only TP recognizes 2-thio-6-azathymine as a substrate. 5-Phenyl and 5-tert-butyl derivatives of 6-azauracil and its 2-thioxo derivative were tested as substrates for UP and TP, and only 5-phenyl- and 5-tert-butyl-6-azauracils displayed very low substrate activity. The role of structural peculiarities and electronic properties in the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases is discussed. PMID:28144328

  12. Enzymatic synthesis and phosphorolysis of 4(2)-thioxo- and 6(5)-azapyrimidine nucleosides by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Stepchenko, Vladimir A; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Seela, Frank; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    The trans-2-deoxyribosylation of 4-thiouracil ((4S)Ura) and 2-thiouracil ((2S)Ura), as well as 6-azauracil, 6-azathymine and 6-aza-2-thiothymine was studied using dG and E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) for the in situ generation of 2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranose-1-phosphate (dRib-1P) followed by its coupling with the bases catalyzed by either E. coli thymidine (TP) or uridine (UP) phosphorylases. (4S)Ura revealed satisfactory substrate activity for UP and, unexpectedly, complete inertness for TP; no formation of 2'-deoxy-2-thiouridine ((2S)Ud) was observed under analogous reaction conditions in the presence of UP and TP. On the contrary, (2S)U, (2S)Ud, (4S)Td and (2S)Td are good substrates for both UP and TP; moreover, (2S)U, (4S)Td and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (Decitabine) are substrates for PNP and the phosphorolysis of the latter is reversible. Condensation of (2S)Ura and 5-azacytosine with dRib-1P (Ba salt) catalyzed by the accordant UP and PNP in Tris∙HCl buffer gave (2S)Ud and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine in 27% and 15% yields, respectively. 6-Azauracil and 6-azathymine showed good substrate properties for both TP and UP, whereas only TP recognizes 2-thio-6-azathymine as a substrate. 5-Phenyl and 5-tert-butyl derivatives of 6-azauracil and its 2-thioxo derivative were tested as substrates for UP and TP, and only 5-phenyl- and 5-tert-butyl-6-azauracils displayed very low substrate activity. The role of structural peculiarities and electronic properties in the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases is discussed.

  13. The guanylate-binding proteins: emerging insights into the biochemical properties and functions of this family of large interferon-induced guanosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Deborah J; Jeyaratnam, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    Originally identified by their unusual ability to bind guanosine monophosphate (GMP) nucleotide agarose, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were used extensively to promote our understanding of interferon-induced gene transcription and as markers of interferon responsiveness. Structural and biochemical analyses of human GBP-1 subsequently demonstrated that the GBPs are a unique subfamily of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases) that hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to both guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and GMP. As members of the larger dynamin superfamily of GTPases, GBPs exhibit such properties as nucleotide-dependent oligomerization and concentration-dependent GTPase activity. Recently, progress has been made in assigning functions to members of the GBP family. While many of these functions involve protection against intracellular pathogens, a growing number of them are not directly related to pathogen protection. It is currently unclear how the unusual properties of GBPs contribute to this growing list of functions. As future studies uncover the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the GBPs, we will gain a greater understanding of how individual GBPs can mediate what currently appears to be a divergent set of functions.

  14. Induction of nucleoside phosphorylase in Enterobacter aerogenes and enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Ding, Qing-Bao; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Yong-Li; Ou, Lin; Wang, Chang-Lu

    2008-07-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPases) were found to be induced in Enterobacter aerogenes DGO-04, and cytidine and cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) were the best inducers. Five mmol/L to fifteen mmol/L cytidine or CMP could distinctly increase the activities of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase), uridine phosphorylase (UPase) and thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) when they were added into medium from 0 to 8 h. In the process of enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside from adenine and uracil arabinoside with wet cells of Enterobacter aerogenes DGO-04 induced by cytidine or CMP, the reaction time could be shortened from 36 to 6 h. After enzymatic reaction the activity of NPase in the cells induced remained higher than that in the cells uninduced.

  15. Phosphorylation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y; Sellam, O; Sarfati, R; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of NDP kinase with antiviral nucleoside triphosphates used in antiviral therapies was studied at the presteady state by fluorescence stopped-flow and compared with the steady-state parameters. The affinity of the analogs was determined by fluorescence titration of a mutated enzyme with an inserted Trp in the binding site. The lack of the 3' hydroxyl in analogs is shown to decrease the kcat more than the KD.

  16. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics.

  17. Phosphate binding by cerebral microsomes in relation to adenosine-triphosphatase activity

    PubMed Central

    Rodnight, R.; Hems, D. A.; Lavin, B. E.

    1966-01-01

    1. Microsomes prepared from guinea-pig and ox brain were incubated for periods of a few seconds with low concentrations of Mg-[32P]ATP, the reaction was stopped with trichloroacetic acid and determinations were made of the phosphate bound to the acid-washed, and in some cases solvent-extracted, residue. 2. At 20 μm-ATP, at 37° and in the presence of Na+ ions, 30–50 μμmoles of phosphate/mg. of microsomal protein were bound by the preparation within 1 sec. of starting the reaction; little further change in level occurred until hydrolysis of ATP exceeded 50%, when the bound phosphate began to decline fairly rapidly to the zero-time value. 3. At 20μm-ATP without Na+ ions present or in the presence of K+ ions, the level of bound phosphate increased gradually and did not decline as ATP hydrolysis approached completion. 4. Potassium ions either inhibited the formation of Na+-dependent bound phosphate or, when added during the course of the reaction, rapidly reduced its level. 5. At 200 μm-ATP the bound phosphate formed in the presence of Na+ ions appeared to consist of a mixture of the unstable Na+-dependent type and the stable type requiring only Mg2+ ions for its formation. 6. Non-radioactive ATP added during the course of the reaction at 20 μm-ATP with Na+ions present rapidly discharged virtually all the bound 32P counts; at 200 μm-ATP only a proportion of the label was similarly discharged. The Na+-dependent bound phosphate is therefore turning over, in contrast with that formed in the absence of Na+ions, which proved more stable. 7. The Na+-dependent bound phosphate was not in the form of ATP; experiments with [14C]ATP instead of [32P]ATP showed a small and invariable binding of ATP by the preparation unaffected by Na+ ions or time of incubation. 8. Under the usual conditions employed in this work ouabain stimulated formation of Na+-dependent bound phosphate when Na+ ions were suboptimum and inhibited it when optimum Na+ ions were present. 9. The Na+-dependent binding reaction under present conditions did not involve incorporation into phosphorylserine groups. 10. The relation of the findings to the (Na+,K+)-ATPase of the preparation, and to observations in brain slices appearing to implicate phosphorylserine groups in cation transport, is discussed. PMID:4226016

  18. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes.

  19. The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Watanabe, Kyoichi A; Lesiak-Watanabe, Krystyna; Goldstein, Barry M; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N

    2002-04-01

    Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as C-nicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.

  20. Single tryptophan of disordered loop from Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase: involvement in catalysis and microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Manish Kumar; Verma, Anita; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Shiv Vardan; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Among various tropical diseases, malaria is a major life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasite. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the deadliest form of malaria, so-called cerebral malaria. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from P. falciparum is a homohexamer containing single tryptophan residue per subunit that accepts inosine and guanosine but not adenosine for its activity. This enzyme has been exploited as drug target against malaria disease. It is important to draw together significant knowledge about inherent properties of this enzyme which will be helpful in better understanding of this drug target. The enzyme shows disorder to order transition during catalysis. The single tryptophan residue residing in conserved region of transition loop is present in purine nucleoside phosphorylases throughout the Plasmodium genus. This active site loop motif is conserved among nucleoside phosphorylases from apicomplexan parasites. Modification of tryptophan residue by N-bromosuccinamide resulted in complete loss of activity showing its importance in catalysis. Inosine was not able to protect enzyme against N-bromosuccinamide modification. Extrinsic fluorescence studies revealed that tryptophan might not be involved in substrate binding. The tryptophan residue localised in electronegative environment showed collisional and static quenching in the presence of quenchers of different polarities.

  1. Direct visualization by electron microscopy of the weakly bound intermediates in the actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, T D; Bhandari, D; Maupin, P; Wachsstock, D; Weeds, A G; Zot, H G

    1993-01-01

    We used a novel stopped-flow/rapid-freezing machine to prepare the transient intermediates in the actin-myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) cycle for direct observation by electron microscopy. We focused on the low affinity complexes of myosin-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and myosin-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-Pi with actin filaments since the transition from these states to the high affinity actin-myosin-ADP and actin-myosin states is postulated to generate the molecular motion that drives muscle contraction and other types of cellular movements. After rapid freezing and metal replication of mixtures of myosin subfragment-1, actin filaments, and ATP, the structure of the weakly bound intermediates is indistinguishable from nucleotide-free rigor complexes. In particular, the average angle of attachment of the myosin head to the actin filament is approximately 40 degrees in both cases. At all stages in the ATPase cycle, the configuration of most of the myosin heads bound to actin filaments is similar, and the part of the myosin head preserved in freeze-fracture replicas does not tilt by more than a few degrees during the transition from the low affinity to high affinity states. In contrast, myosin heads chemically cross-linked to actin filaments differ in their attachment angles from ordered at 40 degrees without ATP to nearly random in the presence of ATP when viewed by negative staining (Craig, R., L.E. Greene, and E. Eisenberg. 1985. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 82:3247-3251, and confirmed here), freezing in vitreous ice (Applegate, D., and P. Flicker. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:6856-6863), and in replicas of rapidly frozen samples. This suggests that many of the cross-linked heads in these preparations are dissociated from but tethered to the actin filaments in the presence of ATP. These observations suggest that the molecular motion produced by myosin and actin takes place with the myosin head at a point some distance from the actin binding site or does not

  2. Lights and shadows in the challenge of binding acyclovir, a synthetic purine-like nucleoside with antiviral activity, at an apical-distal coordination site in copper(II)-polyamine chelates.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther; González-Pérez, Josefa María; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Several nucleic acid components and their metal complexes are known to be involved in crucial metabolic steps. Therefore the study of metal-nucleic acid interactions becomes essential to understand these biological processes. In this work, the synthetic purine-like nucleoside acyclovir (acv) has been used as a model of guanosine recognition with copper(II)-polyamine chelates. The chemical stability of the N9-acyclic arm in acv offers the possibility to use this antiviral drug to deepen the knowledge of metal-nucleoside interactions. Cu(II) chelates with cyclam, cyclen and trien were used as suitable receptors. All these copper(II) tetraamine chelates have in common the potential ability to yield a Cu-N7(apical) bond assisted by an appropriate (amine)N-H⋯O6(acv) intra-molecular interligand interaction. A series of synthesis afforded the following compounds: [Cu(cyclam)(ClO4)2] (1), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-NO3)](NO3)}n (2), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·MeOH}n (3), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·5H2O}n (4), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·2H2O (5), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·3H2O (6), [Cu(trien)(acv)](NO3)2·acv (7) and [Cu(trien)(acv)]SO4·0.71H2O (8). All these compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography and FT-IR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the macrochelates Cu(cyclen)(2+) and Cu(cyclam)(2+) are unable to bind acv at an apical site. In contrast, the Cu(trien)(2+) complex has proved to be an efficient receptor for acv in compounds (7) and (8). In the ternary complex [Cu(trien)(acv)](2+), the metal binding pattern of acv consists of an apical Cu-N7 bond assisted by an intra-molecular (primary amino)N-H⋯O6(acv) interligand interaction. Structural comparisons reveal that this unprecedented apical role of acv is due to the acyclic nature of trien together with the ability of the Cu(trien)(2+) chelate to generate five-coordinated (type 4+1) copper(II) complexes.

  3. Crystal structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexes with thiocarbamate non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spallarossa, Andrea; Cesarini, Sara; Ranise, Angelo; Ponassi, Marco; Unge, Torsten; Bolognesi, Martino

    2008-01-25

    O-Phthalimidoethyl-N-arylthiocarbamates (TCs) have been recently identified as a new class of potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), by means of computer-aided drug design techniques [Ranise A. Spallarossa, S. Cesarini, F. Bondavalli, S. Schenone, O. Bruno, G. Menozzi, P. Fossa, L. Mosti, M. La Colla, et al., Structure-based design, parallel synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and molecular modeling studies of thiocarbamates, new potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor isosteres of phenethylthiazolylthiourea derivatives, J. Med. Chem. 48 (2005) 3858-3873]. To elucidate the atomic details of RT/TC interaction and validate an earlier TC docking model, the structures of three RT/TC complexes were determined at 2.8-3.0A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The conformations adopted by the enzyme-bound TCs were analyzed and compared with those of bioisosterically related NNRTIs.

  4. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Abramchik, Yu. A. Timofeev, V. I. Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-15

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P2{sub 1} and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  5. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramchik, Yu. A.; Timofeev, V. I.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-07-01

    Crystals of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase were grown in microgravity by the capillary counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution was collected from one crystal at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility to 0.99 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P21 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 74.1 Å, b = 110.2 Å, c = 88.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 111.08°. The crystal contains six subunits of the enzyme comprising a hexamer per asymmetric unit. The hexamer is the biological active form of E. coli. purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  6. Studies on yeast nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate transphosphorylase (nucleoside diphosphokinase). IV. Steady-state kinetic properties with thymidine nucleotides (including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine analogues).

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Alber, T; Richardson, D; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M

    1991-01-01

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of the crystalline brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) nucleoside diphosphokinase, with the magnesium complexes of the adenine and thymidine nucleotides as reactants, has led to a postulated kinetic mechanism which proceeds through a substituted enzyme. This agrees with the earlier conclusions of Garces and Cleland [Biochemistry 1969; 8:633-640] who characterized a reaction between the magnesium complexes of the adenine and uridine nucleotides. An advantage of using thymidine nucleotides as reactants is that they permit accurate, rapid and continuous assays of the enzymatic activity in coupled-enzymatic tests. Through measurements of the initial velocities and product inhibition studies, the Michaelis constants, maximum velocities, and inhibition constants could be evaluated for the individual substrates. Competitive substrate inhibition was encountered at relatively high substrate concentrations, which also permitted an evaluation of their ability to act as 'dead-end' inhibitors. The Michaelis constants for the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AzT) analogues were also evaluated and, although these values were only somewhat higher than those of their natural substrates, the Km's for the adenine nucleotides as paired substrates were lower and the Vmax's were drastically reduced. The pharmacological implications of these observations are touched upon and extrapolated to the cases where therapeutic doses of AzT may be employed.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  8. The nucleoside uridine isolated in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2015-03-02

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform (FT) microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2'-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  9. The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase**

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2’-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside. PMID:25683559

  10. Thermal unfolding of nucleoside hydrolases from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: role of disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Marina; De Leo, Ester; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Fuccio, Francesca; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna

    2012-03-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases are metalloproteins that hydrolyze the N-glycosidic bond of β-ribonucleosides, forming the free purine/pyrimidine base and ribose. We report the stability of the two hyperthermophilic enzymes Sulfolobus solfataricus pyrimidine-specific nucleoside hydrolase (SsCU-NH) and Sulfolobus solfataricus purine-specific inosineadenosine- guanosine nucleoside hydrolase (SsIAG-NH) against the denaturing action of temperature and guanidine hydrochloride by means of circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding is reversible for both enzymes as demonstrated by the analysis of the refolding process by activity assays and fluorescence measurements. The evidence that the denaturation of SsIAG-NH carried out in the presence of reducing agents proved to be reversible indicates that the presence of disulfide bonds interferes with the refolding process of this enzyme. Both enzymes are highly thermostable and no thermal unfolding transition can be obtained up to 108°C. SsIAG-NH is thermally denatured under reducing conditions (T(m)=93°C) demonstrating the contribution of disulfide bridges to enzyme thermostability.

  11. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. Bsi590: molecular cloning, gene expression and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Jiang, Xinyin; Li, Huirong; Ren, Daming

    2008-05-01

    The gene encoding purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Bsi590 was identified, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 233 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 25,018 Da. Pseudoalteromonas sp. Bsi590 PNP (PiPNP) shares 60% amino sequence identity and conservation of amino acid residues involved in catalysis with mesophilic Escherichia coli deoD-encoded purine nucleoside phosphorylase (EcPNP). N-terminal his-tagged PiPNP and EcPNP were purified to apparent homogeneity using Ni2+-chelating column. Compared with EcPNP, PiPNP possessed a lower temperature optimum and thermal stability. As for PNP enzymes in general, PiPNP and EcPNP displayed complicated kinetic properties; PiPNP possessed higher Km and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) compared to EcPNP at 37 degrees C. Substrate specificity results showed PiPNP catalyzed the phosphorolytic cleavage of 6-oxopurine and 6-aminopurine nucleosides (or 2-deoxynucleosides), and to a lesser extent purine arabinosides. PiPNP showed a better activity with inosine while no activity toward pyrimidine nucleosides. The protein conformation was analyzed by temperature perturbation difference spectrum. Results showed that PiPNP had lower conformation transition point temperature than EcPNP; phosphate buffer and KCl had significant influence on PiPNP protein conformation stability and thermostability.

  12. Histidine Triad Nucleotide-binding Protein 1 (HINT-1) Phosphoramidase Transforms Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphorothioates to Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphates*

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside 5′-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5′-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5′-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5′-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released. PMID:20940308

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Specific Nucleoside Diphosphatase from Soybean Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Doremus, Holly D.; Blevins, Dale G.

    1988-01-01

    A specific nucleoside diphosphatase was purified from the plant portion of soybean (Glycine max L.) root nodules. This enzyme is highly specific for nucleotide diphosphates; it is unable to hydrolyze nucleotide tri- and monophosphates or a variety of other phosphorylated compounds. It will, however, hydrolyze any nucleotide disphosphate tested. The pH optimum of the enzyme is about 7.5; it requires a divalent cation for activity; and it is neither inhibited nor activated by any of the metabolites tested. It appears that in vivo this enzyme would be very active, but its function is not clear. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16666123

  14. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by small guanosine triphosphatases in skeletal muscle and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takaya

    2014-10-16

    Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood glucose level by stimulating various physiological responses in its target tissues. In skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, insulin promotes membrane trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from GLUT4 storage vesicles to the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the uptake of glucose from the circulation. Detailed mechanisms underlying insulin-dependent intracellular signal transduction for glucose uptake remain largely unknown. In this article, I give an overview on the recently identified signaling network involving Rab, Ras, and Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that regulates glucose uptake in insulin-responsive tissues. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms for these small GTPases and the cross-talk between protein kinase and small GTPase cascades are highlighted.

  15. Regulation by membrane fluidity of the allosteric behavior of the (Ca2)-adenosine triphosphatase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Siñeriz, F; Bloj, B; Farías, R N; Trucco, R E

    1973-09-01

    The allosteric properties of the membrane-bound (Ca(2+))-adenosine triphosphatase of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of Escherichia coli were studied in membranes with different fatty acid compositions. The Hill coefficient of the inhibition by Na(+) ranged from 1.4, in the case where the auxotroph was grown with cis-vaccenic acid as supplement, to 2.8 when grown on linolenic acid. The results indicate that no fatty acid is particularly involved in the allosteric phenomena. A correlation between the values of the Hill coefficient and the double bond index or the ratio of the double bond index saturated to the fatty acids of the membrane was found. These facts are interpreted as a modulation by the membrane fluidity of the allosteric behavior of the membrane-bound enzyme. The general biological character of this phenomenon is discussed in this paper.

  16. Hydrolytic Fitness of N-glycosyl Bonds: Comparing the Deglycosylation Kinetics of Modified, Alternative and Native Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Andro C; Yu, Hiu T; Tor, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Nature’s selection of the contemporary nucleobases in RNA and DNA continues to intrigue the origin of life community. While the prebiotic synthesis of the N-glycosyl bond has historically been a central area of investigation, variations in hydrolytic stabilities among the N-glycosyl bonds may have presented an additional selection pressure that contributed to nucleobase and nucleoside evolution. To experimentally probe this hypothesis, a systematic kinetic analysis of the hydrolytic deglycosylation reactions of modified, alternative and native nucleosides was undertaken. Rate constants were measured as a function of temperature (at pH 1) to produce Arrhenius and Eyring plots for extrapolation to 37°C and determination of thermodynamic activation parameters. Rate enhancements based on the differences in reaction rates of deoxyribo- and ribo-glycosidic bonds were found to vary under the same conditions. Rate constants of deoxynucleosides were also measured across the pH range of 1 – 3 (at 50°C), which highlighted how simple changes to the heterocycle alone can lead to significant variation in deglycosylation rates. The contemporary nucleosides exhibited the slowest deglycosylation rates in comparison to the non-native/alternative nucleosides, which we suggest as experimental support for nature’s selection of the fittest N-glycosyl bonds. PMID:25750482

  17. Radioimmunoassays for the modified nucleosides N[9-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)purin-6-ylcarbamoyl]-L-threonine and 2-methylthioadenosine.

    PubMed Central

    Vold, B S

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays were established for the modified nucleosides N-[9-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)purin-6-ylcarbamoyl]-L-threonine, t6A, and 2-methylthioadenosine, ms2A. The assays depended on the production of antisera specific for t6A and ms2A that have not been previously reported. The nitrocellulose membrane filtration and saturated ammonium sulfate RIA techniques were compared for efficiency. Various radioactive antigens were employed to establish which type of antigen would give the best binding. The tritium post-labeling procedure of Randerath and Randerath was used to obtain labeled nucleosides of high enough specific activity to be useful for RIAs when the labeled nucleoside was not available commerically. The specificity of the antibodies toward nucleosides and purified tRNAs is reported. Although the titer of the t6A antiserum was low, the specificity was very sharp. An interesting finding was that threonine, a major structural component of the side-chain modification of t6A, was completely infective as an inhibitor. PMID:493139

  18. An ancient prevertebrate Na+-nucleoside cotransporter (hfCNT) from the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti).

    PubMed

    Yao, Sylvia Y; Ng, Amy M; Loewen, Shaun K; Cass, Carol E; Baldwin, Stephen A; Young, James D

    2002-07-01

    The human concentrative (Na+-linked) plasma membrane transport proteins hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 are pyrimidine nucleoside-selective (system cit), purine nucleoside-selective (system cif), or broadly selective for both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides (system cib), respectively. All have orthologs in other mammalian species and belong to a gene family (CNT) that has members in insects, nematodes, pathogenic yeast, and bacteria. Here, we report the cDNA cloning and functional characterization of a CNT family member from an ancient marine prevertebrate, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti). This Na+-nucleoside symporter, designated hfCNT, is the first transport protein to be characterized in detail in hagfish and is a 683-amino acid residue protein with 13 predicted transmembrane helical segments (TMs). hfCNT was 52, 50, and 57% identical in sequence to hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3, respectively. Similarity to hCNT3 was particularly marked in the TM 4-13 region. When produced in Xenopus oocytes, hfCNT exhibited the transport properties of system cib, with uridine, thymidine, and inosine apparent K(m) values of 10-45 microM. The antiviral nucleoside drugs 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine were also transported. Simultaneous measurement of uridine-evoked currents and radiolabeled uridine uptake under voltage-clamp conditions gave a Na+-to-uridine coupling ratio of 2:1 (cf. 2:1 for hCNT3 and 1:1 for hCNT1/2). The apparent K50 value for Na+ activation was >100 mM. A 50:50 chimera between hfCNT and hCNT1 (TMs 7-13 of hfCNT replaced by those of hCNT1) exhibited hCNT1-like cation interactions, establishing that the structural determinants of cation stoichiometry and binding affinity were located within the carboxy-terminal half of the protein. The high degree of sequence similarity between hfCNT and hCNT3 may indicate functional constraints on the primary structure of the transporter and suggests that cib-type CNTs fulfill important

  19. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  20. Ring Expanded Nucleoside Analogues Inhibit RNA Helicase and Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yedavalli, Venkat S.R.K; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Hongyi; Zhang, Peng; Starost, Matthew F.; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    A series of ring expanded nucleoside (REN) analogues were synthesized and screened for inhibition of cellular RNA helicase activity and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We identified two compounds 1 and 2 that inhibited the ATP dependent activity of human RNA helicase DDX3. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed HIV-1 replication in T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Neither compound at therapeutic doses was significantly toxic in ex vivo cell culture or in vivo in mice. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that a cellular factor, an RNA helicase, could be targeted for inhibiting HIV-1 replication. PMID:18680273

  1. Flow cytomeric measurement of DNA and incorporated nucleoside analogs

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for simultaneously measuring total cellular DNA and incorporated nucleoside analog. The method entails altering the cellular DNA of cells grown in the presence of a nucleoside analog so that single stranded and double stranded portions are present. Separate stains are used against the two portions. An immunochemical stain is used against the single stranded portion to provide a measure of incorporated nucleoside analog, and a double strand DNA-specific stain is used against the double stranded portion to simultaneously provide a measure of total cellular DNA. The method permits rapid flow cytometric analysis of cell populations, rapid identification of cycling and noncycling subpopulations, and determination of the efficacy of S phase cytotoxic anticancer agents.

  2. A review on the chemical synthesis of pyrophosphate bonds in bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong

    2015-09-15

    Currently, there is an ongoing interest in the synthesis of nucleoside diphosphate analogs as important regulators in catabolism/anabolism, and their potential applications as mechanistic probes and chemical tools for bioassays. However, the pyrophosphate bond formation step remains as the bottleneck. In this Digest, the chemical synthesis of the pyrophosphate bonds of representative bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs, i.e. phosphorus-modified analogs, nucleoside cyclic diphosphates, and nucleoside diphosphate conjugates, will be described.

  3. A flexible loop as a functional element in the catalytic mechanism of nucleoside hydrolase from Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Vandemeulebroucke, An; De Vos, Stefan; Van Holsbeke, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Versées, Wim

    2008-08-08

    The nucleoside hydrolase of Trypanosoma vivax hydrolyzes the N-glycosidic bond of purine nucleosides. Structural and kinetic studies on this enzyme have suggested a catalytic role for a flexible loop in the vicinity of the active sites. Here we present the analysis of the role of this flexible loop via the combination of a proline scan of the loop, loop deletion mutagenesis, steady state and pre-steady state analysis, and x-ray crystallography. Our analysis reveals that this loop has an important role in leaving group activation and product release. The catalytic role involves the entire loop and could only be perturbed by deletion of the entire loop and not by single site mutagenesis. We present evidence that the loop closes over the active site during catalysis, thereby ordering a water channel that is involved in leaving group activation. Once chemistry has taken place, the loop dynamics determine the rate of product release.

  4. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  5. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  6. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: synthesis and properties of a new class of nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Renpei; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates were synthesized via the condensation reactions of appropriately protected nucleosides with monopyridinium H-boranophosphonate. The condensation reactions gave only the mono-esterified products under the optimized conditions without formation of di-esterified byproducts. Deprotection of the condensation products was achieved under basic conditions to afford the fully-deprotected nucleoside H-boranophosphonates in excellent yields.

  7. Synthesis of L-enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Yoshimura, Y; Sakata, S; Miura, S; Machida, H; Matsuda, A

    1998-05-05

    L-Enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized from D-xylose. Methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-xylofuranoside 6 was converted to the corresponding xylitol 7, which was treated with MsCl and then Na2S to give 1,4-anhydro-L-4-thioarabitol 8. As previously reported, Pummerer rearrangement of 8 followed by glycosylation with a silylated thymine and N4-acetylcytosine derivative and deprotection gave the corresponding alpha- and beta-L-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

  8. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  9. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Khalafi-Nezhad, Ali; Behrouz, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Summary The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E)-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z)-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E)-isomers had the lower heats of formation. PMID:20563270

  10. The synergism of nucleoside antibiotics combined with guanine 7-N-oxide against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hasobe, M; Saneyoshi, M; Isono, K

    1986-09-01

    Guanine 7-N-oxide was shown to have synergistic activity in combination with neplanocin A against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), as reported previously. We examined further the antiviral activity of guanine 7-N-oxide in combination with other nucleoside antibiotics against IHNV. Synergism was seen between guanine 7-N-oxide and D-eritadenine or cordycepin. It is considered that compounds inhibiting RNA methylation show synergism with guanine 7-N-oxide.

  11. Enhancement of Peripheral Nerve Regrowth by the Purine Nucleoside Analog and Cell Cycle Inhibitor, Roscovitine

    PubMed Central

    Law, Vincent; Dong, Sophie; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Zochodne, Douglas; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a slow process that can be associated with limited outcomes and thus a search for novel and effective therapy for peripheral nerve injury and disease is crucial. Here, we found that roscovitine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analog, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal-like PC12 cells. Furthermore, ex vivo analysis of pre-injured adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons showed that roscovitine enhances neurite regrowth in these cells. Likewise, in vivo transected sciatic nerves in rats locally perfused with roscovitine had augmented repopulation of new myelinated axons beyond the transection zone. By mass spectrometry, we found that roscovitine interacts with tubulin and actin. It interacts directly with tubulin and causes a dose-dependent induction of tubulin polymerization as well as enhances Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-dependent tubulin polymerization. Conversely, roscovitine interacts indirectly with actin and counteracts the inhibitory effect of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) on Actin-Related Proteins 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization, and thus, causes actin polymerization. Moreover, in the presence of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), roscovitine-enhanced neurite outgrowth is mediated by increased activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Since microtubule and F-actin dynamics are critical for axonal regrowth, the ability of roscovitine to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and support polymerization of tubulin and actin indicate a major role for this purine nucleoside analog in the promotion of axonal regeneration. Together, our findings demonstrate a therapeutic potential for the purine nucleoside analog, roscovitine, in peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27799897

  12. Site-directed Mutagenesis of Key Residues Unveiled a Novel Allosteric Site on Human Adenosine Kinase for Pyrrolobenzoxa(thia)zepinone Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Savi, Lida; Brindisi, Margherita; Alfano, Gloria; Butini, Stefania; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana; Lossani, Andrea; Focher, Federico; Cavella, Caterina; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Most nucleoside kinases, besides the catalytic domain, feature an allosteric domain which modulates their activity. Generally, non-substrate analogs, interacting with allosteric sites, represent a major opportunity for developing more selective and safer therapeutics. We recently developed a series of non-nucleoside non-competitive inhibitors of human adenosine kinase (hAK), based on a pyrrolobenzoxa(thia)zepinone scaffold. Based on computational analysis, we hypothesized the existence of a novel allosteric site on hAK, topographically distinct from the catalytic site. In this study, we have adopted a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modeling, biochemical studies, and site-directed mutagenesis to validate our hypothesis. Based on a three-dimensional model of interaction between hAK and our molecules, we designed, cloned, and expressed specific, single and double point mutants of hAK (Q74A, Q78A, H107A, K341A, F338A, and Q74A-F338A). Kinetic characterization of recombinant enzymes indicated that these mutations did not affect enzyme functioning; conversely, mutated enzymes are endowed of reduced susceptibility to our non-nucleoside inhibitors, while maintaining comparable affinity for nucleoside inhibitors to the wild-type enzyme. This study represents the first characterization and validation of a novel allosteric site in hAK and may pave the way to the development of novel selective and potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of hAK endowed with therapeutic potential.

  13. SAMHD1 Has Differential Impact on the Efficacies of HIV Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Andrew D.; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Schultz, Megan L.; Ong, Yee T.; Bloch, Nicolin; Puray-Chavez, Maritza N.; Leslie, Maxwell D.; Ji, Juan; Lucas, Anthony D.; Kirby, Karen A.; Landau, Nathaniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Sterile alpha motif- and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) limits HIV-1 replication by hydrolyzing deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) necessary for reverse transcription. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are components of anti-HIV therapies. We report here that SAMHD1 cleaves NRTI triphosphates (TPs) at significantly lower rates than dNTPs and that SAMHD1 depletion from monocytic cells affects the susceptibility of HIV-1 infections to NRTIs in complex ways that depend not only on the relative changes in dNTP and NRTI-TP concentrations but also on the NRTI activation pathways. PMID:24867973

  14. Syntheses of Isoxazoline-Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Their Antiviral Evaluation: A Standard Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, Paolo; Vazquez Martinez, Naiara; Scrocchi, Roberto; Corsaro, Antonino; Pistarà, Venerando

    2014-01-01

    The current synthesis of racemic purine and pyrimidine isoxazoline-carbocyclic nucleosides is reported, detailing the key-steps for standard and reliable preparations. Improved yields were obtained by the proper tuning of the single synthetic steps, opening the way for the preparation of a variety of novel compounds. Some of the obtained compounds were also evaluated against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses including HIV. No specific antiviral activity was observed in the cases at hand. Novel compounds were prepared for future biological tests. PMID:25544956

  15. Nucleoside-Based Diarylethene Photoswitches: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Xi, Dan-Dan; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Hui-Xuan; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Diarylethene photoswitches based on the natural nucleoside deoxyadenosine were designed and synthesized. In aqueous solution, some of them exhibited good photochromic properties, including clear changes in color upon irradiation at 365 nm, red-shifts of the absorption wavelength, with good fatigue resistance, thermal stability, conversion efficiency, and base-pairing properties.

  16. Intranuclear protein transduction through a nucleoside salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James E; Tse, Chung-Ming; Chan, Grace; Heinze, Emil R; Nishimura, Robert N; Weisbart, Richard H

    2007-07-20

    Regulation of gene expression by intranuclear transduction of macromolecules such as transcription factors is an alternative to gene therapy for the treatment of numerous diseases. The identification of an effective intranuclear delivery vehicle and pathway for the transport of therapeutic macromolecules across plasma and nuclear membranes, however, has posed a significant challenge. The anti-DNA antibody fragment 3E10 Fv has received attention as a novel molecular delivery vehicle due to its penetration into living cells with specific nuclear localization, absence of toxicity, and successful delivery of therapeutic cargo proteins in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the pathway that allows 3E10 Fv to cross cell membranes is critical to the development of new molecular therapies. Here we show that 3E10 Fv penetrates cells through a nucleoside salvage transporter. 3E10 Fv is unable to penetrate into cells deficient in the equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2, and reconstitution of ENT2 into ENT2-deficient cells restores 3E10 Fv transport into cell nuclei. Our results represent the first demonstration of protein transport through a nucleoside salvage pathway. We expect that our finding will facilitate a variety of methods of gene regulation in the treatment of human diseases, open up new avenues of research in nucleoside salvage pathways, and enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.

  17. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  18. Synthesis of 1,N6-etheno-2-aza-adenosine (2-aza-ε-adenosine): a new cytotoxic fluorescent nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, K.C.; Yip, K.F.; Miller, E.E.; Lo, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    1,N6-Etheno-2-aza-adenosine was synthesized by treating 1,N6-etheno-adenosine with alkali, followed by nitrosation. The mechanism of formation of this novel nucleoside was elucidated using adenosine tritiated at C-8 and C-2, and was found to deformylate exclusively at C-2. This new 2-aza nucleoside fluoresces at 494 nm when excited at 358 nm. Toxicity study showed the compound is active in a rat mammary tumor tissue culture line, but inactive in HeLa and Glioma 26 tissue culture lines. It was also found to selectively inhibit the thymidine incorporation into DNA in a rat mammary tumor, but exhibits no ill effect on normal proliferative tissue. The reactive intermediate 3-β-D-ribofuranosyl-4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl) imidazole was identified and was found to be an active agent in tissue culture. PMID:10793738

  19. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  20. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    López-Zavala, Alonso A.; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012 ▶), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325–331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  1. Insecticidal properties of essential oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and adenosine triphosphatases.

    PubMed

    Abou-Taleb, Hamdy K; Mohamed, Magdy I E; Shawir, Mohamed S; Abdelgaleil, Samir A M

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from 20 Egyptian plants were obtained by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the isolated oils was identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Fumigant and contact toxicities of the essential oils were evaluated against the adults of Tribolium castaneum. In fumigation assays, the oil of Origanum vulgare (LC50 = 9.97 mg/L air) displayed the highest toxicity towards the adults of T. castaneum. In contact assays, the oils of Artemisia monosperma (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) and O. vulgare (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) were the most potent toxicants against the adults of T. castaneum. Biochemical studies showed that the tested oils caused pronounced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) isolated from the larvae of T. castaneum. The oil Cupressus macrocarpa (IC50 = 12.3 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of AChE, while the oil of Calistemon viminals (IC50 = 4.4 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of ATPases.

  2. [Nucleoside-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis in the liver and kidney of rats with chronic alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F; Makar, E A; Kubyshin, V L

    2006-01-01

    Activity and some properties of a soluble enzyme hydrolyzing nucleoside-5'-triphosphates were studied in the liver and kidney of normal and diabetic rats. The enzyme activity was shown to be reduced by 34% (p < 0.01) in the liver extracts of diabetic animals, while no difference was observed in the kidney. When ITP was used as substrate, the apparent Michaelis constant of the enzyme was significantly lower in the liver of controls as compared to experimental rats (32.3 +/- 1.3 microM and 54.3 +/- 1.0 microM, respectively, p < 0.01). The KM values of the enzyme in the kidney were not distinguishable in both groups. NTPase exhibits maximal activity at pH 7.0 and has a broad substrate specificity with respect to different nucleoside-5'-tri- and diphosphates. Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to be 63.7 +/- 0.9 kD.

  3. Cellular Uptake of Decitabine by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters in HCT116 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kumiko; Hosokawa, Mika; Iwakawa, Seigo

    2015-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation, an epigenetic change that silences gene expression without altering nucleotide sequences, plays a critical role in the formation and progression of colorectal cancers as well as in the acquisition of drug resistance. Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor of nucleoside analogues, has been shown to restore gene expression silenced by hypermethylation. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying both uridine and DAC uptake were examined in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ENT1 mRNA was the most abundant among the nucleoside transporters examined in HCT116 cells. The ENT1 protein was detected in the membrane fraction, as determined by Western blotting. The uptake of uridine or DAC was time- and concentration-dependent, but also Na(+)-independent. The uptake of these agents was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), an inhibitor of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), and was also decreased in cells treated with ENT1 small interfering RNA. The uptake of both uridine and DAC was inhibited by uridine, cytidine, adenosine, or inosine, while that of DAC was also inhibited by thymidine. The expression of MAGEA1 mRNA, the DNA of which was methylated in HCT116 cells, was increased by DAC treatment, and this increment was attenuated by concomitant treatment with NBMPR. The IC50 value of DAC was also increased in the presence of NBMPR. These results suggest that DAC is mainly taken up by ENT1 and that this uptake is one of the key determinants of the activity of DAC in HCT116 cells.

  4. An intersubunit disulfide bridge stabilizes the tetrameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase of Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Fanny; Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Dupuy, Jean-William; Sarger, Claude; Podar, Mircea; Lascu, Ioan; Giraud, Marie-France; Dautant, Alain

    2012-06-01

    The nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside diphosphate. Ndks form hexamers or two types of tetramers made of the same building block, namely, the common dimer. The secondary interfaces of the Type I tetramer found in Myxococcus xanthus Ndk and of the Type II found in Escherichia coli Ndk involve the opposite sides of subunits. Up to now, the few available structures of Ndk from thermophiles were hexameric. Here, we determined the X-ray structures of four crystal forms of the Ndk from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aa-Ndk). Aa-Ndk displays numerous features of thermostable proteins and is made of the common dimer but it is a tetramer of Type I. Indeed, the insertion of three residues in a surface-exposed spiral loop, named the Kpn-loop, leads to the formation of a two-turn α-helix that prevents both hexamer and Type II tetramer assembly. Moreover, the side chain of the cysteine at position 133, which is not present in other Ndk sequences, adopts two alternate conformations. Through the secondary interface, each one forms a disulfide bridge with the equivalent Cys133 from the neighboring subunit. This disulfide bridge was progressively broken during X-ray data collection by radiation damage. Such crosslinks counterbalance the weakness of the common-dimer interface. A 40% decrease of the kinase activity at 60°C after reduction and alkylation of the protein corroborates the structural relevance of the disulfide bridge on the tetramer assembly and enzymatic function.

  5. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways.

  6. Detection of RNA nucleoside modifications with the uridine-specific ribonuclease MC1 from Momordica charantia

    PubMed Central

    Addepalli, Balasubrahmanym; Lesner, Nicholas P.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    A codon-optimized recombinant ribonuclease, MC1 is characterized for its uridine-specific cleavage ability to map nucleoside modifications in RNA. The published MC1 amino acid sequence, as noted in a previous study, was used as a template to construct a synthetic gene with a natural codon bias favoring expression in Escherichia coli. Following optimization of various expression conditions, the active recombinant ribonuclease was successfully purified as a C-terminal His-tag fusion protein from E. coli [Rosetta 2(DE3)] cells. The isolated protein was tested for its ribonuclease activity against oligoribonucleotides and commercially available E. coli tRNATyr I. Analysis of MC1 digestion products by ion-pairing reverse phase liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-RP-LC-MS) revealed enzymatic cleavage of RNA at the 5′-termini of uridine and pseudouridine, but cleavage was absent if the uridine was chemically modified or preceded by a nucleoside with a bulky modification. Furthermore, the utility of this enzyme to generate complementary digestion products to other common endonucleases, such as RNase T1, which enables the unambiguous mapping of modified residues in RNA is demonstrated. PMID:26221047

  7. Engineering Kinases to Phosphorylate Nucleoside Analogs for Antiviral and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Stefan; Liu, Lingfeng; Liu, Yichen

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme engineering by directed evolution presents a powerful strategy for tailoring the function and physicochemical properties of biocatalysts to therapeutic and industrial applications. Our laboratory’s research focuses on developing novel molecular tools for protein engineering, as well as on utilizing these methods to customize enzymes and to study fundamental aspects of their structure and function. Specifically, we are interested in nucleoside and nucleotide kinases which are responsible for the intracellular phosphorylation of nucleoside analog (NA) prodrugs to their biologically active triphosphates. The high substrate specificity of the cellular kinases often interferes with prodrug activation and consequently lowers the potency of NAs as antiviral and cancer therapeutics. A working solution to the problem is the co-adminstration of a promiscuous kinase from viruses, bacteria, and other mammals. However, further therapeutic enhancements of NAs depend on the selective and efficient prodrug phosphorylation. In the absence of true NA kinases in nature, we are pursuing laboratory evolution strategies to generate efficient phosphoryl-transfer catalysts. This review summarizes some of our recent work in the field and outlines future challenges. PMID:20305804

  8. Modeling of Plasmodium falciparum Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Ternary Complex: Repurposing of Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pallavi; Gupta, Akanksha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2015-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum telomerase reverse transcriptase (PfTERT) is a ribonucleoprotein that assists the maintenance of the telomeric ends of chromosomes by reverse transcription of its own RNA subunit. It represents an attractive therapeutic target for eradication of the plasmodial parasite at the asexual liver stage. Automated modeling using MUSTER and knowledge-based techniques were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the active site of reverse transcriptase domain of PfTERT, which is responsible for catalyzing the addition of incoming dNTPs to the growing DNA strand in presence of divalent magnesium ions. Further, the ternary complex of the active site of PfTERT bound to a DNA-RNA duplex was also modeled using Haddock server and represents the functional form of the enzyme. Initially, established nucleoside analog inhibitors of PfTERT, AZTTP, and ddGTP were docked in the modeled binding site of the PfTERT ternary complex using AutoDock v4.2. Subsequently, docking studies were carried out with 14 approved nucleoside analog inhibitors. Docking studies predicted that floxuridine, gemcitabine, stavudine, and vidarabine have high affinity for the PfTERT ternary complex. Further analysis on the basis of known side effects led us to propose repositioning of vidarabine as a suitable drug candidate for inhibition of PfTERT.

  9. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL) with Nucleoside-Based Bisubstrate Adenylation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Petrelli, Riccardo; De la Mora-Rey, Teresa; Tiwari, Divya; Liu, Feng; Dawadi, Surrendra; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responsible for both latent and symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) remains the second leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Mycobacterial biotin protein ligase (MtBPL) is an essential enzyme in Mtb and regulates lipid metabolism through the post-translational biotinylation of acyl coenzyme A carboxylases. We report the synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of potent nucleoside-based inhibitors of MtBPL that contain modifications to the ribofuranosyl ring of the nucleoside. All compounds were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and shown to bind potently with KD's below 2 nM. Additionally, we obtained high-resolution co-crystal structures for a majority of the compounds. Despite fairly uniform biochemical potency, the whole-cell Mtb activity varied greatly with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.78 to >100 μM. Cellular accumulation studies showed a nearly 10-fold enhanced accumulation of a C-2′-α analog over the corresponding C-2′-β analog, consistent with their differential whole-cell activity. PMID:26299766

  10. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the DNA alkylating agent busulfan, nucleoside analogs and SAHA in lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Wang, Guiyun; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising treatment for lymphomas. Its success depends on effective pre-transplant conditioning regimens. We previously reported on the efficacy of DNA alkylating agent-nucleoside analog (NA) combinations for conditioning in AML. We hypothesized that a similar combinatory approach can be used for lymphomas. A combination of busulfan (Bu) with two NAs – clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu) or gemcitabine (Gem) – resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in lymphoma cell lines. We demonstrated that the [2 NAs+Bu] combination activates a DNA damage response through the ATM-CHK2 and ATM-CHK1 pathways, leading to cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Histone modifications and KAP1 phosphorylation are indicative of chromatin relaxation mediated by the nucleoside analogs which sequentially increase Bu alkylation. Addition of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) enhanced chromatin relaxation through increased histone acetylation and further augmented the cytotoxicity of [2 NAs+Bu]. Our results provide a preclinical basis for a clinical trial on using [2 NAs+Bu±SAHA] combinations as conditioning therapy for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:22023523

  11. The mechanism of phosphorylation of natural nucleosides and anti-HIV analogues by nucleoside diphosphate kinase is independent of their sugar substituents.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Michael C; Helms, Volkhard

    2002-07-02

    The reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by dinucleoside diphosphate kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum is investigated by semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital computation of an active site model system on the basis of various X-ray crystallographic structures. The computational results suggest that the phosphoryl transfer from adenosine triphosphate to the His122 residue is accompanied by the simultaneous shift of a proton from the histidine residue to one of the oxygen atoms of the gamma phosphate group. This involves a doubly protonated His122 residue whilst this residue is neutral in its ternary complex with ADP and the transition state analogue AlF(3). The proposed mechanism is thus analogous to that of phosphoryl transfer by cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase and uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase as found in our earlier work and clarifies the role of the ribose 3'-OH group. Furthermore, the energetics of phosphoryl transfer onto other nucleoside analogues such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-diphosphate and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-thymidine-diphosphate are investigated. The calculated reaction barriers for the phosphorylation of the diphosphates by the enzyme are all within a range of 13.1 kJ mol(-1), which suggests that variations in the activation energies alone cannot account for the experimentally observed differences in enzymatic activity. Consequences for the design of new anti-HIV nucleoside analogues are discussed. Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2268/2002/f360_s.pdf or from the author.

  12. Cooperation and Competition between Adenylate Kinase, Nucleoside Diphosphokinase, Electron Transport, and ATP Synthase in Plant Mitochondria Studied by 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, JKM.; Aubert, S.; Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria was studied using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the O2 electrode. Immediately following the addition of ADP, ATP synthesis exceeded the rate of oxidative phosphorylation, fueled by succinate oxidation, due to mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK) activity two to four times the maximum activity of ATP synthase. Only when the AK reaction approached equilibrium was oxidative phosphorylation the primary mechanism for net ATP synthesis. A pool of sequestered ATP in mitochondria enabled AK and ATP synthase to convert AMP to ATP in the presence of exogenous inorganic phosphate. During this conversion, AK activity can indirectly influence rates of oxidation of both succinate and NADH via changes in mitochondrial ATP. Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphokinase, in cooperation with ATP synthase, was found to facilitate phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates other than ADP at rates similar to the maximum rate of oxidative phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that plant mitochondria contain all of the machinery necessary to rapidly regenerate nucleoside triphosphates from AMP and nucleoside diphosphates made during cellular biosynthesis and that AK activity can affect both the amount of ADP available to ATP synthase and the level of ATP regulating electron transport. PMID:12223600

  13. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  14. Insights into Phosphate Cooperativity and Influence of Substrate Modifications on Binding and Catalysis of Hexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Martins, Nadia H.; Meza, Andreia N.; dos Santos, Camila R.; Pereira, Humberto D’Muniz; Murakami, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233) displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2′deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine) in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2′deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5′ hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg43* side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3’-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl6 and Br8 substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser90 by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr91) is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding in this

  15. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  16. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Surette, M; Gill, T; MacLean, S

    1990-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was isolated and purified from cell extracts of Proteus vulgaris recovered from spoiling cod fish (Gadus morhua). The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 120,000 +/- 2,000 and pH 6.8. The Michaelis constant for inosine as substrate was 3.9 x 10(-5). Guanosine also served as a substrate (Km = 2.9 x 10(-5). However, the enzyme was incapable of phosphorylizing adenosine. Adenosine proved to be useful as a competitive inhibitor and was used as a ligand for affinity chromatography of purine nucleoside phosphorylase following initial purification steps of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2111121

  17. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  18. Metabolism of Pyrimidines and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christoph F.; Ingraham, John L.; Neuhard, Jan; Thomassen, Elisabeth

    1972-01-01

    The pathways by which uracil, cytosine, uridine, cytidine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized by Salmonella typhimurium are established. The various 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues are shown to exert their toxic effects only after having been converted to the nucleotide level, and these conversions are shown to be catalyzed by the same enzymes which similarly convert the natural substrates. Methods for isolating mutant strains blocked in various steps of metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides are described. PMID:4259664

  19. Nucleoside analog labeling of neural stem cells and their progeny.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Erik Michael; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside analog pulse labeling is an important technique which can assess the birthdate, cell cycle maintenance, or cycling rates of cells during development. This method has evolved over several decades of use and is now applied to a multitude of tissue subtypes and systems. The methodology in this chapter covers the classic uses for analog pulse labeling as well as their use in conjunction with the newly characterized technique of in utero electroporation (IUE).

  20. Identification of the distribution of adenosine phosphates, nucleosides and nucleobases in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wei, Yue; Wang, Yong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-15

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases play a greater role in the physiological activity of organisms which are highly present in royal jelly (RJ). The objective of the present study is to develop a HPLC method to simultaneous determine nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in RJ and access them in fresh and commercial RJ samples. The LOD and LOQ were 12.2-99.6 μg/L and 40.8-289.4 μg/L, respectively with nearly 100.9% recoveries. Except uric acid, all other compounds were found in RJ samples. Significant difference in the average content of compounds in fresh (2682.93 mg/kg) and commercial samples (3152.78 mg/kg) were observed. AMP, adenosine and adenine were found predominant in all the samples. Significant higher levels of ATP, ADP and AMP was seen in fresh RJ samples, and IMP, uridine, guanosine, and thymidine was seen in commercial RJ samples. The investigated compounds can be used as indexes for assessment RJ freshness and quality.

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase C Plays a Negative Regulatory Role in Phagocytosis, Macropinocytosis and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Annesley, Sarah J.; Bago, Ruzica; Bosnar, Maja Herak; Filic, Vedrana; Marinović, Maja; Weber, Igor; Mehta, Anil; Fisher, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are ubiquitous phosphotransfer enzymes responsible for producing most of the nucleoside triphosphates except for ATP. This role is important for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins and the metabolism of sugars and lipids. Apart from this housekeeping role NDPKs have been shown to have many regulatory functions in diverse cellular processes including proliferation and endocytosis. Although the protein has been shown to have a positive regulatory role in clathrin- and dynamin-mediated micropinocytosis, its roles in macropinocytosis and phagocytosis have not been studied. The additional non-housekeeping roles of NDPK are often independent of enzyme activity but dependent on the expression level of the protein. In this study we altered the expression level of NDPK in the model eukaryotic organism Dictyostelium discoideum through antisense inhibition and overexpression. We demonstrate that NDPK levels affect growth, endocytosis and exocytosis. In particular we find that Dictyostelium NDPK negatively regulates endocytosis in contrast to the positive regulatory role identified in higher eukaryotes. This can be explained by the differences in types of endocytosis that have been studied in the different systems - phagocytosis and macropinocytosis in Dictyostelium compared with micropinocytosis in mammalian cells. This is the first report of a role for NDPK in regulating macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, the former being the major fluid phase uptake mechanism for macrophages, dendritic cells and other (non dendritic) cells exposed to growth factors. PMID:21991393

  2. The mechanism of phosphorylation of anti-HIV D4T by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Biondi, R; Sarfati, R; Agou, F; Guerreiro, C; Deville-Bonne, D; Veron, M

    2000-05-01

    The last step in the intracellular activation of antiviral nucleoside analogs is the addition of the third phosphate by nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase resulting in the synthesis of the viral reverse transcriptase substrates. We have previously shown that dideoxynucleotide analogs and 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT) as di- or triphosphate are poor substrates for NDP kinase. By use of protein fluorescence, we monitor the phosphotransfer between the enzyme and the nucleotide analog. Here, we have studied the reactivity of D4T (2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine; stavudine) as di- (DP) or triphosphate (TP) at the pre-steady state. The catalytic efficiency of D4T-DP or -TP is increased by a factor of 10 compared with AZT-DP or -TP, respectively. We use an inactive mutant of NDP kinase to monitor the binding of a TP derivative, and show that the affinity for D4T-TP is in the same range as for the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate, but is 30 times higher than for AZT-TP. Our results indicate that D4T should be efficiently phosphorylated after intracellular maturation of a prodrug into D4T-monophosphate.

  3. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Usach, Iris; Melis, Virginia; Peris, José-Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)/HIV infection. Discussion First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP), delavirdine (DLV) and efavirenz (EFV) are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research. PMID:24008177

  4. Alterations in the expression of uvomorulin and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase during mouse skin tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, B.; Caamano, J.; Slaga, T. J.; Conti, C. J.; Nelson, W. J.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Uvomorulin (E-cadherin), a cell adhesion molecule, and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), a marker protein of the basal-lateral cell membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells, were investigated in a group of mouse skin tumors induced by a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol and in cell lines derived from mouse skin papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Although these two markers were present in benign tumors and in nontumorigenic cell lines, the Na+,K(+)-ATPase showed an altered pattern of distribution that included the presence of enzyme not only in the basolateral domain but also on the apical domain of the cell membrane of basal and spinous cells in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). In higher grade SCC, a loss of Na+,K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was simultaneously detected with a marginal or absent expression of uvomorulin. The more differentiated SCC and papillomas expressed less uvomorulin immunoreactivity than normal epidermal cells. Both markers were seen in tumor cell lines that produced well-differentiated SCC after subcutaneous inoculation into nude mice. Neither Na+,K(+)-ATPase nor uvomorulin could be detected in cell lines that produced high grade, poorly differentiated SCC. Northern blots confirmed the absence of uvomorulin mRNA in these highly malignant cell lines. These data indicate that progression from premalignant papilloma to low-grade SCC and subsequently to high-grade SCC is accompanied by loss of epithelial cell polarity as detected by changes in Na+,K(+)-ATPase and by decreased or absent expression of uvomorulin in tumors and cell lines characterized by an advanced malignant phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1316085

  5. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  6. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  7. The role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 on the cellular transport of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and CP-4200 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hascher, Antje; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Sandvold, Marit Liland; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lyko, Frank; Rius, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [¹⁴C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na⁺-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative 5-azacytidine-5'-elaidate (CP-4200), a nucleoside transporter-independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter-related 5-azacytidine resistances.

  8. pH-Cleavable Nucleoside Lipids: A New Paradigm for Controlling the Stability of Lipid-Based Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Oumzil, Khalid; Benizri, Sébastien; Tonelli, Giovanni; Staedel, Cathy; Appavoo, Ananda; Chaffanet, Max; Navailles, Laurence; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Lipid-based delivery systems are an established technology with considerable clinical acceptance and several applications in human. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of novel orthoester nucleoside lipids (ONLs) for the modulation of liposome stability. The ONLs contain head groups with 3'-orthoester nucleoside derivatives featuring positive or negative charges. The insertion of the orthoester function in the NL structures allows the formation of pH-sensitive liposomes. ONL-based liposomes can be hydrolyzed to provide nontoxic products, including nucleoside derivatives and hexadecanol. To allow the release to be tunable at different hydrolysis rates, the charge of the polar head structure is modulated, and the head group can be released at a biologically relevant pH. Crucially, when ONLs are mixed with natural phosphocholine lipids (PC), the resultant liposome evolves toward the formation of a hexadecanol/PC lamellar system. Biological evaluation shows that stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) formulated with ONLs and siRNAs can effectively enter into tumor cells and release their nucleic acid payload in response to an intracellular acidic environment. This results in a much higher antitumor activity than conventional SNALPs. The ability to use pH-cleavable nucleolipids to control the stability of lipid-based delivery systems represents a promising approach for the intracellular delivery of drug cargos.

  9. Selective Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2) Inhibitors: Nucleotide Mimetics Derived from Uridine-5′-carboxamide†

    PubMed Central

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Iqbal, Jamshed; Umbach, Frank; Scheiff, Anja B.; Munkonda, Mercedes N.; Sévigny, Jean; Knowles, Aileen F.; Müller, Christa E

    2016-01-01

    Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases, subtypes 1, 2, 3, 8 of NTPDases) dephosphorylate nucleoside tri- and diphosphates to the corresponding di- and monophosphates. In the present study we synthesized adenine and uracil nucleotide mimetics, in which the phosphate residues were replaced by phosphonic acid esters attached to the nucleoside at the 5′-position by amide linkers. Among the synthesized uridine derivatives, we identified the first potent and selective inhibitors of human NTPDase2. The most potent compound was 19a (PSB-6426), which was a competitive inhibitor of NTPDase2 exhibiting a Ki value of 8.2 μM and selectivity versus other NTPDases. It was inactive toward uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor subtypes. Compound 19a was chemically and metabolically highly stable. In contrast to the few known (unselective) NTPDase inhibitors, 19a is an uncharged molecule and may be perorally bioavailable. NTPDase2 inhibitors have potential as novel cardioprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke and for cancer therapy. PMID:18630897

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics studies on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase triphosphate binding site: implications for nucleoside-analog drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Alber, F.; Carloni, P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum-chemical methods are used to shed light on the functional role of residues involved in the resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase against nucleoside-analog drugs. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for models representing the adduct between the triphosphate substrate and the nucleoside binding site. The triphosphate is considered either deprotonated or protonated at the gamma-position. Although the protonated form already experiences large rearrangements in the ps time scale, the fully deprotonated state exhibits a previously unrecognized low-barrier hydrogen bond between Lys65 and gamma-phosphate. Absence of this interaction in Lys65-->Arg HIV-1 RT might play a prominent role in the resistance of this mutant for nucleoside analogs (Gu Z et al., 1994b, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:275-281; Zhang D et al., 1994, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:282-287). Water molecules present in the active site, not detected in the X-ray structure, form a complex H-bond network. Among these waters, one may be crucial for substrate recognition as it bridges Gln151 and Arg72 with the beta-phosphate. Absence of this stabilizing interaction in Gln151-->Met HIV-1 RT mutant may be a key factor for the known drug resistance of this mutant toward dideoxy-type drugs and AZT (Shirasaka T et al., 1995, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:2398-2402: Iversen AK et al., 1996, J Virol 70:1086-1090). PMID:11206075

  11. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter; Christensen, Kathryn C; Gazzaniga, Francesca; Pletnev, Alexandre A; Brenner, Charles

    2009-01-02

    NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. Nicotinamide riboside elevates NAD+ levels via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by a pathway initiated by splitting the nucleoside into a nicotinamide base followed by nicotinamide salvage. Genetic evidence has established that uridine hydrolase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase are required for Nrk-independent utilization of nicotinamide riboside in yeast. Here we show that mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase but not methylthioadenosine phosphorylase is responsible for mammalian nicotinamide riboside kinase-independent nicotinamide riboside utilization. We demonstrate that so-called uridine hydrolase is 100-fold more active as a nicotinamide riboside hydrolase than as a uridine hydrolase and that uridine hydrolase and mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase cleave nicotinic acid riboside, whereas the yeast phosphorylase has little activity on nicotinic acid riboside. Finally, we show that yeast nicotinic acid riboside utilization largely depends on uridine hydrolase and nicotinamide riboside kinase and that nicotinic acid riboside bioavailability is increased by ester modification.

  12. Chemical Logic and Enzymatic Machinery for Biological Assembly of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Zhang, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics are a group of natural products targeting MraY, a bacterial translocase involved in the lipid-linked cycle in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In this Perspective, we explore how Nature builds complex peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics scaffolds from simple nucleoside and amino acid building blocks. We discuss the current stage of research on biosynthetic pathways for peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics, primarily focusing on chemical logic and enzymatic machinery for uridine transformation and coupling to peptides. We further survey the nonribosomal biosynthetic paradigm for a subgroup of uridyl peptide antibiotics represented by pacidamycins, concluded by diversification opportunities for antibiotic optimization. PMID:21851099

  13. Crystallographic Analysis of Rotavirus NSP2-RNA Complex Reveals Specific Recognition of 5′ GG Sequence for RTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liya; Chow, Dar-Chone; Patton, John T.; Palzkill, Timothy; Estes, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP2, a functional octamer, is critical for the formation of viroplasms, which are exclusive sites for replication and packaging of the segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) rotavirus genome. As a component of replication intermediates, NSP2 is also implicated in various replication-related activities. In addition to sequence-independent single-stranded RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing activities, NSP2 exhibits monomer-associated nucleoside and 5′ RNA triphosphatase (NTPase/RTPase) activities that are mediated by a conserved H225 residue within a narrow enzymatic cleft. Lack of a 5′ γ-phosphate is a common feature of the negative-strand RNA [(−)RNA] of the packaged dsRNA segments in rotavirus. Strikingly, all (−)RNAs (of group A rotaviruses) have a 5′ GG dinucleotide sequence. As the only rotavirus protein with 5′ RTPase activity, NSP2 is implicated in the removal of the γ-phosphate from the rotavirus (−)RNA. To understand how NSP2, despite its sequence-independent RNA-binding property, recognizes (−)RNA to hydrolyze the γ-phosphate within the catalytic cleft, we determined a crystal structure of NSP2 in complex with the 5′ consensus sequence of minus-strand rotavirus RNA. Our studies show that the 5′ GG of the bound oligoribonucleotide interacts extensively with highly conserved residues in the NSP2 enzymatic cleft. Although these residues provide GG-specific interactions, surface plasmon resonance studies suggest that the C-terminal helix and other basic residues outside the enzymatic cleft account for sequence-independent RNA binding of NSP2. A novel observation from our studies, which may have implications in viroplasm formation, is that the C-terminal helix of NSP2 exhibits two distinct conformations and engages in domain-swapping interactions, which result in the formation of NSP2 octamer chains. PMID:22811529

  14. Solubilization and Partial Purification of the Adenosine Triphosphatase from a Corn Root Plasma Membrane Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Frances M.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    The K+-stimulated ATPase was partially purified from a plasma membrane fraction from corn roots (WF9 × Mo 17) by solubilization with 30 millimolar octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside followed by precipitation with dilute ammonium sulfate. The specific activity of the enzyme was increased about five times by this procedure. The molecular weight of the detergent-extracted ATPase complex was estimated to be at least 500,000 daltons by chromatography on a Bio-Gel A-5m column. Negative staining electron microscopy indicated that the detergent-extracted material consisted of amorphous particles, while the ammonium sulfate precipitate was composed of uniform vesicles with an average diameter of 100 nanometers. The protein composition of the ammonium sulfate precipitate was significantly different from that of the plasma membrane fraction when compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The characteristics of the partially purified ATPase resembled those of the plasma membrane associated enzyme. The ATPase required Mg2+, was further stimulated by K+, was almost completely inhibited by 0.1 millimolar diethylstilbestrol, and was not affected by 5.0 micrograms per milliliter oligomycin. Although the detergents sodium cholate, deoxycholate, Triton X-100 and Lubrol WX also solubilized some membrane protein, none solubilized the K+-stimulated ATPase activity. Low concentrations of each detergent, including octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, activated the ATPase and higher concentrations inactivated the enzyme. These results suggest that the plasma membrane ATPase is a large, integral membrane protein or protein complex that requires lipids to maintain its activity. Images PMID:16661309

  15. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of α-DDB-FNC, a novel nucleoside-biphenyldicarboxylate compound in cells and ducks, and its anti-immunological liver injury effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinghua; Zhao, Xuejie; Zang, Limin; Fang, Xianzhen; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Xiaorui; Wang, Qingduan; Zheng, Liyun; Chang, Junbiao

    2012-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a major global cause of acute and chronic liver disease with high mortality. Herein, we examined both the anti-HBV and hepatoprotective activity of α-DDB-FNC. In human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15, α-DDB-FNC effectively suppressed the secretion of HBV antigens in a time and dose-dependent manner with 25.11% inhibition on HBeAg and 43.68% on HBsAg at 2.5 μM on day 9. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, α-DDB-FNC (2.5 μM) also reduced HBV DNA level by 77.74% extracellularly and 78.94% intracellularly on day 9. In the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks, after α-DDB-FNC was given once daily for 10 days, the serum and liver DHBV DNA levels were reduced markedly with 96.81% and 97.21% at 10 mgkg(-1) on day 10, respectively. In Con A-induced immunological liver-injury mice, α-DDB-FNC significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT, AST, TBiL and liver MDA, NO levels. Furthermore, significant improvement of the liver was observed after α-DDB-FNC treatment both in ducks and mice, as evaluated by the histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that α-DDB-FNC possesses both antiviral activity against HBV and hepatoprotective effect to Con A-induced liver-injury mice.

  16. Sensitivity of Tonoplast-Bound Adenosine-Triphosphatase from Hevea to Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    The tonoplast-bound H+-translocating ATPase from Hevea latex was found to be insensitive to vanadate, diethylstilbestrol, and octylguanidine, which are specific inhibitors of the plasma membrane ATPase. The inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATPase, oligomycin and azide, and also rotenone and antimycin A, were all without effect. In contrast, trimethyltin chloride strongly inhibited the activity of Hevea tonoplast ATPase. Among the different carbodiimides tested, which strongly inhibit the Hevea tonoplast ATPase, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was the most inhibitory. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline was also an efficient inhibitor. This unique inhibitor sensitivity of the Hevea tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase suggests that this enzyme differs in its mode of operation from all other known H+-translocating ATPases. PMID:16663354

  17. Inactivation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase from Trypanosoma cruzi by oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Cataldi de Flombaum, M A; Stoppani, A O

    1986-06-01

    Incubation of Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial ATPase (Fo-F1) with the xanthine oxidase system (XO), Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ + H2O2) and the ascorbate-Cu system, caused gradual loss of enzyme activity, which increased as a function of incubation time and rate of oxygen radical generation. The essential role of OH. radicals for ATPase inactivation was supported by a) the enzyme protection afforded by superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol, when using the XO system; b) the similar effect of mannitol and benzoate with Fenton's reagent; c) the similar effect of catalase, EDTA and histidine with the ascorbate-Cu system; d) the increased rate of ATPase inactivation by 1) the XO system supplemented with chelated iron, and 2) the ascorbate-Cu system supplemented with H2O2. Comparison of oxygen radical generators for their action on membrane-bound (Fo-F1) and soluble F1 revealed that ascorbate-Cu was the most effective one, possibly because of its capability of producing OH. radicals that react preferentially with the enzyme at their formation site.

  18. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  19. Computer-generated Model of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) is an important target enzyme for the design of anti-cancer and immunosuppressive drugs. Bacterial PNP, which is slightly different from the human enzyme, is used to synthesize chemotherapuautic agents. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the bacterial PNP molecule is useful in efforts to engineer different types of PNP enzymes, that can be used to produce new chemotherapeutic agents. This picture shows a computer model of bacterial PNP, which looks a lot like a display of colorful ribbons. Principal Investigator was Charles Bugg.

  20. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  1. Purines 2010: Adenine Nucleosides and Nucleotides in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Michal J

    2010-08-01

    The Purines 2010: Adenine Nucleosides and Nucleotides in Biomedicine meeting, held in Tarragona, Spain, included topics covering new findings in the field of purinergic signaling and the development of purine-based drugs. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments in purinerigic signaling, medicinal chemistry, the therapeutic potential of purine-based drugs, and the role of purines and adenosine receptors in neurodegenerative disorders, sickle cell disease, bone homeostasis, pulmonary fibrosis and pain. Investigational drugs discussed include CF-101 (Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd/NIH/Kwang Dong Pharmaceutical Co Ltd/Seikagaku Corp) and denufosol tetrasodium (Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Inc/Inspire Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  2. Origin, Utilization, and Recycling of Nucleosides in the Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies on the salvage of preformed purine and pyrimidine rings, mainly in the form of nucleosides, to maintain its nucleotide pool in the proper qualitative and quantitative balance. The transport of nucleosides from blood into neurons and glia is considered to be an essential prerequisite to enter their metabolic utilization in the…

  3. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: a new class of boron-containing nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Renpei; Oka, Natsuhisa; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Wada, Takeshi

    2009-05-14

    A study on the synthesis of nucleoside H-boranophosphonates, a new class of nucleotide analogues having a P-->BH(3) and a P-H group, via condensation of the corresponding nucleosides with H-boranophosphonate derivatives is described.

  4. Structural characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Štefanić, Zoran; Mikleušević, Goran; Luić, Marija; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Ašler, Ivana Leščić

    2017-03-20

    Microaerophilic bacterium Helicobacer pylori is a well known human pathogen involved in the development of many diseases. Due to the evergrowing infection rate and increase of H. pylori antibiotic resistence, it is of utmost importance to find a new way to attack and eradicate H. pylori. The purine metabolism in H. pylori is solely dependant on the salvage pathway and one of the key enzymes in this pathway is purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). In this timely context, we report here the basic biochemical and structural characterization of recombinant PNP from the H. pylori clinical isolate expressed in Escherichia coli. Structure of H. pylori PNP is typical for high molecular mass PNPs. However, its activity towards adenosine is very low, thus resembling more that of low molecular mass PNPs. Understanding the molecular mechanism of this key enzyme may lead to the development of new drug strategies and help in the eradication of H. pylori.

  5. A convenient synthesis of a novel nucleoside analogue: 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone (5) was prepared from the corresponding 4-methyl pyrimidinone nucleoside by means of the Vilsmeier reaction. The unprotected nucleoside can be phosphorylated directly with phosphorus oxychloride in triethyl phosphate.

  6. Rigid 5'-6-locked phenanthroline-derived nucleosides chelated to ruthenium and europium ions.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Kristmann; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2013-01-01

    We describe complexes of ruthenium and europium with rigid, 5'-6-locked 1,10-phenanthroline-containing nucleosides. Both nucleosides were synthesized from condensation of 5-amino-2'-deoxycytidine with the corresponding diketone. The ruthenium nucleoside displayed fluorescence characteristic of polypyridine ruthenium complexes with a maximum at 616 nm and a quantum yield of 0.011. Binding of europium to the 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-diacid moiety of the lanthanide binding nucleoside showed formation of a 1:1 complex with emission at 570-630 nm, whose emission was enhanced by addition of two phenanthroline ligands. The lanthanide-binding nucleoside was incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides and shown to selectively bind one equivalent of europium ions.

  7. Targeting the Plasmodium vivax equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PvENT1) for antimalarial drug development

    PubMed Central

    Deniskin, Roman; Frame, I.J.; Sosa, Yvett; Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium falciparum and vivax cause most cases of malaria. Emerging resistance to current antimalarial medications makes new drug development imperative. Ideally a new antimalarial drug should treat both falciparum and vivax malaria. Because malaria parasites are purine auxotrophic, they rely on purines imported from the host erythrocyte via Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (ENTs). Thus, the purine import transporters represent a potential target for antimalarial drug development. For falciparum parasites the primary purine transporter is the P. falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Type 1 (PfENT1). Recently we identified potent PfENT1 inhibitors with nanomolar IC50 values using a robust, yeast-based high throughput screening assay. In the current work we characterized the Plasmodium vivax ENT1 (PvENT1) homologue and its sensitivity to the PfENT1 inhibitors. We expressed a yeast codon-optimized PvENT1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PvENT1-expressing yeast imported both purines ([3H]adenosine) and pyrimidines ([3H]uridine), whereas wild type (fui1Δ) yeast did not. Based on radiolabel substrate uptake inhibition experiments, inosine had the lowest IC50 (3.8 μM), compared to guanosine (14.9 μM) and adenosine (142 μM). For pyrimidines, thymidine had an IC50 of 183 μM (vs. cytidine and uridine; mM range). IC50 values were higher for nucleobases compared to the corresponding nucleosides; hypoxanthine had a 25-fold higher IC50 than inosine. The archetypal human ENT1 inhibitor 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) had no effect on PvENT1, whereas dipyridamole inhibited PvENT1, albeit with a 40 μM IC50, a 1000-fold less sensitive than human ENT1 (hENT1). The PfENT1 inhibitors blocked transport activity of PvENT1 and the five known naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with similar IC50 values. Thus, the PfENT1 inhibitors also target PvENT1. This implies that development of novel antimalarial drugs

  8. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors, such as the capecitabine catabolite 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA in cancer cells treated with 5′-DFUR represents a collateral transcriptomic effect of the drug, or conversely, AQP3 participates in the activity of genotoxic agents. Methods The role of AQP3 in cell volume increase, cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using loss-of-function approaches. Results 5′-DFUR and gemcitabine, but not cisplatin, stimulated AQP3 expression and cell volume, which was partially and significantly blocked by knockdown of AQP3. Moreover, AQP3 siRNA significantly blocked other effects of nucleoside analogs, including G1/S cell cycle arrest, p21 and FAS up-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. Short incubations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induced AQP3 expression and increased cell volume, and the inhibition of AQP3 expression significantly blocked growth inhibition triggered by this drug. To further establish whether AQP3 induction is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, cells were exposed to long incubations with escalating doses of 5-FU. AQP3 was highly up-regulated at doses associated with cell cycle arrest, whereas at doses promoting apoptosis induction of AQP3 mRNA expression was reduced. Conclusions Based on the results, we propose that the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 is required for cytotoxic activity of 5’-DFUR and gemcitabine in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and is implicated in cell volume increase and cell cycle arrest. PMID:23017148

  9. A purine nucleoside phosphorylase in Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) with specificity for cytokinins contributes to the duration of tuber endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Jennifer R; Warnes, Barbara J; Newell, Christine A; Thomson, Jamie C P; James, Celia M; Turnbull, Colin G N; Hanke, David E

    2014-03-01

    StCKP1 (Solanum tuberosum cytokinin riboside phosphorylase) catalyses the interconversion of the N9-riboside form of the plant hormone CK (cytokinin), a subset of purines, with its most active free base form. StCKP1 prefers CK to unsubstituted aminopurines. The protein was discovered as a CK-binding activity in extracts of tuberizing potato stolon tips, from which it was isolated by affinity chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence matched the translation product of a set of ESTs, enabling a complete mRNA sequence to be obtained by RACE-PCR. The predicted polypeptide includes a cleavable signal peptide and motifs for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity. The expressed protein was assayed for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity against CKs and adenine/adenosine. Isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin and adenine were converted into ribosides in the presence of ribose 1-phosphate. In the opposite direction, isopentenyladenosine, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside and adenosine were converted into their free bases in the presence of Pi. StCKP1 had no detectable ribohydrolase activity. Evidence is presented that StCKP1 is active in tubers as a negative regulator of CKs, prolonging endodormancy by a chill-reversible mechanism.

  10. Resolving Ultrafast Photoinduced Deactivations in Water-solvated Pyrimidine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Pepino, Ana J; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Improta, Roberto; Garavelli, Marco

    2017-03-27

    For the first time, ultrafast deactivations of photo-excited water-solvated pyrimidine nucleosides are mapped employing hybrid QM(CASPT2)/MM(AMBER) optimizations that account for explicit solvation, sugar effects and dynamically correlated potential energy surfaces. Low energy S1/S0 ring-puckering and ring-opening conical intersections (CIs) are suggested to drive the ballistic coherent sub-ps (<200fs) decays observed in each pyrimidine, the energetics controlling this processes correlating with the lifetimes observed. A second bright 1π2π* state, promoting excited-state population branching and leading towards a third CI with the ground state, is proposed to be involved in the slower ultrafast decay component observed in Thd/Cyd. The transient spectroscopic signals of the competitive deactivation channels are computed for the first time. A general unified scheme for ultrafast deactivations, spanning the sub-to-few ps time domain, is eventually delivered, with computed data that matches the experiments and elucidates the intrinsic photo-protection mechanism in solvated pyrimidine nucleosides.

  11. Prodrugs of aza nucleosides based on proton transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-12-01

    DFT calculation results for intramolecular proton transfer reactions in Kirby's enzyme models 1- 7 reveal that the reaction rate is quite responsive to geometric disposition, especially to distance between the two reactive centers, r GM, and the angle of attack, α (the hydrogen bonding angle). Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing aza nucleoside prodrug systems that are less hydrophilic than their parental drugs and can be used, in different dosage forms, to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for prodrug 1ProD is predicted to be about 1010 times faster than that for prodrug 7ProD and about 104 times faster than prodrug 3ProD: rate 1ProD > rate 3ProD > rate 7ProD . Hence, the rate by which the prodrug releases the aza nucleoside drug can be determined according to the structural features of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model).

  12. Lethal Mutagenesis of HIV with Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Lawrence A.; Essigmann, John M.; Kazazi, Farhad; Zhang, Jue; Rose, Karl D.; Mullins, James I.

    1999-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside analogs for lack of toxicity to human cells, incorporation by HIV reverse transcriptase, resistance to repair when incorporated into the DNA strand of an RNA\\cdot DNA hybrid, and mispairing at high frequency. Among the candidates tested, 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine (5-OH-dC) fulfilled these criteria. In seven of nine experiments, the presence of this analog resulted in the loss of viral replicative potential after 9-24 sequential passages of HIV in human CEM cells. In contrast, loss of viral replication was not observed in 28 control cultures passaged in the absence of the nucleoside analog, nor with other analogs tested. Sequence analysis of a portion of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene demonstrated a disproportionate increase in G -> A substitutions, mutations predicted to result from misincorporation of 5-OH-dC into the cDNA during reverse transcription. Thus, "lethal mutagenesis" driven by the class of deoxynucleoside analogs represented by 5-OH-dC could provide a new approach to treating HIV infections and, potentially, other viral infections.

  13. Molecular identification and characterization of novel human and mouse concentrative Na+-nucleoside cotransporter proteins (hCNT3 and mCNT3) broadly selective for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (system cib).

    PubMed

    Ritzel, M W; Ng, A M; Yao, S Y; Graham, K; Loewen, S K; Smith, K M; Ritzel, R G; Mowles, D A; Carpenter, P; Chen, X Z; Karpinski, E; Hyde, R J; Baldwin, S A; Cass, C E; Young, J D

    2001-01-26

    The human concentrative (Na(+)-linked) plasma membrane transport proteins hCNT1 and hCNT2 are selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit) and purine nucleosides (system cif), respectively. Both have homologs in other mammalian species and belong to a gene family (CNT) that also includes hfCNT, a newly identified broad specificity pyrimidine and purine Na(+)-nucleoside symporter (system cib) from the ancient marine vertebrate, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti). We now report the cDNA cloning and characterization of cib homologs of hfCNT from human mammary gland, differentiated human myeloid HL-60 cells, and mouse liver. The 691- and 703-residue human and mouse proteins, designated hCNT3 and mCNT3, respectively, were 79% identical in amino acid sequence and contained 13 putative transmembrane helices. hCNT3 was 48, 47, and 57% identical to hCNT1, hCNT2, and hfCNT, respectively. When produced in Xenopus oocytes, both proteins exhibited Na(+)-dependent cib-type functional activities. hCNT3 was electrogenic, and a sigmoidal dependence of uridine influx on Na(+) concentration indicated a Na(+):uridine coupling ratio of at least 2:1 for both hCNT3 and mCNT3 (cf 1:1 for hCNT1/2). Phorbol myristate acetate-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells led to the parallel appearance of cib-type activity and hCNT3 mRNA. Tissues containing hCNT3 transcripts included pancreas, bone marrow, trachea, mammary gland, liver, prostate, and regions of intestine, brain, and heart. The hCNT3 gene mapped to chromosome 9q22.2 and included an upstream phorbol myristate acetate response element.

  14. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  15. Chutes and Ladders in Hepatitis C Nucleoside Drug Development§

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Steven J.; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel C.; Amblard, Franck; Ehteshami, Maryam; Amiralaei, Sheida; Zhang, Hongwang; Zhou, Longhu; Boucle, Sebastien R. L.; Lu, Xiao; Bondada, Lavanya; Shelton, Jadd R.; Li, Hao; Liu, Peng; Li, Chengwei; Cho, Jong Hyun; Chavre, Satish N.; Zhou, Shaoman; Mathew, Judy; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Chutes and Ladders is an exciting up-and-down-again game in which players race to be the first to the top of the board. Along the way, they will find ladders to help them advance, and chutes that will cause them to move backwards. The development of nucleoside analogs for clinical treatment of hepatitis C presents a similar scenario in which taking shortcuts may help quickly advance a program, but there is always a tremendous risk of being sent backwards as one competes for the finish line. In recent years the treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have expand due to the development of a replicon based in vitro evaluation system, allowing for the identification of multiple drugable viral targets along with a concerted and substantial drug discovery effort. Three major drug targets have reached clinical study for chronic HCV infection: the NS3/4A serine protease, the large phosphoprotein NS5A, and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Recently, two oral HCV protease inhibitors were approved by the FDA and were the first direct acting anti-HCV agents to result from the substantial research in this area. There are currently many new chemical entities from several different target classes that are being evaluated worldwide in clinical trials for their effectiveness at achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) (Pham et al., 2004; Radkowski et al., 2005). Clearly the goal is to develop therapies leading to a cure that are safe, widely accessible and available, and effective against all HCV genotypes (GT), and all stages of the disease. Nucleoside analogs that target the HCV NS5B polymerase that have reached human clinical trials is the focus of this review as they have demonstrated significant advantages in the clinic with broader activity against the various HCV GT and a higher barrier to the development of resistant viruses when compared to all other classes of HCV inhibitors. PMID:24275341

  16. Identification of the plant ribokinase and discovery of a role for Arabidopsis ribokinase in nucleoside metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    Riggs, John W.; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Cavales, Philip C.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Ribose can be used for energy or as a component of several important biomolecules, but for it to be used in either capacity it must first be phosphorylated by ribokinase (RBSK). RBSK proteins are part of the phosphofructokinase-B (pfkB) family of carbohydrate kinases. Sequence comparisons of pfkB proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with the human and Escherichia coli RBSK identified a single candidate RBSK, At1g17160 (AtRBSK). AtRBSK is more similar to predicted RBSKs from other plant species and known mammalian and prokaryotic RBSK than to all other PfkB proteins in Arabidopsis. AtRBSK contains a predicted chloroplast transit peptide,more » and we confirmed plastid localization using AtRBSK fused to YFP. Structure prediction software verified that the AtRBSK sequence mapped onto a known RBSK structure. Kinetic parameters of purified recombinant AtRBSK were determined to be Kmribose = 150 μm ± 17 μm, KmATP = 45 μm ± 5.6 μm, and kcat = 2.0 s₋1. Substrate inhibition was observed for AtRBSK (KiATP = 2.44 mm ± 0.36 mm), as has been demonstrated for other RBSK proteins. Ribose accumulated in Arabidopsis plants lacking AtRBSK. Such plants grew normally unless media was supplemented with ribose, which led to chlorosis and growth inhibition. Both chlorosis and ribose accumulation were abolished upon the introduction of a transgene expressing AtRBSK-MYC, demonstrating that the loss of protein is responsible for ribose hypersensitivity. Lastly, ribose accumulation in plants lacking AtRBSK was reduced in plants also deficient in the nucleoside ribohydrolase NSH1, linking AtRBSK activity to nucleoside metabolism.« less

  17. Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three antitumor nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Roth, Stephanie; Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Rouleau, Cecile; Yao, Min; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Lovett, Dennis; Schmid, Steven; Teicher, Beverly A

    2009-05-01

    Nucleoside analogs are rationally designed anticancer agents that disrupt DNA and RNA synthesis. Fludarabine and cladribine have important roles in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Clofarabine is a next generation nucleoside analog which is under clinical investigation. The bone marrow toxicity, tumor cell cytotoxicity and human tumor xenograft activity of fludarabine, cladribine and clofarabine were compared. Mouse and human bone marrow were subjected to colony forming (CFU-GM) assays over a 5-log concentration range in culture. NCI-60 cell line screening data were compared. In vivo, a range of clofarabine doses was compared with fludarabine for efficacy in several human tumor xenografts. The IC90 concentrations for fludarabine and cladribine for mouse CFU-GM were >30 and 0.93 microM, and for human CFU-GM were 8 and 0.11 microM, giving mouse to human differentials of >3.8- and 8.5-fold. Clofarabine produced IC90s of 1.7 microM in mouse and 0.51 microM in human CFU-GM, thus a 3.3-fold differential between species. In the NCI-60 cell line screen, fludarabine and cladribine showed selective cytotoxicity toward leukemia cell lines while for clofarabine there was no apparent selectivity based upon origin of the tumor cells. In vivo, clofarabine produced a dose-dependent increase in tumor growth delay in the RL lymphoma, the RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and HT-29 colon carcinoma models. The PC3 prostate carcinoma was equally responsive to clofarabine and fludarabine. Bringing together bone marrow toxicity data, tumor cell line cytotoxicity data, and human tumor xenograft efficacy provides valuable information for the translation of preclinical findings to the clinic.

  18. Synthesis and photophysical characterisation of a fluorescent nucleoside analogue that signals the presence of an abasic site in RNA.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2012-11-05

    The synthesis and site-specific incorporation of an environment-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogue (2), based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine core, into DNA oligonucleotides (ONs), and its photophysical properties within these ONs are described. Interestingly and unlike 2-aminopurine (a widely used nucleoside analogue probe), when incorporated into an ON and hybridised with a complementary ON, the emissive nucleoside 2 displays significantly higher emission intensity than the free nucleoside. Furthermore, photophysical characterisation shows that the fluorescence properties of the nucleoside analogue within ONs are significantly influenced by flanking bases, especially by guanosine. By utilising the responsiveness of the nucleoside to changes in base environment, a DNA ON reporter labelled with the emissive nucleoside 2 was constructed; this signalled the presence of an abasic site in a model depurinated sarcin/ricin RNA motif of a eukaryotic 28S rRNA.

  19. On the Functional Role of the {epsilon} Subunit of the Molecular Motor F-Adenosine Triphosphatase in Lipid Membranes of Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Loginov, E. B.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of the e subunit of the molecular motor F-adenosine triphosphatase, which is built into the lipid membrane of a cell, on the dynamics of the rotor ({gamma} subunit), with which this subunit is bound, has been qualitatively considered. It is shown that its structural and conformational features arising during the hydrolysis of 'fuel' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules can be explained by the change in the potential within which the rotor is located. As the numerical calculations showed, at a low ATP concentration, the hydrolysis is accompanied by an unstable rotation of the {gamma} subunit and the related proton current. A model is proposed to describe the interaction between the {epsilon} subunit and the lipid order fluctuations caused by the membrane transition to the gel state. It is demonstrated that the rotor rotations become inhomogeneous when this interaction is enhanced with a decrease in the cell temperature.

  20. Dual inhibition of HCV and HIV by ring-expanded nucleosides containing the 5:7-fused imidazo[4,5-e][1,3]diazepine ring System. In vitro results and implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Peng; Baier, Andrea; Cova, Lucyna; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Examples of ring-expanded nucleosides (RENs), represented by general structures 1 and 2, exhibited dual anti-HCV and anti-HIV activities in both cell culture systems and the respective target enzyme assays, including HCV NTPase/helicase and human RNA helicase DDX3. Since HCV is a leading co-infection in late stage HIV AIDS patients, often leading to liver cirrhosis and death, the observed dual inhibition of HCV and HIV by the target nucleoside analogues has potentially beneficial implications in treating HIV patients infected with HCV. PMID:24461293

  1. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Kaparos, G.; Maurano, F.; Di Renzo, G.F.; Annunziato, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and newly taken-up (3H)DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited (3H)DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced (3H)DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated (3H)DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of (3H)DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  2. Nucleophilic displacement reactions of 5′-derivatised nucleosides in a vibration ball mill

    PubMed Central

    Eguaogie, Olga; Conlon, Patrick F; Ravalico, Francesco; Sweet, Jamie S T; Elder, Thomas B; Conway, Louis P; Lennon, Marc E; Hodgson, David R W

    2017-01-01

    Vibration ball-milling in a zirconia-lined vessel afforded clean and quantitative nucleophilic displacement reactions between 4-methoxybenzylthiolate salts and nucleoside 5′-halides or 5′-tosylates in five to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, commonly-encountered nucleoside cyclisation byproducts (especially of purine nucleosides) were not observed. Liquid-assisted grinding of the same 5'-iodide and 5′-tosylate substrates with potassium selenocyanate in the presence of DMF produced the corresponding 5′-selenocyanates in variable yields over the course of between one and eleven hours thereby avoiding the preparation and use of hygroscopic tetrabutylammonium salts. PMID:28179952

  3. A 31P-NMR study of the interaction of Mg2+ ions with nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Dinh, S; Neumann, J M

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Mg2+ with nucleoside disphosphates : ADP, GDP, CDP and UDP has been studied by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in aqueous solution. The results show that these four nucleotides behave similarly, the Mg2+ ion binds to the alpha but not to the beta phosphate moiety. The strength of the interaction of Mg2+ ions with nucleoside diphosphates is weaker than with nucleoside triphosphates. The association of Mg2+ on the phosphate chain is stronger in a neutral than in an acid medium. PMID:14328

  4. The Sythesis of Certain Carbocyclic Nucleoside Analogs as Antiviral Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4135 DTIC Southern Research Institute t E L ECT E Birmingham, Alabama 35255...T.A~~~1ThL~~ ANrn~A NIIA GNS915/84-12/14/85"I S---- . PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER:..NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS AS A TIVIR L A ENTS S E RIGOG E SoRI-KM- 85...CH, RR = NH2 0/NHH HOC HOCH HOCH X HO HO OH HO OH 4 6 a) R =CH3 a) X =0 b) R= l b) X =CH2 NH 2 ICH H H 7 %5 a specific inhibitor of S-adenosyl- L

  5. Dynamic metabolic labeling of DNA in vivo with arabinosyl nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Neef, Anne B; Luedtke, Nathan W

    2011-12-20

    Commonly used metabolic labels for DNA, including 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and BrdU, are toxic antimetabolites that cause DNA instability, necrosis, and cell-cycle arrest. In addition to perturbing biological function, these properties can prevent metabolic labeling studies where subsequent tissue survival is needed. To bypass the metabolic pathways responsible for toxicity, while maintaining the ability to be metabolically incorporated into DNA, we synthesized and evaluated a small family of arabinofuranosyl-ethynyluracil derivatives. Among these, (2'S)-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-5-ethynyluridine (F-ara-EdU) exhibited selective DNA labeling, yet had a minimal impact on genome function in diverse tissue types. Metabolic incorporation of F-ara-EdU into DNA was readily detectable using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reactions with fluorescent azides. F-ara-EdU is less toxic than both BrdU and EdU, and it can be detected with greater sensitivity in experiments where long-term cell survival and/or deep-tissue imaging are desired. In contrast to previously reported 2'-arabino modified nucleosides and EdU, F-ara-EdU causes little or no cellular arrest or DNA synthesis inhibition. F-ara-EdU is therefore ideally suited for pulse-chase experiments aimed at "birth dating" DNA in vivo. As a demonstration, Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with F-ara-EdU at the one-cell stage and chased by BrdU at 10 h after fertilization. Following 3 d of development, complex patterns of quiescent/senescent cells containing only F-ara-EdU were observed in larvae along the dorsal side of the notochord and epithelia. Arabinosyl nucleoside derivatives therefore provide unique and effective means to introduce bioorthogonal functional groups into DNA for diverse applications in basic research, biotechnology, and drug discovery.

  6. Uridine Nucleoside Thiation: Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The naturally occurring thiated uridine nucleosides, 4-thiouridine (s4Urd) and 2-thiouridine (s2Urd), play important roles in the function and analysis of a variety of RNAs. 2-Thiouridine and its C5 modified analogues are commonly found in tRNAs and are believed to play an important role in codon recognition possibly due to their different structure, which has been shown by NMR to be predominantly C3'-endo. 2-Thiouridine may also play an important role in facilitating nonenzymatic RNA replication and transcription. 4-Thiouridine is a commonly used photoactivatable crosslinker that is often used to study RNA-RNA and RNA-protein cross-linking behavior. Differences in the base pairing between uracil and 4-thiouracil with adenine and guanine are an important factor in their role as a cross linker. The photoactivity of s4Urd may also aid in preventing near-UV lethality in cells. An understanding of their intrinsic structure in the gas-phase may help further elucidate the roles these modified nucleosides play in the regulation of RNAs. In this work, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of s2Urd and s4Urd were collected in the IR fingerprint region. Structural information is determined by comparison with theoretical linear IR spectra generated from density functional theory calculations using molecular modeling to generate low-energy candidate structures. Present results are compared with analogous results for the protonated forms of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine as well as solution phase NMR data and crystal structures.

  7. Uptake of intact nucleoside monophosphates by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B; Barke, J I

    1985-01-01

    The degraded nucleic acids and ribosomes of its prey cell provide Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J with a source of ribonucleoside monophosphates and deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates for biosynthesis and respiration. We demonstrate that bdellovibrios, in contrast to almost all other bacteria, take up these nucleoside monophosphates into the cell in an intact, phosphorylated form. In this way they are able to assimilate more effectively the cellular contents of their prey. Studies with UMP and dTMP demonstrate that they are transported and accumulated against a concentration gradient, achieving internal levels at least 10 times the external levels. Treatment of the bdellovibrios with azide or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone eliminates their ability to either transport or maintain accumulated UMP and suggests the presence of a freely reversible exchange mechanism. There are at least two separate classes of transport systems for nucleoside monophosphates, each exhibiting partial specificity for either ribonucleoside monophosphates or deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates. Kinetic analyses of UMP transport in different developmental stages of strain 109J indicate that each stage expresses a single, saturable uptake system with a distinct apparent substrate affinity constant (Kt) of 104 microM in attack phase cells and 35 microM in prematurely released growth phase filaments. The capacity for transport of UMP by the growth phase filaments was 2.4 times that of the attack phase cells. These data, in addition to the apparent lack of environmental control of UMP transport capacity in attack phase cells, suggest that there are two transport systems for UMP in bdellovibrios and that the high-affinity, high-capacity growth phase system is developmentally regulated. PMID:4030692

  8. Expression, purification and functional characterization of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1 (hENT1) protein from Sf9 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-10-01

    Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) is the major plasma membrane transporter involved in transportation of natural nucleosides as well as nucleoside analog drugs, used in anti-cancer and anti-viral therapies. Despite extensive biochemical and pharmacological studies, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this protein. The major obstacles to purification include a low endogenous expression level, the lack of an efficient expression and purification protocol, and the hydrophobic nature of the protein. Here, we report protein expression, purification and functional characterization of hENT1 from Sf9 insect cells. hENT1 expressed by Sf9 cells is functionally active as demonstrated by saturation binding with a Kd of 1.2±0.2nM and Bmax of 110±5pmol/mg for [(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR). We also demonstrate purification of hENT1 using FLAG antibody affinity resin in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol detergent with a Kd of 4.3±0.7nM. The yield of hENT1 from Sf9 cells was ∼0.5mg active transporter per liter of culture. The purified protein is functionally active, stable, homogenous and appropriate for further biophysical and structural studies.

  9. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  10. Metabolic engineering of an industrial polyoxin producer for the targeted overproduction of designer nucleoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianzhao; Liu, Jin; Wan, Dan; Cai, You-Sheng; Wang, Yinghu; Li, Shunying; Wu, Pan; Feng, Xuan; Qiu, Guofu; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Wenqing; Deng, Zixin

    2015-09-01

    Polyoxin and nikkomycin are naturally occurring peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics with potent antifungal bioactivity. Both exhibit similar structural features, having a nucleoside skeleton and one or two peptidyl moieties. Combining the refactoring of the polyoxin producer Streptomyces aureochromogenes with import of the hydroxypyridylhomothreonine pathway of nikkomycin allows the targeted production of three designer nucleoside antibiotics designated as nikkoxin E, F, and G. These structures were determined by NMR and/or high resolution mass spectrometry. Remarkably, the introduction of an extra copy of the nikS gene encoding an ATP-dependent ligase significantly enhanced the production of the designer antibiotics. Moreover, all three nikkoxins displayed improved bioactivity against several pathogenic fungi as compared with the naturally-occurring antibiotics. These data provide a feasible model for high efficiency generation of nucleoside antibiotics related to polyoxins and nikkomycins in a polyoxin cell factory via synthetic biology strategy.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XH7, which exhibits production of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huilin; Liao, Yuling; Wang, Bin; Lin, Ying; Pan, Li

    2011-10-01

    Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XH7, which is used to produce purine nucleosides in industry. The genome sequence will allow for the characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial properties.

  12. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases.

    PubMed

    Bucurenci, N; Sakamoto, H; Briozzo, P; Palibroda, N; Serina, L; Sarfati, R S; Labesse, G; Briand, G; Danchin, A; Bărzu, O; Gilles, A M

    1996-02-02

    CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is a monomeric protein of 225 amino acid residues. The protein exhibits little overall sequence similarities with other known NMP kinases. However, residues involved in binding of substrates and/or in catalysis were found conserved, and sequence comparison suggested conservation of the global fold found in adenylate kinases or in several CMP/UMP kinases. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, crystallized, and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3), have unit cell parameters a = b = 82.3 A and c = 60.7 A, and diffract x-rays to a 1.9 A resolution. The bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 328 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, which suggests that the single tryptophan residue (Trp30) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors. This is in contrast with CMP/UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, an enzyme active on CMP or UMP but much less active on the corresponding deoxynucleotides. Binding of CMP enhanced the affinity of E. coli CMP kinase for ATP or ADP, a particularity never described in this family of proteins that might explain inhibition of enzyme activity by excess of nucleoside monophosphate.

  13. Anti-HIV Nucleoside Phosphonate GS-9148 and Its Prodrug GS-9131: Scale Up of a 2'-F Modified Cyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate and Synthesis of Selected Amidate Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mackman, Richard L

    2014-03-26

    Nucleoside phosphonate analogs are an important class of antiviral drugs for the treatment of HIV and HBV. The most recent nucleoside phosphonate to progress to clinical development is GS-9131, a cyclic nucleoside phosphonate (CNP). This unit contains procedures for the synthesis of the parent CNP 2'-Fd4AP (GS-9148) and selected monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs, including the monoamidate clinical prodrug GS-9131. The first basic protocol of this unit details improved procedures for the preparation of 2'-Fd4AP and related phosphonate esters by introduction of a hydroxylmethyl phosphonate ester regioselectively and stereoselectively onto a furanose core via a glycal intermediate. The method described is believed to be robust and flexible, allowing for a variety of analogs with other nucleobases or furanose 2'-ring substitutions to be prepared. The preparation of monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs either on the phosphonate diacid or its monophenyl ester is then described in the second and third basic protocols of this unit.

  14. Salvadenosine, a 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio) nucleoside from the Bahamian tunicate Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Matthew T; Boddy, Christopher N; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2014-11-07

    Salvadenosine, (1) a rare 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio) nucleoside, was isolated from the deep-water Bahaman tunicate Didemnum sp. The structure was solved by integrated analysis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. We revise the structure of the known natural product, hamiguanosinol, which is a constitutional isomer of 1, to 5 by interpretation of the spectroscopic data and comparison with synthesized nucleosides.

  15. Aqueous microwave-assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Gwénaëlle; Len, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been the preferred tools to access to modified nucleosides (on the C5-position of pyrimidines and on the C7- or C8-positions of purines). Our objective is to focus this mini-review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which is an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development PMID:25741506

  16. a Nucleoside Under Observation in the Gas Phase: a Rotational Study of Uridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoside of uridine has been placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and the most stable C2{'}-anti conformation characterized by broadband chirped pulse (CP-FTMW) and narrowband molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopies. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, originated by two 14N nuclei, has been completely resolved. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  17. Classification of lung cancer patients and controls by chromatography of modified nucleosides in serum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEntire, John E.; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Smith, Mark E.; Stalling, David L.; Richens, Jack W.; Zumwalt, Robert W.; Gehrke, Charles W.; Papermaster, Ben W.

    1989-01-01

    A wide spectrum of modified nucleosides has been quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum of 49 male lung cancer patients, 35 patients with other cancers, and 48 patients hospitalized for nonneoplastic diseases. Data for 29 modified nucleoside peaks were normalized to an internal standard and analyzed by discriminant analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. A model based on peaks selected by a stepwise discriminant procedure correctly classified 79% of the cancer and 75% of the noncancer subjects. It also demonstrated 84% sensitivity and 79% specificity when comparing lung cancer to noncancer subjects, and 80% sensitivity and 55% specificity in comparing lung cancer to other cancers. The nucleoside peaks having the greatest influence on the models varied dependent on the subgroups compared, confirming the importance of quantifying a wide array of nucleosides. These data support and expand previous studies which reported the utility of measuring modified nucleoside levels in serum and show that precise measurement of an array of 29 modified nucleosides in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV scanning with subsequent data modeling may provide a clinically useful approach to patient classification in diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic monitoring.

  18. Nature's combinatorial biosynthesis and recently engineered production of nucleoside antibiotics in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shawn; Kinney, William A; Van Lanen, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Modified nucleosides produced by Streptomyces and related actinomycetes are widely used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antiviral agents. These specialized small-molecule metabolites are biosynthesized by complex enzymatic machineries encoded within gene clusters in the genome. The past decade has witnessed a burst of reports defining the key metabolic processes involved in the biosynthesis of several distinct families of nucleoside antibiotics. Furthermore, genome sequencing of various Streptomyces species has dramatically increased over recent years. Potential biosynthetic gene clusters for novel nucleoside antibiotics are now apparent by analysis of these genomes. Here we revisit strategies for production improvement of nucleoside antibiotics that have defined mechanisms of action, and are in clinical or agricultural use. We summarize the progress for genetically manipulating biosynthetic pathways for structural diversification of nucleoside antibiotics. Microorganism-based biosynthetic examples are provided and organized under genetic principles and metabolic engineering guidelines. We show perspectives on the future of combinatorial biosynthesis, and present a working model for discovery of novel nucleoside natural products in Streptomyces.

  19. Anti-HIV efficacy and biodistribution of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors delivered as squalenoylated prodrug nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, Hervé; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Skanji, Rym; Bekkara-Aounallah, Fawzia; Caron, Joachim; Lepêtre, Sinda; Argote, Sébastien; Bauduin, Laurent; Yousfi, Rahima; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Gref, Ruxandra; Andrieux, Karine; Clayette, Pascal; Couvreur, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Due to their hydrophilic nature, most nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) display a variable bioavailability after oral administration and a poor control over their biodistribution, thus hampering their access to HIV sanctuaries. The limited cellular uptake and activation in the triphosphate form of NRTIs further restrict their efficacy and favour the emergence of viral resistance. We have shown that the conjugation of squalene (sq) to the nucleoside analogues dideoxycytidine (ddC) and didanosine (ddI) leads to amphiphilic prodrugs (ddC-sq and ddI-sq) that spontaneously self-organize in water as stable nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm. These nanoassemblies can also be formulated with polyethylene glycol coupled to either cholesterol (Chol-PEG) or squalene (sq-PEG). When incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro infected with HIV, the NRTI-sq prodrugs enhanced the antiviral efficacy of the parent NRTIs, with a 2- to 3-fold decrease of the 50% effective doses and a nearly 2-fold increase of the selectivity index. This was also the case with HIV-1 strains resistant to ddC and/or ddI. The enhanced antiviral activity of ddI-sq was correlated with an up to 5-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of the corresponding pharmacologically active metabolite ddA-TP. The ddI-sq prodrug was further investigated in vivo by the oral route, the preferred route of administration of NRTIs. Pharmacokinetics studies performed on rats showed that the prodrug maintained low amounts of free ddI in the plasma. Administration of (3)H-ddI-sq led to radioactivity levels higher in the plasma and relevant organs in HIV infection as compared to administration of free (3)H-ddI. Taken together, these results show the potential of the squalenoylated prodrugs of NRTIs to enhance their absorption and improve their biodistribution, but also to enhance their intracellular delivery and antiviral efficacy towards HIV-infected cells.

  20. Molecular modeling studies on nucleoside hydrolase from the biological warfare agent Brucella suis.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Daiana T; Matos, Karina S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Assis, Tamiris M; Guimarães, Ana P; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2012-01-01

    Brucella suis is a dangerous biological warfare agent already used for military purposes. This bacteria cause brucellosis, a zoonosis highly infective and difficult to fight. An important selective target for chemotherapy against this disease is nucleoside hydrolase (NH), an enzyme still not found in mammals. We present here the first three-dimensional structure of B. suis NH (BsNH) and propose this enzyme as a molecular target to the drug design in the fight against brucellosis. In addition, we performed molecular docking studies, aiming to analyze the three-dimensional positioning of nine known inhibitors of Chritidia fasciculata NH (CfNH) in the active sites of BsNH and CfNH. We also analyzed the main interactions of some of these compounds inside the active site of BsNH and the relevant factors to biological activity. These results, together with further molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, pointed out to the most promising compound as lead for the design of potential inhibitors of BsNH. Most of the docking and MD results corroborated to each other and the docking results also suggested a good correlation with experimental data.

  1. Single strand DNA specificity analysis of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase B.

    PubMed

    Agou, F; Raveh, S; Mesnildrey, S; Véron, M

    1999-07-09

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDP kinases) form a family of oligomeric enzymes present in all organisms. Eukaryotic NDP kinases are hexamers composed of identical subunits (approximately 17 kDa). A distinctive property of human NDPK-B encoded by the gene nm23-H2 is its ability to stimulate the gene transcription. This property is independent of its catalytic activity and is possibly related to the role of this protein in cellular events including differentiation and tumor metastasis. In this paper, we report the first characterization of human NDPK-B.DNA complex formation using a filter-binding assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. We analyzed the binding of several oligonucleotides mimicking the promoter region of the c-myc oncogene including variants in sequence, structure, and length of both strands. We show that NDPK-B binds to single-stranded oligonucleotides in a nonsequence specific manner, but that it exhibits a poor binding activity to double-stranded oligonucleotides. This indicates that the specificity of recognition to DNA is a function of the structural conformation of DNA rather than of its specific sequence. Moreover, competition experiments performed with all nucleotides provide evidence for the contribution of the six active sites in the DNA.protein complex formation. We propose a mechanism through which human NDPK-B could stimulate transcription of c-myc or possibly other genes involved in cellular differentiation.

  2. Separate nuclear genes encode cytosolic and mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Troll, H; Winckler, T; Lascu, I; Müller, N; Saurin, W; Véron, M; Mutzel, R

    1993-12-05

    We have previously isolated cDNA clones for the gip17 gene encoding the cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, and partial cDNAs for guk, a second member of the NDP kinase gene family (Wallet, V., Mutzel, R., Troll, H., Barzu, O., Wurster, B., Véron, M., and Lacombe, M. L. (1990) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 80, 1199-1202). We now characterize genomic DNA clones for both NDP kinase genes, and we show that guk defines a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial NDP kinase. Isolated D. discoideum mitochondria contain 3% of the total cellular NDP kinase activity. Antibodies which specifically recognize and inhibit the activity of either cytosolic or mitochondrial NDP kinase unambiguously distinguish between these activities. The nascent mitochondrial NDP kinase contains a presequence of 57 amino acids that is removed during import into the organelle as shown by determination of the NH2 terminus of the mature protein from mitochondria. The genes for mitochondrial and cytosolic NDP kinases contain four and two introns, respectively. The positions of the of the introns in the gene for the cytosolic enzyme match exactly the positions of the second and fourth introns in the coding region of its mitochondrial homologue. From these results we conclude that the isozymes diverged from a common ancestor, and we discuss possible phylogenetic pathways for the evolution of cytosolic and organelle NDP kinases.

  3. Nucleoside uptake in macrophages from various murine strains: a short-time and a two-step stimulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Busolo, F.; Conventi, L.; Grigolon, M.; Palu, G. )

    1991-06-28

    Kinetics of (3H)-uridine uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages (pM phi) is early altered after exposure to a variety of stimuli. Alterations caused by Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) were similar in SAVO, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, and were not correlated with an activation process as shown by the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) being released. Short-time exposure to all stimuli resulted in an increased nucleoside uptake by SAVO pM phi, suggesting that the tumoricidal function of this cell either depends from the type of stimulus or the time when the specific interaction with the cell receptor is taking place. Experiments with priming and triggering signals confirmed the above findings, indicating that the increase or the decrease of nucleoside uptake into the cell depends essentially on the chemical nature of the priming stimulus. The triggering stimulus, on the other hand, is only able to amplify the primary response.

  4. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  5. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A.; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J.; McAtee, C. Patrick; Engler, David A.; Matsunami, Risë K.; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Hotez, Peter J.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:26839079

  6. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides for Molecular Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F.

    2014-01-01

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU), having three, four or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5, were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed to efficiently synthesize the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[18F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were prepared readily from 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17–35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [18F]labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein, with negligible uptake in control cells. [18F]FPrDU, [18F]FBuDU, [18F]FPeDU, and [18F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite selective accumulation in HSV1-tk expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low to negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50>1000–209 μM). Ultimately, results demonstrated that 5-[18F]fluoropropyl, [18F]fluorobutyl, and [18F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have potential as in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels. PMID:18800764

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Diarylpyridines and Diarylanilines as Potent Non-nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingtao; Qin, Bingjie; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Chen, Chin Ho; Jiang, Shibo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xie, Lan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the structures and activities of our previously identified non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), we designed and synthesized two sets of derivatives, diarylpyridines (A) and diarylanilines (B), and tested their anti-HIV-1 activity against infection by HIV-1 NL4-3 and IIIB in TZM-bl and MT-2 cells, respectively. The results showed that most compounds exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with low nanomolar EC50 values, and some of them, such as 13m, 14c, and 14e, displayed high potency with subnanomolar EC50 values, which were more potent than etravirine (TMC125, 1) in the same assays. Notably, these compounds were also highly effective against infection by multi-RTI-resistant strains, suggesting a high potential to further develop these compounds as a novel class of NNRTIs with improved antiviral efficacy and resistance profile. PMID:21049929

  8. Thermodynamics of the Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Reaction Revealed by Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2017-01-10

    Enzymes are able to catalyze chemical reactions by reducing the activation free energy, yielding significant increases in the reaction rates. This can thermodynamically be accomplished by either reducing the activation enthalpy or increasing the activation entropy. The effect of remote mutations on the thermodynamic activation parameters of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase is examined using extensive molecular dynamics and free energy simulations. More than 2700 independent reaction free energy profiles for six different temperatures have been calculated to obtain high-precision computational Arrhenius plots. On the basis of these, the activation enthalpies and entropies were computed from linear regression of the plots with ΔG(⧧) as a function of 1/T, and the obtained thermodynamic activation parameters are in very good agreement with those from experiments. The Arrhenius plots immediately show that the 6-oxopurines (INO and GUO) have identical slopes, whereas the 6-aminopurine (ADO) has a significantly different slope, indicating that the substrate specificity is related to the difference in thermodynamic activation parameters. Furthermore, the calculations show that the human PNP specificity for 6-oxopurines over 6-aminopurines originates from significant differences in electrostatic preorganization. The effect of the remote double mutation, K22E and H104R (E:R), has also been examined, as it alters human PNP toward the bovine PNP. These residues are situated on the protein surface, 28-35 Å from the active site, and the mutation alters the enthalpy-entropy balance with little effect on the catalytic rates. It is thus quite remarkable that the empirical valence bond method can reproduce the enthalpies and entropies induced by these long-range mutations.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Golankiewicz, B; Zielonacka-Lis, E; Folkman, W

    1985-01-01

    The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, analogously to simple nucleosides. Unlike majority of other monophosphates studied so far, wyosine 5'-monophosphate is not more stable than respective nucleoside. PMID:4000960

  10. SAMHD1 enhances nucleoside-analogue efficacy against HIV-1 in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Paula; Kunzelmann, Simone; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Yap, Melvyn W.; Weising, Simon; Meier, Chris; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    SAMHD1 is an intracellular enzyme that specifically degrades deoxynucleoside triphosphates into component nucleoside and inorganic triphosphate. In myeloid-derived dendritic cells and macrophages as well as resting T-cells, SAMHD1 blocks HIV-1 infection through this dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity by reducing the cellular dNTP pool to a level that cannot support productive reverse transcription. We now show that, in addition to this direct effect on virus replication, manipulating cellular SAMHD1 activity can significantly enhance or decrease the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of nucleotide analogue reverse transcription inhibitors presumably as a result of modulating dNTP pools that compete for recruitment by viral polymerases. Further, a variety of other nucleotide-based analogues, not normally considered antiretrovirals, such as the anti-herpes drugs Aciclovir and Ganciclovir and the anti-cancer drug Clofarabine are now revealed as potent anti-HIV-1 agents, under conditions of low dNTPs. This in turn suggests novel uses for nucleotide analogues to inhibit HIV-1 in differentiated cells low in dNTPs. PMID:28220857

  11. Gemcitabine-based therapy for pancreatic cancer using the squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Caron, Joachim; Mougin, Julie; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-03-30

    Gemcitabine is currently the most effective agent against advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the major therapeutic hurdles using gemcitabine include rapid inactivation by blood deaminases and fast development of cell chemoresistance, induced by down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase or nucleoside transporters. To overcome the above drawbacks we designed recently a novel nanomedicine strategy based on squalenoyl prodrug of 5'-monophosphate gemcitabine (SQdFdC-MP). This amphiphilic conjugate self-organized in water into unilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 100 nm. In this study the antitumor efficacy of SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies (NAs) on chemoresistant and chemosensitive pancreatic adenocarcinoma models have been investigated. Cell viability assays showed that SQdFdC-MP NAs displayed higher antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in chemoresistant pancreatic tumor cells. In in vivo studies, SQdFdC-MP NAs decreased significantly the growth (∼70%) of human MiaPaCa2 xenografts, also preventing tumor cell invasion, whereas native dFdC did not display any anticancer activity when tumor growth inhibition was only 35% with SQdFdC NAs. These results correlated with a reduction of Ki-67 antigen and the induction of apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 activation in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing SQdFdC-MP NAs to make tumor cells more sensitive to gemcitabine and thus providing an efficient new therapeutic alternative for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  12. Targeting glucose consumption and autophagy in myeloma with the novel nucleoside analogue 8-aminoadenosine.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mala; McBrayer, Samuel K; Qian, Jun; Raikoff, Kiril; Avram, Michael J; Singhal, Seema; Gandhi, Varsha; Schumacker, Paul T; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2009-09-25

    Multiple myeloma, an incurable plasma cell malignancy, is characterized by altered cellular metabolism and resistance to apoptosis. Recent connections between glucose metabolism and resistance to apoptosis provide a compelling rationale for targeting metabolic changes in cancer. In this study, we have examined the ability of the purine analogue 8-aminoadenosine to acutely reduce glucose consumption by regulating localization and expression of key glucose transporters. Myeloma cells counteracted the metabolic stress by activating autophagy. Co-treatment with inhibitors of autophagy results in marked enhancement of cell death. Glucose consumption by drug-resistant myeloma cells was unaffected by 8-aminoadenosine, and accordingly, no activation of autophagy was observed. However, these cells can be sensitized to 8-aminoadenosine under glucose-limiting conditions. The prosurvival autophagic response of myeloma to nutrient deprivation or to nucleoside analogue treatment has not been described previously. This study establishes the potential of metabolic targeting as a broader means to kill and sensitize myeloma and identifies a compound that can achieve this goal.

  13. Inhibition and Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Teraya M.; Cassera, María B.; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zhan, Chenyang; Merino, Emilio F.; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is a purine auxotroph that relies on purine salvage for proliferation. We have optimized T. gondii purine nucleoside phosphorylase (TgPNP) stability and crystallized TgPNP with phosphate and immucillin-H, a transition-state analogue that has high affinity for the enzyme. Immucillin-H bound to TgPNP with a dissociation constant of 370 pM, the highest affinity of 11 immucillins selected to probe the catalytic site. The specificity for transition-state analogues indicated an early dissociative transition state for TgPNP. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum PNP, large substituents surrounding the 5′-hydroxyl group of inhibitors demonstrate reduced capacity for TgPNP inhibition. Catalytic discrimination against large 5′ groups is consistent with the inability of TgPNP to catalyze the phosphorolysis of 5′-methylthioinosine to hypoxanthine. In contrast to mammalian PNP, the 2′-hydroxyl group is crucial for inhibitor binding in the catalytic site of TgPNP. This first crystal structure of TgPNP describes the basis for discrimination against 5′-methylthioinosine and similarly 5′-hydroxy-substituted immucillins; structural differences reflect the unique adaptations of purine salvage pathways of Apicomplexa. PMID:24585883

  14. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Rigid Adenine Nucleoside Derivatives as Novel Modulators of the Human Sodium Symporters for Dopamine and Norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, Aaron; Tosh, Dilip K; Eshleman, Amy J; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-two congeneric rigid adenine nucleoside derivatives containing a North (N)-methanocarba ribose substitution and a 2-arylethynyl group either enhanced (up to 760% of control) or inhibited [(125)I] methyl (1R,2S,3S)-3-(4-iodophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate (RTI-55) binding at the human dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and inhibited DA uptake. Several nucleosides also enhanced [(3)H]mazindol [(±)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-2H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ol] binding to the DAT. The combination of binding enhancement and functional inhibition suggests possible allosteric interaction with the tropanes. The structure-activity relationship of this novel class of DAT ligands was explored: small N(6)-substition (methyl or ethyl) was favored, while the N1 of the adenine ring was essential. Effective terminal aryl groups include thien-2-yl (compounds 9 and 16), with EC50 values of 35.1 and 9.1 nM, respectively, in [(125)I]RTI-55 binding enhancement, and 3,4-difluorophenyl as in the most potent DA uptake inhibitor (compound 6) with an IC50 value of 92 nM (3-fold more potent than cocaine), but not nitrogen heterocycles. Several compounds inhibited or enhanced binding at the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) and inhibited function in the micromolar range; truncation at the 4'-position in compound 23 allowed for weak inhibition of the SERT. We have not yet eliminated adenosine receptor affinity from this class of DAT modulators, but we identified modifications that remove DAT inhibition as an off-target effect of potent adenosine receptor agonists. Thus, we have identified a new class of allosteric DAT ligands, rigidified adenosine derivatives, and explored their initial structural requirements. They display a very atypical pharmacological profile, i.e., either enhancement by increasing affinity or inhibition of radioligand binding at the DAT, and in some cases the NET and SERT, and inhibition of neurotransmitter

  16. The primary structure of the calcium-transporting adenosine triphosphatase of rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. Soluble tryptic peptides from the succinylated carboxymethylated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G

    1980-01-01

    The isolation and the determination of the amino-acid sequences of the soluble tryptic peptides, derived by cleavage at arginine residues, of the succinylated (3-carboxypropionylated) S-carboxymethylated adenosine triphosphatase protein of rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum are described. Treatment of the protein with succinic anhydride gave a derivative that was readily digested with trypsin, yielding two distinct sets of peptides. One set comprises large, relatively hydrophobic, peptides that are highly aggregated (or insoluble) in aqueous solution and that have been identified, by several criteria, with the portion of the protein embedded in the lipid bilayer in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The second set, which is described here, comprises peptides that have properties typical of those derived from soluble globular proteins and that constitute that part of the protein external to the lipid bilayer. The sequences of these soluble tryptic peptides contain 586 unique residues. Details of the isolation of the peptides and the determination of the sequences are contained in Supplementary Publication SUP 50102 (88 pages) which has been deposited with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:6234878

  17. Expression and distribution of renal vacuolar proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase in response to chronic acid and alkali loads in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, B; Purcell, H; Hemken, P; Trigg, D; Gluck, S

    1991-01-01

    Renal hydrogen ion excretion increases with chronic acid loads and decreases with alkali loads. We examined the mechanism of adaptation by analyzing vacuolar proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H+ ATPase) 31-kD subunit protein and mRNA levels, and immunocytochemical distribution in kidneys from rats subjected to acid or alkali loads for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 d. Acid- and alkali-loaded rats exhibited adaptive responses in acid excretion, but showed no significant changes in H+ ATPase protein or mRNA levels in either cortex or medulla. In contrast, there were profound adaptive changes in the immunocytochemical distribution of H+ ATPase in collecting duct intercalated cells. In the medulla, H+ ATPase staining in acid-loaded rats shifted from cytoplasmic vesicles to plasma membrane, whereas in alkali-loaded rats, cytoplasmic vesicle staining was enhanced, and staining of plasma membrane disappeared. In the cortical collecting tubule, acid loading increased the number of intercalated cells showing enhanced apical H+ ATPase staining and decreased the number of cells with basolateral or poorly polarized apical staining. The results indicate that both medulla and cortex participate in the adaptive response to acid and alkali loading by changing the steady-state distribution of H+ ATPase, employing mechanisms that do not necessitate postulating interconversion of intercalated cells with opposing polarities. Images PMID:1829094

  18. Highly ordered graphene-isolated silver nanodot arrays as SERS substrate for detection of urinary nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Hu, Guodong; Wei, Jie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Junye; Li, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    An efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been developed based on highly ordered arrays of graphene-isolated Ag nanodot (G/AgND) arrays. By combining the plasmonic activity of AgND arrays and unique physical/chemical properties of graphene, the G/AgND arrays show high performance in terms of sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility. The SERS signals of R6G are clearly detected even at very low concentration of 10-11M. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the SERS substrate are less than 5%. The G/AgND arrays were employed for detection of human urinary nucleosides. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal component analysis achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 93.3% for separating cancer from normal samples. This work demonstrates that G/AgND arrays used in Raman spectroscopy could be developed as a smart and promising system for detection and screening of cancers.

  19. Nucleotide affinity for a stable phosphorylated intermediate of nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benoit; Norda, Ameli; Karlsson, Anna; Veron, Michel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2002-07-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is transiently phosphorylated on a histidine of the active site during the catalytic cycle. In the presence of a nucleotide acceptor, the phosphohistidine bond is unstable and the phosphate is transferred to the acceptor in less than 1 msec. We describe the synthesis of an analog of the phosphoenzyme intermediate with an inactive mutant of NDP kinase in which the catalytic histidine is replaced by a cysteine. In two sequential disulfide exchange reactions, a thiophosphate group reacts with the thiol function of the cysteine that had previously reacted with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB). The thiophosphoenzyme presents a 400,000-fold increased stability in the presence of NDPs compared with the phosphoenzyme. The binding of NDP is studied at the steady state and presteady state. Data were analyzed according to a bimolecular association model. For the first time, the true equilibrium dissociation constants of NDP for the analog of the phosphoenzyme are determined in the absence of phosphotransfer, allowing a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme.

  20. Nucleotide affinity for a stable phosphorylated intermediate of nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Benoit; Norda, Ameli; Karlsson, Anna; Veron, Michel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is transiently phosphorylated on a histidine of the active site during the catalytic cycle. In the presence of a nucleotide acceptor, the phosphohistidine bond is unstable and the phosphate is transferred to the acceptor in less than 1 msec. We describe the synthesis of an analog of the phosphoenzyme intermediate with an inactive mutant of NDP kinase in which the catalytic histidine is replaced by a cysteine. In two sequential disulfide exchange reactions, a thiophosphate group reacts with the thiol function of the cysteine that had previously reacted with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB). The thiophosphoenzyme presents a 400,000-fold increased stability in the presence of NDPs compared with the phosphoenzyme. The binding of NDP is studied at the steady state and presteady state. Data were analyzed according to a bimolecular association model. For the first time, the true equilibrium dissociation constants of NDP for the analog of the phosphoenzyme are determined in the absence of phosphotransfer, allowing a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. PMID:12070317

  1. Preliminary characterization of (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase crystals from Meaban and Yokose flaviviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario; Lamballeire, Xavier de; Brisbare, Nadege; Dalle, Karen; Lantez, Violaine; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Gould, Ernest; Forrester, Naomi; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-08-01

    Two methyltransferases from flaviviruses (Meaban and Yokose viruses) have been overexpressed and crystallized. Diffraction data and characterization of the two crystal forms are presented, together with a preliminary molecular-replacement solution for both enzymes. Viral methyltranferases (MTase) are involved in the third step of the mRNA-capping process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to the capped mRNA. MTases are classified into two groups: (guanine-N7)-methyltransferases (N7MTases), which add a methyl group onto the N7 atom of guanine, and (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferases (2′OMTases), which add a methyl group to a ribose hydroxyl. The MTases of two flaviviruses, Meaban and Yokose viruses, have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in complex with SAM. Characterization of the crystals together with details of preliminary X-ray diffraction data collection (at 2.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively) are reported here. The sequence homology relative to Dengue virus 2′OMTase and the structural conservation of specific residues in the putative active sites suggest that both enzymes belong to the 2′OMTase subgroup.

  2. The role of a purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase in spore germination of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; He, Xihong; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2008-05-01

    A homologous gene (iunH) of a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH), which had been identified from the exosporia of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Disruption of iunH did not affect the vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, but promoted both inosine- and adenosine-induced spore germination. The inosine- or adenosine-induced germination rate decreased when the wild-type iunH gene was overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. The iunH gene product was characterized as a purine-specific NH. The kinetic parameters of IunH with inosine as substrate were K(m)=399+/-115 microM, k(cat)=48.9+/-8.5 s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)=1.23 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for IunH were found to be pH 6 and 80 degrees C. Meanwhile, the specific activity of inosine hydrolase in intact spores of the wild-type strain with inosine as substrate was 2.89+/-0.23x10(-2) micromol min(-1) (mg dry wt)(-1). These results indicate that IunH is important in moderating inosine- or adenosine-induced germination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

  3. Sleep improvement in dogs after oral administration of mioflazine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wauquier, A; Van Belle, H; Van den Broeck, W A; Janssen, P A

    1987-01-01

    Mioflazine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, was given PO to dogs at doses of 0.04-10 mg/kg. Sixteen hour polygraphic sleep recordings were made and analysis and sleep stage classification was done by computer. Mioflazine decreased wakefulness and increased slow wave sleep, but did not affect the latencies of either REM sleep or slow wave sleep. This increased sleep was due to an increase in the number of light and deep slow wave sleep epochs. The effect lasted for about 8 h. The decreased wakefulness and increased slow wave sleep could be antagonized by the adenosine antagonist caffeine (2.5 and 10 mg/kg, PO); however, there was not a pure antagonistic effect. It might be that the enhancement of slow wave sleep is due to an activation of brain adenosine receptors. This is the first report of a drug acting on adenosine that given orally improves sleep. Mioflazine might be the prototype of substances worth considering for the treatment of a variety of sleep disorders.

  4. Five putative nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase genes are expressed in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Dos Santos, Odelta; Meirelles, Lúcia Collares; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that parasitizes the human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The parasite has unique genomic characteristics such as a large genome size and expanded gene families. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates and has already been biochemically characterized in T. vaginalis. Considering the important role of this enzyme in the production of extracellular adenosine for parasite uptake, we evaluated the gene expression of five putative NTPDases in T. vaginalis. We showed that all five putative TvNTPDase genes (TvNTPDase1-5) were expressed by both fresh clinical and long-term grown isolates. The amino acid alignment predicted the presence of the five crucial apyrase conserved regions, transmembrane domains, signal peptides, phosphorylation and catalytic sites. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TvNTPDase sequences make up a clade with NTPDases intracellularly located. Biochemical NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) is responsive to the serum-restrictive conditions and the gene expression of TvNTPDases was mostly increased, mainly TvNTPDase2 and TvNTPDase4, although there was not a clear pattern of expression among them. In summary, the present report demonstrates the gene expression patterns of predicted NTPDases in T. vaginalis.

  5. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of acyclic nucleoside libraries of purine, pyrimidine, and triazole acetamides.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish K; Pathak, Vibha; Reynolds, Robert C

    2014-09-08

    Molecular diversity plays a pivotal role in modern drug discovery against phenotypic or enzyme-based targets using high throughput screening technology. Under the auspices of the Pilot Scale Library Program of the NIH Roadmap Initiative, we produced and report herein a diverse library of 181 purine, pyrimidine, and 1,2,4-triazole-N-acetamide analogues which were prepared in a parallel high throughput solution-phase reaction format. A set of assorted amines were reacted with several nucleic acid N-acetic acids utilizing HATU as the coupling reagent to produce diverse acyclic nucleoside N-acetamide analogues. These reactions were performed using 24 well reaction blocks and an automatic reagent-dispensing platform under inert atmosphere. The targeted compounds were purified on an automated purification system using solid sample loading prepacked cartridges and prepacked silica gel columns. All compounds were characterized by NMR and HRMS, and were analyzed for purity by HPLC before submission to the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) at NIH. Initial screening through the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN) program, indicates that several analogues showed diverse and interesting biological activities.

  6. Diarylaniline Derivatives as a Distinct Class of HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bingjie; Jiang, Xingkai; Lu, Hong; Tian, Xingtao; Barbault, Florent; Huang, Li; Qian, Keduo; Chen, Chin-Ho; Huang, Rong; Jiang, Shibo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xie, Lan

    2010-01-01

    By using structure-based drug design and isosteric replacement, diarylaniline and 1,5-diarylbenzene-1,2-diamine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against wild type HIV-1 and drug-resistant viral strains, resulting in the discovery of diarylaniline derivatives as a distinct class of next-generation HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) agents. The most promising compound 37 showed significant EC50 values of 0.003-0.032 μM against HIV-1 wild-type strains and of 0.005-0.604 μM against several drug-resistant strains. Current results also revealed important structure-activity relationship (SAR) conclusions for diarylanilines and strongly support our hypothesis that an NH2 group on the central benzene ring ortho to the aniline moiety is crucial for interaction with K101 of the NNRTI binding site in HIV-1 RT, likely by forming H-bonds with K101. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies with molecular mechanism/general born surface area (MM/GBSA) technology demonstrated the rationality of our hypothesis. PMID:20527972

  7. Transgene expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase reverses mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shuba; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Paredes, João A; Kuiper, Raoul V; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-02-15

    A strategy to reverse the symptoms of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in a mouse model was investigated. The nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) was expressed in TK2-deficient mice that have been shown to present with a severe phenotype caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion. The Dm-dNK(+/-) transgenic mice were shown to be able to rescue the TK2-deficient mice. The Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mice were normal as judged by growth and behavior during the observation time of 6 months. The Dm-dNK-expressing mice showed a substantial increase in thymidine-phosphorylating activity in investigated tissues. The Dm-dNK expression also resulted in highly elevated dTTP pools. The dTTP pool alterations did not cause specific mitochondrial DNA mutations or deletions when 6-month-old mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial DNA was also detected at normal levels. In conclusion, the Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mouse model illustrates how dTMP synthesized in the cell nucleus can compensate for loss of intramitochondrial dTMP synthesis in differentiated tissue. The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency.

  8. OCTN1 is a high-affinity carrier of nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Drenberg, Christina; Gibson, Alice A; Pounds, Stanley; Shi, Lei; Rhinehart, Dena; Li, Lie; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Nies, Anne T; Schwab, Matthias; Pabla, Navjotsingh; Blum, William; Gruber, Tanja A; Baker, Sharyn D; Sparreboom, Alex

    2017-02-16

    Resistance to xenobiotic nucleosides used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other cancers remains a major obstacle to clinical management. One process suggested to participate in resistance is reduced uptake into tumor cells via nucleoside transporters, although precise mechanisms are not understood. Through transcriptomic profiling, we determined that low expression of the ergothioneine transporter OCTN1 (SLC22A4; ETT) strongly predicts poor event-free survival and overall survival in multiple cohorts of AML patients receiving treatment with the cytidine nucleoside analog cytarabine. Cell biological studies confirmed OCTN1-mediated transport of cytarabine and various structurally-related cytidine analogs, such as 2'deoxycytidine and gemcitabine, occurs through a saturable process that is highly sensitive to inhibition by the classic nucleoside transporter inhibitors dipyridamole and nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR). Our findings have immediate clinical implications given the potential of the identified transport system to help refine strategies that could improve patient survival across multiple cancer types where nucleoside analogs are used in cancer treatment.

  9. Evaluating the reproducibility of quantifying modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acids by LC–UV–MS

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Susan P.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional chemical covalent modification of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine occurs frequently in all types of ribonucleic acids (RNAs). In ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) these modifications make important contributions to RNA structure and stability and to the accuracy and efficiency of protein translation. The functional dynamics, synergistic nature and regulatory roles of these posttranscriptional nucleoside modifications within the cell are not well characterized. These modifications are present at very low levels and isolation of individual nucleosides for analysis requires a complex multi-step approach. The focus of this study is to characterize the reproducibility of a liquid chromatography method used to isolate and quantitatively characterize modified nucleosides in tRNA and rRNA when nucleoside detection is performed using ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection (UV and MS, respectively). Despite the analytical challenges of sample isolation and dynamic range, quantitative profiling of modified nucleosides obtained from bacterial tRNAs and rRNAs is feasible at relative standard deviations of 5% RSD or less. PMID:23500350

  10. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves, H., II; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  11. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed. PMID:26779190

  12. Simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases in Antrodia camphorata using QTRAP LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Fengsu; Yang, Nianyun; Liu, Xunhong

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTrap-MS) analysis has been developed for the identification and quantification of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases in extracts of Antrodia camphorata. The method was successfully used to qualitatively identify for six nucleosides namely, cytidine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenosine and four nucleobases namely, uracil, guanine, xanthine, adenine in A. camphorata. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation for 10 target compounds were obtained on an Agilent HC-C18(2) column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) eluted by a mobile phase of 5 mM ammonium acetate solution-methanol at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transition mode. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. It was the first report about simultaneous analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in A. camphorata using this method. These results demonstrated that the QTRAP LC-MS/MS was a useful tool for quality evaluation of some medicinal plant products by using nucleosides and nucleobases as chemical markers. This method might also be utilized for the investigation of edible plant materials and agricultural products containing nucleosides and nucleobases.

  13. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves II, H.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  14. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; Cleaves, II, H. James; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  15. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; ...

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two ormore » more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.« less

  16. Flagellar Radial Spokes Contain a Ca2+-stimulated Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Takebe, Sachiko; King, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    The radial spokes are required for Ca2+-initiated intraflagellar signaling, resulting in modulation of inner and outer arm dynein activity. However, the mechanochemical properties of this signaling pathway remain unknown. Here, we describe a novel nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) from the Chlamydomonas flagellum. This protein (termed p61 or RSP23) consists of an N-terminal catalytic NDK domain followed by a repetitive region that includes three IQ motifs and a highly acidic C-terminal segment. We find that p61 is missing in axonemes derived from the mutants pf14 (lacks radial spokes) and pf24 (lacks the spoke head and several stalk components) but not in those from pf17 (lacking only the spoke head). The p61 protein can be extracted from oda1 (lacks outer dynein arms) and pf17 axonemes with 0.5 M KI, and copurifies with radial spokes in sucrose density gradients. Furthermore, p61 contains two classes of calmodulin binding site: IQ1 interacts with calmodulin-Sepharose beads in a Ca2+-independent manner, whereas IQ2 and IQ3 show Ca2+-sensitive associations. Wild-type axonemes exhibit two distinct NDKase activities, at least one of which is stimulated by Ca2+. This Ca2+-responsive enzyme, which accounts for ∼45% of total axonemal NDKase, is missing from pf14 axonemes. We found that purified radial spokes also exhibit NDKase activity. Thus, we conclude that p61 is an integral component of the radial spoke stalk that binds calmodulin and exhibits Ca2+-controlled NDKase activity. These observations suggest that nucleotides other than ATP may play an important role in the signal transduction pathway that underlies the regulatory mechanism defined by the radial spokes. PMID:15194815

  17. Short Communication: Transplacental Nucleoside Analogue Exposure and Mitochondrial Parameters in HIV-Uninfected Children

    PubMed Central

    Brogly, Susan B.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Williams, Paige L.; Naini, Ali; Libutti, Daniel E.; Choi, Julia; Chung, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transplacental nucleoside analogue exposure can affect infant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We evaluated mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with and without clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We previously identified 20 children with signs of MD (cases) among 1037 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. We measured mtDNA copies/cell and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) protein levels and enzyme activities, determined mtDNA haplogroups and deletions in 18 of 20 cases with stored samples and in sex- and age-matched HIV-uninfected children, both ARV exposed and unexposed, (1) within 18 months of birth and (2) at the time of presentation of signs of MD. In specimens drawn within 18 months of birth, mtDNA levels were higher and OXPHOS protein levels and enzyme activities lower in cases than controls. In contrast, at the time of MD presentation, cases and ARV-exposed controls had lower mtDNA levels, 214 and 215 copies/cell, respectively, than ARV-unexposed controls, 254 copies/cell. OXPHOS protein levels and enzyme activities were lower in cases than exposed controls, and higher in cases than unexposed controls, except for complex IV activity, which was higher in cases. Haplotype H was less frequent among cases (6%) than controls (31%). No deletions were found. The long-term significance of these small but potentially important alterations should continue to be studied as these children enter adolescence and adulthood. PMID:21142587

  18. Engineering of an industrial polyoxin producer for the rational production of hybrid peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lipeng; Lin, Shuangjun; Qu, Dongjing; Hong, Xuechuan; Bai, Linquan; Chen, Wenqing; Deng, Zixin

    2012-07-01

    Polyoxins and nikkomycins are potent antifungal peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics, which inhibit fungal cell wall biosynthesis. They consist of a nucleoside core and one or two independent peptidyl moieties attached to the core at different sites. Making mutations and introducing heterologous genes into an industrial Streptomyces aureochromogenes polyoxin producer, resulted in the production of four polyoxin-nikkomycin hybrid antibiotics designated as polyoxin N and nikkoxin B-D, whose structures were confirmed using high resolution MS and NMR. Two of the hybrid antibiotics, polyoxin N and nikkoxin D, were significantly more potent against some human or plant fungal pathogens than their parents. The data provides an example for rational generation of novel peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics in an industrial producer.

  19. Structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Grenha, Rosa; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Fogg, Mark J.; Blagova, Elena V.; Brannigan, James A. Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Wilson, Keith S.

    2005-05-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis was solved by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 2.24 Å. Protein structures from the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) are being determined as part of a structural genomics programme. Amongst initial candidates for crystallographic analysis are enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, since these are recognized as potential targets in antibacterial therapy. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis has been solved by molecular replacement at 2.24 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 18.4%. This is the first report of a DeoD structure from a Gram-positive bacterium.

  20. Vectorial transport of nucleoside analogs from the apical to the basolateral membrane in double-transfected cells expressing the human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3 and the export pump ABCC4.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Lyko, Frank; Keppler, Dietrich

    2010-07-01

    The identification of the transport proteins responsible for the uptake and the efflux of nucleosides and their metabolites enables the characterization of their vectorial transport and a better understanding of their absorption, distribution, and elimination. Human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs/SLC28A) are known to mediate the transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogs into cells in a sodium-dependent and unidirectional manner. On the other hand, several human multidrug resistance proteins [human ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily C (ABCC)] cause resistance against nucleoside analogs and mediate transport of phosphorylated nucleoside derivatives out of the cells in an ATP-dependent manner. For the integrated analysis of uptake and efflux of these compounds, we established a double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cell line stably expressing the human uptake transporter hCNT3 in the apical membrane and the human efflux pump ABCC4 in the basolateral membrane. The direction of transport was from the apical to the basolateral compartment, which is in line with the unidirectional transport and the localization of both recombinant proteins in the MDCKII cells. Recombinant hCNT3 mediated the transport of several known nucleoside substrates, and we identified 5-azacytidine as a new substrate for hCNT3. It is of interest that coexpression of both transporters was confirmed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, which represent an important clinical indication for the therapeutic use of nucleoside analogs. Thus, our results establish a novel cell system for studies on the vectorial transport of nucleosides and their analogs from the apical to the basolateral compartment. The results contribute to a better understanding of the cellular transport characteristics of nucleoside drugs.

  1. B cell hyperactivity and abnormalities in T cell markers and immunoregulatory function in a patient with nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Zabay, J M; De La Concha, E G; Ludeña, C; Lozano, C; Pascual-Salcedo, D; Bootello, A; Gonzalezporqué, P

    1982-01-01

    We describe a 2 year old girl with nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, who had low blood T cell numbers and T lymphocyte blastogenic response to mitogens, hypergammaglobulinaemia, high titres of antibodies to many common antigens, various autoantibodies, a monoclonal IgM-kappa protein, an increased frequency of mature Ig containing blood B cells and a high production of Ig in vitro in unstimulated cultures. E rosetting cells showed faint or no immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies directed against T cell membrane antigens. In vitro Ig production in response to pokeweed mitogen was defective, and no T cell helper or suppressor activity was observed. It is suggested that the immunoregulatory deficiency might have caused the B cell hyperactivity. PMID:6819909

  2. A sample preparation protocol for quantification of radiolabeled nucleoside incorporation into DNA by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Sang Soo; Mundt, Janna M.; Ubick, Esther A.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Gregg, Jeff P.; Henderson, Paul T.

    2007-06-01

    A general protocol is described for measuring the incorporation of radiocarbon-labeled 2‧-deoxynucleosides into DNA using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This technology provides attomole (10-18 mol) sensitivity, with detection limits for DNA analysis in the range of one 14C atom per 1011-1012 total carbons. In practice this corresponds to approximately 1 labeled nucleoside per 1011 normal bases. A key aspect of the method is the use of precautions aimed at prevention of artifactual DNA oxidation during the sample preparation by the use of antioxidants and chaotropic salts during the DNA isolation. In principle, any type of appropriately labeled nucleoside derivative can be studied using the described protocol, provided that there is incorporation of the deoxynucleoside into DNA. We demonstrated this protocol using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and a mouse model for mammary carcinoma, which we dosed with 14C-labeled 2‧-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 14C-labeled 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2‧-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The nucleoside 8-oxodG is a ubiquitous compound that forms in cells by the reaction of dG with reactive oxygen species which has been associated with numerous disease, carcinogenesis and aging. DNA from cells treated with 14C-labeled nucleosides was isolated and prepared for analysis by AMS in order to measure the DNA-bound radioactivity. The method allows the generation of reliable and sufficient yields of pure DNA from human cells and animal tissues for analysis of radiocarbon levels. Ultimately, this protocol will be applied to understanding the role of modified nucleoside incorporation into DNA in cancer initiation and progression, but could also be used to study any DNA metabolism process where 14C-labeled nucleosides are used.

  3. Synthesis of novel homo-N-nucleoside analogs composed of a homo-1,4-dioxane sugar analog and substituted 1,3,5-triazine base equivalents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Schwidom, Dirk; Exner, Alexander; Carlsen, Per

    2008-12-10

    Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH(2), OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions.

  4. Highly selective capture of nucleosides with boronic acid functionalized polymer brushes prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ting; Zhu, Shuqiang; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-01

    The nucleoside or modified nucleoside level in biological fluids reflects the pathological or physiological state of the body. Boronate affinity absorbents are widely used to selectively extract nucleosides from complex samples. In this work, a novel functionalized absorbent was synthesized by attaching 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid to gold nanoparticles on modified attapulgite. The surface of the attapulgite was modified by poly(acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) by atom transfer radical polymerization, creating many polymer brushes on the surface. The resultant material exhibited superior binding capacity (30.83 mg/g) for adenosine and was able to capture cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Finally, to demonstrate its potential for biomolecule extraction, this boronate affinity material was used to preconcentrate nucleosides from human urine and plasma.

  5. Biochemical mechanism of action of certain glucoside and nucleoside dialdehyde inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbag, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The periodate-oxidation products of 4-methyl umbelliferyl 7-..beta..-D-glucoside (MUGox), n-dodecyl ..beta..-D-glucoside (DGox), n-amyl-..beta..-D-glucoside (AGox), 6,7 dihydroxy 6-..beta..-D-glucoside (esculinox), 4-hydroxy phenyl ..beta..-D-glucoside (arbutinox), salicylaldehyde-..beta..-D-glucoside (helicinox), indoxyl-..beta..-D0-D-glucoside (IGox) and ..beta..-Naphthyl ..cap alpha..-D-glucoside (N..cap alpha..Gox) were synthesized and screened for activity against L1210 leukemia in-vitro. MUGox, DGox, Arbutinox, and Helicinox were the most active, having IC/sub 50/ values of 40, 48, 44, and 47 ..mu..M, respectively. MUGox was found to inhibit DNA, RNA and protein synthesis significantly in L1210 cells. Its effects on the in-vitro activity of 2-cycle purified bovine brain tubulin were examined. MUGOx inhibited tubulin assembly only minimally at 100 ..mu..M but stabilized assembled microtubules from depolymerization at the same concentration. MUGox was a noncompetitive inhibitor of wheat germ RNA polymerase II and E. coli RNA polymerase with respect to (/sup 3/H)UMP incorporation into RNA. MUGox bound one essential lysine in the wheat germ enzyme and two essential lysines in the E. coli enzyme. DGox and AGox produced mixed inhibition of wheat germ RNA polymerase II. The purine nucleoside analog 6-S-(acetylaminoethyl-1-naphthylamino-5-sulfonyl) thioinosine dicarboxaldehyde (AMPR-OP) noncompetitively blocked 0X174 DNA binding to E. coli RNA polymerase. It is tentatively concluded that AMPR-OP bound two lysine residues in the template binding subsite in addition to one lysine in the initiation subsite.

  6. Kinetic characterization of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases in brain nerve terminals during rat postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojević, I.; Drakulić, D.; Petrović, S.; Milošević, M.; Jovanović, N.; Horvat, A.

    2011-12-01

    A family of enzymes named ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDases) catalyzes the termination of ATP and ADP actions. Three different NTPDases (NTPDase 1-3), differing in their preference for a substrate, have been localized in the brain of adult mammals. The goal of our study was to clarify ATP and ADP hydrolyzing activities and kinetic parameters of NTPDases in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) isolated from 15-, 30-, 60- and 90-days-old female rat brains. ATP and ADP hydrolysis were maximal in the presence of Mg2+ and showed insensitivity to ion-transporting ATPase inhibitors. The pronounced increase in both, ATP and ADP hydrolysis, were found in the SPM isolated from rats in the first month of life, stayed at the same level in the second month, and then decreased in adulthood. Kinetic analysis are also developmental-dependent, and together with the rate of ATP:ADP hydrolysis, point that all three NTPDases are present in SPM isolated from different developmental stages, with different, developmental-dependent proportion of activities. The lowest velocity and the highest affinity were observed for ATP hydrolyses, while the highest velocity and lowest affinity were detected for ADP hydrolyses in SPM isolated from 15-day old rats. Since specific ATP and ADP hydrolysis were lowest in this stage, we concluded that velocity is crucial for ATPase-, while affinity is for ADPase-part of NTPDases. Increased NTPDases activities, changes in their hydrolysis velocity and substrates affinities during rat postnatal development indicate involvement of adenine nucleotides in processes implicated to neuronal maturation and augmented neuroprotection.

  7. In situ enzymatic removal of orthophosphate by the nucleoside phosphorylase catalyzed phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside.

    PubMed

    Shriver, J W; Sykes, B D

    1982-09-01

    An enzymatic orthophosphate removal system is described which can be effectively used to continuously remove orthophosphate from biochemical samples. The phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside is catalyzed by calf spleen nucleoside phosphorylase to give ribose-1-PO4 and nicotinamide along with a proton. At pH 8 the production of ribose-1-PO4 from orthophosphate is essentially quantitative. This reaction can be monitored optically or by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Equations are given for determining the time required to remove a given amount of phosphate from a typical NMR sample with a known amount of nucleoside phosphorylase. The effects of a competing orthophosphate-producing reaction are considered.

  8. Fluorescent nucleosides with 'on-off' switching function, pH-responsive fluorescent uridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Shigenori; Suzuki, Azusa; Matsumoto, Katsuhiko; Ishihara, Tsutomu; Saito, Isao

    2012-04-15

    We synthesized various pH-responsive fluorescent deoxyuridine derivatives (1a-g). These fluorescent nucleosides exhibited distinctive fluorescence at 470-600 nm in aqueous solvents containing methanol only at acidic to neutral pH values. In particular, 1f exhibited strong fluorescence only at pH range of 3.1-7.2 with a pK(a) of 6.1. Such pH-sensitive fluorescent nucleosides can be used as 'on-off' fluorescence switch for monitoring pH change in biological systems, particularly for cancer cell detection.

  9. Biotransformation of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides by immobilized Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    De Benedetti, Eliana C; Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and green bioprocess to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides using thermophilic bacteria is herein reported. Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT 43 showed a conversion rate of 90 and 83% at 2 h to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 2,6-diaminopurine riboside, respectively. The selected biocatalyst was successfully stabilized in an agarose matrix and used to produce up to 23.4 g of 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside in 240 h of process. These nucleoside analogues can be used as prodrug precursors or in antisense oligonucleotide synthesis.

  10. [Study of the calmodulin-dependent regulation of calcium adenosine triphosphatase of erythrocyte membranes in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Malaia, L T; Petruniaka, V V; Rudyk, Iu S

    1991-01-01

    The inhibitor calmodulin (R 24571) was examined for effects on the activity of red blood cell Ca-ATPases in patients with coronary heart disease during the treatment with nitrates, beta-blockers and calcium antagonists. The maximum activity of Ca-ATPase was measured in the erythrocytes perforated with saponine in the presence of endogenous regulators at a concentration of Ca2+ of 3-5 microM. Patients with high and low Ca-ATPase activity were identified. In the control group R24571 failed to affect Ca-ATPase activity. In patients, the calmodulin inhibitor caused both Ca-ATPase activation and inhibition. The effects of R 24571 correlated with the severity of the patients' condition. In effective therapy, the action of the calmodulin inhibitor became lower on Ca-ATPase activity. It was concluded that there was Ca-ATPase regulation imbalance in patients with coronary heart diseases.

  11. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  12. 4-Azido-2-pyrimidinone Nucleosides and Related Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kotra, Lakshmi P.; Wang, PingPing; Bartlett, Michael G.; Shanmuganathan, Kirupa; Xu, Zusheng; Cavalcanti, Sócrates; Newton, M. Gary; Chu, Chung K.

    1997-10-17

    As a part of azide prodrug approach, we synthesized a 4-azido analog of ara-C (4) as a prodrug for ara-C. The compound 4 was obtained from 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (1) in three steps. At pH 7.0 and 11.0, a loss of UV absorption of the compound 4 was observed resulting from a transformation that was proved by identifying the transformed product 5 by 1-D, and 2-D NMR as well as tandem mass spectral studies. In NMR studies, changes in the chemical shifts were observed at positions 5, 6, 1', and 2' between the compounds 4 and 5. A molecular peak at m/z 270.1 (MH(+)) was observed in the mass spectra of compounds 4 and the transformed product 5. A fragment at 180.2 was identified to be the compound 6, containing the 6,2'-anhydro linkage of compound 5. The X-ray analysis indicated that compound 4 exists as 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)tetrazolo[4,5-c]pyrimidin-2-one, with the azide moiety cyclized. To understand if the chemical instability of the nucleoside 4 was due to the arabino configuration of 2'-OH or due to the azido moiety, we also studied 1-(2,3-dideoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)tetrazolo[4,5-c]pyrimidin-2-one (11) and 4-azido-1-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (15). At pH 2.0 and 7.0, similar UV profiles were observed for compounds 11 and 15. However, at pH 11.0, lambda(max) shifted slowly to lower wavelength for both compounds 11 and 15. In a separate kinetic study, they were stable at pH 7.4 for up to 2.45 h. From the NMR and high-resolution mass spectral studies, it was concluded that in the presence of ammonium hydroxide, an addition of amine occurred at 6-position of compound 11. Thus, the stability profiles of compounds 4, 11, and 15 were different. The instability and the formation of 2',6-anhydro bond in compound 4 in nonacidic media was due to the presence of 2'-OH in the arabino configuration and probably not due to the azide group.

  13. Aminopropanedinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) in the synthesis of C-nucleosides and exocyclic amino thiazole N-nucleosides. Formation and reactions of 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuerman, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Aminopropanedinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) reacts with a wide variety of alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl acid chlorides in the presence of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone to give N-(dicyanomethyl)carboxamides which are easily cyclized in situ or after isolation to 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles in good to excellent yields. Electron attracting or electron releasing groups on the phenyl rings do not appear to greatly influence the yields of oxazoles and steric factors do not appear to be important in the aliphatic series. The reaction of 2, 5-anhydro-3, 4, 6-tri-O-benzoyl-[beta]-D-allonyl chloride with aminopropane-dinitrile gives 2, 5-anhydro-N-(dicyanomethyl)-[beta]-D-allonamide-3, 4, 6-tribenzoate which is converted to 5-amino-2-(2, 3, 5-tri-O-benzoyl-[beta]-D-ribofuranosyl)-4-oxazolecarbonitrile, which is used to prepare other C-nucleosides including 2-([beta]-D-ribofuranosyl)oxazole-4-carboxamide (oxazofurin), an analogue of the antitumor and antiviral C-nucleoside tiazofurin. Attempted deblocking of several benzoyl protected C-nucleosides with sodium methoxide led to double elimination reactions and the formation of furan derivatives. The 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles react with ortho esters to give imidates which are cyclized to axazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines. Reactions of 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles include acylation of the 5-amino group, dediazotization of the 5-amino group, nucleophilic attack and ring opening of the oxazole, and acid catalyzed ring opening of the oxazole. Sugar isothiocyanates are prepared and react with aminopropane-dinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) in the presence of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone to afford exocyclic amino thiazole N-nucleosides.

  14. Differential responses of human hepatocytes to the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia-Long; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor used for the treatment of AIDS and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Despite its therapeutic benefits, treatment with nevirapine has been associated with significant incidences of liver and dermal toxicity. The present study examined the effects of nevirapine on cell growth and death in human hepatocyte HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells and the possible pathways involved in these effects. The concentrations of nevirapine inhibiting 50% cell growth were similar for both cell lines. Nevirapine (0-250 µM) treatment caused a slight increase in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released into the medium. Apoptotic cell death did not contribute to the decrease in viable cells. Exposing of HepG2 cells to nevirapine caused G2/M phase arrest, and the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase was not altered. In THLE2 cells, the percentage of cells in G1/G0 phase was increased and cellular senescence was induced in a concentration-dependent manner. Endogenous non-telomeric RT activity was not detected in either cell line. Western blot analysis indicated lower levels of p53 and phospho-p53 (ser15) in HepG2 cells as compared to THLE2 cells; no significant changes in p53 or phospho-p53 (ser15) were noted with nevirapine treatment. These data demonstrate that nevirapine inhibits cell growth, induces cell cycle arrest at different phases, and has different effects on cellular senescence in HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells. The differential responses appear to be related to differences in the basal levels of p53 in the HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells.

  15. Optical isomers of a new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analog (PR-350 series): Radiosensitization efficiency and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Natsuo; Sasai, Keisuke; Shibata, Toru

    1995-08-30

    A new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside radiosensitizer, PR-350 (1-[1{prime},3{prime},4{prime}-trihydroxy-2{prime}-butoxy]-methyl-2-nitroimidazole), has been reported to be as efficient as and less toxic than etanidazole. This compound is racemic, and it was recently optically resolved into two isomers, PR-68 (2{prime}R,3{prime}S type) and PR-69 (2{prime}S,3{prime}R type). The other two isomers, PR-28 (2{prime}S,3{prime}S type) and PR-44 (2{prime}R,3{prime}R type), were asymmetrically synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the properties, sensitizing activity, and toxicity of PR-350 and the four optical isomers in comparison with those of other 2-nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, etanidazole, KU-2285, KIN-804, and RP-170. Because PR-350 and PR-28 can be industrially synthesized, we evaluated whether either of these two drugs are suitable for further investigation. In vivo radiosensitizing activity differed among the four optical isomers, which appeared to be due, at least in part, to differences in lipophilicity. Although PR-28 was the least toxic, its low sensitization efficiency does not warrant clinical trials. Among the PR compounds, PR-68 appears to be most efficient, but optical resolution of PR-68 from PR-350 is expensive, and asymmetrical synthesis of PR-68 is not established. Therefore, PR-350 seems to be most suitable for further investigation among the PR-350 series compounds, considering its higher efficiency compared with PR-28 and PR-44, and established synthesis. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of nucleoside prodrugs designed to target siderophore biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dawadi, Surendra; Kawamura, Shuhei; Rubenstein, Anja; Remmel, Rory; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2016-03-15

    The nucleoside antibiotic, 5'-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (1), possesses potent whole-cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). This compound is also active in vivo, but suffers from poor drug disposition properties that result in poor bioavailability and rapid clearance. The synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of lipophilic ester prodrugs containing linear and α-branched alkanoyl groups from two to twelve carbons at the 3'-position of a 2'-fluorinated analog of 1 is reported with the goal to improve oral bioavailability. The prodrugs were stable in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The prodrugs were also remarkably stable in mouse, rat, and human serum (relative serum stability: human∼rat≫mouse) displaying a parabolic trend in the SAR with hydrolysis rates increasing with chain length up to eight carbons (t1/2=1.6 h for octanoyl prodrug 7 in mouse serum) and then decreasing again with higher chain lengths. The permeability of the prodrugs was also assessed in a Caco-2 cell transwell model. All of the prodrugs were found to have reduced permeation in the apical-to-basolateral direction and enhanced permeation in the basolateral-to-apical direction relative to the parent compound 2, resulting in efflux ratios 5-28 times greater than 2. Additionally, Caco-2 cells were found to hydrolyze the prodrugs with SAR mirroring the serum stability results and a preference for hydrolysis on the apical side. Taken together, these results suggest that the described prodrug strategy will lead to lower than expected oral bioavailability of 2 and highlight the contribution of intestinal esterases for prodrug hydrolysis.

  17. Disrupted sleep-wake regulation in type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Ramesh, V; Dworak, M; Choi, D-S; McCarley, R W; Kalinchuk, A V; Basheer, R

    2015-09-10

    The type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) is implicated in regulating levels of extracellular adenosine ([AD]ex). In the basal forebrain (BF) levels of [AD]ex increase during wakefulness and closely correspond to the increases in the electroencephalogram (EEG) delta (0.75-4.5Hz) activity (NRδ) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Thus in the BF, [AD]ex serves as a biochemical marker of sleep homeostasis. Waking EEG activity in theta range (5-9Hz, Wθ) is also described as a marker of sleep homeostasis. An hour-by-hour temporal relationship between the Wθ and NRδ is unclear. In this study we examined the relationship between these EEG markers of sleep homeostasis during spontaneous sleep-wakefulness and during sleep deprivation (SD) and recovery sleep in the ENT1 gene knockout (ENT1KO) mouse. We observed that baseline NREMS amount was decreased during the light period in ENT1KO mice, accompanied by a weak correlation between Wθ of each hour and NRδ of its subsequent hour when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Perfusion of low dose of adenosine into BF not only strengthened the Wθ-NRδ relationship, but also increased NREMS to match with the WT littermates suggesting decreased [AD]ex in ENT1KO mice. However, the SD-induced [AD]ex increase in the BF and the linear correlation between the EEG markers of sleep homeostasis were unaffected in ENT1KO mice suggesting that during SD, sources other than ENT1 contribute to increase in [AD]ex. Our data provide evidence for a differential regulation of wakefulness-associated [AD]ex during spontaneous vs prolonged waking.

  18. Pyrimidine non-nucleoside analogs: A direct synthesis of a novel class of N-substituted amino and N-sulfonamide derivatives of pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Elgemeie, Galal H; Salah, Ali M; Abbas, Nermeen S; Hussein, Hoda A; Mohamed, Reham A

    2017-03-04

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of pyrimidine non-nucleoside analogs was developed. This study reports a novel and efficient method for the synthesis of a new type of N-substituted amino methylsulfanylpyrimidines and the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. This series of compounds was designed through the reaction of dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonate with 2-cyano-N'-(thiophen-2-yl-, furan-2-yl- and pyridin-4-ylmethylene)acetohydrazide and N'-(2-cyanoacetyl)arylsulfonohydrazides. The scope and limitation of the method are demonstrated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds were also evaluated.

  19. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and the enzymatic antioxidant defense system in breast milk from women with different levels of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina

    2015-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is an ubiquitous enzyme which plays an important role in arsenic (As) detoxification. As is a toxic metalloid present in air, soil and water; is abundant in the environment and is readily transferred along the trophic chain, being found even in human breast milk. Milk is the main nutrient source for the growth and development of neonates. Information on breast milk synthesis and its potential defense mechanism against As toxicity is scarce. In this study, PNP and antioxidant enzymes activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and total arsenic (TAs) concentrations, were quantified in breast milk samples. PNP, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) activities and GSH concentration were determined spectrophotometrically; TAs concentration ([TAs]) was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Data suggest an increase in PNP activity (median = 0.034 U mg protein-1) in the presence of TAs (median = 1.16 g L(-1)). To explain the possible association of PNP activity in breast milk with the activity of the antioxidant enzymes as well as with GSH and TAs concentrations, generalized linear models were built. In the adjusted model, GPx and GR activities showed a statistically significant (p<0.01) association with PNP activity. These results may suggest that PNP activity increases in the presence of TAs as part of the detoxification mechanism in breast milk.

  20. Identification of the plant ribokinase and discovery of a role for Arabidopsis ribokinase in nucleoside metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, John W.; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Cavales, Philip C.; Callis, Judy

    2016-09-06

    Ribose can be used for energy or as a component of several important biomolecules, but for it to be used in either capacity it must first be phosphorylated by ribokinase (RBSK). RBSK proteins are part of the phosphofructokinase-B (pfkB) family of carbohydrate kinases. Sequence comparisons of pfkB proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with the human and Escherichia coli RBSK identified a single candidate RBSK, At1g17160 (AtRBSK). AtRBSK is more similar to predicted RBSKs from other plant species and known mammalian and prokaryotic RBSK than to all other PfkB proteins in Arabidopsis. AtRBSK contains a predicted chloroplast transit peptide, and we confirmed plastid localization using AtRBSK fused to YFP. Structure prediction software verified that the AtRBSK sequence mapped onto a known RBSK structure. Kinetic parameters of purified recombinant AtRBSK were determined to be Kmribose = 150 μm ± 17 μm, KmATP = 45 μm ± 5.6 μm, and kcat = 2.0 s₋1. Substrate inhibition was observed for AtRBSK (KiATP = 2.44 mm ± 0.36 mm), as has been demonstrated for other RBSK proteins. Ribose accumulated in Arabidopsis plants lacking AtRBSK. Such plants grew normally unless media was supplemented with ribose, which led to chlorosis and growth inhibition. Both chlorosis and ribose accumulation were abolished upon the introduction of a transgene expressing AtRBSK-MYC, demonstrating that the loss of protein is responsible for ribose hypersensitivity. Lastly, ribose accumulation in plants lacking AtRBSK was reduced in plants also deficient in the nucleoside ribohydrolase NSH1, linking AtRBSK activity to nucleoside metabolism.

  1. RubisCO of a nucleoside pathway known from Archaea is found in diverse uncultivated phyla in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, Kelly C; Castelle, Cindy J; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Satagopan, Sriram; Brown, Christopher T; Wilkins, Michael J; Thomas, Brian C; Sharon, Itai; Williams, Kenneth H; Tabita, F Robert; Banfield, Jillian F

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomic studies recently uncovered form II/III RubisCO genes, originally thought to only occur in archaea, from uncultivated bacteria of the candidate phyla radiation (CPR). There are no isolated CPR bacteria and these organisms are predicted to have limited metabolic capacities. Here we expand the known diversity of RubisCO from CPR lineages. We report a form of RubisCO, distantly similar to the archaeal form III RubisCO, in some CPR bacteria from the Parcubacteria (OD1), WS6 and Microgenomates (OP11) phyla. In addition, we significantly expand the Peregrinibacteria (PER) II/III RubisCO diversity and report the first II/III RubisCO sequences from the Microgenomates and WS6 phyla. To provide a metabolic context for these RubisCOs, we reconstructed near-complete (>93%) PER genomes and the first closed genome for a WS6 bacterium, for which we propose the phylum name Dojkabacteria. Genomic and bioinformatic analyses suggest that the CPR RubisCOs function in a nucleoside pathway similar to that proposed in Archaea. Detection of form II/III RubisCO and nucleoside metabolism gene transcripts from a PER supports the operation of this pathway in situ. We demonstrate that the PER form II/III RubisCO is catalytically active, fixing CO2 to physiologically complement phototrophic growth in a bacterial photoautotrophic RubisCO deletion strain. We propose that the identification of these RubisCOs across a radiation of obligately fermentative, small-celled organisms hints at a widespread, simple metabolic platform in which ribose may be a prominent currency. PMID:27137126

  2. The connexion between active cation transport and metabolism in erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Whittam, R.; Ager, Margaret E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the dependence on the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+ of lactate and phosphate production in human erythrocytes. 2. Lactate production was stimulated by Na+ and K+ but only when they were internal and external respectively. The stimulation was counteracted by ouabain. The production of phosphate was affected in the same way. 3. There is a quantitative correlation between these effects and those previously found for cation movements and the membrane adenosine triphosphatase. 4. It is concluded that the rate of energy production in glycolysis is partly controlled by the magnitude of active transport; the extent of this regulation is shown to vary from 25 to 75% of a basal rate that is independent of active transport. 5. The activity of the membrane adenosine triphosphatase was also compared with rates of Na+ and K+ transport. The latter were varied by altering the concentrations of internal Na+ and external K+, and by inhibiting with ouabain. 6. A threefold variation of active transport rate was accompanied by a parallel change in the membrane adenosine-triphosphatase activity. The results show a constant stoicheiometry for the number of ions moved/mol. of ATP hydrolysed, independent of the electrochemical gradient against which the ions were moved. 7. Calculations show that the amount of ATP hydrolysed would provide enough energy for the osmotic work. The results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms for active transport. PMID:16749106

  3. Interactions of nucleoside analogs, caffeine, and nicotine with human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 stably produced in a transport-defective human cell line.

    PubMed

    Lang, Thack T; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E

    2004-04-01

    Pharmacologically important drugs were examined as potential inhibitors or permeants of human concentrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hCNT1)- and 2 (hCNT2)-producing stable transfectants by assessing their abilities to inhibit uridine transport. hCNT1 exhibited high affinities for uridine analogs (5-fluorouridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine) with K(i) values of 22 to 33 microM, whereas hCNT2 exhibited moderate affinities for 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, high affinities for 2'-deoxyuridine and 5-fluorouridine, and low affinity for 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine. The uridine analogs were transported at 2-fold higher rates (at 10 microM) by hCNT1 than by hCNT2. Enantiomeric configuration and the 3'-hydroxyl group of the ribose ring were important determinants for interaction with hCNTs, whereas the 2'-hydroxyl group was less important. Both transporters bound N(6)-(p-aminobenzyl)adenosine with affinities similar to those of adenosine (K(i) = 28-39 microM). Other adenosine receptor ligands, including caffeine, bound better to hCNT1 than to hCNT2 (K(i) = 46 versus 103 microM, respectively), whereas 2-chloroadenosine bound better to hCNT2 than to hCNT1 (K(i) = 37 and 101 microM, respectively). There was a greater than 3-fold difference in binding affinities between hCNT1 and hCNT2 for nicotine (K(i) = 63 versus 227 microM). However, direct measurements of nicotine and caffeine uptake rates (10 microM) failed to demonstrate mediated uptake by either transporter. Although hCNT1 bound several adenosine analogs relatively well, it did not transport 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) or 2-fluoro-9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (fludarabine), whereas hCNT2 transported both, albeit with low activities. The results indicated that although hCNT1 and hCNT2 possess some overlap in transport of several uridine and adenosine analogs, they also exhibit distinct differences in capacity to interact with some adenosine receptor ligands

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of equilibrative nucleoside transporters suggests conserved protein structure despite limited sequence identity.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Narendra; Machado, Jerry; Abdulla, Parween; Hilliker, Arthur J; Coe, Imogen R

    2002-10-15

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are a recently characterized and poorly understood group of membrane proteins that are important in the uptake of endogenous nucleosides required for nucleic acid and nucleoside triphosphate synthesis. Despite their central importance in cellular metabolism and nucleoside analog chemotherapy, no human ENT gene has been described and nothing is known about gene structure and function. To gain insight into the ENT gene family, we used experimental and in silico comparative genomic approaches to identify ENT genes in three evolutionarily diverse organisms with completely (or almost completely) sequenced genomes, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We describe the chromosomal location, the predicted ENT gene structure and putative structural topologies of predicted ENT proteins derived from the open reading frames. Despite variations in genomic layout and limited ortholog protein sequence identity (< or =27.45%), predicted topologies of ENT proteins are strikingly similar, suggesting an evolutionary conservation of a prototypic structure. In addition, a similar distribution of protein domains on exons is apparent in all three taxa. These data demonstrate that comparative sequence analyses should be combined with other approaches (such as genomic and proteomic analyses) to fully understand structure, function and evolution of protein families.

  5. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  6. Nicotinamide riboside, an unusual, non-typical, substrate of purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, B; Kulikowska, E; Wierzchowski, J; Bzowska, A; Shugar, D

    1997-01-15

    Nicotinamide 1-beta-D-riboside (Nir), the cationic, reducible moiety of the coenzyme NAD+, has been confirmed as an unusual substrate for purified purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from a mammalian source (calf spleen). It is also a substrate of the enzyme from Escherichia coli. The Km values at pH 7, 1.48 mM and 0.62 mM, respectively, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than for the natural substrate inosine, but the Vmax values were comparable, 96% and 35% that for Ino. The pseudo first-order rate constants, Vmax/Km, were 1.1% and 2.5% for the calf spleen and E. coli enzymes. The aglycon, nicotinamide, was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of PNP. Nir was a weak inhibitor of inosine phosphorolysis catalyzed by both enzymes, with Ki values close to the Km for its phosphorolysis, consistent with simple competitive inhibition; this was further confirmed by Dixon plots. Phosphorolysis of the fluorescent positively charged substrate 7-methylguanosine was also inhibited in a competitive manner by both Ino and Nir. Phosphorolysis of Nir by both enzymes was inhibited competitively by several specific inhibitors of calf spleen and E. coli PNP, with Ki values similar to those for inhibition of other natural substrates. The pH dependence of the kinetic constants for the phosphorolysis of Nir and of a variety of other substrates, was extensively investigated, particularly in the alkaline pH range, where Nir exhibited abnormally high substrate activity relative to the reduced reaction rates of both enzymes towards other anionic or neutral substrates. The overall results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding binding and phosphorolysis of substrates by PNP based on crystallographic data of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, and current studies on enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms of the cleavage of the Nir glycosidic bond.

  7. Nuclear localization of nucleoside diphosphate kinase type B (nm23-H2) in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kraeft, S K; Traincart, F; Mesnildrey, S; Bourdais, J; Véron, M; Chen, L B

    1996-08-25

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases are metabolic enzymes found ubiquitously in cells. Recently, two known human isoforms of NDP kinase (A and B), identical to the protein products of the genes nm23-H1 and nm23-H2, respectively, have been implicated in cancer metastasis and transcriptional regulation. To date, NDP kinase has been studied extensively in tissue sections and its cellular localization was described as being cytoplasmic. However, the recently discovered role of the nm23-H2 gene product in transcriptional activation of the c-myc proto-oncogene also suggests a nuclear localization of the protein. In this study, we used isoform-specific antibodies against NDPK-B to examine the subcellular localization of the nm23-H2 gene product. The cytoplasmic fluorescence is intense and homogeneous with pronounced labeling in the centromere region. The distribution of NDPK-B in interphase nuclei exhibits a pattern of numerous uniformly dispersed fine dots with reduced staining of the nucleoli. To further characterize the nuclear localization of NDPK-B, in situ sequential extraction of nuclear components was performed. Brief exposure to Triton X-100 and subsequent treatment with RNase A do not change the nuclear staining pattern of NDPK-B. In contrast, treatment of Triton X-100-permeabilized nuclei with DNase I results in a significant loss of fluorescence. In mitotic prophase cells, the protein segregates from forming chromosomes and reappears in newly formed daughter nuclei after cell division. Taken together, the results indicate an association of NDPK-B with chromatin in interphase nuclei, supporting its proposed role in transcription.

  8. Pre-steady state of reaction of nucleoside diphosphate kinase with anti-HIV nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Sellam, O; Sarfati, R; Janin, J; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-05-08

    The pre-steady-state reaction of Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase with dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTP) and AZT triphosphate was studied by quenching of protein fluorescence after manual mixing or by stopped flow. The fluorescence signal, which is correlated with the phosphorylation state of the catalytic histidine in the enzyme active site, decreases upon ddNTP addition according to a monoexponential time course. The pseudo-first order rate constant was determined for different concentrations of the various ddNTPs and was found to be saturable. The data are compatible with a two-step reaction scheme, where fast association of the enzyme with the dideoxynucleotide is followed by a rate-limiting phosphorylation step. The rate constants and dissociation equilibrium constants determined for each dideoxynucleotide were correlated with the steady-state kinetic parameters measured in the enzymatic assay in the presence of the two substrates. It is shown that ddNTPs and AZT triphosphate are poor substrates for NDP kinase with a rate of phosphate transfer of 0.02 to 3.5 s-1 and a KS of 1-5 mM. The equilibrium dissociation constants for ADP, GDP, ddADP, and ddGDP were also determined by fluorescence titration of a mutant F64W NDP kinase, where the introduction of a tryptophan at the nucleotide binding site provides a direct spectroscopic probe. The lack of the 3'-OH in ddNTP causes a 10-fold increase in KD. Contrary to "natural" NTPs, NDP kinase discriminates between various ddNTPs, with ddGTP the more efficient and ddCTP the least efficient substrate within a range of 100 in kcat values.

  9. Identification of a dithiol-dependent nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deqing; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2006-09-01

    A putative nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) gene was identified in a database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of culture-derived S. neurona merozoites demonstrated a dithiol-dependent NTPase activity, consistent with the presence of a homologue to the TgNTPases of Toxoplasma gondii. A complete cDNA was obtained for the S. neurona gene and the predicted amino acid sequence shared 38% identity with the two TgNTPase isoforms from T. gondii. Based on the obvious homology, the S. neurona protein was designated SnNTP1. The SnNTP1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 714 amino acids with a predicted 22-residue signal peptide and an estimated mature molecular mass of 70kDa. Southern blot analysis of the SnNTP1 locus revealed that the gene exists as a single copy in the S. neurona genome, unlike the multiple gene copies that have been observed in T. gondii and Neospora caninum. Analyses of the SnNTP1 protein demonstrated that it is soluble and secreted into the culture medium by extracellular merozoites. Surprisingly, indirect immunofluorescence analysis of intracellular S. neurona revealed apical localisation of SnNTP1 and temporal expression characteristics that are comparable with the microneme protein SnMIC10. The absence of SnNTP1 during much of endopolygeny implies that this protein does not serve a function during intracellular growth and development of S. neurona schizonts. Instead, SnNTP1 may play a role in events that occur during or proximal to merozoite egress from and/or invasion into cells.

  10. BCX4430, a novel nucleoside analog, effectively treats yellow fever in a Hamster model.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G; Bantia, Shanta; Taubenheim, Brian R; Minning, Dena M; Kotian, Pravin; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sheridan, William P; Babu, Yarlagadda S

    2014-11-01

    No effective antiviral therapies are currently available to treat disease after infection with yellow fever virus (YFV). A Syrian golden hamster model of yellow fever (YF) was used to characterize the effect of treatment with BCX4430, a novel adenosine nucleoside analog. Significant improvement in survival was observed after treatment with BCX4430 at 4 mg/kg of body weight per day dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily (BID). Treatment with BCX4430 at 12.5 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days offered complete protection from mortality and also resulted in significant improvement of other YF disease parameters, including weight loss, serum alanine aminotransferase levels (6 days postinfection [dpi]), and viremia (4 dpi). In uninfected hamsters, BCX4430 at 200 mg/kg/day administered i.p. BID for 7 days was well tolerated and did not result in mortality or weight loss, suggesting a potentially wide therapeutic index. Treatment with BCX4430 at 12 mg/kg/day i.p. remained effective when administered once daily and for only 4 days. Moreover, BCX4430 dosed at 200 mg/kg/day i.p. BID for 7 days effectively treated YF, even when treatment was delayed up to 4 days after virus challenge, corresponding with peak viral titers in the liver and serum. BCX4430 treatment did not preclude a protective antibody response, as higher neutralizing antibody (nAb) concentrations corresponded with increasing delays of treatment initiation, and greater nAb responses resulted in the protection of animals from a secondary challenge with YFV. In summary, BCX4430 is highly active in a hamster model of YF, even when treatment is initiated at the peak of viral replication.

  11. Nonclinical Safety Profile of BMS-986001, a Nucleoside Transcriptase Inhibitor for Combination Retroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mausumee, Guha; Frank, Simutis; Shawn, Clark; Dara, Hawthorne; Zhao, Yue; Soleil, Piche Marie; Sanderson, Thomas P; Michael, Graziano; Marc, Davies

    2014-05-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are key components of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. First-generation NRTIs are associated with mitochondrial toxicity in patients, mainly due to inhibition of human DNA polymerase γ (hDNA polγ) that manifests as adverse events such as lipodystrophy, lactic acidosis, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, or nephropathy in patients. In chronic nonclinical studies in rodents and nonrodents, eukaryotic (host) mitochondrial toxicity manifests as some drug-specific toxicities similar to human toxicity. BMS-986001, a novel thymidine analog with minimal hDNA polγ inhibition, has demonstrated antiretroviral activity in early clinical studies. The primary toxicity of BMS-986001 in rats and monkeys is bone marrow dyserythropoiesis with associated decreases in red blood cell mass. Additionally, at high doses, severe platelet reductions accompanied by cutaneous petechiae began during weeks 8 and 11 in 3 of 60 monkeys in chronic toxicity studies. In a 6-month study, platelet reductions required euthanasia of the 2 affected monkeys (300 mg/kg/d) at week 14, but with dose reduction (200 mg/kg/d) remaining monkeys had no platelet changes. One affected monkey (200 mg/kg/d) in a 9-month study completed dosing and its platelet counts recovered during a 1-month recovery. Formation of platelet-bound immunoglobulin in the presence of BMS-986001, together with rapid and complete platelet recovery in the absence of BMS-986001, suggested that platelet decreases in monkeys may be immune mediated. No findings indicative of mitochondrial toxicity were observed in rats or monkeys given BMS-986001, suggesting an improved safety profile compared to marketed NRTI or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

  12. Preformulation studies of EFdA, a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Parniak, Michael A.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Graebing, Phillip W.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    4′-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a novel nucleoside analog of great interest because of its superior activity against wild-type and multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains, and favorable safety profiles in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was to provide preformulation information of EFdA important for delivery system development. A simple, accurate and specific reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for quantification of EFdA. In addition, physicochemical characterizations including pH solubility profile, octanol/water partition coefficient (Log Po/w), DSC analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and stability studies under various conditions were conducted. EFdA existed in planar or flake shape, with a melting point of ~130 °C, and had a pH dependent solubility. The log Po/w value of EFdA was −1.19. The compound was stable upon exposure to pH levels from 3 to 9 and showed good stability at elevated temperature (65 °C). In vitro cytotoxicity assessments were performed in two different epithelial cell lines. In cell-based studies, the EFdA selectivity index (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] values/50% effective concentration [EC50]) was found to be greater than 1 × 103. Permeability studies using cell- and tissue-based models showed that EFdA had an apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) <1 × 10−6cm/s and that the paracelluar pathway was the dominant transport route for EFdA. Overall, EFdA possesses favorable characteristics for further formulation development. PMID:23841536

  13. Four Generations of Transition State Analogues for Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Shi, W; Rinaldo-Mathis, A; Tyler, P; Evans, G; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) stops growth of activated T-cells and the formation of 6-oxypurine bases, making it a target for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, and gout. Four generations of ribocation transition-state mimics bound to PNP are structurally characterized. Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 58 pM, first-generation) contains an iminoribitol cation with four asymmetric carbons. DADMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, second-generation), uses a methylene-bridged dihydroxypyrrolidine cation with two asymmetric centers. DATMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, third-generation) contains an open-chain amino alcohol cation with two asymmetric carbons. SerMe-ImmH (K*{sub i} = 5 pM, fourth-generation) uses achiral dihydroxyaminoalcohol seramide as the ribocation mimic. Crystal structures of PNPs establish features of tight binding to be; (1) ion-pair formation between bound phosphate (or its mimic) and inhibitor cation, (2) leaving-group interactions to N1, O6, and N7 of 9-deazahypoxanthine, (3) interaction between phosphate and inhibitor hydroxyl groups, and (4) His257 interacting with the 5{prime}-hydroxyl group. The first generation analogue is an imperfect fit to the catalytic site with a long ion pair distance between the iminoribitol and bound phosphate and weaker interactions to the leaving group. Increasing the ribocation to leaving-group distance in the second- to fourth-generation analogues provides powerful binding interactions and a facile synthetic route to powerful inhibitors. Despite chemical diversity in the four generations of transition-state analogues, the catalytic site geometry is almost the same for all analogues. Multiple solutions in transition-state analogue design are available to convert the energy of catalytic rate enhancement to binding energy in human PNP.

  14. Occurrence and Characteristics of {sup 18}O-exchange Reactions Catalyzed By Sodium- and Potassium-dependent Adenosine Triphosphatases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dahms, A. S.; Boyer, P. D.

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle actively take up Ca{sup ++} from the medium in the presence of Mg{sup ++} and ATP. This transport is coupled to ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by membrane-bound Ca{sup++}, Mg{sup ++}-ATPase which is activated by concurrent presence of Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}. Considerable informations have accumulated that give insight into the ATPase and its coupling to the calcium transport. The hydrolysis of ATP by this enzyme occurs through a phosphorylated intermediate. Formation and decomposition of the intermediate show vectorial requirements for Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++}, suggesting an intimate involvement of the intermediate in the transport process. ATP synthesis from P{sub i} and ADP coupled to outflow of Ca{sup ++} from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles has recently been demonstrated. This indicates the reversibility of the entire process of calcium transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

  15. Evidence for the presence and role of tightly bound adenine nucleotides in phospholipid-free purified Micrococcus lysodeikticus adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Palacios, P; Muñoz, E

    1977-10-01

    [32P]-labeled ATPase was isolated in a highly purified state from Micrococcus lysodeikticus strain PNB grown in medium supplemented with [32P]orthophosphate. Selective extraction procedures allowed us to determine that at least 25% of the firmly bound label belonged to adenine nucleotides, ATP and ADP being present in equimolar amounts. However, no 32P label was found to be part of phospholipids. This was confirmed by purification of the ATPase from cells fed with [2-3H]glycerol. Using the luciferin-luciferase assay we estimated that ATPase freshly isolated by Sephadex chromatography (specific activity 10-14 micromole substrate transformed x min(-1) x mg protein(-1)) contained 2 moles ATP/mole of enzyme. The ratio fell with the age of enzyme and its purification by gel electrophoresis and this was paralleled by a loss of ATPase activity. The endogenous nucleotides were readily exchanged by added ADP or ATP. This result suggests that the sites for tight binding of adenine nucleotides are equivalent, although ADP seems to have a higher affinity for them. The last properties represent a peculiar characteristic of this bacterial ATPase as compared with other bacterial and organelle energy-transducing proteins.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer of 5-methyluridine for solid-phase extraction of pyrimidine nucleoside cancer markers in urine.

    PubMed

    Jégourel, Damien; Delépée, Raphaël; Breton, Florent; Rolland, Antoine; Vidal, Richard; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2008-10-01

    Normal and modified urinary nucleosides represent potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. To selectively extract modified nucleosides, we developed a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) of 5-methyluridine as selective material for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). The MIPs were obtained from vinyl-phenylboronate ester derivative of the template, acrylamide and pentaerythritol triacrylate co-polymer, and were tested in batch and cartridge experiments with aqueous samples. Our results indicated that the imprinted polymer was selective for pyrimidine nucleosides with a K(d) and a B(max) of 46 microM and 18 micromol/g, respectively. Finally, a MISPE of the most common pyrimidine nucleoside cancer markers in urine sample was realized.

  17. Structure and function of nucleoside hydrolases from Physcomitrella patens and maize catalyzing the hydrolysis of purine, pyrimidine, and cytokinin ribosides.

    PubMed

    Kopecná, Martina; Blaschke, Hanna; Kopecny, David; Vigouroux, Armelle; Koncitíková, Radka; Novák, Ondrej; Kotland, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Moréra, Solange; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the nucleoside N-ribohydrolase (NRH) family in two model plants, Physcomitrella patens (PpNRH) and maize (Zea mays; ZmNRH), using in vitro and in planta approaches. We identified two NRH subclasses in the plant kingdom; one preferentially targets the purine ribosides inosine and xanthosine, while the other is more active toward uridine and xanthosine. Both subclasses can hydrolyze plant hormones such as cytokinin ribosides. We also solved the crystal structures of two purine NRHs, PpNRH1 and ZmNRH3. Structural analyses, site-directed mutagenesis experiments, and phylogenetic studies were conducted to identify the residues responsible for the observed differences in substrate specificity between the NRH isoforms. The presence of a tyrosine at position 249 (PpNRH1 numbering) confers high hydrolase activity for purine ribosides, while an aspartate residue in this position confers high activity for uridine. Bud formation is delayed by knocking out single NRH genes in P. patens, and under conditions of nitrogen shortage, PpNRH1-deficient plants cannot salvage adenosine-bound nitrogen. All PpNRH knockout plants display elevated levels of certain purine and pyrimidine ribosides and cytokinins that reflect the substrate preferences of the knocked out enzymes. NRH enzymes thus have functions in cytokinin conversion and activation as well as in purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

  18. YZGD from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, a pyridoxal phosphatase of the HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) superfamily and a versatile member of the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate x) hydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Tirrell, Isaac M; Wall, Jennifer L; Daley, Christopher J; Denial, Sarah J; Tennis, Frances G; Galens, Kevin G; O'Handley, Suzanne F

    2006-03-15

    YZGD from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is a novel bifunctional enzyme with both PLPase (pyridoxal phosphatase) and Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate x) hydrolase activities. The PLPase activity is catalysed by the HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) superfamily motif of the enzyme, and the Nudix hydrolase activity is catalysed by the conserved Nudix signature sequence within a separate portion of the enzyme, as confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. YZGD's phosphatase activity is very specific, with pyridoxal phosphate being the only natural substrate, while YZGD's Nudix activity is just the opposite, with YZGD being the most versatile Nudix hydrolase characterized to date. YZGD's Nudix substrates include the CDP-alcohols (CDP-ethanol, CDP-choline and CDP-glycerol), the ADP-coenzymes (NADH, NAD and FAD), ADP-sugars, TDP-glucose and, to a lesser extent, UDP- and GDP-sugars. Regardless of the Nudix substrate, one of the products is always a nucleoside monophosphate, suggesting a role in nucleotide salvage. Both the PLPase and Nudix hydrolase activities require a bivalent metal cation, but while PLPase activity is supported by Co2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, the Nudix hydrolase activity is Mn2+-specific. YZGD's phosphatase activity is optimal at an acidic pH (pH 5), while YZGD's Nudix activities are optimal at an alkaline pH (pH 8.5). YZGD is the first enzyme reported to be a member of both the HAD and Nudix hydrolase superfamilies, the first PLPase to be recognized as a member of the HAD superfamily and the first Nudix hydrolase capable of hydrolysing ADP-x, CDP-x and TDP-x substrates with comparable substrate specificity.

  19. Salvadenosine, a 5′-Deoxy-5′-(methylthio) Nucleoside from the Bahamian Tunicate Didemnum sp.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Salvadenosine, (1) a rare 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio) nucleoside, was isolated from the deep-water Bahaman tunicate Didemnum sp. The structure was solved by integrated analysis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. We revise the structure of the known natural product, hamiguanosinol, which is a constitutional isomer of 1, to 5 by interpretation of the spectroscopic data and comparison with synthesized nucleosides. PMID:25284474

  20. Transport of pyrimidine nucleosides in cells of Escherichia coli K 12.

    PubMed

    Mygind, B; Munch-Petersen

    1975-11-15

    1. The transport of pyrimidine mucleosides into cells of Escherichis coli has been investigated in mutant strains which cannot metabolize these nucleosides. Such cells transport and concentrate purimidine mucleosides several hindredfold. 2. The transport is inhibited by energy poisons and by sulfhydryl reagents. 3. Pyrimidine mucleosides compete mutually for transport. Adenosine is also a strong competitor while guanosine and inosine are weak competitors. 4. The rate of pyrimidine mucleoside transport is shown to be under control of the cytR and deoR gene products, which are also known to regulate the synthesis of nucleoside-catabolizing enzymes. The transport system is repressed by growth on glucose, as is the synthesis of the enzymes.

  1. Enzymatic transesterification of purine nucleoside having a low solubility in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong; Kitagawa, Masaru; Raku, Takao; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Enzymatic transesterification of guanosine having low solubility against organic solvent was examined. For the transesterification between guanosine and divinyl adipate catalyzed by alkaline protease from Bacillus (Bioprase), DMSO was added to DMF to increase the solublility of the nucleoside, and the conversion rate of guanosine to the vinyl guanosine ester was less than 30%. To overcome the reversible inactivation of enzyme by hydrophilic organic solvents, the reaction was carried out with 10% (v/v) water. The transesterification reaction was effectively catalyzed in DMF/DMSO in the presence of water and the conversion rate increased ca. 70% after 7 d reaction. The result shows that the water effect of Bioprase would be a useful method for the synthesis of low solublility nucleoside esters.

  2. Determination of nucleotides and nucleosides in milks and pediatric formulas: a review.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Indyk, Harvey E

    2007-01-01

    Nucleotides and nucleosides play important roles as structural units in nucleic acids, as coenzymes in biochemical pathways, and as sources of chemical energy. Milk contains a complex mixture of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleobases, and because of the reported differences in their relative levels in bovine and human milks, pediatric formulas are increasingly supplemented with nucleotides. Liquid chromatography is the dominant analytical technique used for the quantitation of nucleospecies and is commonly applied using either ion-exchange, reversed-phase, or ion-pair reversed-phase modes. Robust methods that incorporate minimal sample preparation and rapid chromatographic separations have been developed for routine product compliance analysis. This review summarizes the analytical techniques used to date in the analysis of nucleospecies in bovine and human milks and infant formulas.

  3. Investigation of the binding between pepsin and nucleoside analogs by spectroscopy and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Lingling; Xie, Yuanzhe; Shi, Jie; Wang, Ruiyong; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the interactions of pepsin with CYD (cytidine) or nucleoside analogs, including FNC (2'-deoxy-2'-β-fluoro-4'-azidocytidine) and CMP (cytidine monophosphate), were investigated by fluorescence, UV-visible absorption and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results indicated that FNC (CYD/CMP) caused the fluorescence quenching by the formation of complex. The binding constants and thermo-dynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. The F atom in FNC might weaken the binding of nucleoside analog to pepsin. Results showed that CYD was the strongest quencher and bound to pepsin with higher affinity.

  4. Metabolism, Biochemical Actions, and Chemical Synthesis of Anticancer Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Base Analogs.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jadd; Lu, Xiao; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Cho, Jong Hyun; Amblard, Franck; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2016-12-14

    Nucleoside, nucleotide, and base analogs have been in the clinic for decades to treat both viral pathogens and neoplasms. More than 20% of patients on anticancer chemotherapy have been treated with one or more of these analogs. This review focuses on the chemical synthesis and biology of anticancer nucleoside, nucleotide, and base analogs that are FDA-approved and in clinical development since 2000. We highlight the cellular biology and clinical biology of analogs, drug resistance mechanisms, and compound specificity towards different cancer types. Furthermore, we explore analog syntheses as well as improved and scale-up syntheses. We conclude with a discussion on what might lie ahead for medicinal chemists, biologists, and physicians as they try to improve analog efficacy through prodrug strategies and drug combinations.

  5. A New Alkylation-Elimination Method for Synthesis of Antiviral Fluoromethylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoman; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of fluoromethylenecyclopropane nucleosides by alkylation-elimination procedure is described. Fluorination of methylenecyclopropane carboxylate 6 gave fluoroester 7. Treatment of 7 with phenylselenenyl bromide afforded the desired ethyl (E)-2-bromomethyl-1-fluoro-2-phenylselenenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate 11 in 85% yield. DIBALH reduction of 11 gave 13, which after acetylation to 14 was reacted with 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give the 9-alkylated product 15 in 87% yield. Se-oxydation of 15 with hydrogen peroxide afforded 16, which underwent smooth elimination in a mixture of THF-DMF at 60 °C giving rise to a Z,E mixture of protected nucleosides 17. Deacetylation gave Z-1a and E-1a which were separated on a silica gel column. Both Z-1a and E-1a were converted into the respective guanine analogues Z-1b and E-1b. PMID:16801980

  6. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Gómez Barroso, J A; Pereira, H; Miranda, M; Pereira, C; Garratt, R C; Aguilar, C F

    2010-07-01

    The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enzymes that are involved in energy management and nucleoside balance in the cell. T. cruzi TcNDPK1, a canonical isoform, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally poly-His-tagged fusion protein and crystallized. Crystals grew after 72 h in 0.2 M MgCl(2), 20% PEG 3350. Data were collected to 3.5 A resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.84, c = 275.49 A. Structure determination is under way and will provide relevant information that may lead to the first step in rational drug design for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  7. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-03-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB_ID: 4RJ2).

  8. Glucaminium ionic liquid-functionalized stationary phase for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xusheng; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    A glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase was prepared via facile epoxy-amine reaction and subsequent quaternization. Successful immobilization of glucaminium-based ionic liquid onto silica surface was validated by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The new stationary phase was evaluated for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Effects of various factors, such as acetonitrile concentration, salt concentration, pH value, as well as column temperature, on the chromatographic behavior toward nucleosides were studied in detail. The results indicated that this new stationary phase can be used for separation of water-soluble polar substances in HILIC mode. The retention of solutes on the stationary phase was influenced by a mixed-mode retention mechanism with a combination of adsorptive and partitioning interactions.

  9. Potent and selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by nucleoside analogues with an unusual bicyclic base.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, C; Yarnold, C J; Jones, G; Velázquez, S; Barucki, H; Brancale, A; Andrei, G; Snoeck, R; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J

    1999-11-04

    We herein report the discovery of an entirely new category of potent antiviral agents based on novel deoxynucleoside analogues with unusual bicyclic base moieties. Target structures, previously known as byproducts in Pd-catalyzed coupling of terminal alkynes with 5-iodo-nucleosides, are recognized herein for the first time to be potent and selective inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in vitro. As an unusual structure-activity relationship we noted the absolute requirement of a long alkyl side chain, with an optimum length of C(8)-C(10), for antiviral activity. We thus report the synthesis and characterization of a series of chain-modified analogues and their extensive in vitro evaluation. The lead compounds have a ca. 300-fold enhancement in anti-VZV activity over the reference compound acyclovir, with no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity. The novel structure of these compounds, coupled with their ease of synthesis, excellent antiviral profile, and promising physical properties, makes them of great interest for possible antiviral drug development.

  10. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1-mediated uptake of 5-azacytidine enhances DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Stresemann, Carlo; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Schirrmacher, Esther; Keppler, Dietrich; Lyko, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporter families mediate transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogues into cells. However, the molecular identity of the transport proteins responsible for mediating the uptake of 5-azanucleosides has remained unknown. To this end, we have generated a stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cell line expressing recombinant hCNT1. An antiserum directed against hCNT1 specifically detected the protein in the apical membrane of hCNT1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Using [14C]5-azaCyd, we show here that hCNT1 mediated the Na+-dependent uptake of this drug with a Km value of 63 micromol/L. Na+-dependent transport of radiolabeled cytidine, uridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine further showed the functionality of the transporter. hCNT1-expressing cells were significantly more sensitive to 5-azaCyd, and drug-dependent covalent trapping of DNA methyltransferase 1 was substantially more pronounced. Importantly, these results correlated with a significant sensitization of hCNT1-expressing cells toward the demethylating effects of 5-azaCyd and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study identifies 5-azaCyd as a novel substrate for hCNT1 and provides direct evidence that hCNT1 is involved in the DNA-demethylating effects of this drug.

  11. Nucleoside modifications in the regulation of gene expression: focus on tRNA.

    PubMed

    Duechler, Markus; Leszczyńska, Grażyna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Both, DNA and RNA nucleoside modifications contribute to the complex multi-level regulation of gene expression. Modified bases in tRNAs modulate protein translation rates in a highly dynamic manner. Synonymous codons, which differ by the third nucleoside in the triplet but code for the same amino acid, may be utilized at different rates according to codon-anticodon affinity. Nucleoside modifications in the tRNA anticodon loop can favor the interaction with selected codons by stabilizing specific base pairs. Similarly, weakening of base pairing can discriminate against binding to near-cognate codons. mRNAs enriched in favored codons are translated in higher rates constituting a fine-tuning mechanism for protein synthesis. This so-called codon bias establishes a basic protein level, but sometimes it is necessary to further adjust the production rate of a particular protein to actual requirements, brought by, e.g., stages in circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression or exposure to stress. Such an adjustment is realized by the dynamic change of tRNA modifications resulting in the preferential translation of mRNAs coding for example for stress proteins to facilitate cell survival. Furthermore, tRNAs contribute in an entirely different way to another, less specific stress response consisting in modification-dependent tRNA cleavage that contributes to the general down-regulation of protein synthesis. In this review, we summarize control functions of nucleoside modifications in gene regulation with a focus on recent findings on protein synthesis control by tRNA base modifications.

  12. Novel carboranyl derivatives of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates: a synthetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

  13. L-Enantiomers of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors Bound to Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Murkin, A.; Ramagopal, U.; Clinch, K.; Mee, S.; Evans, G.; Tyler, P.; Furneaux, R.; Almo, S.; Schramm, v.

    2008-01-01

    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) was crystallized with transition-state analogue inhibitors Immucillin-H and DADMe-Immucillin-H synthesized with ribosyl mimics of l-stereochemistry. The inhibitors demonstrate that major driving forces for tight binding of these analogues are the leaving group interaction and the cationic mimicry of the transition state, even though large geometric changes occur with d-Immucillins and l-Immucillins bound to human PNP.

  14. Novel indazole non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors using molecular hybridization based on crystallographic overlays.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyn H; Allan, Gill; Barba, Oscar; Burt, Catherine; Corbau, Romuald; Dupont, Thomas; Knöchel, Thorsten; Irving, Steve; Middleton, Donald S; Mowbray, Charles E; Perros, Manos; Ringrose, Heather; Swain, Nigel A; Webster, Robert; Westby, Mike; Phillips, Chris

    2009-02-26

    A major problem associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the treatment of HIV is their lack of resilience to mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Using structural overlays of the known inhibitors efavirenz and capravirine complexed in RT as a starting point, and structure-based drug design techniques, we have created a novel series of indazole NNRTIs that possess excellent metabolic stability and mutant resilience.

  15. An environmentally sensitive fluorescent purine nucleoside that changes emission wavelength upon hybridization.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshio; Suzuki, Azusa; Okada, Yuji; Yamasaka, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Saito, Isao

    2013-06-25

    C7-naphthylethynylated 8-aza-7-deaza-2'-deoxyguanosine (na)G was synthesized and its photophysical properties were examined. The fluorescent nucleoside exhibited solvatofluorochromic properties (Δλ(fl)(max) = 67 nm). An ODN probe containing (na)G forms a stable base pair only with C and discriminates structural changes such as mismatches and deletions by a distinct change in its emission wavelength.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of the nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary A convergent and stereoselective synthesis of chiral cyclopentyl- and cyclohexylamine derivatives of nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0) has been accomplished. This synthetic route allows for an efficient preparation of 4-substituted analogues with interesting three-dimensional character, including chiral cyclopentane-1,2-diol and -1,2,3-triol derivatives. This unusual substitution pattern provides a useful starting point for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. PMID:24991286

  17. Progress of bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported in 1981, AIDS, as the global disease affecting 33.2 million people in 2007, has always been an unsolved problem worldwide. Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and thereby has been the prime drugs target for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy against AIDS. To date, two classes of RT inhibitors (RTIs), e.g., nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and a lot of compounds tested as RTIs have been described. To our knowledge, bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) have been considered as one class of promising NNRTIs, such as structurally and chemically related NNRTI delavirdine, which was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in 1997. In this mini-review, we make attempts to report the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of BHAPs, in the meantime, the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 replication by combining delavirdine with other HIV-1 inhibitors is also discussed. It will pave the way for the design and development of BHAPs as anti-HIV-1 agents in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  18. The search for and identification of amino acids, nucleobases and nucleosides in samples returned from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the returned Mars samples for biologically important organic compounds, with emphasis on amino acid, the puring and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides is proposed. These studies would be conducted on subsurface samples obtained by drilling past the surface oxidizing layer with emphasis on samples containing the larges quantities of organic carbon as determined by the rover gas chromatographic mass spectrometer (GCMS). Extraction of these molecules from the returned samples will be performed using the hydrothermal extraction technique described by Cheng and Ponnamperuma. More rigorous extraction methods will be developed and evaluated. For analysis of the extract for free amino acids or amino acids present in a bound or peptidic form, aliquots will be analyzed by capillary GCMS both before and after hydrolysis with 6N hydrochloric acid. Establishment of the presence of amino acids would then lead to the next logical step which would be the use of chiral stationary gas chromatography phases to determine the enatiomeic composition of the amino acids present, and thus potentially establish their biotic or abiotic origin. Confirmational analyses for amino acids would include ion-exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis. For analyses of the returned Mars samples for nucleobases and nucleosides, affinity and reversed-phase liquid chromatography would be utilized. This technology coupled with scanning UV detection for identification, presents a powerful tool for nucleobase and nucleoside analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis of these compounds would confirm their presence in samples returned form Mars.

  19. Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J; Pelc, Rebecca S; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Andersen, Hanne; DeMaso, Christina R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Parks, Robert; Wagner, Wendeline; Granados, Alex; Greenhouse, Jack; Walker, Michelle; Willis, Elinor; Yu, Jae-Sung; McGee, Charles E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Huang, Yan-Jang; Vanlandingham, Dana; Holmes, Veronica M; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Higgs, Stephen; Hensley, Scott E; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Karikó, Katalin; Santra, Sampa; Graham, Barney S; Lewis, Mark G; Pierson, Theodore C; Haynes, Barton F; Weissman, Drew

    2017-03-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a pandemic associated with severe neuropathology in newborns and adults. There are no ZIKV-specific treatments or preventatives. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine is a high priority. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a versatile and highly effective platform to deliver vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins. Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013 elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates. Immunization with 30 μg of nucleoside-modified ZIKV mRNA-LNP protected mice against ZIKV challenges at 2 weeks or 5 months after vaccination, and a single dose of 50 μg was sufficient to protect non-human primates against a challenge at 5 weeks after vaccination. These data demonstrate that nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP elicits rapid and durable protective immunity and therefore represents a new and promising vaccine candidate for the global fight against ZIKV.

  20. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  1. High-throughput five minute microwave accelerated glycosylation approach to the synthesis of nucleoside libraries.

    PubMed

    Bookser, Brett C; Raffaele, Nicholas B

    2007-01-05

    The Vorbrüggen glycosylation reaction was adapted into a one-step 5 min/130 degrees C microwave assisted reaction. Triethanolamine in acetontrile containing 2% water was determined to be optimal for the neutralization of trimethylsilyl triflate allowing for direct MPLC purification of the reaction mixture. When coupled with a NH3/methanol deprotection reaction, a high-throughput method of nucleoside library synthesis was enabled. The method was demonstrated by examining the ribosylation of 48 nitrogen containing heteroaromatic bases that included 25 purines, four pyrazolopyrimidines, two 8-azapurines, one 2-azapurine, two imidazopyridines, two benzimidazoles, three imidazoles, three 1,2,4-triazoles, two pyrimidines, two 3-deazapyrimidines, one quinazolinedione, and one alloxazine. Of these, 32 yielded single regioisomer products, and six resulted in separable mixtures. Seven examples provided inseparable regioisomer mixtures of -two to three compounds (16 nucleosides), and three examples failed to yield isolable products. For the 45 single isomers isolated, the average two-step overall yield +/- SD was 26 +/- 16%, and the average purity +/- SD was 95 +/- 6%. A total of 58 different nucleosides were prepared of which 15 had not previously been accessed directly from glycosylation/deprotection of a readily available base.

  2. Molecular design, synthesis and biological evaluation of BP-O-DAPY and O-DAPY derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiqiong; Pannecouque, Christophe; Daelemans, Dirk; Ma, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Fen-Er; De Clercq, Erik

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine the peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidine derivatives (DAPYs) and benzophenone derivatives (BPs). The DAPY derivatives bearing benzoyl or alkoxyl substitutes on the A-ring showed the inhibitory activity against wild-type HIV-1 at the cellular level within the range of EC50 values from micromolar to nanomolar. Among these compounds, 1u exhibited the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 μM, SI > 6260), which were about 1.8-fold more active than nevirapine (NVP) and delavirdine (DLV). In addition, the binding modes with HIV-1 RT and the preliminary SAR studies of these derivatives were also considered for further investigation.

  3. Vanadium-Binding Ability of Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase from the Vanadium-Rich Fan Worm, Pseudopotamilla occelata.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Kamino, Kei; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Polychaete fan worms and ascidians accumulate high levels of vanadium ions. Several vanadiumbinding proteins, known as vanabins, have been found in ascidians. However, no vanadium-binding factors have been isolated from the fan worm. In the present study, we sought to identify vanadiumbinding proteins in the branchial crown of the fan worm using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. A nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) homolog was isolated and determined to be a vanadium-binding protein. Kinase activity of the NDK homologue, PoNDK, was suppressed by the addition of V(IV), but was unaffected by V(V). The effect of V(IV) on PoNDK precedes its activation by Mg(II). This is the first report to describe the relationship between NDK and V(IV). PoNDK is located in the epidermis of the branchial crown, and its distribution is very similar to that of vanadium. These results suggest that PoNDK is associated with vanadium accumulation and metabolism in P. occelata.

  4. FLT3 is implicated in cytarabine transport by human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in pediatric acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Català, Albert; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Caviedes-Cárdenas, Liska; Malatesta, Roberta; Rives, Susana; Vega-García, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    FLT3 abnormalities are negative prognostic markers in acute leukemia. Infant leukemias are a subgroup with frequent MLL (KMT2A) rearrangements, FLT3 overexpression and high sensitivity to cytarabine, but dismal prognosis. Cytarabine is transported into cells by Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter-1 (hENT1, SLC29A1), but the mechanisms that regulate hENT1 in acute leukemia have been scarcely studied. We explored the expression and functional link between FLT3 and main cytarabine transporters in 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL rearrangement (ALL-MLL+) and other subtypes of leukemia, and in leukemia cell lines. A significant positive correlation was found between FLT3 and hENT1 expression in patients. Cytarabine uptake into cells was mediated mainly by hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT1. hENT1-mediated uptake of cytarabine was transiently abolished by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412, and this effect was associated with decreased hENT1 mRNA and protein levels. Noticeably, the cytotoxicity of cytarabine was lower when cells were first exposed to FLT3 inhibitors (PKC412 or AC220), probably due to decreased hENT1 activity, but we observed a higher cytotoxic effect if FLT3 inhibitors were administered after cytarabine. FLT3 regulates hENT1 activity and thereby affects cytarabine cytotoxicity. The sequence of administration of cytarabine and FLT3 inhibitors is important to maintain their efficacy. PMID:27391351

  5. Rapid parallel flow cytometry assays of active GTPases using effector beads.

    PubMed

    Buranda, Tione; BasuRay, Soumik; Swanson, Scarlett; Agola, Jacob; Bondu, Virginie; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2013-11-15

    We describe a rapid assay for measuring the cellular activity of small guanine triphosphatases (GTPases) in response to a specific stimulus. Effector-functionalized beads are used to quantify in parallel multiple GTP-bound GTPases in the same cell lysate by flow cytometry. In a biologically relevant example, five different Ras family GTPases are shown for the first time to be involved in a concerted signaling cascade downstream of receptor ligation by Sin Nombre hantavirus.

  6. Analogues of acyclic nucleosides derived from tris-(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide or bis-(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid coupled to DNA nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Barbara; Michalak, Olga; De Clercq, Erik; Stec, Wojciech J

    2004-11-01

    A series of novel acyclic nucleoside analogues containing bis-(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid (BHPA) or tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide (THPO) coupled with DNA nucleobases or with 5-fluorouracil were prepared and their antiviral activity was studied against cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), parainfluenza-virus type 3, reovirus-type 1, sindbis, coxsackie B4, punta toro, vesicular stomatitis and respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus-type 1 (KOS) and type 2 (G), vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus-1 (TK- KOS ACVr). No specific antiviral effects were noted for any of test compounds against viruses evaluated, except thymine, cytosine and adenine derivatives of BHPA exerting borderline activity against respiratory syncytial virus at the 80 mg/ml concentration.

  7. Co-expression of functional human Heme Oxygenase 1, Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase and ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 by "self-cleaving" 2A peptide system.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Marco; Cinti, Alessandro; Pelikant-Malecka, Iwona; Chisci, Elisa; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Giovannoni, Roberto; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2015-05-01

    We developed an F2A-based multicistronic system to evaluate functional effects of co-expression of three proteins important for xenotransplantation: heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5NT) and ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1). The tricistronic p2A plasmid that we constructed was able to efficiently drive concurrent expression of HO1, E5NT and ENTPD1 in HEK293T cells. All three overexpressed proteins possessed relevant enzymatic activities, while addition of furin site interfered with protein expression and activity. We conclude that our tricistronic p2A construct is effective and optimal to test the combined protective effects of HO1, E5NT and ENTPD1 against xeno-rejection mechanisms.

  8. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G.; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A.; Strive, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV. PMID:27089358

  9. Dipyridodiazepinone analogs as human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lv, M; Xu, H

    2010-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS) Report in 2007, 33.2 million people are living with HIV, 2.5 million ones have been newly infected with HIV, and 2.1 million ones died from AIDS, including 330,000 children. Therefore, HIV/AIDS still remains a public health emergency and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is believed that reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of HIV-1, and thereby RT has been the important drug target for antiretroviral (ARV) chemotherapy against AIDS. To our knowledge, dipyridodiazepinone analogs have been considered as one class of potential non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), especially the structurally and chemically related nevirapine (Viramune(R)), which was the first NNRTI approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection for adults in 1996 and for children in 1998. This review mainly highlights the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of dipyridodiazepinone analogs; in the meantime, the mechanism of action is also presented. It will pave the way for the design and development of novel dipyridodiazepinone analogs as NNRTIs in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  10. Humanized ADEPT Comprised of an Engineered Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase and a Tumor Targeting Peptide for Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Sepideh; Asai, Tsuneaki; Morrison, Sherie L.

    2009-01-01

    Immunogenicity caused by the use of non-human enzymes in Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT) has limited its clinical application. To overcome this problem, we have developed a mutant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which unlike the wild-type enzyme, accepts (deoxy)adenosine-based prodrugs as substrates. Amongst the different mutants of human PNP tested, a double mutant with amino acid substitutions E201Q:N243D (hDM) is most efficient in cleaving (deoxy)adenosine-based prodrugs. While hDM is capable of utilizing multiple prodrugs as substrates, it is most effective at cleaving 2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine to a cytotoxic drug. To target hDM to the tumor site, the enzyme was fused to an Anti-HER2/neu Peptide mimetic (AHNP). Treatment of HER2/neu expressing tumor cells with hDM-AHNP results in cellular localization of enzyme activity. As a consequence, harmless prodrug is converted to a cytotoxic drug in the vicinity of the tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. Unlike the non-human enzymes, the hDM should have minimal immunogenicity when used in ADEPT thus providing a novel promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of tumors. PMID:19139128

  11. Environment-responsive fluorescent nucleoside analogue probe for studying oligonucleotide dynamics in a model cell-like compartment.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Maroti G; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2013-11-21

    The majority of fluorescent nucleoside analogue probes that have been used in the in vitro study of nucleic acids are not suitable for cell-based biophysical assays because they exhibit excitation maxima in the UV region and low quantum yields within oligonucleotides. Therefore, we propose that the photophysical characterization of oligonucleotides labeled with a fluorescent nucleoside analogue in reverse micelles (RM), which are good biological membrane models and UV-transparent, could provide an alternative approach to studying the properties of nucleic acids in a cell-like confined environment. In this context, we describe the photophysical properties of an environment-sensitive fluorescent uridine analogue (1), based on the 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine core, in micelles and RM. The emissive nucleoside, which is polarity- and viscosity-sensitive, reports the environment of the surfactant assemblies via changes in its fluorescence properties. The nucleoside analogue, incorporated into an RNA oligonucleotide and hybridized to its complementary DNA and RNA oligonucleotides, exhibits a significantly higher fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and anisotropy in RM than in aqueous buffer, which is consistent with the environment of RM. Collectively, our results demonstrate that nucleoside 1 could be utilized as a fluorescent label to study the function of nucleic acids in a model cellular milieu.

  12. Evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymers using 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines as templates for pyrimidine nucleoside recognition.

    PubMed

    Krstulja, Aleksandra; Lettieri, Stefania; Hall, Andrew J; Delépée, Raphael; Favetta, Patrick; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared using 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines as 'dummy' templates, for the selective recognition of uridine nucleosides. The MIPs were synthesised using a non-covalent approach with 2,6-bis-acrylamidopyridine (BAAPy) acting as the binding monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linking agent. The MIPs were evaluated in terms of capacity, selectivity and specificity by analytical and frontal liquid chromatography measurements. The results obtained in organic mobile phases suggest that the nucleosides are specifically bound to the polymer by the complementary hydrogen bonding motifs of the binding monomer and the nucleoside bases. The MIPs exhibited relatively high imprinting factors for 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines, while they did not show any binding capacity for other nucleosides lacking the imide moiety on their base. Moreover, the presence of ester-COO groups in the EGDMA cross-linker may lead to the formation of additional hydrogen bonds with the 2',3' and/or 5'-OH of sugar part, allowing enhancement of the recognition of the uridine nucleosides. In aqueous media, results show that the binding is driven by hydrophobic interactions.

  13. Effect of Chemicals on the Cell Membrane Transport of Nucleosides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    lipid synthesis , a direct inhibition of the purine carrier by PFDA would not be expected. When efflux of AP from L5178Y cells was estimated with PFDA in...turnover of the carrier protein. PFDA may be an inhibitor -of carrier protein synthesis in the cell membrane. Another hypothesis suggests that the...inactive form. The activity level *may be controlled through inhibition of protein synthesis or the interaction 4between the carrier and the membrane

  14. Synthesis of Nucleoside Mono- and Dialdehydes as Antiviral Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-15

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever VSV Vesicular Stomatitis Virus AD2 Adenovirus Type 2 VV Vaccinia FeLV Feline Leukemia Virus HIV Human Immunodeficiency...8217-unsaturaited adenosin*-2’,3’-diLsdehyde ahowed excellent activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21... stomatitis virus. F’; Accession oro NTIS GFL&lDTIC TAM .t ,i bt On. - i t--tributton/ Av~tlmbility CoJ03 P, ... ,Avmil nrl/or . . i u1st ý ps~lal "’" PL

  15. Repriming by PrimPol is critical for DNA replication restart downstream of lesions and chain-terminating nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Guilliam, Thomas A.; Tsuda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Junpei; Bailey, Laura J.; Iwai, Shigenori; Takeda, Shunichi; Doherty, Aidan J.; Hirota, Kouji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PrimPol is a DNA damage tolerance enzyme possessing both translesion synthesis (TLS) and primase activities. To uncover its potential role in TLS-mediated IgVλ hypermutation and define its interplay with other TLS polymerases, PrimPol−/− and PrimPol−/−/Polη−/−/Polζ −/− gene knockouts were generated in avian cells. Loss of PrimPol had no significant impact on the rate of hypermutation or the mutation spectrum of IgVλ. However, PrimPol−/− cells were sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate, suggesting that it may bypass abasic sites at the IgVλ segment by repriming DNA synthesis downstream of these sites. PrimPol−/− cells were also sensitive to cisplatin and hydroxyurea, indicating that it assists in maintaining / restarting replication at a variety of lesions. To accurately measure the relative contribution of the TLS and primase activities, we examined DNA damage sensitivity in PrimPol−/− cells complemented with polymerase or primase-deficient PrimPol. Polymerase-defective, but not primase-deficient, PrimPol suppresses the hypersensitivity of PrimPol−/− cells. This indicates that its primase, rather than TLS activity, is pivotal for DNA damage tolerance. Loss of TLS polymerases, Polη and Polζ has an additive effect on the sensitivity of PrimPol−/− cells. Moreover, we found that PrimPol and Polη-Polζ redundantly prevented cell death and facilitated unperturbed cell cycle progression. PrimPol−/− cells also exhibited increased sensitivity to a wide variety of chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs). PrimPol could perform close-coupled repriming downstream of CTNAs and oxidative damage in vitro. Together, these results indicate that PrimPol's repriming activity plays a central role in reinitiating replication downstream from CTNAs and other specific DNA lesions. PMID:27230014

  16. Enzyme-Driven Chemo-and Radiation-Therapy with 12 Pyrimidine Nucleoside Analogs Not Yet in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Greer, Sheldon; Han, Tieran; Dieguez, Cristina; McLean, Nicola; Saer, Rafael; Reis, Isildinha; Levi, Joe; Marquez, Victor E

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemotherapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U). Among patients with colon (19) and pancreatic tumors (40), 53 and 68 %, respectively, displayed T/N values >4 for CD suggesting chemotherapy with 5-FdC, 4-N-methylamino-5-FdC, 5-trifluoromethyldeoxycytidine and radiosensitization with 5- CldC, 4-N-methylamino-5-CldC, 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-bromodeoxycytidine. The percent of patients with tumors with a T/N value >4 for U/CK in lung (72), colon (23) and breast (28) was 47, 61 and 68, respectively, suggesting zebularine (plus thymidine) treatment for tumors involving gene silencing. Evidence is presented that the 4-N-alkylamino-dC substituted nucleosides and those with large 5-substitutions are activated only via CD to thymidine kinase (TK) using end-points of cytotoxicity and/or radiosensitization: H4U, the inhibitor of CD is an antagonist, cells with low CD or no TK are resistant to the analogs, the end points are indifferent to the dCK status of cells, they are poor substrates for dCK and good substrates for CD, whereas 5-FdC and 5-CldC are good substrates for both enzymes. The analogs present opportunities for Collateral Sensitivity for 5-azacytidine and gemcitabine resistant tumors.

  17. Enantioselective Supramolecular Carriers for Nucleoside Drugs. A Thermodynamic and Kinetic Gas Phase Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraschetti, Caterina; Filippi, Antonello; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Villani, Claudio; Roselli, Graziella; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Speranza, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    The enantioselective interactions between chiral tetra-amidic receptors and nucleosides have been investigated by the ESI-IT-MS and ESI-FT-ICR-MS methodologies. Configurational effects on the CID fragmentation of diastereomeric [ M H 2 •H•A] + aggregates (A = 2'-deoxycytidine dC, citarabine ( ara-C) were found to be mostly offset by isotope effect in [ S X 2 •H•A] + (X = H, D) differently from the results obtained on the analogues (A = cytidine C and gemcitabine G). This result points the involvement of two different nucleoside/tetraamide isoforms. The structural differences of the [ M H 2 •H•A] + (A = C and G) complexes vs. the [ M H 2 •H•A] + ( dC and ara-C) ones is fully confirmed by the kinetics of their uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers, measured by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Indeed, uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = dC and ara-C) complexes is reversible, while that by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = C and G) is not. The most encouraging result concerning the measured fragmentation and kinetic differences between C and ara-C, that are just epimers, indicates the possibility to subtly modulate the non-covalent drug/receptor interactions, through the electronic properties of the 2'-substituent on the nucleoside furanose ring, and furthermore on its three-dimensional position.

  18. Extracellular nucleotide and nucleoside signaling in vascular and blood disease

    PubMed Central

    Idzko, Marco; Ferrari, Davide; Riegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotides and nucleosides—such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine—are famous for their intracellular roles as building blocks for the genetic code or cellular energy currencies. In contrast, their function in the extracellular space is different. Here, they are primarily known as signaling molecules via activation of purinergic receptors, classified as P1 receptors for adenosine or P2 receptors for ATP. Because extracellular ATP is rapidly converted to adenosine by ectonucleotidase, nucleotide-phosphohydrolysis is important for controlling the balance between P2 and P1 signaling. Gene-targeted mice for P1, P2 receptors, or ectonucleotidase exhibit only very mild phenotypic manifestations at baseline. However, they demonstrate alterations in disease susceptibilities when exposed to a variety of vascular or blood diseases. Examples of phenotypic manifestations include vascular barrier dysfunction, graft-vs-host disease, platelet activation, ischemia, and reperfusion injury or sickle cell disease. Many of these studies highlight that purinergic signaling events can be targeted therapeutically. PMID:25001468

  19. The binding mode of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase B to single-strand DNA.

    PubMed

    Agou, F; Raveh, S; Véron, M

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, we studied the interaction of the human isoform B of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase B) with the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) present in the promoter element of the c-myc oncogene. The DNA-binding properties of NDP kinase B and other NDP kinases are compared and the nucleotide requirement for binding are discussed. Using quantitative methods, we identified the DNA-binding sites on the protein and we proposed a structural model for a complex of one hexameric NDP kinase B with an oligonucleotide.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Human Nucleoside Kinase-Based Reporter Systems for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason T.; Zhang, Hanwen; Moroz, Maxim A.; Likar, Yury; Shenker, Larissa; Sumzin, Nikita; Lobo, Jose; Zurita, Juan; Collins, Jeffrey; van Dam, R. Michael; Ponomarev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radionuclide-based reporter gene imaging has the sensitivity to monitor gene- and cell-based therapies in human subjects. Potential immunogenicity of current viral transgenes warrants development of human-based reporter systems. We compared human nucleoside kinase reporters to a panel of nucleoside analogs of FEAU, FMAU, and FIAU, including the first in vivo assessment of L-[18F]FEAU. Procedures Human isogenic U87 cell lines were transduced to express different human reporter genes including dCK-R104M/D133A (dCKDM), dCK-R104Q/D133N (dCKep16A), dCK-A100V/R104M/D133A (dCK3M), and TK2-N93D/L109F (TK2DM), and wild-type dCK (dCK) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSVTK) reporter gene as references. In vitro cell uptake assays were performed with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, [14C]FMAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU. Micro-positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging of xenograft-bearing nu/nu mice was conducted with [18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FEAU, L-[18F]FMAU, and [124I]FIAU on consecutive days. A cell viability assay was also performed to assess sensitivities to gemcitabine and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU). Results In vitro, dCKep16A and dCKDM with [18F]FEAU exhibited the highest sensitivity and selectivity of the human reporters, second only to HSVTK/[18F]FEAU. L-[18F]FEAU biodistribution in mice was on par with [18F]FEAU and L-[18F]FMAU. L-[18F]FMAU uptake in isogenic xenografts was highest for all human reporter genes. However, [18F]FEAU was the most selective of the short half-life reporter probes due to its minimal recognition by human dCK and relative sensitivity, whereas [124I]FIAU permitted imaging at a later time point, improving signal-to-background ratio. Of the human reporter genes, dCKep16A consistently outperformed the other tested reporters. Reporter genes of interest increased potency to the nucleoside analog prodrugs gemcitabine and BVdU. Conclusions We demonstrate that human nucleoside kinase reporter systems vary significantly in their

  1. First Total Synthesis of a Naturally Occurring Iodinated 5′-Deoxyxylofuranosyl Marine Nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyun; Dou, Yanhui; Ding, Haixin; Yang, Ruchun; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    4-Amino-7-(5′-deoxy-β-D-xylofuranosyl)-5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1, an unusual naturally occurring marine nucleoside isolated from an ascidan, Diplosoma sp., was synthesized from D-xylose in seven steps with 28% overall yield on 10 g scale. The key step was Vorbrüggen glycosylation of 5-iodo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 5-deoxy-1,2-O-diacetyl-3-O-benzoyl-D-xylofuranose. Its absolute configuration was confirmed. PMID:22690148

  2. Synthesis of conformationally locked carbocyclic 1,3-diazepinone nucleosides as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Wolfenden, Richard; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    We synthesized a series of carbocyclic nucleoside inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA) based on a seven-membered 1,3-diazepin-2-one moiety. In the key step, the seven-membered ring was formed by a ringclosing- metathesis reaction. Therefore, the bis-allylurea moiety had to be protected by benzoylation in order to obtain an orientation suitable for ring closure. To our surprise, the analogue built on a flexible sugar template (4) showed a 100-fold stronger inhibition of CDA than the derivative with the preferred southconformation. PMID:18776552

  3. Comparison of Transition Metal-Mediated Oxidation Reactions of Guanine in Nucleoside and Single-Stranded Oligodeoxynucleotide Contexts.

    PubMed

    Ghude, Pranjali; Schallenberger, Mark A; Fleming, Aaron M; Muller, James G; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-04-15

    As the most readily oxidized of DNA's four natural bases, guanine is a prime target for attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transition metal-mediated oxidants. The oxidation products of a modified guanosine nucleoside and of a single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide, 5'-d(TTTTTTTGTTTTTTT)-3' have been studied using oxidants that include Co(II), Ni(II), and Ir(IV) compounds as well as photochemically generated oxidants such as sulphate radical, electron-transfer agents (riboflavin) and singlet oxygen. The oxidized lesions formed include spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), imidazolone (Iz), oxazolone (Z) and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantion (2-Ih) nucleosides with a high degree of dependence on the exact oxidation system employed. Interestingly, a nickel(II) macrocyclic complex in conjunction with KHSO(5) leads to the recently reported 2-Ih heterocycle as the major product in both the nucleoside and oligonucleotide contexts.

  4. Detection of food-derived damaged nucleosides with possible adverse effects on human health using a global adductomics approach.

    PubMed

    Spilsberg, Bjørn; Rundberget, Thomas; Johannessen, Lene E; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G

    2010-05-26

    A range of damaged nucleosides, also found in digested dietary DNA, appear to be taken up by cells and incorporated into the cells' own DNA. Most incorporated damaged nucleosides will be repaired by cellular DNA repair systems. However, a small fraction of these will escape repair and thus ultimately create mutations. Over the long human lifespan this could be a mechanism that contributes to disease, cancer, and aging. This study analyzed damaged nucleosides derived from dietary DNA in a commercially successful fungus-based novel food, Quorn, and in two fungus-based food items with a history of safe use, button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) and dried powdered brewers yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). By using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry more than 90 putative DNA adducts were measured, showing that foods do contain a range of different DNA damages.

  5. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    PubMed

    Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM).

  7. Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) Functions as a 5' to 3' Translocase in Transcription Termination of Vaccinia Early Genes.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Ryan; Gollnick, Paul

    2016-07-08

    Vaccinia virus early genes are transcribed immediately upon infection. Nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) is an essential component of the early gene transcription complex. NPH I hydrolyzes ATP to release transcripts during transcription termination. The ATPase activity of NPH I requires single-stranded (ss) DNA as a cofactor; however, the source of this cofactor within the transcription complex is not known. Based on available structures of transcription complexes it has been hypothesized that the ssDNA cofactor is obtained from the unpaired non-template strand within the transcription bubble. In vitro transcription on templates that lack portions of the non-template strand within the transcription bubble showed that the upstream portion of the transcription bubble is required for efficient NPH I-mediated transcript release. Complementarity between the template and non-template strands in this region is also required for NPH I-mediated transcript release. This observation complicates locating the source of the ssDNA cofactor within the transcription complex because removal of the non-template strand also disrupts transcription bubble reannealing. Prior studies have shown that ssRNA binds to NPH I, but it does not activate ATPase activity. Chimeric transcription templates with RNA in the non-template strand confirm that the source of the ssDNA cofactor for NPH I is the upstream portion of the non-template strand in the transcription bubble. Consistent with this conclusion we also show that isolated NPH I acts as a 5' to 3' translocase on single-stranded DNA.

  8. Mutation V111I in HIV-2 Reverse Transcriptase Increases the Fitness of the Nucleoside Analogue-Resistant K65R and Q151M Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Deuzing, Ilona P.; Charpentier, Charlotte; Wright, David W.; Matheron, Sophie; Paton, Jack; Frentz, Dineke; van de Vijver, David A.; Coveney, Peter V.; Descamps, Diane; Boucher, Charles A. B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with HIV-2 can ultimately lead to AIDS, although disease progression is much slower than with HIV-1. HIV-2 patients are mostly treated with a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors designed for HIV-1. Many studies have described the development of HIV-1 resistance to NRTIs and identified mutations in the polymerase domain of RT. Recent studies have shown that mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of HIV-1 RT may also contribute to resistance. However, only limited information exists regarding the resistance of HIV-2 to NRTIs. In this study, therefore, we analyzed the polymerase, connection, and RNase H domains of RT in HIV-2 patients failing NRTI-containing therapies. Besides the key resistance mutations K65R, Q151M, and M184V, we identified a novel mutation, V111I, in the polymerase domain. This mutation was significantly associated with mutations K65R and Q151M. Sequencing of the connection and RNase H domains of the HIV-2 patients did not reveal any of the mutations that were reported to contribute to NRTI resistance in HIV-1. We show that V111I does not strongly affect drug susceptibility but increases the replication capacity of the K65R and Q151M viruses. Biochemical assays demonstrate that V111I restores the polymerization defects of the K65R and Q151M viruses but negatively affects the fidelity of the HIV-2 RT enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze the structural changes mediated by V111I. This showed that V111I changed the flexibility of the 110-to-115 loop region, which may affect deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding and polymerase activity. IMPORTANCE Mutation V111I in the HIV-2 reverse transcriptase enzyme was identified in patients failing therapies containing nucleoside analogues. We show that the V111I change does not strongly affect the sensitivity of HIV-2 to nucleoside analogues but increases the fitness of viruses with drug

  9. Effects of phorbol esters and secretagogues on nitrobenzylthioinosine binding to nucleoside transporters and nucleoside uptake in cultured chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Delicado, E G; Sen, R P; Miras-Portugal, M T

    1991-01-01

    Secretagogues inhibited adenosine uptake in chromaffin cells without causing apparent changes in the uptake affinity. The inhibition caused by carbachol, nicotine and acetylcholine reached 50%. This inhibition was reproduced by the action of protein kinase C activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 100 nM), dicaproin (10 micrograms/ml) and tricaprylin (10 micrograms/ml), with inhibitions of Vmax. of 18, 20, 37 and 47% respectively. No changes in the affinity of uptake were observed with these effectors. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters decreased the inhibitory effects of carbachol on adenosine uptake. Binding studies with nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) showed a similar decrease in the number of transporters when chromaffin cells were treated with the same effectors used for the uptake studies. The high-affinity dissociation constants showed minor changes with respect to the control. The ratio between maximal uptake capacity and the transporter number per cell was not significantly modified by the action of secretagogues or direct effectors of protein kinase C. The number of high-affinity binding sites for NBTI was decreased in cellular homogenates by the direct action of protein kinase C activators, with staurosporine able to reverse this action. Protein kinase C from bovine brain in the presence of ATP and effectors, decreased the number of high-affinity NBTI-binding sites in purified chromaffin cell plasma membranes. These data suggest the possibility of a molecular modification at the transporter level. PMID:1953658

  10. Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ren; Eriksson, Staffan; Wang, Liya

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) catalyze the initial phosphorylation of deoxynucleosides in the synthesis of the DNA precursors required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and are essential for mitochondrial function. Antiviral nucleosides are known to cause toxic mitochondrial side effects. Here, we examined the effects of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) (zidovudine) on mitochondrial TK2 and dGK levels and found that AZT treatment led to downregulation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK in U2OS cells, whereas cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) levels were not affected. The AZT effects on mitochondrial TK2 and dGK were similar to those of oxidants (e.g., hydrogen peroxide); therefore, we examined the oxidative effects of AZT. We found a modest increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the AZT-treated cells. The addition of uridine to AZT-treated cells reduced ROS levels and protein oxidation and prevented the degradation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK. In organello studies indicated that the degradation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK is a mitochondrial event. These results suggest that downregulation of mitochondrial TK2 and dGK may lead to decreased mitochondrial DNA precursor pools and eventually mtDNA depletion, which has significant implications for the regulation of mitochondrial nucleotide biosynthesis and for antiviral therapy using nucleoside analogs.

  11. Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centered radicals.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, M J

    2001-08-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is a key bactericidal agent, but can also damage host tissue. As there is a strong link between chronic inflammation and some cancers, we have investigated HOCl damage to DNA bases. We show that reaction of HOCl with the exocyclic -NH(2) groups of cytidine, adenosine, and guanosine, and the ring NH groups of all bases, yields chloramines (RNHCl/RR'NCl). These are the major initial products. Chloramine decay can be accelerated by UV light and metal ions, and these reactions, together with thermal decomposition, give rise to nucleoside-derived nitrogen-centered radicals. Evidence is presented for the rapid addition of pyrimidine-derived nitrogen-centered radicals to another parent molecule to give dimers. Experiments with nucleoside mixtures show that the propensity for radical formation is cytidine > adenosine = guanosine > uridine = thymidine. These data are inconsistent with the selectivity of HOCl attack and the stability of the resulting chloramines, but can be rationalized if chlorine transfer between bases is rapid and yields the most stable chloramine, with such transfer preceding radical formation. Thus, though thymidine is the major initial site of chloramine formation, rapid chlorine atom transfer generates cytidine and adenosine chloramines. These reactions rationalize the preferential formation of chlorinated cytidine and adenosine in DNA.

  12. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    A. polyphaga mimivirus, the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, is the first virus to exhibit a nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene. The expression and crystallization of the viral NDK are reported. The complete sequence of the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, has recently been determined [Raoult et al. (2004 ▶), Science, 306, 1344–1350] and revealed numerous genes not expected to be found in a virus. A comprehensive structural and functional study of these gene products was initiated [Abergel et al. (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. F61, 212–215] both to better understand their role in the virus physiology and to obtain some clues to the origin of DNA viruses. Here, the preliminary crystallographic analysis of the viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein is reported. The crystal belongs to the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter 99.425 Å. The self-rotation function confirms that there are two monomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold non-crystallographic axis and that the unit cell thus contains four biological entities.

  13. Modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by mammalian nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins.

    PubMed

    Snider, Natasha T; Altshuler, Peter J; Omary, M Bishr

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins comprise a family of ten human isoforms that participate in the regulation of multiple cellular processes via enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. The major enzymatic function of NDPKs is the generation of nucleoside triphosphates, such as guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Mechanisms behind the nonenzymatic NDPK functions are not clear but likely involve context-dependent signaling roles of NDPK within multi-protein complexes. This is most evident for NDPK-A, which is encoded by the human NME1 gene, the first tumor metastasis suppressor gene to be identified. Understanding which protein interactions are most relevant for the biological and metastasis-related functions of NDPK will be important in the potential utilization of NDPK as a disease target. Accumulating evidence suggests that NDPK interacts with and affects various components and regulators of the cytoskeleton, including actin-binding proteins, intermediate filaments, and cytoskeletal attachment structures (adherens junctions, desmosomes, and focal adhesions). We review the existing literature on this topic and highlight outstanding questions and potential future directions that should clarify the impact of NDPK on the different cytoskeletal systems.

  14. Ionization energies of aqueous nucleic acids: photoelectron spectroscopy of pyrimidine nucleosides and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Petr; Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Bradforth, Stephen E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-05-13

    Vertical ionization energies of the nucleosides cytidine and deoxythymidine in water, the lowest ones amounting in both cases to 8.3 eV, are obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy measurements in aqueous microjets. Ab initio calculations employing a nonequilibrium polarizable continuum model quantitatively reproduce the experimental spectra and provide molecular interpretation of the individual peaks of the photoelectron spectrum, showing also that lowest ionization originates from the base. Comparison of calculated vertical ionization potentials of pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides in water and in the gas phase underlines the dramatic effect of bulk hydration on the electronic structure. In the gas phase, the presence of sugar and, in particular, of phosphate has a strong effect on the energetics of ionization of the base. Upon bulk hydration, the ionization potential of the base in contrast becomes rather insensitive to the presence of the sugar and phosphate, which indicates a remarkable screening ability of the aqueous solvent. Accurate aqueous-phase vertical ionization potentials provide a significant improvement to the corrected gas-phase values used in the literature and represent important information in assessing the threshold energies for photooxidation and oxidation free energies of solvent-exposed DNA components. Likewise, such energetic data should allow improved assessment of delocalization and charge-hopping mechanisms in DNA ionized by radiation.

  15. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s). Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon-anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed. PMID:24904644

  16. Separation of purine and pyrimidine bases and nucleosides by hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Marrubini, Giorgio; Mendoza, Bolivar Enrique Castillo; Massolini, Gabriella

    2010-03-01

    The separation of 12 model compounds chosen among purine and pyrimidine bases and nucleosides was studied by using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). The compounds investigated were small molecules with relevant properties for biomedical and pharmaceutical studies. The mixture of pyrimidines and purines was applied on a ZIC-HILIC 150 x 2.1 mm, 5 microm, and two TSKgel Amide-80 150 x 2.0 mm, 5 microm and 3 microm particle size columns. The retention of the analytes was studied by varying ACN%, ammonium formate concentration, pH, and column temperature. The results obtained confirmed the elution order of nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides based on their hydrophobicity. The retention mechanism of the columns was studied considering the models used for describing partitioning and surface adsorption. The influence on retention of chromatographic conditions (ACN%, salt concentration, pH, and temperature) was described and discussed for both columns. The optimization of the conditions studied allowed to assess a gradient method for the separation of the 12 analytes. The developed method is a valuable alternative to existing methods for the separation of the compounds concerned.

  17. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Pohjala, Leena; Barai, Vladimir; Azhayev, Alex; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Ahola, Tero

    2008-06-01

    Several members of the widespread alphavirus group are pathogenic, but no therapy is available to treat these RNA virus infections. We report here a quantitative assay to screen for inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication. The anti-SFV assay developed is based on a SFV strain containing Renilla luciferase inserted after the nsP3 coding region, yielding a marker virus in which the luciferase is cleaved out during polyprotein processing. The reporter-gene assay was miniaturized, automated and validated, resulting in a Z' value of 0.52. [3H]uridine labeling for 1 h at the maximal viral RNA synthesis time point was used as a comparative method. Anti-SFV screening and counter-screening for cell viability led to the discovery of several new SFV inhibitors. 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine was the most potent inhibitor in this set, with an IC50 value of 18 microM in the reporter-gene assay and 2 microM in RNA synthesis rate detection. Besides the 3'-substituted analogues, certain N6-substituted nucleosides had similar IC50 values for both SFV and Sindbis replication, suggesting the applicability of this methodology to alphaviruses in general.

  18. Maltose modified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers as potential carriers of nucleoside analog 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Aleksandra; Signorelli, Marco; Schiraldi, Alberto; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Fessas, Dimitrios

    2015-11-30

    Poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers contained surface maltose modification are proposed as drug carriers for nucleoside analog (NA) 5'-triphosphates. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between PPI dendrimers of 3rd (G3) or 4th (G4) generation and cytidine-5'-triphosphate (CTP) by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry method. CTP was used as a model molecule of pyrimidine nucleoside analog-cytarabine (ara-CTP) commonly used in leukemia treatment. Complexes of PPI dendrimers with NAs may help to overcome severe limitations of NAs associated with their low solubility and stability or resistance in cancer cells. In the present work, we evaluated stoichiometry and a mechanism of forming complexes between dendrimers and the nucleotide. Moreover, we examined the efficiency of complex formation in relation to dendrimer generations, a type of dendrimer modification with maltose residues and a type of solvent. It was observed that PPI dendrimers create complexes with CTP with high efficiency that makes them promising candidates for a drug delivery system.

  19. The non-nucleoside antiviral, BAY 38-4766, protects against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and mortality in immunocompromised guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R.; Bernstein, David I.; McVoy, Michael A.; Stroup, Greg; Bravo, Fernando; Creasy, Blaine; McGregor, Alistair; Henninger, Kristin; Hallenberger, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    New antiviral drugs are needed for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. These studies evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of the non-nucleosidic CMV inhibitor, BAY 38-4766, against guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). Plaque reduction assays indicated that BAY 38-4766 was active against GPCMV, with an IC50 of 0.5 μM. Yield reduction assays demonstrated an ED90 and ED99 of 0.4 and 0.6 μM, respectively, of BAY 38-4766 against GPCMV. Guinea pigs tolerated oral administration of 50 mg/kg/day of BAY 38-4766 without evidence of biochemical or hematologic toxicity. Plasma concentrations of BAY 38-4766 were high following oral dosing, with a mean peak level at 1-h post-dose of 26.7 mg/ml (n = 6; range, 17.8-35.4). Treatment with BAY 38-4766 reduced both viremia and DNAemia, as determined by a real-time PCR assay, following GPCMV infection of cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed strain 2 guinea pigs (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test). BAY 38-4766 also reduced mortality following lethal GPCMV challenge in immunosuppressed Hartley guinea pigs, from 83% (20/24) in placebo-treated guinea pigs, to 17% (4/24) in BAY 38-4766-treated animals (p < 0.0001, Fisher’s exact test). Mortality differences were accompanied by reduction in DNAemia in Hartley guinea pigs. Based upon its favorable safety, pharmacokinetic, and therapeutic profiles, BAY 38-4766 warrants further investigation in the GPCMV model. PMID:15652969

  20. Distortional binding of transition state analogs to human purine nucleoside phosphorylase probed by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.; Itin, Boris; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    Transition state analogs mimic the geometry and electronics of the transition state of enzymatic reactions. These molecules bind to the active site of the enzyme much tighter than substrate and are powerful noncovalent inhibitors. Immucillin-H (ImmH) and 4′-deaza-1′-aza-2′-deoxy-9-methylene Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) are picomolar inhibitors of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hPNP). Although both molecules are electronically similar to the oxocarbenium-like dissociative hPNP transition state, DADMe-ImmH is more potent than ImmH. DADMe-ImmH captures more of the transition state binding energy by virtue of being a closer geometric match to the hPNP transition state than ImmH. A consequence of these similarities is that the active site of hPNP exerts greater distortional forces on ImmH than on DADMe-ImmH to “achieve” the hPNP transition state geometry. By using magic angle spinning solid-state NMR to investigate stable isotope-labeled ImmH and DADMe-ImmH, we have explored the difference in distortional binding of these two inhibitors to hPNP. High-precision determinations of internuclear distances from NMR recoupling techniques, rotational echo double resonance, and rotational resonance, have provided unprecedented atomistic insight into the geometric changes that occur upon binding of transition state analogs. We conclude that hPNP stabilizes conformations of these chemically distinct analogs having distances between the cation and leaving groups resembling those of the known transition state. PMID:24043827

  1. A multi-step process of viral adaptation to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue by modulation of transition types leads to extinction-escape.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rubén; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Arias, Armando; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Perales, Celia; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Verdaguer, Nuria; Domingo, Esteban

    2010-08-26

    Resistance of viruses to mutagenic agents is an important problem for the development of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy. Previous studies with RNA viruses have documented that resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is mediated by amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase that either increase the general template copying fidelity of the enzyme or decrease the incorporation of ribavirin into RNA. Here we describe experiments that show that replication of the important picornavirus pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in the presence of increasing concentrations of ribavirin results in the sequential incorporation of three amino acid substitutions (M296I, P44S and P169S) in the viral polymerase (3D). The main biological effect of these substitutions is to attenuate the consequences of the mutagenic activity of ribavirin -by avoiding the biased repertoire of transition mutations produced by this purine analogue-and to maintain the replicative fitness of the virus which is able to escape extinction by ribavirin. This is achieved through alteration of the pairing behavior of ribavirin-triphosphate (RTP), as evidenced by in vitro polymerization assays with purified mutant 3Ds. Comparison of the three-dimensional structure of wild type and mutant polymerases suggests that the amino acid substitutions alter the position of the template RNA in the entry channel of the enzyme, thereby affecting nucleotide recognition. The results provide evidence of a new mechanism of resistance to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue which allows the virus to maintain a balance among mutation types introduced into progeny genomes during replication under strong mutagenic pressure.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Hitesh K; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-07-15

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3-4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analog. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5'-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-01-01

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3–4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5′-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  4. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors induce a mitophagy-associated endothelial cytotoxicity that is reversed by coenzyme Q10 cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, Stephen Y; Hebert, Valeria Y; Hayes, Danicia M; Robinson, Corie N; Glover, Mitzi; Dugas, Tammy R

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular complications have been documented in HIV-1 infected populations, and antiretroviral therapy may play a role. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are antiretrovirals known to induce mitochondrial damage in endothelial cells, culminating in endothelial dysfunction, an initiating event in atherogenesis. Though the mechanism for NRTI-induced endothelial toxicity is not yet clear, our prior work suggested that a mitochondrial oxidative stress may be involved. To further delineate the mechanism of toxicity, endothelial cells were treated with NRTIs of varying subclasses, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial function were assessed. To test whether rescue of mitochondrial electron transport attenuated NRTI-induced endothelial cytotoxicity, in some cases, cells were cotreated with the electron transport cofactor coenzyme Q10 (Q10). At 4-6h, NRTIs increased levels of ROS but decreased the activities of electron transport chain complexes I-IV, levels of ATP and the NAD/NADH ratio. Moreover, nitric oxide levels were decreased, whereas endothelin-1 release was increased. Q10 abolished NRTI-induced mitochondria injury and effects on endothelial agonist production. Interestingly, in cells treated with NRTIs only, markers for mitochondrial toxicity returned to baseline levels by 18-24h, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for clearing damaged mitochondria. Using confocal microscopy, with confirmation utilizing the autophagy and mitophagy markers LC-3 and Nix, respectively, we observed autophagy of mitochondria at 8-10h after treatment. Q10 prevented NRTI-mediated increase in LC-3. These findings suggest that NRTI-induced mitophagy may be involved in NRTI-induced endothelial dysfunction and that this damage likely results from oxidant injury. Further, Q10 supplementation could potentially prevent NRTI-induced endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Efficient electrogene therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment using the bacterial purine nucleoside phosphorylase suicide gene with fludarabine.

    PubMed

    Deharvengt, Sophie; Rejiba, Soukaina; Wack, Séverine; Aprahamian, Marc; Hajri, Amor

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of electrogene therapy with the bacterial purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene (ePNP), on pancreatic carcinoma (PC) large tumors. The in vivo electroporation (EP) conditions and efficacy were investigated on both subcutaneous xenografts of human PC cells in immunocompromised mice and orthotopic intrapancreatic grafts of rat PC cells in syngenic rats. After intratumoral injection of naked plasmid DNA, EP was performed using a two-needle array with 25-msec pulses and either a 300 V/cm field strength for subcutaneous or a 500 V/cm field strength for orthotopic PC, parameters providing the best electrotransfer as reflected by the measurements of both luciferase activity and ePNP mRNA. As expected, tumors developed sensitivity to prodrug treatment (6-methylpurine deoxyribose or fludarabine phosphate). We observed both significant inhibition of tumor growth and extended survival of treated mice. In fact, after prodrug treatment, PC growth in the subcutaneous model was delayed by 50-70% for ePNP-expressing tumors. In an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model, the animal survival was significantly prolonged after ePNP electrogene transfer followed by fludarabine treatment, with one animal out of 10 being tumor-free 6 months thereafter. The current study demonstrates for the first time on PC the in vivo feasibility of electrogene transfer and its therapeutic efficiency using the suicide gene/prodrug system, ePNP/fludarabine. These findings suggest that electrogene therapy strategy must be considered for pancreatic cancer treatment, particularly at advanced stages of the disease.

  6. Curcumin and its cyclohexanone analogue inhibited human Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Wijeratne, Tharaka S; Bugde, Piyush; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2017-03-29

    Our group investigated combining the phytochemical curcumin and gemcitabine in a liposome, to improve gemcitabine's activity against pancreatic tumours. While optimising the curcumin: gemcitabine ratio for co-encapsulation, we found that increasing curcumin concentrations relative to gemcitabine resulted in antagonistic interactions. As curcumin is a promiscuous transporter inhibitor; we suspected that increased resistance occurred via inhibition of Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1)-mediated gemcitabine uptake. To test our hypothesis, we determined whether curcumin and a related analogue, 2,6-bis((3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene)-cyclohexanone (or A13), inhibited ENT1-mediated accumulation of [(3)H]uridine and [(3)H]gemcitabine into pancreatic cancer cells. We then confirmed the inhibition of gemcitabine accumulation by investigating whether curcumin/A13 could increase gemcitabine resistance in growth inhibition assays. We found that curcumin and A13 concentration-dependently inhibited the ENT1-mediated accumulation of both uridine and gemcitabine in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. We also found that non-toxic concentrations of curcumin and A13 significantly increased the resistance of both cell lines to gemcitabine. Increased resistance only occurred when curcumin/A13 was co-incubated with gemcitabine, and not with sequential exposure (i.e., curcumin first, followed by gemcitabine, or vice versa). We also found that the curcumin analogue (3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-4-piperidinone (or EF24) did not inhibit gemcitabine accumulation, making it more suitable in combinations than curcumin/A13. From these results, we concluded that curcumin and A13 are inhibitors of the ENT1 transporter, but only at high concentrations (2-20µM). Curcumin is unlikely to inhibit gemcitabine uptake in tumours but may interfere with the oral absorption of ENT1 substrates due to high gut concentrations readily achievable from over-the-counter tablets/capsules.

  7. Probing the excited state relaxation dynamics of pyrimidine nucleosides in chloroform solution.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Katharina; Marroux, Hugo J B; Böhnke, Hendrik; Morris, David T J; Voice, Angus T; Temps, Friedrich; Roberts, Gareth M; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-12-16

    Ultrafast transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy (TEAS and TVAS) of 2'-deoxy-cytidine (dC) and 2'-deoxy-thymidine (dT) dissolved in chloroform examines their excited-state dynamics and the recovery of ground electronic state molecules following absorption of ultraviolet light. The chloroform serves as a weakly interacting solvent, allowing comparisons to be drawn with prior experimental studies of the photodynamics of these nucleosides in the gas phase and in polar solvents such as water. The pyrimidine base nucleosides have some propensity to dimerize in aprotic solvents, but the monomer photochemistry can be resolved clearly and is the focus of this study. UV absorption at a wavelength of 260 nm excites a (1)ππ* ← S0 transition, but prompt crossing of a significant fraction (50% in dC, 17% in dT) of the (1)ππ* population into a nearby (1)nπ* state is too fast for the experiments to resolve. The remaining flux on the (1)ππ* state leaves the vertical Franck-Condon region and encounters a conical intersection with the ground electronic state of ethylenic twist character. In dC, the (1)ππ* state decays to the ground state with a time constant of 1.1 ± 0.1 ps. The lifetime of the (1)nπ* state is much longer in the canonical forms of both molecules: recovery of the ground state population from these states occurs with time constants of 18.6 ± 1.1 ps in amino-oxo dC and ∼114 ps in dT, indicating potential energy barriers to the (1)nπ*/S0 conical intersections. The small fraction of the imino-oxo tautomer of dC present in solution has a longer-lived (1)nπ* state with a lifetime for ground state recovery of 193 ± 55 ps. No evidence is found for photo-induced tautomerization of amino-oxo dC to the imino-oxo form, or for population of low lying triplet states of this nucleoside. In contrast, ∼8% of the UV-excited dT molecules access the long-lived T1 ((3)ππ*) state through the (1)nπ* state. The primary influence of the solvent

  8. Enhanced functional preservation of cold-stored rat heart by a nucleoside transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhu, Q; Claydon, M A; Hicks, G L; Wang, T

    1994-07-15

    This study investigates the hypothesis that inhibition of nucleoside transport during hypothermic storage elevates tissue adenosine (ADO) content and improves the function of the isolated rat heart. The hearts, flushed with a cardioplegic solution containing varying concentrations (0-100 nM) of a nucleoside transport inhibitor, S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), were immersion-stored at 0 degrees C for 9 hr. Function was assessed after 30 min of working reperfusion. Function of unstored fresh hearts served as controls and poststorage recovery is reported as percentage of control function. Poststorage heart rate in all groups returned to control level after reperfusion. Recovery of other functional parameters in the no-NBTI group was as follows: aortic flow (AF), 56.2 +/- 4.6%; coronary flow (CF), 53.9 +/- 3.2%; cardiac output (CO), 55.5 +/- 4.0%; systolic pressure, 81.6 +/- 2.5%; work, 47.0 +/- 4.2%; and coronary vascular resistance (CVR), 157.1 +/- 7.8% of control. NBTI improved functional recovery in a dose-dependent fashion; the maximal improvement was seen at a dose of 5 nM, in which the recovery was: AF, 78.1 +/- 3.4%; CF, 73.5 +/- 4.4%; CO, 76.7 +/- 3.6%; work, 70.7 +/- 5.0%; and CVR, 127.5 +/- 4.5% of control (P < 0.05 vs. no-NBTI). The ADO A1-receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (0.1 microM) blocked the effects of 5 nM NBTI; the recovery of AF, CF, CO, work, and CVR decreased to 62.8 +/- 8.0%, 58.3 +/- 5.0%, 61.5 +/- 3.9%, 54.4 +/- 4.5%, and 163.8 +/- 12.7% of control, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. 5 nM NBTI). Tissue ADO content in 5 nM NBTI hearts at the end of storage was 0.075 +/- 0.025 mumol/g dry wt, which was significantly elevated from 0.016 +/- 0.004 mumol/g dry wt in no-NBTI hearts. Purine release during initial reperfusion was delayed in 5 nM NBTI hearts, indicating the inhibition of nucleoside transport by NBTI. But NBTI treatment did not improve end-storage or end-reperfusion myocardial ATP. In conclusion, the addition of

  9. Online solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of nucleoside drugs in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Ma, Ping; Xi, Xiaonan; Liu, Lei; Wen, Yabin; Liu, Kangning; Sun, Liang; Lu, Yaxin; Yin, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    The bioanalysis and especially the sample preparation of nucleoside drugs in complex media, such as human plasma, has been challenging due to the high polarity and high solubility of these drugs in water. Online solid phase extraction (SPE) offers significant advantages, such as automation and timesaving. Thus, several types of SPE columns have been developed for compounds with different polarities. In this study, SPE was applied to overcome the issue of sample pretreatment of nucleoside drugs in human plasma, with the final aim of establishing a robust analytical platform for drugs with similar structures. A simple, easy-to-use, and efficient method is described for the simultaneous determination of lamivudine, zidovudine, didanosine and emtricitabine in human plasma via online SPE and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Following a simple centrifugation step, a 10μL plasma sample was injected directly onto the HPLC system. The Oasis MCX cartridge was washed, and the analytes were removed by back-flushing directly onto the analytical column. The analytes were quantified using a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Similarly, with the development and application of a Bond Elut phenylboronic acid (PBA) SPE cartridge, a fully automated online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of ribavirin and taribavirin in human plasma. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the range of 0.5-2000ngmL(-1), and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5ngmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1), which is sensitive enough for clinical drug monitoring. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.2-8.9%, and the trueness ranged between 88.9% and 113.1%. Excellent recoveries from plasma were achieved with a range between 86.7% and 105.1%. This procedure is easier to perform and requires less sample handling compared to methods previously described in the

  10. Using UHPLC Q-Trap/MS as a complementary technique to in-depth mine UPLC Q-TOF/MS data for identifying modified nucleosides in urine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Meiling; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Huang, Zhenhai; Xie, Ziye; Yu, Honghong; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-12

    Modified nucleosides, metabolites of RNA, are potential biomarkers of cancer before the appearance of morphological abnormalities. It is of great significance to comprehensively detect and identify nucleosides in human urine for discovery of cancer biomarkers. However, the lower abundance, the greater polarity and the matrix effects make it difficult to detect urinary nucleosides. In this paper, an integrated method consisted of sample preparation followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) detection and primary identification, then ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UHPLC Q-Trap/MS) further identification and validation were introduced. Firstly, to enrich the nucleosides and eliminate the urine matrix effects, different sorbent materials of solid phase extraction (SPE) and the elution conditions were screened. Secondly, UPLC Q-TOF/MS was used to acquire mass data in MS(E) mode. The structural formulas of nucleosides in urine sample were primarily identified according to retention time, accurate mass precursor ions and fragment ions from in-house database and online database. Thirdly, the preliminary identified nucleoside structures lacking of characteristic fragment ions were verified by UHPLC Q-Trap/MS in multiple reaction monitoring trigger enhanced product ion scan (MRM-EPI) and neutral loss scan (NL). At last, phenylboronic acid (PBA)-based SPE was utilized due to its higher MS signal and weaker matrix effects under optimized extraction conditions. Fifty-five nucleosides were primarily identified by UPLC Q-TOF/MS, among which 50 nucleosides were confirmed by UHPLC Q-Trap/MS. Five nucleosides, namely 4',5'-didehydro-5'-deoxyadenosine, 4',5'-didehydro-5'-deoxyinosine, isonicotinamide riboside, peroxywybutosine and hydroxywybutosine, were found from urine for the first time. The results will expand the Human

  11. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components.

  12. X-ray analysis of azido-thymidine diphosphate binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sellam, O; Moréra, S; Sarfati, S; Biondi, R; Véron, M; Janin, J

    1997-07-08

    To be effective as antiviral agent, AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) must be converted to a triphosphate derivative by cellular kinases. The conversion is inefficient and, to understand why AZT diphosphate is a poor substrate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, we determined a 2.3-A x-ray structure of a complex with the N119A point mutant of Dictyostelium NDP kinase. It shows that the analog binds at the same site and, except for the sugar ring pucker which is different, binds in the same way as the natural substrate thymidine diphosphate. However, the azido group that replaces the 3'OH of the deoxyribose in AZT displaces a lysine side chain involved in catalysis. Moreover, it is unable to make an internal hydrogen bond to the oxygen bridging the beta- and gamma-phosphate, which plays an important part in phosphate transfer.

  13. X-ray analysis of azido-thymidine diphosphate binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingwu; Sellam, Olivier; Moréra, Solange; Sarfati, Simon; Biondi, Ricardo; Véron, Michel; Janin, Joël

    1997-01-01

    To be effective as antiviral agent, AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine) must be converted to a triphosphate derivative by cellular kinases. The conversion is inefficient and, to understand why AZT diphosphate is a poor substrate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, we determined a 2.3-Å x-ray structure of a complex with the N119A point mutant of Dictyostelium NDP kinase. It shows that the analog binds at the same site and, except for the sugar ring pucker which is different, binds in the same way as the natural substrate thymidine diphosphate. However, the azido group that replaces the 3′OH of the deoxyribose in AZT displaces a lysine side chain involved in catalysis. Moreover, it is unable to make an internal hydrogen bond to the oxygen bridging the β- and γ-phosphate, which plays an important part in phosphate transfer. PMID:9207061

  14. Towards new boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy: metallacarboranes and their nucleoside conjugates.

    PubMed

    Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J; Paradowska, Edyta; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Studzińska, Mirosława; Seekamp, Petra; Schüssler, Uw; Gabel, Detlef; Schinazi, Raymond F; Plesek, Jaromir

    2005-07-01

    Thymidine conjugates containing metallacarborane, {8-[5-(N(3)-thymidine)-3-oxa-pentoxy]-3-cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide)}- (5) and {8-[5-(O(4)-thymidine)-3-oxa-pentoxy]-3-cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide)}- (6) ions and several simple [3-cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide)]- ion (1) derivatives have been studied as potential boron carriers for BNCT. Compound 6 and some nonnucleoside derivatives of 1 were not toxic above 100 microM. The partition coefficient for both metallacarborane bearing thymidine conjugates 5 and 6 was more than 500 times higher than that of unmodified nucleoside. The cellular uptake studies showed accumulation of compounds 6 in V79 Chinese hamster cells but not of compound 5. The low toxicity of conjugate type of 6 together with its high partition coefficient suggest that judicially designed derivatives of metallacarboranes can be considered as potential boron carriers for BNCT.

  15. The Limits of Template-Directed Synthesis with Nucleoside-5'-Phosphoro(2-Methyl) Imidazolides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Wu, Taifeng

    1993-01-01

    In earlier work we have shown that C-rich templates containing isolated A, T or G residues and short oligo(G) sequences can be copied effectively using nucleoside-5'-phosphoro(2-methyl)imidazolides as substrates. We now show that isolated A or T residues within an oligo(G) sequence are a complete block to copying and that an isolated C residue is copied inefficiently. Replication is possible only if there are two complementary oligonucleotides each of which acts as a template to facilitate the synthesis of the other. We emphasize the severity of the problems that need to be overcome to make possible non-enzymatic replication in homogeneous aqueous solution. We conclude that an efficient catalyst was involved in the origin of polynucleotide replication.

  16. Azobenzene C-Nucleosides for Photocontrolled Hybridization of DNA at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Goldau, Thomas; Murayama, Keiji; Brieke, Clara; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Heckel, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report the reversible light-regulated destabilization of DNA duplexes by using azobenzene C-nucleoside photoswitches. The incorporation of two different azobenzene residues into DNA and their photoswitching properties are described. These new residues demonstrate a photoinduced destabilization effect comparable to the widely applied D-threoninol-linked azobenzene switch, which is currently the benchmark. The photoswitches presented herein show excellent photoswitching efficiencies in DNA duplexes - even at room temperature - which are superior to commonly used azobenzene-based nucleic acid photoswitches. In addition, these photoswitching residues exhibit high thermal stability and excellent fatigue resistance, thus rendering them one of the most efficient candidates for the regulation of duplex stability with light.

  17. Meteorite-catalyzed syntheses of nucleosides and of other prebiotic compounds from formamide under proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Raffaele; Carota, Eleonora; Botta, Giorgia; Kapralov, Mikhail; Timoshenko, Gennady N; Rozanov, Alexei Y; Krasavin, Eugene; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2015-05-26

    Liquid formamide has been irradiated by high-energy proton beams in the presence of powdered meteorites, and the products of the catalyzed resulting syntheses were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Relative to the controls (no radiation, or no formamide, or no catalyst), an extremely rich, variegate, and prebiotically relevant panel of compounds was observed. The meteorites tested were representative of the four major classes: iron, stony iron, chondrites, and achondrites. The products obtained were amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases, sugars, and, most notably, four nucleosides: cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and thymidine. In accordance with theoretical studies, the detection of HCN oligomers suggests the occurrence of mechanisms based on the generation of radical cyanide species (CN·) for the synthesis of nucleobases. Given that many of the compounds obtained are key components of extant organisms, these observations contribute to outline plausible exogenous high-energy-based prebiotic scenarios and their possible boundary conditions, as discussed.

  18. Meteorite-catalyzed syntheses of nucleosides and of other prebiotic compounds from formamide under proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Saladino, Raffaele; Carota, Eleonora; Botta, Giorgia; Kapralov, Mikhail; Timoshenko, Gennady N.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Krasavin, Eugene; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Liquid formamide has been irradiated by high-energy proton beams in the presence of powdered meteorites, and the products of the catalyzed resulting syntheses were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Relative to the controls (no radiation, or no formamide, or no catalyst), an extremely rich, variegate, and prebiotically relevant panel of compounds was observed. The meteorites tested were representative of the four major classes: iron, stony iron, chondrites, and achondrites. The products obtained were amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases, sugars, and, most notably, four nucleosides: cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and thymidine. In accordance with theoretical studies, the detection of HCN oligomers suggests the occurrence of mechanisms based on the generation of radical cyanide species (CN·) for the synthesis of nucleobases. Given that many of the compounds obtained are key components of extant organisms, these observations contribute to outline plausible exogenous high-energy–based prebiotic scenarios and their possible boundary conditions, as discussed. PMID:25870268

  19. Synthesis of Norcarbovir Analogues, the First Examples of Cyclobutene Nucleosides Unsubstituted at the Vinylic Position.

    PubMed

    Gourdel-Martin, Marie-Edith; Huet, François

    1997-04-04

    Two cyclobutene nucleosides, 27 and 29, analogous to the yet unknown norcarbovir, and with adenine and hypoxanthine as the base moieties, respectively, were synthesized starting from cis-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (6). Its reduction to lactone 9 followed by reaction with ammonia and then Hofmann rearrangement led to cyclic carbamate 15 which was the key intermediate of these syntheses. Its tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative 17 led to the ring opening of the heterocyclic moiety at low temperature. Compound 18 was thus obtained, and the successive benzylation and then treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded hydrochloride 21. Construction of bases was achieved in satisfying overall yields provided that mild experimental conditions from 21 to 27 or 29 were used to restrict the unwanted electrocyclic ring opening. Nitropyrimidine 31 was also prepared from 21 via the intermediate 23.

  20. Fludarabine nucleoside modulates nuclear "survival and death" proteins in resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Silke; Mactier, Swetlana; Best, Giles; Mulligan, Stephen P; Crossett, Ben; Christopherson, Richard Ian

    2011-12-01

    The nuclear mechanisms by which fludarabine nucleoside (F-ara-A) induces apoptosis have been investigated in human MEC1 cells derived from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Upon treatment of cells with F-ara-A (100 μM, 72 hours), 15 nuclear proteins changed in abundance by more than 2-fold. Nuclear proteins up-regulated included calmodulin (4.3-fold), prohibitin (3.9-fold), β-actin variant (3.7-fold), and structure-specific recognition protein 1 (3.7-fold); those down-regulated included 60S ribosomal protein P2B (0.12-fold), fumarate hydratase (0.19-fold), splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 3 (0.35-fold), and replication protein A2 (0.42-fold). These changes in the levels of specific proteins promote survival or apoptosis; because the end result is apoptosis of MEC1 cells, apoptotic effects predominate.

  1. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and DNA demethylation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as exposure-response measures of nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anders, Nicole M; Liu, Jianyong; Wanjiku, Teresia; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Zhou, Jianya; Vaghasia, Ajay; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Rudek, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic and anti-cancer activities of the nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC), azacitidine, and guadecitabine are thought to require cellular uptake, metabolism to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate, and incorporation into DNA. This genomic incorporation can then lead to trapping and degradation of DNMT enzymes, and ultimately, passive loss of DNA methylation. To facilitate measurement of critical exposure-response relationships of nucleoside analog DNMT inhibitors, a sensitive and reliable method was developed to simultaneously quantitate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and genomic 5-methylcytosine content using LC-MS/MS. Genomic DNA was extracted and digested into single nucleosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Thermo Hyperpcarb porous graphite column (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and isocratic elution with a 10mM ammonium acetate:acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (70:30, v/v) mobile phase over a 5min total analytical run time. An AB Sciex 5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for the detection of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxycytidine, and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay range was 2-400ng/mL for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 50-10,000ng/mL for 2'-deoxycytidine, and was 5-1000ng/mL for 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay proved to be accurate (93.0-102.2%) and precise (CV≤6.3%) across all analytes. All analytes exhibited long-term frozen digest matrix stability at -70°C for at least 117 days. The method was applied for the measurement of genomic 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine content following exposure of in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models to decitabine.

  2. Novel theoretically designed HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors derived from nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H

    2014-10-01

    A common problem with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 is the emergence of mutations in the HIV-1 RT, in particular Lys103 → Asn (K103N) and Tyr181 → Cys (Y181C), which lead to resistance to this entire class of inhibitors. In this study, we theoretically designed two new non-nucleoside HIV-1 RT inhibitors, Mnev-1 and Mnev-2, derived from nevirapine, in order to reduce the resistance caused by those HIV-1 RT mutations. The binding modes of Mnev-1 and Mnev-2 with the wild-type HIV-1 RT and its mutants (K103N and Y181C) were suggested by molecular docking followed by 20-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water of those binding complexes (HIV-1 RTs with the new inhibitors). A molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculation was carried out for multiple snapshots extracted from the MD trajectory to estimate the binding free energy. The results of the calculations show that each of the new inhibitors forms a stable hydrogen bond with His235 during the MD simulations, leading to tighter binding of the new inhibitors with their targets. In addition, the repulsive interaction with Cys181 in the Y181C-nevirapine complex is not present in the novel inhibitors. The binding affinities predicted using the MM/GBSA calculations indicate that the new inhibitors could be effective at bypassing the drug resistance of these HIV-1 RT mutants.

  3. Ab Initio Inverstagation of the Excited States of Nucleobases and Nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Péter G.; Fogarasi, Géza; Watson, Thomas; Perera, Ajith; Lotrich, Victor; Bartlett, Rod J.

    2011-06-01

    Most living bodies are exposed to sunlight, essential life sustaining processes are using this natural radiation. Sunlight has, however, several components (has a broad "spectrum") and in particular the invisible component (UV, ultraviolet) is harmful for living organisms. Scientists around the word are busy to understand what happens in the cell when it is exposed to light: it seems that the building blocks of cells and in particular those carrying the genetic information (DNA and RNA) are highly protected against this exposition. Our research focuses on the spectral properties of the building blocks of DNA and RNA, the so called nucleobases and nucleosides, in order to understand this mechanism. Due to improvement in computer technology both at hardware and software side we are now able to use the most accurate methods of ab initio quantum chemistry to investigate the spectroscopic properties of these building blocks. These calculations provide direct information on the properties of these molecules but also provide important benchmarks for cheaper methods which can be used for even larger systems. We have calculated the excited state properties for the nucleobases (cytosine, guanine and adenine), their complexes with water and with each other (Watson-Crick base pairs and stacks) as well as corresponding nucleosides at the EOM-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory and try to answer the following questions: (1) how the order of excited states varies in different nucleobases; (2) how hydration influences the excitation energy and order of excited states; (3) is there any effect of the sugar substituent; (4) how do close lying other bases change the spectrum. The calculations involve over hundred correlated electrons and up to thousand basis functions. Such calculations are now routinely available with the recently developed ACESIII code and can make use of hundreds or even several thousand of processors. V. Lotrich, N. Flocke, M. Ponton, A. Yau, A. Perera, E. Deumens

  4. Identification of cysteines involved in the effects of methanethiosulfonate reagents on human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Jamie S; Hughes, Scott J; Cunningham, Frances K M; Hammond, James R

    2011-10-01

    Inhibitor and substrate interactions with equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; SLC29A1) are known to be affected by cysteine-modifying reagents. Given that selective ENT1 inhibitors, such as nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), bind to the N-terminal half of the ENT1 protein, we hypothesized that one or more of the four cysteine residues in this region were contributing to the effects of the sulfhydryl modifiers. Recombinant human ENT1 (hENT1), and the four cysteine-serine ENT1 mutants, were expressed in nucleoside transport-deficient PK15 cells and probed with a series of methanethiosulfonate (MTS) sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. Transporter function was assessed by the binding of [(3)H]NBMPR and the cellular uptake of [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine. The membrane-permeable reagent methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) enhanced [(3)H]NBMPR binding in a pH-dependent manner, but decreased [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. [2-(Trimethylammonium)ethyl] methane-thiosulfonate (MTSET) (positively charged, membrane-impermeable), but not sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)-methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) (negatively charged), inhibited [(3)H]NBMPR binding and enhanced [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. Mutation of Cys222 in transmembrane (TM) 6 eliminated the effect of MMTS on NBMPR binding. Mutation of Cys193 in TM5 enhanced the ability of MMTS to increase [(3)H]NBMPR binding and attenuated the effects of MMTS and MTSET on [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. Taken together, these data suggest that Cys222 contributes to the effects of MTS reagents on [(3)H]NBMPR binding, and Cys193 is involved in the effects of these reagents on [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine transport. The results of this study also indicate that the hENT1-C193S mutant may be useful as a MTSET/MTSES-insensitive transporter for future cysteine substitution studies to define the extracellular domains contributing to the binding of substrates and inhibitors to this critical membrane transporter.

  5. Possible Effects of Microbial Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases on Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Fiona M.; Robson, Simon C.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: In humans, purinergic signaling plays an important role in the modulation of immune responses through specific receptors that recognize nucleoside tri- and diphosphates as signaling molecules. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ecto-NTPDases) have important roles in the regulation of purinergic signaling by controlling levels of extracellular nucleotides. This process is key to pathophysiological protective responses such as hemostasis and inflammation. Ecto-NTPDases are found in all higher eukaryotes, and recently it has become apparent that a number of important parasitic pathogens of humans express surface-located NTPDases that have been linked to virulence. For those parasites that are purine auxotrophs, these enzymes may play an important role in purine scavenging, although they may also influence the host response to infection. Although ecto-NTPDases are rare in bacteria, expression of a secreted NTPDase in Legionella pneumophila was recently described. This ecto-enzyme enhances intracellular growth of the bacterium and potentially affects virulence. This discovery represents an important advance in the understanding of the contribution of other microbial NTPDases to host-pathogen interactions. Here we review other progress made to date in the characterization of ecto-NTPDases from microbial pathogens, how they differ from mammalian enzymes, and their association with organism viability and virulence. In addition, we postulate how ecto-NTPDases may contribute to the host-pathogen interaction by reviewing the effect of selected microbial pathogens on purinergic signaling. Finally, we raise the possibility of targeting ecto-NTPDases in the development of novel anti-infective agents based on potential structural and clear enzymatic differences from the mammalian ecto-NTPDases. PMID:19052327

  6. Identification and quantification of nucleosides and nucleobases in Geosaurus and Leech by hydrophilic-interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Li, Wei; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Li, Zhenguo; Ni, Yefeng; Koike, Kazuo

    2011-09-15

    A simple hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC) method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 nucleosides and nucleobases, namely cytosine, uracil, cytidine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyinosine and 2'-deoxyuridine in two traditional Chinese medicines, Geosaurus and Leech. The separation was achieved on a TSKgel Amide-80 column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3.0 μm) with a mixture of acetonitrile and 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The temperature was set at 30°C and UV detection wavelength was set at 260 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)>0.9957) within the test ranges. The overall intra- and inter-day RSD ranged from 0.4 to 3.4% and from 0.7 to 3.3%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.07-30.49 ng/mL and 0.26-60.98 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method was in the range of 2.2-5.8% for Geosaurus and 1.4-5.5% for Leech. The recoveries of the samples were in the range of 91.4-100.9% for Geosaurus, and 91.9-99.3% for Leech. The established method was applied successfully for the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in 22 commercially available samples collected from different regions in China and Japan. Our data showed that HILIC had advantages as a useful tool for the study of the bioactive components in Geosaurus and Leech as well as their quality control, and could therefore be used for the determination of the analytes in pharmaceutical products and biological fluids.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Gauri; Aggarwal, Anita; Mittal, Sonia; Singh, Yogendra; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2007-12-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from B. anthracis has been crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Bacillus anthracis nucleoside diphosphate kinase (BaNdk) is an enzyme whose primary function is to maintain deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools by converting deoxynucleotide diphosphates to triphosphates using ATP as the major phosphate donor. Although the structures of Ndks from a variety of organisms have been elucidated, the enzyme from sporulating bacteria has not been structurally characterized to date. Crystals of the B. anthracis enzyme were grown using the vapour-diffusion method from a hanging drop consisting of 2 µl 10 mg ml{sup −1} protein in 50 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA equilibrated against 500 µl reservoir solution consisting of 2.25 M ammonium formate and 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.25. Diffraction data extending to 2.0 Å were collected at room temperature from a single crystal with unit-cell parameters a = b = 107.53, c = 52.3 Å. The crystals are hexagonal in shape and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 2.1 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 36.9%.

  8. Behavioral effects of elevated expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Kost, Sara; Sun, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Graham, Kathryn; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Albensi, Benedict C; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2011-10-10

    Adenosine concentrations are regulated by purinergic enzymes and nucleoside transporters. Transgenic mice with neuronal expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) have been generated (Parkinson et al., 2009 [7]). The present study tested the hypothesis that mice homozygous and heterozygous for the transgene exhibit differences in hENT1 mRNA and protein expression, and in behavioral responses to caffeine and ethanol, two drugs with adenosine-dependent actions. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify mice heterozygous and homozygous for the transgene. Gene expression, determined by real time PCR of cDNA reverse transcribed from cerebral cortex RNA, was 3.8-fold greater in homozygous mice. Protein abundance, determined by radioligand binding assays using 0.14nM [(3)H]S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine ([(3)H]NBTI), was up to 84% greater in cortex synaptosome membranes from homozygous than from heterozygous mice. In western blots with an antibody specific for hENT1, a protein of approximately 40kDa was strongly labelled in cortex samples from homozygous mice, weakly labelled in samples from heterozygous mice and absent from samples from wild type mice. In behavioral assays, transgenic mice showed a greater response to ethanol and a reduced response to caffeine than wild type littermates; however, no significant differences between heterozygous and homozygous mice were detected. These data indicate that the difference in ENT1 function between wild type and heterozygous mice was greater than that between heterozygous and homozygous mice. Therefore, either heterozygous or homozygous hENT1 transgenic mice can be used in studies of ENT1 regulation of adenosine levels and adenosine dependent behaviors.

  9. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism. PMID:26606401

  10. Design and synthesis of a new series of modified CH-diarylpyrimidines as drug-resistant HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Aqun; Chen, Fener; Chen, Wenxue; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Balzarini, Jan

    2014-07-23

    This article reports the design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a new series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The basic skeleton of these target 18 molecules is diarylpyrimidine featuring a substituted amino group between the pyrimidine scaffold and the aryl wing. All of the new compounds have been characterized by spectra analysis. The entire target molecules were evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activity with controlling group of FDA approved drugs. Most of them showed good to potent activities against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 with IC50 values in the range of 0.0175-69.21 μM. 2-(4-Cyanophenylamino)-4-(2-cyanovinylphenylhydrazonomethyl)pyrimidine (1d) displayed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against WT HIV-1 with a selectivity index (SI) of 106367 and an IC50 value of 1.75 nM, which was 47 fold lower than that of AZT. Compound 1d also showed a broad-spectrum inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 5.33 μM and 5.05 μM against both HIV-1 double-mutated (K103N/Y181C) strain and HIV-2 strain, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) was also investigated. The binding modes with HIV-1 RT for both the wild type and mutant type have also been discussed.

  11. Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues with Potential Antiviral Activity against Negative Strand RNA Virus Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    standing overnight. Washing the filtered crystals with ether removed triethylamine hydrochloride and triphenyl phosphine, then recrystallisation from...pyridine to from an ester, DMF and pyridinium hydrochloride . The reaction of the Vilsmeier reagent with (E)-5-(2-carboxyvinyl)uridine and quenching...include 2-deoxy-2-glucose (28), D- glucosamine (29) and tunicamycin (30). Deoxyglucose is utilized instead of glucose in the formation of guanosine

  12. Vibrational study of a nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity, 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine, CDU.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L; Navarro, R; Hernanz, A

    1999-01-01

    The experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine have been assigned on the basis of normal coordinate analyses, in the light of observed and calculated wavenumbers and isotopic shifts. The results indicate that virtually all normal modes of IDU involve some degree of vibrational coupling between the chlorouracil base and the deoxyribose moi