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Sample records for nucleosynthesis le gravitino

  1. The gravitino-stau scenario after catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, Joern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.de

    2008-01-15

    We consider the impact of catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis on theories with a gravitino lightest superparticle and a charged slepton next-to-lightest superparticle. In models where the gravitino to gaugino mass ratio is bounded from below, such as gaugino-mediated supersymmetry breaking, we derive a lower bound on the gaugino mass parameter m{sub 1/2}. As a concrete example, we determine the parameter space of gaugino mediation that is compatible with all cosmological constraints.

  2. Nucleosynthesis constraints on a massive gravitino in neutralino dark matter scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: John.Ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@physics.umn.edu

    2009-10-01

    The decays of massive gravitinos into neutralino dark matter particles and Standard Model secondaries during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) may alter the primordial light-element abundances. We present here details of a new suite of codes for evaluating such effects, including a new treatment based on PYTHIA of the evolution of showers induced by hadronic decays of massive, unstable particles such as a gravitino. We present several sets of results obtained using these codes, including general constraints on the possible lifetime and abundance of an unstable particle decaying into neutralino dark matter under various hypotheses for its decay mechanism. We also develop an analytical treatment of non-thermal hadron propagation in the early universe, and use this to derive analytical estimates for light-element production and in turn on decaying particle lifetimes and abundances, which confirm our numerical results and illuminate the underlying physics. We then consider specifically the case of an unstable massive gravitino within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM). We present upper limits on its possible primordial abundance before decay for different possible gravitino masses, with CMSSM parameters along strips where the lightest neutralino provides all the astrophysical cold dark matter density. We do not find any CMSSM solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem for small m{sub 3/2}. Discounting this, for m{sub 1/2} ∼ 500 GeV and tan β = 10 the other light-element abundances impose an upper limit m{sub 3/2}n{sub 3/2}/n{sub γ} ∼< 3 × 10{sup −12} GeV to ∼< 2 × 10{sup −13} GeV for m{sub 3/2} = 250 GeV to 1 TeV, which is similar in both the coannihilation and focus-point strips and somewhat weaker for tan β = 50, particularly for larger m{sub 1/2}. The constraints also weaken in general for larger m{sub 3/2}, and for m{sub 3/2} > 3 TeV we find a narrow range of m{sub 3/2}n{sub 3/2}/n{sub γ}, at

  3. Nucleosynthesis constraints on a massive gravitino in neutralino dark matter scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C.

    2009-10-01

    The decays of massive gravitinos into neutralino dark matter particles and Standard Model secondaries during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) may alter the primordial light-element abundances. We present here details of a new suite of codes for evaluating such effects, including a new treatment based on PYTHIA of the evolution of showers induced by hadronic decays of massive, unstable particles such as a gravitino. We present several sets of results obtained using these codes, including general constraints on the possible lifetime and abundance of an unstable particle decaying into neutralino dark matter under various hypotheses for its decay mechanism. We also develop an analytical treatment of non-thermal hadron propagation in the early universe, and use this to derive analytical estimates for light-element production and in turn on decaying particle lifetimes and abundances, which confirm our numerical results and illuminate the underlying physics. We then consider specifically the case of an unstable massive gravitino within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM). We present upper limits on its possible primordial abundance before decay for different possible gravitino masses, with CMSSM parameters along strips where the lightest neutralino provides all the astrophysical cold dark matter density. We do not find any CMSSM solution to the cosmological 7Li problem for small m3/2. Discounting this, for m1/2 ~ 500 GeV and tan β = 10 the other light-element abundances impose an upper limit m3/2n3/2/nγ lesssim 3 × 10-12 GeV to lesssim 2 × 10-13 GeV for m3/2 = 250 GeV to 1 TeV, which is similar in both the coannihilation and focus-point strips and somewhat weaker for tan β = 50, particularly for larger m1/2. The constraints also weaken in general for larger m3/2, and for m3/2 > 3 TeV we find a narrow range of m3/2n3/2/nγ, at values which increase with m3/2, where the 7Li abundance is marginally compatible with the

  4. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min E-mail: cmlin@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter.

  5. Neutralino dark matter from heavy gravitino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Jun'Ichi

    2005-10-01

    We propose a new scenario of nonthermal production of neutralino cold dark matter, in which the overproduction problem of lightest supersymmetric particles (LSPs) in the standard thermal history is naturally solved. The mechanism requires a heavy modulus field which decays mainly to ordinary particles releasing large entropy to dilute gravitinos produced just after inflation and thermal relics of LSPs. Significant amount of gravitinos are also pair-produced at the decay, which subsequently decay into the neutralinos. We identify the regions of the parameter space in which the requisite abundance of the neutralino dark matter is obtained without spoiling the big-bang nucleosynthesis by injection of hadronic showers from gravitino decay. The neutralino abundance obtained in this mechanism is insensitive to the details of the superparticle mass spectrum, unlike the standard thermal abundance. We also briefly mention the testability of the scenario in future experiments.

  6. Gravitino dark matter from increased thermal relic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Nobuchika; Seto, Osamu

    2008-06-15

    We investigate the so-called superWIMP scenario with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the context of nonstandard cosmology, in particular, brane world cosmology. As a candidate of the next-to-LSP (NLSP), we examine the slepton and the sneutrino. Brane world cosmological effects dramatically enhance the relic density of the slepton or sneutrino NLSP, so that the NLSP with mass of order 100 GeV can provide the correct abundance of gravitino dark matter through its decay. We find that with an appropriate five-dimensional Planck mass, this scenario can be realized consistently with the constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis for both NLSP candidates of the slepton and the sneutrino. The big bang nucleosynthesis constraints for the slepton NLSP are more stringent than that for the sneutrino; as the result, the gravitino must be rather warm in the slepton NLSP case. The energy density of the gravitino produced by thermal scattering is highly suppressed and negligible due to the brane world cosmological effects.

  7. Gravitino dark matter and the cosmic lithium abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Sean; Jedamzik, Karsten; Moultaka, Gilbert

    2009-09-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics assuming the gravitino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), and with the next-to-LSP (NLSP) decaying to the gravitino during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), are analyzed. Particular emphasis is laid on their potential to solve the “Li7 problem,” observations leading to an apparent 2 to 4 overproduction of Li7 with respect to standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions, their production of cosmologically important amounts of Li6, as well as the resulting gravitino dark matter densities in these models. The study includes several improvements compared to prior studies concerning NLSP hadronic branching ratios, the evaluation of hadronic NLSP decays on BBN, BBN catalytic effects, updated nuclear reaction rates, and relies on a complete calculation of the NLSP thermal abundance, interfacing state-of-the-art computer packages. Heavy gravitinos in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model are reanalyzed, whereas light gravitinos in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios are studied for the first time in the context of the “lithium problems.” It is confirmed that decays of NLSP staus to heavy gravitinos, while producing all the dark matter, may at the same time resolve the Li7 problem. For NLSP decay times ≈103sec, such scenarios also lead to cosmologically important Li6 (and possibly Be9) abundances. However, as such scenarios require heavy ≳1TeV staus they are likely not testable at the LHC. It is found that decays of NLSP staus to light gravitinos may lead to significant Li6 (and Be9) abundances, whereas NLSP neutralinos decaying into light gravitinos may solve the Li7 problem. Though both scenarios are testable at the LHC they may not lead to the production of the bulk of the dark matter. A section of the paper outlines particle properties required to significantly reduce the Li7 abundance, and/or enhance the Li6 (and possibly Be9) abundances, by the

  8. Dark matter from late invisible decays to and of gravitinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Strigari, Louis E.; Wang, Mei-Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we sift a simple supersymmetric framework of late invisible decays to and of the gravitino. We study a simple extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model that includes isosinglet color-triplet superfields and a singlet superfield. We investigate two cases where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle or the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. The next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle decays into two dark matter candidates and has a long lifetime due to gravitationally suppressed interactions. However, because of the absence of any hadronic or electromagnetic products, it satisfies the tight bounds set by big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. One or both of the dark matter candidates produced in invisible decays can contribute to the amount of dark radiation and suppress perturbations at scales that are being probed by the galaxy power spectrum and the Lyman-alpha forest data. We show that these constraints are satisfied in large regions of the parameter space and, as a result, the late invisible decays to and of the gravitino can be responsible for the entire dark matter relic abundance.

  9. Constraints on the size of the extra dimension from Kaluza-Klein gravitino decay

    SciTech Connect

    Gherson, David

    2007-08-15

    We study the consequences of the gravitino decay into dark matter. We suppose that the lightest neutralino is the main component of dark matter. In our framework the gravitino is heavy enough to decay before big bang nucleosynthesis starts. We consider a model coming from a five dimensional supergravity compactified on S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} with gravity in the bulk and matter localized on tensionless branes at the orbifold fixed points. We require that the dark matter, which is produced thermally and in the decay of Kaluza-Klein modes of the gravitino, has an abundance compatible with observation. We deduce from our model that there are curves of constraints between the size of the extra dimension and the reheating temperature of the Universe after inflation.

  10. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro; Yamada, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  11. Constraints on gravitino decay and the scale of inflation using CMB spectral distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Chluba, Jens

    2016-07-01

    If local supersymmetry is the correct extension of the standard model of particle physics, then following inflation the early Universe would have been populated by gravitinos produced from scatterings in the hot plasma during reheating. Their abundance is directly related to the magnitude of the reheating temperature. The gravitino lifetime is fixed as a function of its mass, and for gravitinos with lifetimes longer than the age of the Universe at redshift z ≃2 ×1 06 (or roughly 6 ×1 06 s ), decay products can produce spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background. Currently available COBE/FIRAS limits on spectral distortion can, in certain cases, already be competitive with respect to cosmological constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis for some gravitino decay scenarios. We show how the sensitivity limits on μ and y distortions that can be reached with current technology will improve constraints and possibly rule out a significant portion of the parameter space for gravitino masses and inflation reheating temperatures.

  12. Gravitino production in a thermal Universe revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Richa; Mahajan, Namit; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2017-09-01

    We study the production of spin 1/2 gravitinos in a thermal Universe. Taking into account supersymmetry breaking due to the finite thermal energy density of the Universe, there is a large enhancement in the cross section of production of these gravitino states. We consider gravitinos with zero temperature masses of 0.1 eV, 1 keV, 100 GeV and 30 TeV as representative of gauge mediated, gravity mediated and anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that the abundance of gravitinos produced in the early Universe is very high for gravitinos of mass 1 keV and 100 GeV. The gravitino abundances can be sufficiently suppressed if the reheat temperature is less than 100 GeV and 4 ×104GeV respectively. However such low reheat temperatures will rule out many models of baryogenesis including those via leptogenesis.

  13. Online Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer Jordan, Bradley, IV; The, Lih-Sin; Robbins, Stuart

    2004-05-01

    Nuclear-reaction network codes are important to astronomers seeking to explore nucleosynthetic implications of astrophysical models and to nuclear physicists seeking to understand the role of nuclear properties or reaction rates in element formation. However, many users do not have the time or inclination to download and compile the codes, to manage the requisite input files, or to explore the often complex output with their own graphics programs. To help make nucleosynthesis calculations more readily available, we have placed the Clemson Nucleosynthesis code on the world-wide web at http://www.ces.clemson.edu/physics/nucleo/nuclearNetwork At this web site, any Internet user may set his or her own reaction network, nuclear properties and reaction rates, and thermodynamic trajectories. The user then submits the nucleosynthesis calculation, which runs on a dedicated server professionally maintained at Clemson University. Once the calculation is completed, the user may explore the results through dynamically produced and downloadable tables and graphs. Online help guides the user through the necessary steps. We hope this web site will prove a user-friendly and helpful tool for professional scientists as well as for students seeking to explore element formation.

  14. Gravitino interactions from Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Engelund, Oluf Tang

    2010-05-15

    We fabricate gravitino vertex interactions, using as only input on-shell Yang-Mills amplitudes and the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye gauge theory/gravity relations, aiming to achieve a better understanding of Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorizations for gravitinos at an off-shell Lagrangian level. A useful by-product of this analysis is simpler tree-level Feynman rules for gravitino scattering than in traditional gauges. All results are explicitly verified until five-point scattering.

  15. Primordial Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coc, Alain

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is now a parameter free theory whose predictions are in good overall agreement with observations. However, the 7Li calculated abundance is significantly higher than the one deduced from spectroscopic observations. Most solutions to this lithium problem involve a source of extra neutrons that inevitably leads to an increase of the deuterium abundance. This seems now to be excluded by recent deuterium observations that have drastically reduced the uncertainty on D/H and also calls for improved precision on thermonuclear reaction rates.

  16. Dark matter gravitinos and baryons via Q-ball decay in the gauge-mediated MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk

    2013-07-01

    We show that late Q-ball decay in the MSSM with gauge-mediated SUSY breaking can provide a natural source of non-thermal NLSPs which subsequently decay to gravitino dark matter without violating nucleosynthesis constraints. To show this, we perform a global analysis of Q-ball formation and decay in Affleck-Dine baryogenesis for a d = 6 (u{sup c}d{sup c}d{sup c}){sup 2} flat direction of the gauge-mediated MSSM. A general phenomenological potential for the flat-direction is studied and the Q-ball decay properties are obtained as a function of its parameters. The corresponding gravitino mass necessary to account for dark matter is then determined for the case of stau NLSPs. The decay temperature depends on the charge of the Q-balls, which is determined by the fragmentation of the AD condensate. Different fragmentation scenarios are considered, and the final non-thermal NLSP density from Q-ball decay and NLSP annihilation is determined. Particular care is taken to establish that NLSPs from Q-ball decay become homogeneous and non-relativistic prior to annihilation. The gravitino mass necessary for dark matter is naturally consistent with the theoretical gravitino mass in the gauge-mediation model.

  17. Nonthermal gravitino production in tribrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik

    2015-10-01

    We investigate nonthermal gravitino production after tribrid inflation in supergravity, which is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation where three fields are involved in the inflationary model and where the inflaton field resides in the matter sector of the theory. In contrast to conventional supersymmetric hybrid inflation, where nonthermal gravitino production imposes severe constraints on the inflationary model, we find that the "nonthermal gravitino problem" is generically absent in models of tribrid inflation, mainly due to two effects: (i) With the inflaton in tribrid inflation (after inflation) being lighter than the waterfall field, the latter has a second decay channel with a much larger rate than for the decay into gravitinos. This reduces the branching ratio for the decay of the waterfall field into gravitinos. (ii) The inflaton generically decays later than the waterfall field, and it does not produce gravitinos when it decays. This leads to a dilution of the gravitino population from the decays of the waterfall field. The combination of both effects generically leads to a strongly reduced gravitino production in tribrid inflation.

  18. Nonthermal gravitino production after large field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the nonthermal gravitino production at the (p)reheating stage after inflation. Particular attention is paid to large field inflation models with a ℤ 2 symmetry, for which the previous perturbative analysis is inapplicable; and inflation models with a stabilizer superfield, which have not been studied non-perturbatively. It is found that in single-superfield inflation models (without the stabilizer field), nonthermal production of the transverse gravitino can be cosmologically problematic while the abundance of the lon-gitudinal gravitino is small enough. In multi-superfield inflation models (with the stabilizer field), production of the transverse and longitudinal gravitinos is significantly suppressed, and they are cosmologically harmless. We also clarify the relation between the background field method used in the preheating context and the standard perturbative decay method to estimate the gravitino abundance.

  19. Dynamical matter-parity breaking and gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jonas; Weniger, Christoph; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-11-15

    Scenarios where gravitinos with GeV masses makeup dark matter are known to be in tension with high reheating temperatures, as required by e.g. thermal leptogenesis. This tension comes from the longevity of the NLSPs (next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle), which can destroy the successful predictions of the standard primordial nucleosynthesis. However, a small violation of matter parity can open new decay channels for the NLSP, avoiding the BBN (standard primordial nucleosynthesis) problems, while being compatible with experimental cosmic-ray constraints. In this paper, we propose a model where matter parity, which we assume to be embedded in the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, is broken dynamically in a hidden sector at low-scales. This can naturally explain the smallness of the matter parity breaking in the visible sector. We discuss the dynamics of the corresponding pseudo Nambu-Goldstone modes of B-L breaking in the hidden sector, and we comment on typical cosmic-ray and collider signatures in our model.

  20. Primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavino, C.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Trezzi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of light nuclei in the early phases of the Universe. For this, precise knowledge of the cosmological parameters, such as the baryon density, as well as the cross section of the fusion reactions involved are needed. In general, the energies of interest for BBN are so low ( E < 1MeV) that nuclear cross section measurements are practically unfeasible at the Earth's surface. As of today, LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been the only facility in the world available to perform direct measurements of small cross section in a very low background radiation. Owing to the background suppression provided by about 1400 meters of rock at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, and to the high current offered by the LUNA accelerator, it has been possible to investigate cross sections at energies of interest for Big Bang nucleosynthesis using protons, 3He and alpha particles as projectiles. The main reaction studied in the past at LUNA is the 2H(4He, γ)6Li . Its cross section was measured directly, for the first time, in the BBN energy range. Other processes like 2H(p, γ)3He , 3He(2H, p)4He and 3He(4He, γ)7Be were also studied at LUNA, thus enabling to reduce the uncertainty on the overall reaction rate and consequently on the determination of primordial abundances. The improvements on BBN due to the LUNA experimental data will be discussed and a perspective of future measurements will be outlined.

  1. Post-inflationary gravitino production revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Peloso, Marco E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu

    2016-03-01

    We revisit gravitino production following inflation. As a first step, we review the standard calculation of gravitino production in the thermal plasma formed at the end of post-inflationary reheating when the inflaton has completely decayed. Next we consider gravitino production prior to the completion of reheating, assuming that the inflaton decay products thermalize instantaneously while they are still dilute. We then argue that instantaneous thermalization is in general a good approximation, and also show that the contribution of non-thermal gravitino production via the collisions of inflaton decay products prior to thermalization is relatively small. Our final estimate of the gravitino-to-entropy ratio is approximated well by a standard calculation of gravitino production in the post-inflationary thermal plasma assuming total instantaneous decay and thermalization at a time t ≅ 1.2/Γ{sub φ}. Finally, in light of our calculations, we consider potential implications of upper limits on the gravitino abundance for models of inflation, with particular attention to scenarios for inflaton decays in supersymmetric Starobinsky-like models.

  2. Inflaton Decay in Supergravity and Gravitino Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2007-11-20

    We have recently shown that, if the inflaton has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, it generically couples to any matter fields that appear in the superpotential at the tree level, and to any gauge sectors through anomalies in the supergravity. Through these processes, the inflaton generically decays into the supersymmetry breaking sector, producing many gravitinos. The inflaton also directly decays into a pair of the gravitinos. Taking account of these processes, we derive constraints on both inflation models and supersymmetry breaking scenarios for avoiding overproduction of the gravitinos.

  3. Gravitino problem in f (R) cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiase, G.

    2016-09-01

    The gravitino problem is investigated in the framework of f ( R) cosmology. Since in f ( R) cosmology the expansion laws of the Universe are modified, as compared to the standard cosmology, it follows that also the thermal history of particles gets modified. We show that f ( R) models allow to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, we found that for an appropriate choice of the parameters characterizing the f ( R) model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be independent of the reheating temperature.

  4. Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2002-04-01

    We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Kač-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->∞. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

  5. Primordial nucleosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, David N.

    1998-01-01

    With the advent of the new extragalactic deuterium observations, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is on the verge of undergoing a transformation. In the past, the emphasis has been on demonstrating the concordance of the BBN model with the abundances of the light isotopes extrapolated back to their primordial values by using stellar and galactic evolution theories. As a direct measure of primordial deuterium is converged upon, the nature of the field will shift to using the much more precise primordial D/H to constrain the more flexible stellar and galactic evolution models (although the question of potential systematic error in 4He abundance determinations remains open). The remarkable success of the theory to date in establishing the concordance has led to the very robust conclusion of BBN regarding the baryon density. This robustness remains even through major model variations such as an assumed first-order quark-hadron phase transition. The BBN constraints on the cosmological baryon density are reviewed and demonstrate that the bulk of the baryons are dark and also that the bulk of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic. Comparison of baryonic density arguments from Lyman-α clouds, x-ray gas in clusters, and the microwave anisotropy are made. PMID:9419322

  6. Primordial nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schramm, D N

    1998-01-06

    With the advent of the new extragalactic deuterium observations, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is on the verge of undergoing a transformation. In the past, the emphasis has been on demonstrating the concordance of the BBN model with the abundances of the light isotopes extrapolated back to their primordial values by using stellar and galactic evolution theories. As a direct measure of primordial deuterium is converged upon, the nature of the field will shift to using the much more precise primordial D/H to constrain the more flexible stellar and galactic evolution models (although the question of potential systematic error in 4He abundance determinations remains open). The remarkable success of the theory to date in establishing the concordance has led to the very robust conclusion of BBN regarding the baryon density. This robustness remains even through major model variations such as an assumed first-order quark-hadron phase transition. The BBN constraints on the cosmological baryon density are reviewed and demonstrate that the bulk of the baryons are dark and also that the bulk of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic. Comparison of baryonic density arguments from Lyman-alpha clouds, x-ray gas in clusters, and the microwave anisotropy are made.

  7. Revisiting gravitino dark matter in thermal leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Suzuki, Motoo; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we revisit the gravitino dark matter scenario in the presence of the bilinear R-parity violating interaction. In particular, we discuss a consistency with the thermal leptogenesis. For a high reheating temperature required for the thermal leptogenesis, the gravitino dark matter tends to be overproduced, which puts a severe upper limit on the gluino mass. As we will show, a large portion of parameter space of the gravitino dark matter scenario has been excluded by combining the constraints from the gravitino abundance and the null results of the searches for the superparticles at the LHC experiments. In particular, the models with the stau (and other charged slepton) NLSP has been almost excluded by the searches for the long-lived charged particles at the LHC unless the required reheating temperature is somewhat lowered by assuming, for example, a degenerated right-handed neutrino mass spectrum.

  8. LHC constraints on gravitino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Battaglia, Marco; Covi, Laura; Hasenkamp, Jasper; Mahmoudi, Farvah

    2015-12-01

    Gravitino dark matter (DM) represents a compelling scenario in supersymmetry (SUSY), which brings together a variety of data from cosmology and collider physics. We discuss the constraints obtained from the LHC on supersymmetric models with gravitino dark matter and the neutralino next-to-lightest SUSY particle, which is the case most difficult to disentangle at colliders from a neutralino lightest SUSY particle forming DM. The phenomenological SUSY model with 19 +1 free parameters is adopted. Results are obtained from broad scans of the phase space of these uncorrelated parameters. The relation between gravitino mass, gluino mass and reheating temperature as well as the derived constraints on these parameters are discussed in detail. This relation offers a unique opportunity to place stringent bounds on the cosmological model, within the gravitino dark matter scenario, from the results of the LHC searches in run-2 and the planned high-luminosity upgrade.

  9. Saxion cosmology for thermalized gravitino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    In all supersymmetric theories, gravitinos, with mass suppressed by the Planck scale, are an obvious candidate for dark matter; but if gravitinos ever reached thermal equilibrium, such dark matter is apparently either too abundant or too hot, and is excluded. However, in theories with an axion, a saxion condensate is generated during an early era of cosmological history and its late decay dilutes dark matter. We show that such dilution allows previously thermalized gravitinos to account for the observed dark matter over very wide ranges of gravitino mass, keV < m 3/2 < TeV, axion decay constant, 109 GeV < f a < 1016 GeV, and saxion mass, 10 MeV < m s < 100 TeV. Constraints on this parameter space are studied from BBN, supersymmetry breaking, gravitino and axino production from freeze-in and saxion decay, and from axion production from both misalignment and parametric resonance mechanisms. Large allowed regions of ( m 3/2, f a , m s ) remain, but differ for DFSZ and KSVZ theories. Superpartner production at colliders may lead to events with displaced vertices and kinks, and may contain saxions decaying to ( WW, ZZ, hh), gg, γγ or a pair of Standard Model fermions. Freeze-in may lead to a sub-dominant warm component of gravitino dark matter, and saxion decay to axions may lead to dark radiation.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Claudia, Travaglio; Hix, William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    We review our understanding of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in thermonuclear supernovae and their contribution to Galactic Chemical evolution. We discuss the prospects to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis within simulations of these events.

  11. Mirage in the sky: Nonthermal dark matter, gravitino problem, and cosmic ray anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver; Leblond, Louis

    2009-08-01

    Recent anomalies in cosmic rays could be due to dark matter annihilation in our galaxy. In order to get the required large cross section to explain the data while still obtaining the right relic density, we rely on a nonstandard thermal history between dark matter freeze out and big-bang nucleosynthesis. We show that through a reheating phase from the decay of a heavy moduli or even the gravitino, we can produce the right relic density of dark matter if its self-annihilation cross section is large enough. In addition to fitting the recent data, this scenario solves the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems. We illustrate this mechanism with a specific example in the context of U(1){sub B-L} extended minimal supersymmetric standard model where supersymmetry is broken via mirage mediation. These string motivated models naturally contain heavy moduli decaying to the gravitino, whose subsequent decay to the LSP can reheat the Universe at a low temperature. The right-handed sneutrino and the B-L gaugino can both be viable dark matter candidates with a large cross section. They are leptophilic because of B-L charges. We also show that it is possible to distinguish the nonthermal from the thermal scenario (using Sommerfeld enhancement) in direct detection experiments for certain regions of parameter space.

  12. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements (H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate He-4 (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce H-2 and He-3. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that He-4 is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars.

  13. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements (H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate He-4 (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce H-2 and He-3. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that He-4 is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars.

  14. Gravitino decays and the cosmological lithium problem in light of the LHC Higgs and supersymmetry searches

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: John.Ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@inp.demokritos.gr

    2013-05-01

    We studied previously the impact on light-element abundances of gravitinos decaying during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We found regions of the gravitino mass m{sub 3/2} and abundance ζ{sub 3/2} plane where its decays could reconcile the calculated abundance of {sup 7}Li with observation without perturbing the other light-element abundances unacceptably. Here we revisit this issue in light of LHC measurements of the Higgs mass and constraints on supersymmetric model parameters, as well as updates in the astrophysical measurements of light-element abundances. In addition to the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with universal soft supersymmetry-breaking masses at the GUT scale (the CMSSM) studied previously, we also study models with universality imposed below the GUT scale and models with non-universal Higgs masses (NUHM1). We calculate the total likelihood function for the light-element abundances, taking into account the observational uncertainties. We find that gravitino decays provide a robust solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem along strips in the (m{sub 3/2},ζ{sub 3/2}) plane along which the abundances of deuterium, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li may be fit with χ{sup 2}{sub min}∼<3, compared with χ{sup 2} ∼ 34 if the effects of gravitino decays are unimportant. The minimum of the likelihood function is reduced to χ{sup 2} < 2 when the uncertainty on D/H is relaxed and < 1 when the lithium abundance is taken from globular cluster data.

  15. Nuclear reaction uncertainties, massive gravitino decays and the cosmological lithium problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@physics.umn.edu

    2010-10-01

    We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of unstable particles during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in these reactions and in the resulting light-element abundances. These results also indicate the key nuclear processes for which improved cross section data would allow different light-element abundances to be determined more accurately, thereby making possible more precise probes of BBN and evaluations of the cosmological constraints on unstable particles. Applying this analysis to models with unstable gravitinos decaying into neutralinos, we calculate the likelihood function for the light-element abundances measured currently, taking into account the current experimental errors in the determinations of the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We find a region of the gravitino mass and abundance in which the abundances of deuterium, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li may be fit with χ{sup 2} = 5.5, compared with χ{sup 2} = 31.7 if the effects of gravitino decays are unimportant. The best-fit solution is improved to χ{sup 2} ∼ 2.0 when the lithium abundance is taken from globular cluster data. Some such re-evaluation of the observed light-element abundances and/or nuclear reaction rates would be needed if this region of gravitino parameters is to provide a complete solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem.

  16. Case for an EeV Gravitino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the possibility that supersymmetry is broken above the inflationary mass scale and that the only "low" energy remnant of supersymmetry is the gravitino with a mass of the order of the EeV scale. The gravitino in this class of models becomes a candidate for the dark matter of the Universe. To avoid the overproduction of gravitinos from the decays of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle we argue that the supersymmetric spectrum must lie above the inflationary mass scale (MSUSY>10-5MP˜1 013 GeV ). Since m3 /2≃MSUSY2/MP , we expect m3 /2≳0.2 EeV . Cosmological constraints then predict a relatively large reheating temperature between 1 010 and 1 012 GeV .

  17. Gravitino Warm Dark Matter with Entropy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2001-08-09

    Gravitinos with a mass in the keV range are an interesting candidate for warm dark matter. Recent measurements of the matter density of the universe and of cosmic structures at the dwarf galaxy scale rule out the simplest gravitino models with thermal freeze-out. We construct a model where the decay of the messenger particles that transmit the supersymmetry breaking to the observable sector generates the required entropy to dilute the gravitino relic density by the required factor of a few to come in line with observations. The model is natural, and requires only that the coupling of the messenger sector to the standard model be set so that the decay happens at the appropriate time.

  18. Antideuterons from decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael

    2015-07-08

    We study the possibility of improving the constraints on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear R-parity violation by estimating the amount of cosmic-ray antideuterons that can be produced in gravitino decays. Taking into account all different sources of theoretical uncertainties, we find that the margin of improvement beyond the limits already set by cosmic-ray antiproton data are quite narrow and unachievable for the next generation of experiments. However, we also identify more promising energy ranges for future experiments.

  19. Antideuterons from decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael E-mail: michael.grefe@desy.de

    2015-07-01

    We study the possibility of improving the constraints on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear R-parity violation by estimating the amount of cosmic-ray antideuterons that can be produced in gravitino decays. Taking into account all different sources of theoretical uncertainties, we find that the margin of improvement beyond the limits already set by cosmic-ray antiproton data are quite narrow and unachievable for the next generation of experiments. However, we also identify more promising energy ranges for future experiments.

  20. Photoneutron Reactions in Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    Photoneutron reactions are discussed in the context of nucleosynthesis with emphasis on a unified understanding of (γ, n) and (n, γ) reactions for heavy nuclei through the γ-ray strength function and a revisit to explosive nucleosynthesis of 9Be through the reciprocity theorem. The role of photonuclear reactions in nucleosynthesis is supplemented by the photonuclear data project (IAEA-CRP F42032) and will be strengthened in the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in the future.

  1. Antiproton limits on decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael E-mail: michael.grefe@uam.es

    2013-12-01

    We derive 95 % CL lower limits on the lifetime of decaying dark matter in the channels Zν, Wℓ and hν using measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by the PAMELA experiment. Performing a scan over the allowed range of cosmic-ray propagation parameters we find lifetime limits in the range of 8 × 10{sup 28} s to 5 × 10{sup 25} s for dark matter masses from roughly 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We apply these limits to the well-motivated case of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear violation of R-parity and find a similar range of lifetime limits for the same range of gravitino masses. Converting the lifetime limits to constraints on the size of the R-parity violating coupling we find upper limits in the range of 10{sup −8} to 8 × 10{sup −13}.

  2. Gamma-ray spectrum from gravitino dark matter decay.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David

    2008-02-15

    Gravitinos are very promising candidates for the cold dark matter of the Universe. Interestingly, to achieve a sufficiently long gravitino lifetime, R parity conservation is not required, thus preventing any dangerous cosmological influence of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. When R parity is violated, gravitinos decay into photons and other particles with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, producing a diffuse gamma-ray flux with a characteristic spectrum that could be measured in future experiments, such as GLAST or AMS-02. In this Letter we compute the energy spectrum of photons from gravitino decay and discuss its main qualitative features.

  3. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, condensate fragmentation and gravitino dark matter in gauge-mediation with a large messenger mass

    SciTech Connect

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk

    2011-06-01

    We study the conditions for successful Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and the origin of gravitino dark matter in GMSB models. AD baryogenesis in GMSB models is ruled out by neutron star stability unless Q-balls are unstable and decay before nucleosynthesis. Unstable Q-balls can form if the messenger mass scale is larger than the flat-direction field Φ when the condensate fragments. We provide an example based on AD baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction for the case where m{sub 3/2} ≈ 2GeV, as predicted by gravitino dark matter from Q-ball decay. Using a phenomenological GMSB potential which models the Φ dependence of the SUSY breaking terms, we numerically solve for the evolution of Φ and show that the messenger mass can be sufficiently close to the flat-direction field when the condensate fragments. We compute the corresponding reheating temperature and the baryonic charge of the condensate fragments and show that the charge is large enough to produce late-decaying Q-balls which can be the origin of gravitino dark matter.

  4. Supernovae, neutrinos, and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are the violent explosions at the end of the life of massive stars (≳ 8 - 10 M⊙). In these explosions a wide range of elements are synthesized and ejected: low-mass elements (O and Mg) from the hydrostatic evolution, intermediate-mass elements and Fe-group elements from explosive nucleosynthesis, and elements heavier than iron from the νp-process and potentially an r-process. However, supernova nucleosynthesis predictions are hampered by the not yet fully understood supernova explosion mechanism. In addition, recent progress in observational astronomy paints a fascinating picture for the origin of heavy elements, which is more complicated than the traditional s-, r-, and γ-processes. In this paper, we summarize the status of core-collapse supernova nucleosynthesis.

  5. Neutrino Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio; Chiba, Satoshi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2009-05-04

    Neutrino nucleosynthesis is an important synthesis process for light elements in supernovae. One important physics input of neutrino nucleosynthesis is cross sections of neutrino-nucleus reactions. The cross sections of neutrino-{sup 12}C and {sup 4}He reactions are derived using new shell model Hamiltonians. With the new cross sections, light element synthesis of a supernova is investigated. The appropriate range of the neutrino temperature for supernovae is constrained to be between 4.3 MeV and 6.5 MeV from the {sup 11}B abundance in Galactic chemical evolution. Effects by neutrino oscillations are also discussed.

  6. Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2011-05-06

    Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

  7. Stellar duplicity and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, Rob

    2014-09-01

    Half or more of all stars more massive than our Sun are orbited by one (or more) companion stars. Many companions are close enough that the evolution of both stars is greatly altered by the transfer of mass and angular momentum from one star to the other. Such mass transfer is highly likely during the late stages of evolution, such as on the giant branches, which are quite coincidentally also when stars undergo interesting nucleosynthesis. Direct mass transfer truncates the (A)GB prematurely compared to single stars and the ensuing stellar envelope is ejected perhaps to form a (chemically peculiar?) planetary nebula. In wider binaries, where one star has captured material from a long-dead companion, we can probe the nucleosynthesis that happened in ancient stars as well as fundamental astrophysical phenomena like wind accretion and circumbinary disc formation. I will focus on recent quantitative work on nucleosynthesis in mass-transfer systems, such as carbon-enhanced metal-poor and barium stars, and highlight some of the key open questions - and opportunities - that will dominate the next decade of duplicitous nucleosynthesis.

  8. Cosmological scenario of the stop as the next lightest supersymmetric particle with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle, and the cosmic lithium problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Santoso, Yudi

    2009-02-15

    The discrepancy on {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li abundances between the observational data and the standard big-bang nucleosynthesis theory prediction has been a nagging problem in astrophysics and cosmology, given the highly attractive and successful big-bang paradigm. One possible solution of this lithium problem is through hadronic decays of a massive metastable particle which alter the primordial element abundances. We explore this possibility using a gravitino dark matter framework in which the next lightest supersymmetric particle is typically long-lived. We found that the stop as the next lightest supersymmetric particle may provide an attractive solution to the lithium problem.

  9. Gauge mediation in supergravity and gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-03-01

    Gravitinos and hidden sector fields often cause a cosmological disaster in supersymmetric models. We find that a model with gravitational gauge mediation solves such a problem quite naturally. The {mu}-problem is also absent in the model. Moreover, the abundance of gravitinos explains correct amount of dark matter of the universe. The dark matter abundance can be calculated without detailed information on the thermal history of the universe such as the reheating temperature after inflation.

  10. Retrofitted gravity mediation without the gravitino-overproduction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Motoi; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T. T.

    2007-10-15

    We propose a retrofitted gravity-mediation model which alleviates the gravitino overproduction from decays of an inflaton and a supersymmetry breaking field. In the model, we introduce an approximate U(1) symmetry under which the supersymmetry breaking field is charged, although it is broken by a mass term of messenger fields to generate gaugino masses of order the weak scale. In a low-scale inflation model, we find regions in which the gravitino-overproduction problem is avoided.

  11. Sequestering the Gravitino: Neutralino Dark Matter in Gauge Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Green, Daniel; /SLAC /Stanford U., Dept. Phys.

    2008-08-15

    In conventional models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is invariably the gravitino. However, if the supersymmetry breaking sector is strongly coupled, conformal sequestering may raise the mass of the gravitino relative to the remaining soft supersymmetry-breaking masses. In this letter, we demonstrate that such conformal dynamics in gauge-mediated theories may give rise to satisfactory neutralino dark matter while simultaneously solving the flavor and {mu}/B{mu} problems.

  12. Gauge Mediation in Supergravity and Gravitino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2006-12-01

    Gravitinos and hidden sector fields often cause a cosmological disaster in supersymmetric models. We find that a model with gravitational gauge mediation solves such a problem quite naturally. The {mu}-problem is also absent in the model. Moreover, the abundance of gravitinos explains correct amount of dark matter of the universe. The dark matter abundance can be calculated without detailed information on the thermal history of the universe such as the reheating temperature after inflation.

  13. Sequestering the gravitino: Neutralino dark matter in gauge mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Green, Daniel

    2009-03-15

    In conventional models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the lightest supersymmetric particle is invariably the gravitino. However, if the supersymmetry-breaking sector is strongly coupled, conformal sequestering may raise the mass of the gravitino relative to the remaining soft supersymmetry-breaking masses. In this paper, we demonstrate that such conformal dynamics in gauge-mediated theories may give rise to satisfactory neutralino dark matter while simultaneously solving the flavor and {mu}/B{mu} problems.

  14. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  15. The Nucleosynthesis of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, James

    2007-04-01

    The large cosmic abundance of Helium - second only to Hydrogen - is a testament to the importance of its formation in the cosmos. Both Helium-3 and Helium-4 emerge from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in considerable quantities, the synthesis of the isotopes are links in the pp chain and other stellar nucleosynthesis processes, and they are also created during the initial stages of the r-process. The importance of Helium formation in these settings provides us with valuable information upon the environments in which it occurs. We survey the role of the synthesis of Helium in nuclear astrophysics, how its manufacture is affected by many diverse factors, and what we have learnt from observations of Helium abundances.

  16. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takayoshi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Iwamoto, Koichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Hix, W. Raphael; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2001-07-01

    We examine the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ``hypernovae,'' i.e., supernovae with very large explosion energies (>~1052 ergs). We carry out detailed nucleosynthesis calculations for these energetic explosions and compare the yields with those of ordinary core-collapse supernovae. We find that both complete and incomplete Si-burning takes place over more extended, lower density regions, so that the α-rich freezeout is enhanced and produces more Ti in comparison with ordinary supernova nucleosynthesis. In addition, oxygen and carbon burning takes place in more extended, lower density regions than in ordinary supernovae. Therefore, the fuel elements O, C, and Al are less abundant, while a larger amount of Si, S, Ar, and Ca (``Si'') are synthesized by oxygen burning; this leads to larger ratios of ``Si''/O in the ejecta. Enhancement of the mass ratio between complete and incomplete Si-burning regions in the ejecta may explain the abundance ratios among iron-peak elements in metal-poor stars. Also the enhanced ``Si''/O ratio may explain the abundance ratios observed in star burst galaxies. We also discuss other implications of enhanced [Ti/Fe] and [Fe/O] for Galactic chemical evolution and the abundances of low-mass black hole binaries.

  17. New Q-ball solutions in gauge-mediation, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk

    2012-06-01

    Affleck-Dine (AD) baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction in gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (GMSB) models can produce unstable Q-balls which naturally have field strength similar to the messenger scale. In this case a new kind of Q-ball is formed, intermediate between the gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated types. We study in detail these new Q-ball solutions, showing how their properties interpolate between standard gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated Q-balls as the AD field becomes larger than the messenger scale. It is shown that E/Q for the Q-balls can be greater than the nucleon mass but less than the MSSM-LSP mass, leading to Q-ball decay primarily to Standard Model fermions. More significantly, if E/Q is greater than the MSSM-LSP mass, decaying Q-balls can provide a natural source of non-thermal MSSM-LSPs, which can subsequently decay to gravitino dark matter without violating nucleosynthesis constraints. The model therefore provides a minimal scenario for baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter in the gauge-mediated MSSM, requiring no new fields.

  18. Non-thermal Higgsino dark matter, heavy gravitino and 125 GeV Higgs boson in modulus/anomaly-mediated supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver

    2012-11-01

    If the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is Higgsino-like, the thermal relic density is lower than the observed dark matter content for a LSP mass in the sub-TeV region. We outline constraints arising from the Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope data and LSP production from gravitino decay that must be satisfied by a successful nonthermal Higgsino scenario. We show that in a generic class of models where anomaly- and modulus-mediated contributions to supersymmetry breaking are of comparable size, Higgsino arises as the only viable sub-TeV dark matter candidate if gravitinos are heavy enough to decay before the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis. The correct relic density can be obtained via modulus decay in these models. As an explicit example, we consider a modulus sector in effective field theory (D=4, N=1 supergravitiy arising from type IIB Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi compactification). Within this class of mirage mediation models, heaviness of the gravitino forces a sub-TeV Higgsino LSP and gives a Higgs mass around 125 GeV. In this example, the constraints from direct detection experiments are also satisfied.

  19. Primordial nucleosynthesis redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Terry P.; Steigman, Gary; Kang, Ho-Shik; Schramm, David M.; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-01-01

    The abundances of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7, are presently recalculated within the framework of primordial nucleosynthesis in the standard hot big band model, in order to estimate the primordial abundances of the light elements. A comparison between theory and experiment demonstrates the consistency of standard model predictions; the baryon density parameter is constrained on the basis of a nucleon-to-photon ratio of 2.8-4.0. These bounds imply that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are dark, requiring that the universe be dominated by nonbaryonic matter.

  20. Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiener, Juergen

    2010-03-01

    The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  1. Diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background as a probe of cosmological gravitino regeneration and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, K.A.; Silk, J.

    1985-11-18

    We predict the presence of a spectral feature in the isotropic cosmic gamma-ray background associated with gravitino decays at high red shifts. With a gravitino abundance that falls in the relatively narrow range expected for thermally regenerated gravitinos following an inflationary epoc in the very early universe, gravitinos of mass several gigaelectronvolts are found to yield an appreciable flux of 1--10-MeV diffuse gamma rays.

  2. Moduli mediation without moduli-induced gravitino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Akane; Otsuka, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    We study the moduli-induced gravitino problem within the framework of the phenomenologically attractive mirage mediations. The huge amount of gravitino generated by the moduli decay can be successfully diluted by introducing an extra light modulus field which does not induce the supersymmetry breaking. Since the lifetime of extra modulus field becomes longer than usually considered modulus field, our proposed mechanism is applied to both the low- and high-scale supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We also point out that such an extra modulus field appears in the flux compactification of type II string theory.

  3. Gravitino decay and the cosmic gamma-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) spectrum does not exhibit evidence for the decay of light gravitinos, in contradiction to the suggestion by Olive and Silk (1985), who observed a bump near 1 MeV in the CGB radiation spectrum. It is suggested that better fits to the CGB spectrum would be provided by mechanisms generating a power-law spectrum which is flattened below about 2 MeV. Olive and Silk maintain that the decays of a long-lived particle such as the gravitino may be responsible for features in the gamma-ray spectrum near 1 MeV.

  4. Gravitino decay and the cosmic gamma-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) spectrum does not exhibit evidence for the decay of light gravitinos, in contradiction to the suggestion by Olive and Silk (1985), who observed a bump near 1 MeV in the CGB radiation spectrum. It is suggested that better fits to the CGB spectrum would be provided by mechanisms generating a power-law spectrum which is flattened below about 2 MeV. Olive and Silk maintain that the decays of a long-lived particle such as the gravitino may be responsible for features in the gamma-ray spectrum near 1 MeV.

  5. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Sam

    2016-12-01

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  6. Gravitino dark matter in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Moultaka, Gilbert; Lemoine, Martin

    2006-02-15

    This paper investigates the parameter space of theories with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking leading to gravitino (cold) dark matter with mass m{sub 3/2}{approx}1 keV{yields}10 MeV. We pay particular attention to the cosmological role of messenger fields. Cosmology requires that these messengers decay to the visible sector if the lightest messenger mass M{sub X} > or approx. 30 TeV. We then examine the various possible messenger number violating interactions allowed by the symmetries of the theory and by phenomenology. Late messenger decay generally results in entropy production hence in the dilution of preexisting gravitinos. We find that in SU(5) grand unification only specific messenger-matter couplings allow to produce the required amount of gravitino dark matter particles. Gravitino dark matter with the correct abundance is, however, expected in larger gauge groups such as SO(10) for generic nonrenormalizable messenger-matter interactions and for arbitrarily high post-inflationary reheating temperatures.

  7. Nucleosynthesis Without a Beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, G. R.

    2006-08-01

    This is probably the only paper given in this joint discussion in which it is not assumed that there was an initial state of the universe in which the lightest isotopes ^2D, ^3He, ^4He and ^7Li were synthesized. But as has been shown elsewhere, there is no basic theory behind this idea, and there are good observational arguments which suggest that all of the isotopes were made in stellar nucleosynthesis events (Burbidge & Hoyle 1998; Hoyle, Burbidge and Narlikar 2000; Burbidge 2005). Hydrogen burning in stars must therefore have been responsible for all the helium, and stellar flares may have produced the deuterium. These ideas fit well into a cyclic universe model with a cycle time of about 20 billion years and a situation at minimum in the cycle so that the universe will not contract to densities which would lead to the total break-up of nuclei. Thus all of the observational evidence concerned with objects at high redshifts does not have to be force-fitted into models requiring that the first generations of stars do not contain helium, as is the case for the conventional picture tied to the big bang. Attempts should be made to interpret the observations of elements in objects at high redshifts using the cyclic (quasi-steady state) cosmological model. Ways in which this can be done will be discussed. REFERENCES Burbidge, G. and Hoyle, F. The Origin of Helium and the Other Light Elements. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 509, L1-L3 (1998) and Proc. Conf. Nuclei in the Cosmos V. July 6-11, 1998 Hoyle, F., Burbidge, G., and Narlikar J.V., Book, A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang Towards Reality. (2000), Cambridge University Press, 357 pages. Burbidge, G., The Case Against Primordial Nucleosynthesis, Paper presented at IAU Symposium No. 228, May 23, 2005, From Lithium to Uranium: Elemental Tracers of Early Cosmic Evolution, Paris, France; Proceedings, Cambridge University Press, pps. 71-75, 2005

  8. Nucleosynthesis in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi

    Remarkable progress in our understanding of nova outbursts has been achieved through combined efforts in photometry, spectroscopy and numerical simulations. According to the thermonuclear runaway model, novae are powered by thermonuclear explosions in the H-rich envelopes transferred from a low-mass stellar companion onto a close white dwarf star. Extensive numerical simulations have shown that the accreted envelopes attain peak temperatures ranging between 100 and 400 MK, for about several hundred seconds, hence allowing extensive nuclear processing which eventually shows up in the form of nucleosynthetic fingerprints in the ejecta. Indeed, it has been claimed that novae can play a key role in the enrichment of the interstellar medium through a number of intermediate-mass elements. This includes 17O, 15N, and 13C, plus a smaller contribution in a number of other species (A < 40), such as 7Li, 19F, or 26Al. At the turn of the XXI Century, classical novae entered the era of multidimensional models, which provide new insights into the physical mechanisms that drive mixing at the core-envelope interface. In this paper, we will present an overview on classical nova models, from the onset of accretion up to the explosion and ejection stages, with special emphasis on their gross observational properties and their associated nucleosynthesis. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the final yields will be discussed.

  9. The Effects of Supersymmetric Particle Decays and Annihilations on Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Feng

    Many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics predict the existence of massive unstable or metastable particles. If the Standard Model secondaries induced by the decays of these particles have not been thermalized by the background cosmic plasma before the start of Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), the decay showers may alter the primordial abundances of the light elements through non-thermal electromagnetic and hadronic interactions with the background nuclei. The concordance of the BBN predictions and observations can thus constrain the abundance, lifetime and decay spectra of the decaying particle. On the other hand, the decays of heavy particles may help drive the concordance in a favorable direction. In particular, depending on the analysis of the observational data adopted, there is a factor of 2 - 4, or 4 - 5σ discrepancy between the predicted and observationally inferred primordial 7Li abundance, and this is known as the '7Li problem'. We study the effects on the light-element abundances of the decays of massive gravitinos in neutralino dark matter scenarios within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM). When the 7Li constraint is disregarded, for discrete choice of the gravitino mass, we present upper limits on the gravitino abundance for CMSSM parameters along the WMAP strips where the lightest neutralino provides all of the cold dark matter. For some CMSSM benchmark points, we explore the possibility of the effects of the decays of gravitinos as a solution to the 7Li problem, and we find a narrow range for the gravitino mass and abundance where the 7Li problem is alleviated or even marginally solved. We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of massive particles during or after BBN. We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in

  10. Superstring one-loop and gravitino contributions to planckian scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Alessandro; Ademollo, Marco; Ciafaloni, Marcello

    1993-03-01

    Corrections to the semiclassical approximation in nearly forward planckian energy collisions are reconsidered. Starting from the one-loop superstring amplitude, we are able to disentangle the first subleading high-energy contribution at large impact parameters, and we thus directly compute the one-loop correction to the superstring eikonal. By comparing this result with previous ones by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano (ACV) for pure gravity, we identify one-loop gravitino contributions which agree with previous results by Lipatov. We finally argue, on the basis of analyticity and unitarity, that gravitinos do not contribute at all the large-distance two-loop ACV correction, which thus acquires a universal "classical" interpretation.

  11. Gravitino LSP and leptogenesis after the first LHC results

    SciTech Connect

    Heisig, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios where the lightest superparticle (LSP) is the gravitino are an attractive alternative to the widely studied case of a neutralino LSP. A strong motivation for a gravitino LSP arises from the possibility of achieving higher reheating temperatures and thus potentially allow for thermal leptogenesis. The predictions for the primordial abundances of light elements in the presence of a late decaying next-to-LSP (NSLP) as well as the currently measured dark matter abundance allow us to probe the cosmological viability of such a scenario. Here we consider a gravitino-stau scenario. Utilizing a pMSSM scan we work out the implications of the 7 and 8 TeV LHC results as well as other experimental and theoretical constraints on the highest reheating temperatures that are cosmologically allowed. Our analysis shows that points with T{sub R}∼>10{sup 9} GeV survive only in a very particular corner of the SUSY parameter space. Those spectra feature a distinct signature at colliders that could be looked at in the upcoming LHC run.

  12. Gravitino dark matter and low-scale baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Covi, Laura; Nardecchia, Marco

    2015-12-01

    A very simple way to obtain comparable baryon and dark matter densities in the early Universe is through their contemporary production from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a mother particle, if both populations are suppressed by comparably small numbers, i.e., the C P violation in the decay and the branching fraction, respectively. We present a detailed study of this kind of scenario in the context of an R-parity violating realization of the minimal supersymmetric standard model in which the baryon asymmetry and the gravitino dark matter are produced by the decay of a Bino. A quantitative determination, in a realistic particle physics framework, of these two quantities is quite involving, due to the non trivial determination of the abundance of the decaying Bino, as well as due to the impact of wash-out processes and of additional sources both for the baryon asymmetry and the DM relic density. To achieve a quantitative determination of the baryon and dark matter abundances, we have implemented and solved a system of coupled Boltzmann equations for the particle species involved in their generation, including all the relevant processes. In the most simple, but still general, limit, in which the processes determining the abundance and the decay rate of the Bino are mediated by degenerate right-handed squarks, the correct values of the dark matter and baryon relic densities are achieved for a Bino mass between 50 and 100 TeV, Gluino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle mass in the range 15-60 TeV, and a gravitino mass between 100 GeV and few TeV. These high masses are unfortunately beyond the kinematical reach of the LHC. On the contrary, an antiproton signal from the decays of the gravitino lightest supersymmetric particle might be within the sensibility of AMS-02 and gamma-ray telescopes.

  13. Gravitino/axino as decaying dark matter and cosmological tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    In supersymmetric axion models, if the gravitino or axino is the lightest SUSY particle (LSP), the other is often the next-to-LSP (NLSP). We investigate the cosmology of such a scenario and point out that the lifetime of the NLSP naturally becomes comparable to the present age of the universe in a viable parameter region. This is a well-motivated example of the so-called decaying dark matter model, which is recently considered as an extension of the ΛCDM model to relax some cosmological tensions.

  14. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  15. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  16. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  17. Gamma line radiation from supernovae. [nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Recent calculations of core collapse or massive stars result in explosive ejection of the mantle by a reflected shock. These hydrodynamic results are important for predictions of explosive nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray line emission from supernovae. Previous estimates, based on simple parameterized models or the nucleosynthesis in an average supernova, are compared with these latest results.

  18. Nuclear reactions for nucleosynthesis beyond Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    Many more nuclear transitions have to be known in the determination of stellar reactivities for trans-iron nucleosynthesis than for reactions of light nuclei. This requires different theoretical and experimental approaches. Some of the issues specific for trans-iron nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  19. PRINCIPLES OF STELLAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The fields of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis comprise one of the most vital and intriguing areas of modern sceintific research. The recent...which they are formed. This is the first text to present the basic physical principles of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis . The book provides a

  20. Search for a compressed supersymmetric spectrum with a light gravitino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Juhi; Konar, Partha; Mondal, Subhadeep; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Rai, Santosh Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Presence of the light gravitino as dark matter candidate in a supersymmetric (SUSY) model opens up interesting collider signatures consisting of one or more hard photons together with multiple jets and missing transverse energy from the cascade decay. We investigate such signals at the 13 TeV LHC in presence of compressed SUSY spectra, consistent with the Higgs mass as well as collider and dark matter constraints. We analyse and compare the discovery potential in different benchmark scenarios consisting of both compressed and uncompressed SUSY spectra, considering different levels of compression and intermediate decay modes. Our conclusion is that compressed spectra upto 2.5 TeV are likely to be probed even before the high luminosity run of LHC. Kinematic variables are also suggested, which offer distinction between compressed and uncompressed spectra yielding similar event rates for photons + multi-jets + [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.].

  1. Hawking radiation due to photon and gravitino tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2010-11-15

    Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method we investigate the tunneling of photon across the event horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole. The necessity of the gauge condition on the photon field, to derive the semiclassical Hawking temperature, is explicitly shown. Also, the tunneling of photon and gravitino beyond this semiclassical approximation are presented separately. Quantum corrections of the action for both cases are found to be proportional to the semiclassical contribution. Modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking area law are thereby obtained. Using this corrected temperature and Hawking's periodicity argument, the modified metric for the Schwarzschild black hole is given. This corrected version of the metric, up to h order is equivalent to the metric obtained by including one loop back reaction effect. Finally, the coefficient of the leading order correction of entropy is shown to be related to the trace anomaly.

  2. Gravitino thermal production revisited and a new cosmological scenario of gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Hiraku; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    We present a new scenario of gravitino dark matter which is compatible with the thermal leptogenesis. We confirm by an explicit calculation in supergravity that the relic abundance of thermally produced gravitino becomes insensitive to the reheating temperature once the temperature of the Universe exceeds the mass scale of the messenger fields. In such a situation, the correct baryon to dark matter ratio can be obtained by thermal leptogenesis when the reheating temperature after inflation is high enough. We demonstrate in a concrete model of gauge mediation that the correct abundance of gravitino and baryon asymmetry can be reproduced by considering the late-time entropy production from the decay of the SUSY-breaking pseudo-moduli field. The scenario is realized when the gravitino mass is 100 MeV ≲ m 3/2 ≲ 1 GeV, and the messenger mass scale is 106 GeV ≲ M mess ≲ 109 GeV.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in Massive Stars and Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Hoffman, R. D.; Timmes, F. X.; Weaver, T. A.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1997-02-01

    We briefly summarize some recent work on nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernovae. Here we explore: 1) the effect of including additional sources of nucleosynthesis besides massive stars into the mixture - especially classical novae and several varieties of Type Ia supernovae; 2) the sensitivity of the results to choices of theoretical nuclear reaction rates in the mass range 28 <= A <= 70; 3) nucleosynthesis above the iron group using a much larger reaction network; and 4) the sensitivity of these results to recent revisions in experimental reaction rates for isotopes A <= 28. For the recently revised rates, 17O is no longer a massive star product.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in Early Neutrino Driven Winds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Fisker, J; Pruet, J; Woosley, S; Janka, H; Buras, R

    2008-01-09

    Two recent issues related to nucleosynthesis in early proton-rich neutrino winds are investigated. In the first part we investigate the effect of nuclear physics uncertainties on the synthesis of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. Based on recent experimental results, we find that the proton rich winds of the model investigated here can not be the only source of the solar abundance of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. In the second part we investigate the nucleosynthesis from neutron rich bubbles and show that they do not contribute to the nucleosynthesis integrated over both neutron and proton-rich bubbles and proton-rich winds.

  5. Nucleosynthesis in Early Neutrino Driven Winds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.; Fisker, J. L.; Pruet, J.; Woosley, S. E.; Janka, H.-T.; Buras, R.

    2008-04-17

    Two recent issues realted to nucleosynthesis in early proton-rich neutrino winds are investigated. In the first part we investigate the effect of nuclear physics uncertainties on the synthesis of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. Based on recent experimental results, we find that the proton rich winds of the model investigated here can not be the only source of the solar abundance of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. In the second part we investigate the nucleosynthesis from neutron rich bubbles and show that they do not contribute to the nucleosynthesis integrated over both neutron and proton-rich bubbles and proton-rich winds.

  6. Convection, nucleosynthesis, and core collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazan, Grant; Arnett, David

    1994-01-01

    We use a piecewise parabolic method hydrodynamics code (PROMETHEUS) to study convective burning in two dimensions in an oxygen shell prior to core collapse. Significant mixing beyond convective boundaries determined by mixing-length theory brings fuel (C-12) into the convective regon, causing hot spots of nuclear burning. Plumes dominate the velocity structure. Finite perturbations arise in a region in which O-16 will be explosively burned to Ni-56 when the star explodes; the resulting instabilities and mixing are likely to distribute Ni-56 throughout the supernova envelope. Inhomogeneities in Y(sub e) may be large enough to affect core collapse and will affect explosive nucleosynthesis. The nature of convective burning is dramatically different from that assumed in one-dimensional simulations; quantitative estimates of nucleosynthetic yields, core masses, and the approach to core collapse will be affected.

  7. Conformal Gauge Mediation and Light Gravitino of Mass m_{3/2} < O(10) eV

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, M.; Nakayama, Y.; Yanagida, T.T.; /Tokyo U.

    2008-04-08

    We discuss a class of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with conformal invariance above the messenger mass scale (conformal gauge mediation). The spectrum of the supersymmetric particles including the gravitino is uniquely determined by the messenger mass. When the conformal fixed point is strongly interacting, it predicts a light gravitino of mass m{sub 3/2} < O(10) eV, which is attractive since such a light gravitino causes no problem in cosmology.

  8. New Results on Nucleosynthesis in Massive Stars; Nuclear Data Needs for Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Rauscher, T; Heger, A; Woosley, S

    2001-11-09

    We review the current status of the nuclear reaction rates needed to study nucleosynthesis in massive stars. Results for the calculated nucleosynthesis of all stable species from Hydrogen to Bismuth in a completely evolved 25 M{sub {circle_dot}} star of initial solar metallicity will be presented. Special emphasis will be paid to two particular reactions, {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O and {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n){sup 25}Mg, and their effect on the structure of the star and resultant nucleosynthesis. Both have been measured many times, but the present range of experimental uncertainty translates into remarkable sensitivity of the calculated nucleosynthesis.

  9. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, T.; Froehlich, C.

    2012-11-12

    Although the detailed conditions for explosive nucleosynthesis are derived from astrophysical modeling, nuclear physics determines fundamental patterns in abundance yields, not only for equilibrium processes. Focussing on the {nu}p- and the {gamma}-process, general nucleosynthesis features within the range of astrophysical models, but (mostly) independent of details in the modelling, are presented. Remaining uncertainties due to uncertain Q-values and reaction rates are discussed.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in O-Ne-Mg Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Janka, H; Muller, B

    2007-12-18

    We have studied detailed nucleosynthesis in the shocked surface layers of an oxygen-neon-magnesium core collapse supernova with an eye to determining whether the conditions are suitable for r-process nucleosynthesis. We find no such conditions in an unmodified model, but do find overproduction of N=50 nuclei (previously seen in early neutron-rich neutrino winds) in amounts that, if ejected, would pose serious problems for Galactic chemical evolution.

  11. Primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christel Johanna

    We study primordial nucleosynthesis abundance yields for assumed ranges of cosmological lepton numbers, sterile neutrino mass-squared differences and active-sterile vacuum mixing angles. We fix the baryon-to-photon ratio at the value derived from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and then calculate the deviation of the 2 H, 4 He, and 7 Li abundance yields from those expected in the zero lepton number(s), no-new-neutrino-physics case. We conclude that high precision (< 5% error) measurements of the primordial 2 H abundance from, e.g., QSO absorption line observations coupled with high precision (< 1% error) baryon density measurements from the CMB could have the power to either: (1) reveal or rule out the existence of a light sterile neutrino if the sign of the cosmological lepton number is known; or (2) place strong constraints on lepton numbers, sterile neutrino mixing properties and resonance sweep physics. Similar conclusions would hold if the primordial 4 He abundance could be determined to better than 10%. We have performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis calculations which employ arbitrarily-specified, time-dependent neutrino and antineutrino distribution functions for each of up to four neutrino flavors. We self-consistently couple these distributions to the thermodynamics, the expansion rate and scale factor-time/temperature relationship, as well as to all relevant weak, electromagnetic, and strong nuclear reaction processes in the early universe. With this approach, we can treat any scenario in which neutrino or antineutrino spectral distortion might arise. These scenarios might include, for example, decaying particles, active-sterile neutrino oscillations, and active-active neutrino oscillations in the presence of significant lepton numbers. Our calculations allow lepton numbers and sterile neutrinos to be constrained with observationally-determined primordial helium and deuterium abundances. We have modified a standard BBN code to perform these

  12. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ki-Young; Restrepo, Diego; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Zapata, Oscar E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*ν. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into γν and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  13. Mixed axion/gravitino dark matter from SUSY models with heavy axinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Chun, Eung Jin; Shin, Chang Sub

    2015-04-01

    We examine dark matter production rates in supersymmetric (SUSY) axion models typified by the mass hierarchy m3 /2≪m (neutralino)≪m (axino) . In such models, one expects the dark matter to be composed of an axion/gravitino admixture. After presenting motivation for how such a mass hierarchy might arise, we examine dark matter production in the SUSY Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov (KSVZ) model, the SUSY Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) model and a hybrid model containing contributions from both KSVZ and DFSZ. Gravitinos can be produced thermally and also nonthermally from axino, saxion or neutralino decay. We obtain upper bounds on TR due to overproduction of gravitinos including both the thermal and nonthermal processes. For TR near the upper bound, dark matter tends to be gravitino dominated, but for TR well below the upper bounds, axion domination is more typical although in many cases we find a comparable mixture of both axions and gravitinos. In this class of models, we ultimately expect detection of relic axions but no weakly interacting massive particle signal, although SUSY should ultimately be discovered at colliders.

  14. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  15. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  16. The moduli and gravitino (non)-problems in models with strongly stabilized moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A.; Garcia, Marcos A.G. E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu

    2014-03-01

    In gravity mediated models and in particular in models with strongly stabilized moduli, there is a natural hierarchy between gaugino masses, the gravitino mass and moduli masses: m{sub 1/2} << m{sub 3/2} << m{sub φ}. Given this hierarchy, we show that 1) moduli problems associated with excess entropy production from moduli decay and 2) problems associated with moduli/gravitino decays to neutralinos are non-existent. Placed in an inflationary context, we show that the amplitude of moduli oscillations are severely limited by strong stabilization. Moduli oscillations may then never come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, moduli decay to gravitinos and their subsequent decay to neutralinos need not overpopulate the cold dark matter density.

  17. Inflation, baryogenesis, and gravitino dark matter at ultralow reheat temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2009-11-15

    It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the Universe is extremely low close to the scale of big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. T{sub R}{approx}1-10 MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter, antimatter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the standard model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over antibaryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

  18. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.; Sparks, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10{sup 8}K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into {beta}{sup +}-unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M{sub {circle_dot}}, 1.25M{sub {circle_dot}}, and 1.35M{sub {circle_dot}} white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work.

  19. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.; Sparks, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10(sup 8)K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into (beta)(sup +)-unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M(sub (circle dot)), 1.25M(sub (circle dot)), and 1.35M(sub (circle dot)) white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce (sup 22)Na, (sup 26)Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work.

  20. Nucleosynthesis and the nova outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Wiescher, M.; Sparks, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and it can be considered as the largest hydrogen bomb in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by a secondary star in a close binary system while the strong degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts to contain the gas during the early stages of the explosion. The containment allows the temperature in the nuclear burning region to exceed 10(sup 8)K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into (beta)(sup +)-unstable nuclei. We discuss the effects of these nuclei on the evolution. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two compositional classes of novae; one which occurs on carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and a second class that occurs on oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs. In this review we will concentrate on the latter explosions since they produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. We report both on the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances and, in addition, new hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M(sub (circle dot)), 1.25M(sub (circle dot)), and 1.35M(sub (circle dot)) white dwarfs. Our results show that novae can produce (sup 22)Na, (sup 26)Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. We will present the results of new calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, which exhibit quantitative differences with respect to published work.

  1. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nν<3.2 . The new precision of the CMB and D/H observations together leaves D/H predictions as the largest source of uncertainties. Future improvement in BBN calculations will therefore rely on improved nuclear cross-section data. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  2. Models of AGB Stars and their Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of recursive thermonuclear runaways makes the computation of AGB evolutionary sequences and the related nucleosynthesis a challenging task for stellar modelers. In the last 20 years many efforts have been made to improve the physical description of the interiors of these stars. Nevertheless, the majority of the extant nucleosynthesis results are based on post-process calculations, in which the evolution of the nuclear network and that of the stellar structure are treated separately and, hence, decoupled. In this paper, we review the latest attempts made to obtain more reliable nucleosynthesis calculations based on the physical processes expected to be at work in AGB stars, such as the mixing induced by convection and rotation.

  3. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G. J.; Kusakabe, M.; Cheoun, M.-K.

    2014-05-09

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  4. Primordial nucleosynthesis and primoridal isocurvature baryon fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.T.; Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Jedamzik, K.

    1995-10-01

    Recently, there has been interest in inflation-generated cosmological primordial isocurvature baryon fluctuation (PIB) models as a means to account for the large scale clustering of galaxies. However, the extension of the isocurvature fluctuations contained in such models to the mass scales of nucleosynthesis would imply large stochastic fluctuations in baryon-to-photon ratio during the epoch of primordial nucleosynthesis. We discuss constraints on the spectral index and rms amplitude of such fluctuations based upon the computed light element abundances. Our calculations include nuclear reaction networks in up to 40,000 zones in which stockastic fluctuations are spatially resolved. The effects of baryon diffusion among the fluctuations are also explicitly coupled and followed during nucleosynthesis. We confirm that the fluctuations must be significantly damped compared to a straight-forward extension of the cosmological PIB models.

  5. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  6. Core-collapse supernovae and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1994-12-01

    I discuss some of the physics that governs the collapse and explosion of a massive star, including issues such as lepton number losses in the infall stage and neutrino heating and convection following the core bounce. I review recent work on the neutrino process and the r-process, describing how the nucleosynthesis depends on the explosion mechanism. Some of the interesting possibilities for oscillations of closure mass {nu}{sub {tau}}s are discussed, along with their signatures in terrestrial detectors and in nucleosynthesis.

  7. r-Process nucleosynthesis without excess neutrons.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bradley S

    2002-12-02

    Matter expanding sufficiently rapidly and at high enough entropy per nucleon can enter a heavy-element synthesis regime heretofore unexplored. In this extreme regime, more similar to nucleosynthesis in the early universe than to that typical in stellar explosive environments, there is a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and abundant alpha particles, which allows heavy r-process nucleus production even in matter with more protons than neutrons. This observation bears on the issue of the site of the r process, on the variability of abundance yields from r-process events, and on constraints on neutrino physics derived from nucleosynthesis.

  8. Fred Hoyle, primary nucleosynthesis and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    2008-10-01

    Primary nucleosynthesis is defined as that which occurs efficiently in stars born of only H and He. It is responsible not only for increasing the metallicity of the galaxy but also for the most abundant gamma-ray-line emitters. Astrophysicists have inappropriately cited early work in this regard. The heavily cited B2FH paper (Burbidge et al., 1957) did not effectively address primary nucleosynthesis whereas Hoyle (Hoyle, 1954) had done so quite thoroughly in his infrequently cited 1954 paper. Even B2FH with Hoyle as coauthor seems strangely to not have appreciated what Hoyle (Hoyle, 1954) had achieved. I speculate that Hoyle must not have thoroughly proofread the draft written in 1956 by E.M. and G.R. Burbidge. The clear roadmap of primary nucleosynthesis advanced in 1954 by Hoyle describes the synthesis yielding the most abundant of the radioactive isotopes for astronomy, although that aspect was unrealized at the time. Secondary nucleosynthesis has also produced many observable radioactive nuclei, including the first gamma-ray-line emitter to be discovered in the galaxy and several others within stardust grains. Primary gamma-ray emitters would have been even more detectable in the early galaxy, when the birth rate of massive stars was greater; but secondary emitters, such as 26Al, would have been produced with smaller yield then owing to smaller abundance of seed nuclei from which to create them.

  9. The Nucleosynthesis of TANTALUM-180.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Stephen Edward

    1987-09-01

    It has been proposed by Beer and Ward that the abundance of nature's rarest isotope, ^ {180}Ta, could be quantitatively accounted for in the standard stellar slow (s) and/or rapid (r) neutron -capture processes through the existence of small, previously unmeasured beta-branches which drain and feed the population of the t_{1/2 } = 5.5 hour isomer of ^{180 }Hf (BE81). We have conducted a series of experiments designed to measure these small beta -branches. We have: (1) measured the direct (isomer -to-isomer) 214-keV-endpoint beta branch from ^{180}Hf ^{rm m} to ^ {180}Ta^{rm m} to be f_beta = 0.30 +/- 0.07 +/- 0.07% (KE87), (2) observed a new gamma ray in the decay of ^{180}Hf ^{rm m} which indicated a small beta-branch of 0.023% to an excited state in ^{180}Ta (KE85), (3) established a stringent limit of 0.023% on the fraction f_{rm m} of ^{180}Lu decays which populate ^{180}Hf ^{rm m} (KE86), (4) sought to identify a possible high-spin, short-lived isomer of ^{180}Lu, and established upper limits on its possible half-life (LE86), (5) established limits on the ^{180}Ta ^{rm m} photodeexcitation cross-section via resonant and nonresonant processes (NO84a), and (6) calculated upper-limits on the life-time of ^{180}Ta^{ rm m} in a stellar environment. Taken together, this body of work makes it unlikely that the Beer and Ward model can account for the observed solar-system abundance of ^{180} Ta. Other possible production schemes are reviewed and directions for further research are suggested.

  10. Primary nucleosynthesis in the galactic disk

    SciTech Connect

    Twarog, B.A.; Wheeler, J.C.

    1982-10-15

    New data on the history of production of C, O, Mg, and Fe are used to reexamine the production of heavy elements in the galactic disk. A standard infall model is used to show that a constant rate of production of heavy elements is consistent with the data and to derive net absolute amounts for several elements. Various models for nucleosynthesis by massive stars are considered. Current models are inconsistent with the simplest picture in which all stars above some limit approx.12 M/sub sun/ explode. Adopting a finite upper or lower mass cutoff to the massive stars which contribute to nucleosynthesis provides a better agreement. Any conclusions that massive stars in a particular mass range explode seem premature, especially when consideration is given to potentially significant contributions to C, O, and Fe production from Type I supernovae.

  11. Congeniality bounds on quark masses from nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. Hossain; Hossain, M. Jakir; Tariq, Abdullah Shams Bin

    2013-08-01

    The work of Jaffe, Jenkins and Kimchi [Phys. Rev. D 79, 065014 (2009)] is revisited to see if indeed the region of congeniality found in their analysis survives further restrictions from nucleosynthesis. It is observed that much of their congenial region disappears when imposing conditions required to produce the correct and required abundances of the primordial elements as well as ensure that stars can continue to burn hydrogen nuclei to form helium as the first step in forming heavier elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The remaining region is a very narrow slit reduced in width from around 29 MeV found by Jaffe et al. to only about 2.2 MeV in the difference of the nucleon/quark masses. Further bounds on δmq/mq seem to reduce even this narrow slit to the physical point itself.

  12. Magic ultramagnetized nuclei in explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratyev, V. N.

    2012-11-15

    Direct evidence of the presence of {sup 44}Ti and content of the isotope in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A are obtained from the analysis of gamma-ray spectrum of the remnant. A significant excess of observational {sup 44}Ti volume on predictions of supernova models can be explained as the magnetization effect in the process of explosive nucleosynthesis. The formation of chemical elements is considered accounting for superstrong magnetic fields predicted for supernovae and neutron stars. Using the arguments of nuclear statistical equilibrium, a significant effect of magnetic field on the nuclear shell energy is demonstrated. The magnetic shift of the most tightly 'bound' nuclei from the transition metals of iron series to titanium leads to an exponential increase in the portion of {sup 44}Ti and, accordingly to a significant excess of the yield of these products of nucleosynthesis.

  13. Neutrino degeneracy and cosmological nucleosynthesis, revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, K. A.; Schramm, David N.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    A reexamination of the effects of non-zero degeneracies on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is made. As previously noted, non-trivial alterations of the standard model conclusions can be induced only if excess lepton numbers L sub i, comparable to photon number densities eta sub tau, are assumed (where eta sub tau is approx. 3 times 10(exp 9) eta sub b). Furthermore, the required lepton number densities (L sub i eta sub tau) must be different for upsilon sub e than for upsilon sub mu and epsilon sub tau. It is shown that this loophole in the standard model of nucleosynthesis is robust and will not vanish as abundance and reaction rate determinations improve. However, it is also argued that theoretically (L sub e) approx. (L sub mu) approx. (L sub tau) approx. eta sub b is much less than eta sub tau which would preclude this loophole in standard unified models.

  14. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2014-05-09

    The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

  15. Nuclear quests for supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2011-10-28

    Nuclear physics plays a crucial role in various aspects of core collapse supernovae. The collapse dynamics is strongly influenced by electron captures. Using modern many-body theory improved capture rates have been derived recently with the important result that the process is dominated by capture on nuclei until neutrino trapping is achieved. Following the core bounce the ejected matter is the site of interesting nucleosynthesis. The early ejecta are proton-rich and give rise to the recently discovered {nu}p-process. Later ejecta might be neutron-rich and can be one site of the r-process. The manuscript discusses recent progress in describing nuclear input relevant for the supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

  16. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2014-05-01

    The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

  17. G/N/ variability and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisels, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that, given the Schramm and Wagoner (1977) formation of the elements in the early universe, nonsingular Variable Mass Theory (VMT) cosmologies can be constructed which give the usual results for primordial nucleosynthesis calculations. The derivation of possible G(N) variability constraints over cosmic time, using Bekenstein's (1977) VMT, yields a variation of G(N) by no more than two or three orders of magnitude and shows the viability of nonsingular VMT models.

  18. Dark radiation emerging after big bang nucleosynthesis?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Willy; Meyers, Joel

    2011-03-15

    We show how recent data from observations of the cosmic microwave background may suggest the presence of additional radiation density which appeared after big bang nucleosynthesis. We propose a general scheme by which this radiation could be produced from the decay of nonrelativistic matter, we place constraints on the properties of such matter, and we give specific examples of scenarios in which this general scheme may be realized.

  19. Gamma-Rays from Nucleosynthesis Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes produced in massive- star and supernova nucleosynthesis have been measured with INTEGRAL over the past ten years, complementing the earlier COMPTEL survey. 26Al has become a tool to study specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information. Recent findings are that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. 60Fe is co-produced by the sources of 26Al, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. 56Ni and 44Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we summarize latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations. We also add a comparison of isotopic ratios between the ISM of the current Galaxy and the solar vicinity at solar-system formation time.

  20. Inverted hybrid inflation as a solution to gravitino problems in gravity mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, H.; Shinbara, Y.

    2008-05-01

    It was recently found that the decay of the inflaton and the supersymmetry breaking field produces many gravitinos in the gravity mediation scenario. These discoveries showed that many inflation models such as chaotic, (smooth) hybrid, topological, and new inflation models are disfavored. Under these circumstances we search for a successful inflation model and find that the inverted hybrid inflation models can solve the gravitino overproduction problem by their distinctive shape of the potential. Furthermore, we show that this inflation model simultaneously can explain the observed baryon asymmetry through the nonthermal leptogenesis and is consistent with the WMAP results, that is, n{sub s}=0.951{sub -0.019}{sup +0.015} and the negligible tensor to scalar ratio.

  1. A treatment of excited states in nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjib Shankar

    2002-10-01

    Many isotopes of importance to nucleosynthesis have metastable states whose decay to the ground state is strongly inhibited by a high angular momentum difference. Traditionally, excited states of a nucleus have been treated by assuming attainment of thermal equilibrium; a Hauser-Feshbach calculation is then performed on the whole nucleus to determine nuclear reaction rates. A description of the nucleus when it is not in equilibrium, and a method for computing reaction rates that does not presume thermalization are presented in this work. In nucleosynthesis calculations, we may characterize the internal electromagnetic transitions of a nucleus as a Markov process. This allows us to decompose the interaction of radiation with nucleons into effective interactions between ensembles. Rather than consider a single isotope, we construct the canonical ensembles which are the true nuclear species of interest. We are then in a position to specify nonequilibrium occupations of the ensembles by discretizing the Nuclear Level Density function. The generality of the stochastic process identified at the outset now permits the description of nucleosynthesis as Markov flows in networks of suitably populated ensembles. This allows us to use as many excited states as we wish in nucleosyn thesis while tracking their nonequilibrium evolution as substochastic processes. A website utilizing these principles is discussed in some detail. It accesses the theoretical NLD database from the Brussels Intitute of Astrophysics to supplement adopted experimental data from the ENSDF database (maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratories). The composite is processed by a CGI (Common Gateway Interface) application to dynamically obtain plots and tables of rates on a specified temperature grid. Beta-decay rates are discussed for an isotope important to nuclear astrophysics ( 180TA) as a test-bed for the techniques implemented.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleosynthesis in classical nova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita

    2007-12-01

    Classical novae are fascinating stellar explosions at the crossroads of stellar astrophysics, nuclear physics, and cosmochemistry. In this review, we briefly summarize 30 years of nucleosynthesis studies, with special emphasis on recent advances in nova theory (including multidimensional models) as well as on experimental efforts to reduce nuclear uncertainties affecting critical reaction rates. Among the topics that are covered, we outline the interplay between nova outbursts and the galactic chemical abundances, the synthesis of radioactive nuclei of interest for γ-ray astronomy, such as 7Li, 22Na or 26Al, and the potential discovery of presolar meteoritic grains likely condensed in nova shells.

  3. Applications for fission product data to problems in stellar nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.

    1983-10-01

    A general overview of the nucleosynthesis mechanisms for heavy (A greater than or equal to 70) nuclei is presented with particular emphasis on critical data needs. The current state of the art in nucleosynthesis models is described and areas in which fission product data may provide useful insight are proposed. 33 references, 10 figures.

  4. Laboratory modeling of big bang nucleosynthesis using powerful laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Zagreev, B. V.; Kedrov, A. Yu; Kovkov, D. V.; Lobanov, A. V.; Matafonov, A. P.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Mordvincev, I. M.; Tsymbalov, I. N.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Paskhalov, A. A.; Eremin, N. V.; Krainov, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    The processes and problems of big bang nucleosynthesis are considered. Powerful laser pulses allow us to obtain high energy density in matter. Thus, laboratory modeling of big bang nucleosynthesis becomes feasible. Results of experiments on the picosecond laser facility ‘Neodymium’ and on the femtosecond terawatt laser are reported. Further investigations of this topic are discussed.

  5. Nucleosynthesis: a field with still many open nuclear physics questions

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.

    2010-06-01

    Stellar nucleosynthesis is a vastly interdisciplinary field. There is a large number of different problems invoked calling for a variety of different and complementary research fields. Impressive progress has been made for the last decades in the various fields related to nucleosynthesis, especially in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as in ground-based or space astronomical observations and astrophysical modellings. In spite of that success, major problems and puzzles remain. The three major nucleosynthesis processes called for to explain the origin of the elements heavier than iron are described and the major pending questions discussed. As far as nuclear physics is concerned, good quality nuclear data is known to be a necessary condition for a reliable modelling of stellar nucleosynthesis. Through some specific examples, the need for further theoretical or experimental developments is also critically discussed in view of their impact on nucleosynthesis predictions.

  6. THM and primordial nucleosynthesis: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Bertulani, C.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.

    2017-09-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) requires several nuclear physics inputs and nuclear reaction rates. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,p)t, d(d,n) 3 He and 3 He(d,p) 4 He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S( E) -factor. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN ( 0.01nucleosynthesis calculations in order to evaluate their impact on the calculated primordial abundances of D, ^{3,4} He and ^7 Li. These were compared with the observational primordial abundance estimates in different astrophysical sites. Reactions to be studied in perspective will also be discussed.

  7. Primordial nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Bertulani, C.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tumino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) requires several nuclear physics inputs and nuclear reaction rates. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross sections of d(d,p)t, d(d,n)3He and 3He(d,p)4He reactions is given, being these ones among the most uncertain bare-nucleus cross sections. An intense experimental effort has been carried on in the last decade to apply the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to study reactions of relevance for the BBN and measure their astrophysical S(E)-factor. The reaction rates and the relative error for the four reactions of interest are then numerically calculated in the temperature ranges of relevance for BBN (0.01nucleosynthesis calculations in order to evaluate their impact on the calculated primordial abundances of D, 3,4He and 7Li. These were compared with the observational primordial abundance estimates in different astrophysical sites. A comparison was also performed with calculations using other reaction rates compilations available in literature.

  8. Gamma rays as an indicator of nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2007-04-01

    In 1957 the collaboration of E. M. Burbidge, G. R. Burbidge, W. A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle, and the work by A. G. W. Cameron, laid the foundations for understanding the origin of the elements in terms of a few basic processes and astrophysical environments. Half a century after this pioneering work, there is considerable observational evidence for the basic notions of element synthesis during the big-bang, followed by hydrostatic and explosive stellar nucleosynthesis ever since the first population of stars re-illuminated the Universe, and through particle interactions in the turbulent interstellar medium. In 1969 D. D. Clayton, S. A. Colgate, and G. J. Fishman proposed to search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of 56-Ni, freshly synthesized in supernovae. Evidence for these lines was obtained for SN 1987A, and three decades after this pivotal supernova we have ample gamma-ray line evidence for ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Milky Way from surveys for individual sources and unresolved, integrated diffuse emission from an ensemble of such sources. We review the observational evidence for gamma ray lines from various species, and discuss the astrophysical implications of detections and a few puzzles suggested by lack of detections. We reflect on historic developments, assess the accomplishments, and present an outlook on the future of this branch of nuclear astrophysics.

  9. Constraining spacetime noncommutativity with primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip

    2009-04-15

    We discuss a constraint on the scale {lambda}{sub NC} of noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory arising from consideration of the big bang nucleosynthesis of light elements. The propagation of neutrinos in the NC background described by an antisymmetric tensor {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} does result in a tree-level vectorlike coupling to photons in a generation-independent manner, raising thus a possibility to have an appreciable contribution of three light right-handed (RH) fields to the energy density of the Universe at nucleosynthesis time. Considering elastic scattering processes of the RH neutrinos off charged plasma constituents at a given cosmological epoch, we obtain for a conservative limit on an effective number of additional doublet neutrinos {delta}N{sub {nu}}=1, a bound {lambda}{sub NC} > or approx. 3 TeV. With a more stringent requirement, {delta}N{sub {nu}} < or approx. 0.2, the bound is considerably improved, {lambda}{sub NC} > or approx. 10{sup 3} TeV. For our bounds the {theta} expansion of the NC action stays always meaningful, since the decoupling temperature of the RH species is perseveringly much less than the inferred bound for the scale of noncommutativity.

  10. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the New Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Brian D.

    2008-01-24

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest elements in the first minutes of cosmic time. We review the physics of cosmological element production, and the observations of the primordial element abundances. The comparison between theory and observation has heretofore provided our earliest probe of the universe, and given the best measure of the cosmic baryon content. However, BBN has now taken a new role in cosmology, in light of new precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recent CMB anisotropy data yield a wealth of cosmological parameters; in particular, the baryon-to-photon ratio {eta} = n{sub B}/n{sub {gamma}} is measured to high precision. The confrontation between the BBN and CMB ''baryometers'' poses a new and stringent test of the standard cosmology; the status of this test are discussed. Moreover, it is now possible to recast the role of BBN by using the CMB to fix the baryon density and even some light element abundances. This strategy sharpens BBN into a more powerful probe of early universe physics, and of galactic nucleosynthesis processes. The impact of the CMB results on particle physics beyond the Standard Model, and on non-standard cosmology, are illustrated. Prospects for improvement of these bounds via additional astronomical observations and nuclear experiments are discussed, as is the lingering ''lithium problem.''.

  11. Primordial Lithium and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ryan; Beers; Olive; Fields; Norris

    2000-02-20

    Recent determinations of the abundance of the light-element Li in very metal-poor stars show that its intrinsic dispersion is essentially zero and that the random error in the estimated mean Li abundance is negligible. However, a decreasing trend in the Li abundance toward lower metallicity indicates that the primordial abundance of Li can be inferred only after allowing for nucleosynthesis processes that must have been in operation in the early history of the Galaxy. We show that the observed Li versus Fe trend provides a strong discriminant between alternative models for Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements at early epochs. We critically assess current systematic uncertainties and determine the primordial Li abundance within new, much tighter limits: &parl0;Li&solm0;H&parr0;p=1.23+0.68-0.32x10-10. We show that the Li constraint on OmegaB is now limited as much by uncertainties in the nuclear cross sections used in big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculations as by the observed abundance itself. A clearer understanding of systematics allows us to sharpen the comparison with 4He and deuterium and the resulting test of BBN.

  12. Massive-Star Nucleosynthesis: Lessons from INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland; Lang, Michael; Kretschmer, Karsten; Martin, Pierrick; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Voss, Rasmus

    2010-08-01

    Gamma-ray line observations with INTEGRAL measure decay of unstable isotopes which are ejected from sites of nucleosynthesis. Massive stars are believed to be producers of gamma-ray emitting isotopes 44Ti, 26Al, 60Fe. Measurements with the Ge spectrometer have shown that (1) inner core-collapse supernova ejecta from the Cas A supernova remnant appear to still travel at velocities beyond a few hundred km/sec (2) 26Al synthesis occurs throughout the Galaxy corresponds to a supernova rate from core collapses of about one every 50 years; (3) 60Fe synthesis expected from massive stars is above the constraints from gamma-ray observations; 26Al synthesis in the Cygnus region appears on the high side of predictions from models; 26Al emission from the nearby Sco-Cen group of stars has been identified demonstrates massive-star activity close to the Sun. 26Al gamma-rays have been used to determine a longitude-velocity distribution of the presumably hot tenuous ISM which carries 26Al, which can be compared to molecular-gas star motions to help understand the Galaxy's bar spiral-arm structure. Implications of the above nucleosynthesis constraints suggest that INTEGRAL's observed positron annihilation gamma-rays need a contribution from another source located in the central regions of our Galaxy, and/or positrons may propagate kpc-distances away from their sources before annihilating.

  13. Gravitino dark matter in the CMSSM and implications for leptogenesis and the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto; Choi, Ki-Young

    2005-08-01

    In the framework of the CMSSM we study the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle and the dominant component of cold dark matter in the Universe. We include both a thermal contribution to its relic abundance from scatterings in the plasma and a non-thermal one from neutralino or stau decays after freeze-out. In general both contributions can be important, although in different regions of the parameter space. We further include constraints from BBN on electromagnetic and hadronic showers, from the CMB blackbody spectrum and from collider and non-collider SUSY searches. The region where the neutralino is the next-to-lightest superpartner is severely constrained by a conservative bound from excessive electromagnetic showers and probably basically excluded by the bound from hadronic showers, while the stau case remains mostly allowed. In both regions the constraint from CMB is often important or even dominant. In the stau case, for the assumed reasonable ranges of soft SUSY breaking parameters, we find regions where the gravitino abundance is in agreement with the range inferred from CMB studies, provided that, in many cases, a reheating temperature TR is large, TR ~ 109GeV. On the other side, we find an upper bound TRlesssim5 × 109GeV. Less conservative bounds from BBN or an improvement in measuring the CMB spectrum would provide a dramatic squeeze on the whole scenario, in particular it would strongly disfavor the largest values of TR ~ 109GeV. The regions favored by the gravitino dark matter scenario are very different from standard regions corresponding to the neutralino dark matter, and will be partly probed at the LHC.

  14. Confronting recent AMS-02 positron fraction and Fermi-LAT extragalactic γ-ray background measurements with gravitino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carquín, Edson; Díaz, Marco A.; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Panes, Boris; Viaux, Nicolás

    2016-03-01

    Recent positron flux fraction measurements in cosmic-rays (CR) made by the AMS-02 detector confirm and extend the evidence on the existence of a new (yet unknown) source of high energy electrons and positrons. We test the gravitino dark matter of bilinear R-parity violating supersymmetric models as this electrons/positrons source. Being a long lived weak-interacting and spin 3/2 particle, it offers several particularities which makes it an attractive dark matter candidate. We compute the electron, positron and γ-ray fluxes produced by each gravitino decay channel as it would be detected at the Earth's position. Combining the flux from the different decay modes we are able to reproduce AMS-02 measurements of the positron fraction, as well as the electron and positron fluxes, with a gravitino dark matter mass in the range 1-3 TeV and lifetime of ˜1.0-0.7×1026 s. The high statistics measurement of electron and positron fluxes, and the flattening in the behaviour of the positron fraction recently found by AMS-02 allow us to determine that the preferred gravitino decaying mode by the fit is W±τ∓, unlike previous analyses. Then we study the viability of these scenarios through their implication in γ-ray observations. For this we use the Extragalactic γ-ray Background recently reported by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration and a state-of-the-art model of its known contributors. Based on the γ-ray analysis we exclude the gravitino parameter space which provides an acceptable explanation of the AMS-02 data. Therefore, we conclude that the gravitino of bilinear R-parity violating models is ruled out as the unique primary source of electrons and positrons needed to explain the rise in the positron fraction.

  15. Experimental Search for Chargino and Neutralino Production in Supersymmetry Models with a Light Gravitino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grinstein, S.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1998-01-01

    We search for inclusive high ET diphoton events with large missing transverse energy in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV. Such events are expected from pair production of charginos and neutralinos within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with a light gravitino. No excess of events is observed. In that model, and assuming gaugino mass unification at the GUT scale, we obtain a 95% C.L. exclusion region in the supersymmetry parameter space and lower mass bounds of 150 GeV/c2 for the lightest chargino and 77 GeV/c2 for the lightest neutralino.

  16. R-process Nucleosynthesis in Supernova Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saruwatari, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2011-10-28

    We investigate the possibility of the r-process during the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) explosion of supernova in a massive star of 13 M{sub {center_dot}} with the effects of neutrinos included. Contrary to the case of the spherical explosion, jet-like explosion due to the combined effects of rotation and magnetic field lowers the electron fraction significantly inside the layers. We find that the ejected material of low electron fraction responsible for the r-process comes out from the inner deep region of the core that is made up of iron-group nuclei. This leads to the production of the second to third peak in the solar r-process elements. We suggest that there are some variations in the r-process nucleosynthesis according to the initial conditions of rotational and magnetic fields.

  17. Supernova Explosions, Nucleosynthesis, and Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Truran, James W.

    2006-08-25

    The Universe emerged from its first three minutes with a composition consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, 3He, 4He, and 7Li. These isotopes constitute the primordial compositions of galaxies. Within galaxies, the synthesis of heavier elements from carbon through uranium is understood to occur during the normal evolution of stars and in supernova explosions of Types I and II. This history is written in the compositions of the stars and gas in our Milky Way Galaxy and other galaxies. The contributions both from massive stars (M>10 M{center_dot}) and associated Type II supernovae and from Type Ia (thermonuclear) supernovae are particularly noteworthy. We review both the nuclear processes by which this occurs and the compositions of the stellar components of our Galaxy as a function of time which reflect these nucleosynthesis processes. We then discuss how such observations inform us of the nature of the earliest stellar populations and of the abundance history of the Cosmos.

  18. Systematic Calculation of PISN Explosion and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Yoshida, Takashi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    A very massive star that forms a large CO core of ˜60-120 M ȯ finally explodes as a pair instability supernova (PISN). Because currently published data are restricted to either zero-metallicity models or explosions without hydrogen envelopes, we aim to construct a new grid of PISN calculations, which spans wide initial mass and metallicity of the progenitor. We have calculated the evolution and the explosion of very massive stars with initial masses of 100-280 M ȯ and metallicities of 0-1/10 Z ȯ . Explosive nucleosynthesis has been calculated by a post processing manner. We provide the first consistent data grid of PISN simulations, which can be used for various purposes, such as simulation of chemo-dynamical evolution or light curve/spectroscopic modeling.

  19. Nucleosynthesis and the rp-process

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2012-11-20

    Production of elements heavier than iron, their abundance and cite of production remain an active field of research to-date. In this paper I would present a brief review of the nucleosynthesis process and then focus further on the proton capture processes with particular emphasis on the nuclear physics aspects of the rp-process. The present calculation clearly shows that the electron capture rates on waiting point nuclei are at least of similar magnitude as the competing positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. The study strongly suggests that electron capture rates form an integral part of weak-interaction mediated rates under rp-process conditions and should not be neglected in nuclear reaction network calculations as done in past.

  20. Tabletop nucleosynthesis driven by cluster Coulomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

    2006-10-27

    Coulomb explosion of completely ionized (CH4)n, (NH3)n, and (H2O)n clusters will drive tabletop nuclear reactions of protons with 12C6+, 14N7+, and 16O8+ nuclei, extending the realm of nuclear reactions driven by ultraintense laser-heterocluster interaction. The realization for nucleosynthesis in exploding cluster beams requires complete electron stripping from the clusters (at laser intensities I(M) > or = 10(19) W cm(-2)), the utilization of nanodroplets of radius 300-700 A for vertical ionization, and the attainment of the highest energies for the nuclei (i.e., approximately 30 MeV for heavy nuclei and approximately 3 MeV for protons).

  1. Supernova Explosions, Nucleosynthesis, and Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truran, James W.

    2006-08-01

    The Universe emerged from its first three minutes with a composition consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, 3He, 4He, and 7Li. These isotopes constitute the primordial compositions of galaxies. Within galaxies, the synthesis of heavier elements from carbon through uranium is understood to occur during the normal evolution of stars and in supernova explosions of Types I and II. This history is written in the compositions of the stars and gas in our Milky Way Galaxy and other galaxies. The contributions both from massive stars (M>10 Msolar) and associated Type II supernovae and from Type Ia (thermonuclear) supernovae are particularly noteworthy. We review both the nuclear processes by which this occurs and the compositions of the stellar components of our Galaxy as a function of time which reflect these nucleosynthesis processes. We then discuss how such observations inform us of the nature of the earliest stellar populations and of the abundance history of the Cosmos.

  2. New nuclear physics for big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Richard N.; Brune, Carl R.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.

    2010-11-15

    We discuss nuclear reactions which could play a role in big bang nucleosynthesis. Most of these reactions involve lithium and beryllium isotopes and the rates for some of these have not previously been included in BBN calculations. Few of these reactions are well studied in the laboratory. We also discuss novel effects in these reactions, including thermal population of nuclear target states, resonant enhancement, and nonthermal neutron reaction products. We perform sensitivity studies which show that even given considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal leverage on the standard BBN abundance yields of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. Although a few have the potential to alter the yields significantly, we argue that this is unlikely.

  3. Evolution and Nucleosynthesis of Very Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, Raphael

    In this chapter, after a brief introduction and overview of stellar evolution, we discuss the evolution and nucleosynthesis of very massive stars (VMS: M > 100 M_{odot } ) in the context of recent stellar evolution model calculations. This chapter covers the following aspects: general properties, evolution of surface properties, late central evolution, and nucleosynthesis including their dependence on metallicity, mass loss and rotation. Since very massive stars have very large convective cores during the main-sequence phase, their evolution is not so much affected by rotational mixing, but more by mass loss through stellar winds. Their evolution is never far from a homogeneous evolution even without rotational mixing. All VMS at metallicities close to solar end their life as WC(-WO) type Wolf-Rayet stars. Due to very important mass loss through stellar winds, these stars may have luminosities during the advanced phases of their evolution similar to stars with initial masses between 60 and 120 M_{odot } . A distinctive feature which may be used to disentangle Wolf-Rayet stars originating from VMS from those originating from lower initial masses is the enhanced abundances of neon and magnesium at the surface of WC stars. At solar metallicity, mass loss is so strong that even if a star is born with several hundred solar masses, it will end its life with less than 50 M_{odot } (using current mass loss prescriptions). At the metallicity of the LMC and lower, on the other hand, mass loss is weaker and might enable stars to undergo pair-instability supernovae.

  4. Integrated Nucleosynthesis in Neutrino Driven Winds

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L F; Woosley, S E; Hoffman, R D

    2010-03-26

    Although they are but a small fraction of the mass ejected in core-collapse supernovae, neutrino-driven winds (NDWs) from nascent proto-neutron stars (PNSs) have the potential to contribute significantly to supernova nucleosynthesis. In previous works, the NDW has been implicated as a possible source of r-process and light p-process isotopes. In this paper we present time-dependent hydrodynamic calculations of nucleosynthesis in the NDW which include accurate weak interaction physics coupled to a full nuclear reaction network. Using two published models of PNS neutrino luminosities, we predict the contribution of the NDW to the integrated nucleosynthetic yield of the entire supernova. For the neutrino luminosity histories considered, no true r-process occurs in the most basic scenario. The wind driven from an older 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}} model for a PNS is moderately neutron-rich at late times however, and produces {sup 87}Rb, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 90}Zr in near solar proportions relative to oxygen. The wind from a more recently studied 1.27M{sub {circle_dot}} PNS is proton-rich throughout its entire evolution and does not contribute significantly to the abundance of any element. It thus seems very unlikely that the simplest model of the NDW can produce the r-process. At most, it contributes to the production of the N = 50 closed shell elements and some light p-nuclei. In doing so, it may have left a distinctive signature on the abundances in metal poor stars, but the results are sensitive to both uncertain models for the explosion and the masses of the neutron stars involved.

  5. A Bottom-Up Approach to Moduli Dynamics in Heavy Gravitino Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2005-12-02

    Moduli dynamics is discussed in the scenario where gravitino is relatively heavy with mass of the order of 10 TeV, which is favored to relax the gravitino problem. Imposing a phenomenological requirement that CP phases in the gaugino masses do not arise from the conformal anomaly mediation, we find that the form of the superpotential for the modulus field is determined. Interestingly one solution is the sum of an exponential and a constant, which is identical to the one recently obtained by Kachru et al (KKLT). Supersymmetry breaking is discussed with this superpotential. In particular, it is shown that the soft supersymmetry breaking masses are admixture of the modulus mediation and the conformal anomaly mediation of supersymmetry breaking. The resulting mass spectrum is very characteristic. It is rather compact compared to the minimal supergravity or to the pure anomaly mediation, which is testable at future collider experiments. The higgsino mass parameter is expected to be small, and hence the lightest of the neutralinos, which is a candidate for dark matter of the universe, is an admixture of the gauinos and higgsinos. This has some impacts on dark matter searches. This talk is based on the work with Motoi Endo and Koichi Yoshioka.

  6. Abundances for p-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    De Laeter, John R.

    2008-04-15

    An important constraint in developing models of p-process nucleosynthesis is that the abundances of many of the p-process nuclides are not well known. A recent review of the p-process has identified six p-process nuclides that are of particular significance to p-process theorists [M. Arnould and S. Goriely, Phys. Rep. 384, 1 (2003)]. These nuclides are {sup 92,94}Mo, {sup 96,98}Ru, {sup 138}La, and {sup 180}Ta{sup m}. The absence of accurate abundances for these isotopes is due to the fact that the isotopic composition of the elements concerned have not been corrected for isotope fractionation induced by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric instruments used to measure them. To remedy this deficiency, a VG 354 mass spectrometer was calibrated using gravimetric mixtures of enriched isotopes to enable the absolute isotopic compositions of these elements to be obtained. Although the isotopic abundances of {sup 92,94}Mo, {sup 138}La, and {sup 180}Ta{sup m} have previously been reported, the absolute abundances of {sup 96,98}Ru are reported for the first time in this article, with a significant reduction in the magnitude of the values as compared to existing abundances.

  7. Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; ElEid, M. F.

    2004-01-01

    Although the exact site for the origin of the r-process isotopes remains mysterious, most thinking has centered on matter ejected from the cores of massive stars in core-collapse supernovae [13]. In the 1970's and 1980's, however, difficulties in understanding the yields from such models led workers to consider the possibility of r-process nucleosynthesis farther out in the exploding star, in particular, in the helium burning shell [4,5]. The essential idea was that shock passage through this shell would heat and compress this material to the point that the reactions 13C(alpha; n)16O and, especially, 22Ne(alpha; n)25Mg would generate enough neutrons to capture on preexisting seed nuclei and drive an "n process" [6], which could reproduce the r-process abundances. Subsequent work showed that the required 13C and 22Ne abundances were too large compared to the amounts available in realistic models [7] and recent thinking has returned to supernova core material or matter ejected from neutron star-neutron star collisions as the more likely r-process sites.

  8. Primordial Black Holes and r -Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, George M.; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-08-01

    We show that some or all of the inventory of r -process nucleosynthesis can be produced in interactions of primordial black holes (PBHs) with neutron stars (NSs) if PBHs with masses 10-14 M⊙

  9. Challenges in explosive nucleosynthesis of heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinedo, Gabriel Martinez; Fischer, T.; Lohs, A.; Huther, L.

    2012-10-20

    We show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter that is consistent with the nuclear equation of state has a strong impact on the spectra of the neutrinos emitted during the deleptonization period of a protoneutron star formed in a core-collapse supernova. We compare results of simulations including and neglecting mean field effects on the neutrino opacities. Their inclusion reduces the luminosities of all neutrino flavors and enhances the spectral differences between electron neutrino and antineutrino. The magnitude of the difference depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at sub-nuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the neutrino-driven outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on the nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r-process. Contrarily to previous findings, our simulations show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  10. Summary of Recent Developments in Primordial Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schramm, D N

    1993-06-01

    This paper summarizes the recent observational and theoretical results on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In particular, it is shown that the new Pop II (6)Li results strongly support the argument that the Spite Plateau lithium is a good estimate of the primordial value. The (6)Li is consistent with the Be and Be found in Pop II stars, assuming those elements are cosmic ray produced. The HST (2)D value tightens the (2)D arguments and the observation of the (3)He in planetary nebula strengthens the (3)He +(2)D argument as a lower bound on Ωb. The new low metalicity (4)He determinations slightly raise the best primordial (4)He number and thus make a better fit and avoid a potential problem. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ωb are possible vis-à-vis the homogeneous model; hence, the robustness of Ωb∼ 0.05 is now apparent. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ωb∼ 1 seems to be definitely excluded, so, if Ω= 1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required.

  11. Nucleosynthesis and Mixing in Cassiopeia A.

    PubMed

    Hughes; Rakowski; Burrows; Slane

    2000-01-10

    We present results from the first light observations of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR) by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Based on representative spectra from four selected regions, we investigate the processes of nucleosynthesis and mixing in Cas A. We make the first unequivocal identification of iron-rich ejecta produced by explosive silicon burning in a young Galactic SNR. Elsewhere in the remnant, we see silicon-rich ejecta from explosive oxygen burning. The Fe-rich ejecta lie outside the Si-rich material, indicating that bulk motions were extensive and energetic enough in Cas A to cause a spatial inversion of a significant portion of the supernova core. It is likely that this inversion was caused by "Fe"-rich ejecta emerging in plumes from the rising bubbles in the neutrino-driven convection layer during the supernova explosion. In addition, the radioactive decay energy from 56Ni may have contributed to the subsequent evolution of the material. We have also discovered faint, well-defined filaments with featureless X-ray spectra that are possibly sites of cosmic-ray acceleration in Cas A.

  12. Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; ElEid, M. F.

    2004-01-01

    Although the exact site for the origin of the r-process isotopes remains mysterious, most thinking has centered on matter ejected from the cores of massive stars in core-collapse supernovae [13]. In the 1970's and 1980's, however, difficulties in understanding the yields from such models led workers to consider the possibility of r-process nucleosynthesis farther out in the exploding star, in particular, in the helium burning shell [4,5]. The essential idea was that shock passage through this shell would heat and compress this material to the point that the reactions 13C(alpha; n)16O and, especially, 22Ne(alpha; n)25Mg would generate enough neutrons to capture on preexisting seed nuclei and drive an "n process" [6], which could reproduce the r-process abundances. Subsequent work showed that the required 13C and 22Ne abundances were too large compared to the amounts available in realistic models [7] and recent thinking has returned to supernova core material or matter ejected from neutron star-neutron star collisions as the more likely r-process sites.

  13. Nucleosynthesis and Mixing in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John P.; Rakowski, Cara E.; Burrows, David N.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2000-01-01

    We present results from the first light observations of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR) by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Based on representative spectra from four selected regions, we investigate the processes of nucleosynthesis and mixing in Cas A. We make the first unequivocal identification of iron-rich ejecta produced by explosive silicon burning in a young Galactic SNR. Elsewhere in the remnant, we see silicon-rich ejecta from explosive oxygen burning. The Fe-rich ejecta lie outside the Si-rich material, indicating that bulk motions were extensive and energetic enough in Cas A to cause a spatial inversion of a significant portion of the supernova core. It is likely that this inversion was caused by ``Fe''-rich ejecta emerging in plumes from the rising bubbles in the neutrino-driven convection layer during the supernova explosion. In addition, the radioactive decay energy from 56Ni may have contributed to the subsequent evolution of the material. We have also discovered faint, well-defined filaments with featureless X-ray spectra that are possibly sites of cosmic-ray acceleration in Cas A.

  14. Higgs inflation, reheating and gravitino production in no-scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of e-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, as well as discussing the gravitino production following inflation.

  15. Compactification and inflation in the superstring theory from the condensation of gravitino pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    1987-12-01

    We discuss the possibility that inflation can occur in the E8×E8' heterotic superstring theory, if there is a pair condensation of the gravitino field ψA and also of the Majorana-Weyl spinor λ, as suggested by the Helayël-Neto and Smith. In the absence of a condensation of the anti-symmetric tensor field HMNP, then the associated potential V(θ,φ) is bounded from below and independent of the dilaton field φ. It can be made to vanish at the minimum, where the compactification scale θ is fixed. Alternatively, a small cosmological constant may remain (ultimately to be cancelled by radiative corrections at the lower energy scale of the gaugino condensation), which could in principle lead to inflation. Present address: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Bombay 400 005, India.

  16. Gravitino or axino dark matter with reheat temperature as high as 1016 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2017-03-01

    A new scheme for lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter is introduced and studied in theories of TeV supersymmetry with a QCD axion, a, and a high reheat temperature after inflation, T R . A large overproduction of axinos ( ã) and gravitinos (\\tilde{G}) from scattering at T R , and from freeze-in at the TeV scale, is diluted by the late decay of a saxion condensate that arises from inflation. The two lightest superpartners are ã, with mass of order the TeV scale, and \\tilde{G} with mass m 3/2 anywhere between the keV and TeV scales, depending on the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. Dark matter contains both warm and cold components: for \\tilde{G} LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{a}\\to \\tilde{G}a , while for ã LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{G}\\to \\tilde{a}a . The free-streaming scale for the warm component is predicted to be of order 1 Mpc (and independent of m 3/2 in the case of \\tilde{G} LSP). T R can be as high as 1016 GeV, for any value of m 3/2, solving the gravitino problem. The PQ symmetry breaking scale V PQ depends on T R and m 3/2 and can be anywhere in the range (1010 - 1016) GeV. Detailed predictions are made for the lifetime of the neutralino LOSP decaying to ã+ h/Z and \\tilde{G}+h/Z/γ , which is in the range of (10-1 -106)m over much of parameter space. For an axion misalignment angle of order unity, the axion contribution to dark matter is sub-dominant, except when V PQ approaches 1016 GeV.

  17. Lower limit on the gravitino mass in low-scale gauge mediation with mH ≃ 125 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-01-01

    We revisit low-scale gauge mediation models in light of recent observations of CMB Lensing and Cosmic Shear which put a severe upper limit on the gravitino mass, m3/2 ≲ 4.7eV. With such a stringent constraint, many models of low-scale gauge mediation are disfavored when the squark masses are required to be rather large to explain the observed Higgs boson mass unless the gravitino abundance is diluted by late time entropy production. In this note, we discuss a type of low-scale gauge mediation models which satisfy both the observed Higgs boson mass and the upper limit on the gravitino mass. We also show that the gravitino mass cannot be smaller than about 1 eV even in such models, which may be tested in future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations.

  18. Spallation nucleosynthesis by accelerated charged-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.

    2008-05-12

    Recent observations have suggested the presence of radioactive elements, such as Pm and 84{<=}Z{<=}99 elements) at the surface of the magnetic star HD101065, also known as Przybylski's star. This star is know to be a chemically peculiar star and its anomalous 3830 heavy elements can be achieved. In this nucleosynthesis process, the secondary-neutron captures play a crucial role. The most attractive feature of the spallation process is the systematic production of Pm and Tc and the possible synthesis of actinides and sub-actinides.Based on such a parametric model, it is also shown that intense fluences of accelerated charged-particles interacting with surrounding material can efficiently produce elements heavier than iron. Different regimes are investigated and shown to be at the origin of p- and s-nuclei in the case of high-fluence low-flux events and r-nuclei for high-fluence high-flux irradiations. The possible existence of such irradiation events need to be confirmed by hydrodynamics simulations, but most of all by spectroscopic observations through the detection of short-lived radio-elements.

  19. Neutrinos and nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Fröhlich, C.; Casanova, J.; Hempel, M.; Liebendörfer, M.; Melton, C. A.; Perego, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars (M > 8-10 M{sub ⊙}) undergo core collapse at the end of their life and explode as supernova with ~ 10⁵¹ erg of kinetic energy. While the detailed supernova explosion mechanism is still under investigation, reliable nucleosynthesis calculations based on successful explosions are needed to explain the observed abundances in metal-poor stars and to predict supernova yields for galactic chemical evolution studies. To predict nucleosynthesis yields for a large number of progenitor stars, computationally efficient explosion models are required. We model the core collapse, bounce and subsequent explosion of massive stars assuming spherical symmetry and using detailed microphysics and neutrino physics combined with a novel method to artificially trigger the explosion (PUSH). We discuss the role of neutrinos, the conditions in the ejecta, and the resulting nucleosynthesis.

  20. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Revisited via Trojan Horse Method Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lalmansingh, J.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear reaction rates are among the most important input for understanding primordial nucleosynthesis and, therefore, for a quantitative description of the early universe. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross-sections of 2H(d, p)3H, 2H(d, n)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He, and 3He(d, p)4He reactions is given. These are among the most uncertain cross-sections used and input for big bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Their measurements through the Trojan Horse method are also reviewed and compared with direct data. The reaction rates and the corresponding recommended errors in this work were used as input for primordial nucleosynthesis calculations to evaluate their impact on the 2H, 3, 4He, and 7Li primordial abundances, which are then compared with observations.

  1. Introduction to big bang nucleosynthesis and modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the testing ground upon which many cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the important radiation-dominated epoch in the first few minutes of cosmic expansion. This paper reviews the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We also summarize the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measurements are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we analyze the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  2. Big bang nucleosynthesis revisited via Trojan Horse method measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spartá, R.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Lalmansingh, J.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.

    2014-05-10

    Nuclear reaction rates are among the most important input for understanding primordial nucleosynthesis and, therefore, for a quantitative description of the early universe. An up-to-date compilation of direct cross-sections of {sup 2}H(d, p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d, n){sup 3}He, {sup 7}Li(p, α){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He(d, p){sup 4}He reactions is given. These are among the most uncertain cross-sections used and input for big bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Their measurements through the Trojan Horse method are also reviewed and compared with direct data. The reaction rates and the corresponding recommended errors in this work were used as input for primordial nucleosynthesis calculations to evaluate their impact on the {sup 2}H, {sup 3,4}He, and {sup 7}Li primordial abundances, which are then compared with observations.

  3. Nonuniversal scalar-tensor theories and big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the constraints that can be set from big bang nucleosynthesis on two classes of models: extended quintessence and scalar-tensor theories of gravity in which the equivalence principle between standard matter and dark matter is violated. In the latter case, and for a massless dilaton with quadratic couplings, the phase space of theories is investigated. We delineate those theories where attraction toward general relativity occurs. It is shown that big bang nucleosynthesis sets more stringent constraints than those obtained from Solar System tests.

  4. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1987-01-01

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  5. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  6. The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1987-01-01

    After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.

  7. Deuterium Nucleosynthesis in AGN: Is D Cosmological?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.; Kuno, N.; Roberts, H.; Millar, T. J.; Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    2005-07-01

    Although deuterium is predicted to be primarily cosmological, D can also be produced by cosmic-ray or γ-ray spallation reactions - possibly between high energy jets and the surrounding gas in AGN. We used the Nobeyama mm array with a 3" resolution (200 pc) in April 2003 to search for any enhanced D from the DCN J = 2 1 line in the 45"×45" (3 kpc) circumnuclear region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. NGC 1068 is an optimal target because it has jets, starburst activity, a circumuclear molecular ring and molecular disk, dense optically thick concentrations of HCN, and a low-energy X-ray flux of 1042 erg/s (the highest X-ray flux of any galaxy in which HCN has been detected and the flux required to produce high D abundances). Although DCN is detected in most Galactic or LMC molecular clouds with optically thick HCN, we did not detect DCN with Srms = 11 mJy/beam or Trms = 35.6 mK. Thus our 3σ upper limits are S⩽ 33 mJy/beam or Tmb ⩽ 106.7 mK and DCN/HCN⩽ 0.0044. Using our 5260 reaction chemical network we estimate the underlying D/H⩽ 1.5×10-5 less than or equal to but not greater than the local Galactic ISM D/H = 1.5 × 10-5. Thus there is no significant D production in the nuclear region of NGC 1068 and NGC 1068 has probably not had a recent period of activity with a γ-ray or cosmic-ray luminosity > 1042 erg/s. If jet-cloud nucleosynthesis produces significant amounts of D, then the D is either produced inside a very small nuclear region or transported outside the nuclear region whereby subsequent infall may continuously supply galactic nuclei with D. However, any enhanced D produced via spallation reactions would have been destroyed via astration due to the large AGN star formation rate. Our results are additional evidence that D is primarily cosmological and that AGN do not produce D.

  8. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Gail; Schaefer, Thomas

    2015-05-31

    The major accomplishments of the research activity at NC State during the five years were: to determine the effects and signatures of turbulence in supernova, to calculate r-process and supernova nucleosynthesis, and to determine the neutrino scattering and flavor transformation that occurs in black hole accretion disks. This report goes into more detail on them.

  9. r-Process nucleosynthesis in neutron star merger disk outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Roberts, Luke; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Dan; Metzger, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Neutron star mergers are the most promising site of heavy element synthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). Just before the neutron stars merge, they tidally disrupt each other, which unbinds extremely neutron-rich material where nucleosynthesis can easily reach the third r-process peak. After the merger, an accretion disk forms around the central compact object, which is either a black hole or a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). Neutrino emissions from the disk (and HMNS if there is one) and angular momentum transport processes within the disk drive a neutron-rich outflow off the disk's surface where r-process nucleosynthesis can take place. In this work we investigate r-process nucleosynthesis in the disk outflow and we pay special attention to how the nucleosynthesis depends on the lifetime of the HMNS. Increasing the lifetime of the HMNS not only results in a significantly larger ejecta mass, but also makes the ejecta less neutron-rich thus preventing the r-process from reaching the third peak.

  10. Fingerprints of nucleosynthesis in the local spiral arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoedlseder, J.; Bennett, K.; Bloemen, H.; Diehl, R.; Hermsen, W.; Oberlack, U.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; vonBallmoos, P.

    1997-01-01

    The local spiral arm with its inherent massive star population is a natural site of recent nucleosynthesis activity. The features found in 1.8 MeV observation of candidate Al-26 sources situated in this structure are discussed. The emphasis is on Loop 1, a nearby superbubble which is possibly the site of a recent supernova explosion.

  11. Fingerprints of nucleosynthesis in the local spiral arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoedlseder, J.; Bennett, K.; Bloemen, H.; Diehl, R.; Hermsen, W.; Oberlack, U.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; vonBallmoos, P.

    1997-01-01

    The local spiral arm with its inherent massive star population is a natural site of recent nucleosynthesis activity. The features found in 1.8 MeV observation of candidate Al-26 sources situated in this structure are discussed. The emphasis is on Loop 1, a nearby superbubble which is possibly the site of a recent supernova explosion.

  12. Astrophysical models of r-process nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Yongzhong

    2012-11-12

    An update on astrophysical models for nucleosynthesis via rapid neutron capture, the r process, is given. A neutrino-induced r process in supernova helium shells may have operated up to metallicities of {approx} 10{sup -3} times the solar value. Another r-process source, possibly neutron star mergers, is required for higher metallicities.

  13. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Magnetohydrodynamical Jets from Collapsars. II --- Heavy-Element Nucleosynthesis of s, p, r-Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in a massive star of 70 M_{⊙} with solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The helium core mass after hydrogen burning corresponds to 32 M_{⊙}. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed during the stellar evolution and the jetlike supernova explosion of a collapsar model. We focus on the production of elements heavier than iron group nuclei. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been accomplished consistently from hydrostatic to dynamic stages by using large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. We confirm that s-elements of 60 < A < 90 are highly overproduced relative to the solar abundances in the hydrostatic nucleosynthesis. During oxygen burning, p-elements of A > 90 are produced via photodisintegrations of seed s-elements. However, the produced p-elements are disintegrated in later stages except for ^{180}Ta. In the explosive nucleosynthesis, elements of 90 < A < 160 are significantly overproduced relative to the solar values owing to the r-process, which is very different from the results of spherical explosion models. Only heavy p-elements (N > 50) are overproduced via the p-process because of the low peak temperatures in the oxygen- and neon-rich layers. Compared with the previous study of r-process nucleosynthesis calculations in the collapsar model of 40 M_{⊙} by Fujimoto et al. [S. Fujimoto, M. Hashimoto, K. Kotake and S. Yamada, Astrophys. J. 656 (2007), 382; S. Fujimoto, N. Nishimura and M. Hashimoto, Astrophys. J. 680 (2008), 1350], our jet model cannot contribute to the third peak of the solar r-elements and intermediate p-elements, which have been much produced because of the distribution of the lowest part of electron fraction in the ejecta. Averaging the overproduction factors over the progenitor masses with the use of Salpeter's IMF, we suggest that the 70 M_{⊙} star could contribute to the solar weak s}-elements of 60 < A < 90 and neutron

  14. How Many Nucleosynthesis Processes Exist at Low Metallicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Montes, F.; Arcones, A.

    2014-12-01

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  15. Effects of axions on nucleosynthesis in massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Shohei; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effect of axion cooling on nucleosynthesis in a massive star with 16 M⊙ by a standard stellar evolution calculation. We find that axion cooling suppresses nuclear reactions in carbon, oxygen, and silicon burning phases because of the extraction of the energy. As a result, larger amounts of the already synthesized neon and magnesium remain without being consumed to produce further, heavier elements. Even in the case with axion-photon coupling constant ga γ=10-11 GeV-1 , which is six times smaller than the current upper limit, the amount of neon and magnesium that remain just before the core-collapse supernova explosion is considerably larger than the standard value. This implies that we could give a more stringent constraint on ga γ from the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in massive stars.

  16. Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2007-06-08

    We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

  17. Primordial and Stellar Nucleosynthesis Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Chiosi, Cesare

    2010-03-01

    Following a brief introduction to early Universe cosmology, we present in some detail the results of primordial nucleosynthesis. Then we summarize the basic theory of nuclear reactions in stars and sketch the general rules of stellar evolution. We shortly review the subject of supernova explosions both by core collapse in massive stars (Type II) and carbon-deflagration in binary systems when one of the components is a White Dwarf accreting mass from the companion (Type Ia). We conclude the part dedicated to nucleosynthesis with elementary notions on the s- and r-process. Finally, we shortly address the topic of galactic chemical evolution and highlight some simple solutions aimed at understanding the main observational data on abundances and abundance ratios.

  18. Lepton asymmetry, neutrino spectral distortions, and big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate Boltzmann neutrino energy transport with self-consistently coupled nuclear reactions through the weak-decoupling-nucleosynthesis epoch in an early universe with significant lepton numbers. We find that the presence of lepton asymmetry enhances processes which give rise to nonthermal neutrino spectral distortions. Our results reveal how asymmetries in energy and entropy density uniquely evolve for different transport processes and neutrino flavors. The enhanced distortions in the neutrino spectra alter the expected big bang nucleosynthesis light element abundance yields relative to those in the standard Fermi-Dirac neutrino distribution cases. These yields, sensitive to the shapes of the neutrino energy spectra, are also sensitive to the phasing of the growth of distortions and entropy flow with time/scale factor. We analyze these issues and speculate on new sensitivity limits of deuterium and helium to lepton number.

  19. Challenges to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Steigman, G

    1993-01-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides a unique probe of the early evolution of the Universe and a crucial test of the consistency of the standard hot Big Bang cosmological model. Although the primordial abundances of 2H, 3He, 4He, and 7Li inferred from current observational data are in agreement with those predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recent analysis has severely restricted the consistent range for the nucleon-to-photon ratio: 3.7

  20. Was the Universe actually radiation dominated prior to nucleosynthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, John T.; Kane, Gordon; Nesbit, Eva; Watson, Scott; Zhao, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Maybe not. String theory approaches to both beyond the Standard Model and inflationary model building generically predict the existence of scalars (moduli) that are light compared to the scale of quantum gravity. These moduli become displaced from their low energy minima in the early Universe and lead to a prolonged matter-dominated epoch prior to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In this paper, we examine whether nonperturbative effects such as parametric resonance or tachyonic instabilities can shorten, or even eliminate, the moduli condensate and matter-dominated epoch. Such effects depend crucially on the strength of the couplings, and we find that unless the moduli become strongly coupled, the matter-dominated epoch is unavoidable. In particular, we find that in string and M-theory compactifications where the lightest moduli are near the TeV scale, a matter-dominated epoch will persist until the time of big bang nucleosynthesis.

  1. Lepton asymmetry, neutrino spectral distortions, and big bang nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; ...

    2017-03-03

    In this paper, we calculate Boltzmann neutrino energy transport with self-consistently coupled nuclear reactions through the weak-decoupling-nucleosynthesis epoch in an early universe with significant lepton numbers. We find that the presence of lepton asymmetry enhances processes which give rise to nonthermal neutrino spectral distortions. Our results reveal how asymmetries in energy and entropy density uniquely evolve for different transport processes and neutrino flavors. The enhanced distortions in the neutrino spectra alter the expected big bang nucleosynthesis light element abundance yields relative to those in the standard Fermi-Dirac neutrino distribution cases. These yields, sensitive to the shapes of the neutrino energymore » spectra, are also sensitive to the phasing of the growth of distortions and entropy flow with time/scale factor. Finally, we analyze these issues and speculate on new sensitivity limits of deuterium and helium to lepton number.« less

  2. Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Biao; Bertulani, C. A.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-01-15

    We study the effects of electron screening on nuclear reaction rates occurring during the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. The sensitivity of the predicted elemental abundances on electron screening is studied in detail. It is shown that electron screening does not produce noticeable results in the abundances unless the traditional Debye-Hueckel model for the treatment of electron screening in stellar environments is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This work rules out electron screening as a relevant ingredient to big-bang nucleosynthesis, confirming a previous study [see Itoh et al., Astrophys. J. 488, 507 (1997)] and ruling out exotic possibilities for the treatment of screening beyond the mean-field theoretical approach.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru; Nishimura, Nobuya; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2014-05-02

    We present, for the first time, the result of nucleosynthesis calculations based on the fully general-relativistic simulation of a NS-NS merger with approximate neutrino transport taken into account. It is found that the bulk of the dynamical ejecta are appreciably shock-heated and neutrino-processed, resulting in a wide range of electron fraction, Y{sub e} ∼ 0.1-0.4. The mass-averaged abundance distribution of calculated nucleosynthesis yields is in remarkable agreement with the full-mass range (A ≈ 90-240) of the solar r-process curve. This implies, if our model is representative of such events, that the dynamical ejecta of NS-NS mergers can be the origin of the Galactic r-process nuclei.

  4. HOW MANY NUCLEOSYNTHESIS PROCESSES EXIST AT LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C. J.; Montes, F.; Arcones, A. E-mail: cjhansen@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: almudena.arcones@physik.tu-darmstadt.de

    2014-12-20

    Abundances of low-metallicity stars offer a unique opportunity to understand the contribution and conditions of the different processes that synthesize heavy elements. Many old, metal-poor stars show a robust abundance pattern for elements heavier than Ba, and a less robust pattern between Sr and Ag. Here we probe if two nucleosynthesis processes are sufficient to explain the stellar abundances at low metallicity, and we carry out a site independent approach to separate the contribution from these two processes or components to the total observationally derived abundances. Our approach provides a method to determine the contribution of each process to the production of elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, and Eu. We explore the observed star-to-star abundance scatter as a function of metallicity that each process leads to. Moreover, we use the deduced abundance pattern of one of the nucleosynthesis components to constrain the astrophysical conditions of neutrino-driven winds from core-collapse supernovae.

  5. Dirac fields in loop quantum gravity and big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2008-04-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis requires a fine balance between equations of state for photons and relativistic fermions. Several corrections to equation of state parameters arise from classical and quantum physics, which are derived here from a canonical perspective. In particular, loop quantum gravity allows one to compute quantum gravity corrections for Maxwell and Dirac fields. Although the classical actions are very different, quantum corrections to the equation of state are remarkably similar. To lowest order, these corrections take the form of an overall expansion-dependent multiplicative factor in the total density. We use these results, along with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, to place bounds on these corrections and especially the patch size of discrete quantum gravity states.

  6. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the Post-WMAP Era

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2004-12-10

    An overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the post-WMAP era is presented. With the value of the baryon-to-photon ratio determined to relatively high precision by WMAP, standard BBN no longer has any free parameters. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li is discussed. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. While, the D and 4He observations are concordant with BBN predictions, 7Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density and possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed.

  7. Nuclear Data for Astrophysical Nucleosynthesis: A Japanese + LANL Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Satoshi; Koura, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Seki, Akiyuki; Maruyama, Toshiki; Kawano, Toshihiko; Tachibana, Takahiro; Kajino, Toshitaka; Oryu, Shinsho; Hayakawa, Takehito; Tanigawa, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Ohsaki, Toshiro; Murata, Toru; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

    2005-05-24

    There are many common features in nuclear data for energy applications and nuclear cosmology/astrophysics, especially the neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. Therefore it is a natural consequence to think that many of the tools that we have developed for the conventional nuclear-data applications can be applied for a development of a database for nuclear cosmology/astrophysics. However, there are also many features that are uncommon to these fields, so new development is necessary when we think about a database for nuclear cosmology and astrophysics. Such new development will then give us a new horizon for the conventional nuclear data activities as well. In this paper we will show the present status of our activities in this direction, putting emphasis on data relevant to neutron capture nucleosynthesis, namely s- and r-processes.

  8. Challenges to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Steigman, G

    1993-06-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides a unique probe of the early evolution of the Universe and a crucial test of the consistency of the standard hot Big Bang cosmological model. Although the primordial abundances of 2H, 3He, 4He, and 7Li inferred from current observational data are in agreement with those predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recent analysis has severely restricted the consistent range for the nucleon-to-photon ratio: 3.7

  9. β-decay spectroscopy for the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaborations

    2014-05-09

    Series of decay spectroscopy experiments, utilizing of high-purity Ge detectors and double-sided silicon-strip detectors, have been conducted to harvest the decay properties of very exotic nuclei relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis at the RIBF. The decay properties such as β-decay half-lives, low-lying states, β-delayed neutron emissions, isomeric states, and possibly Q{sub β} of the very neutron-rich nuclei are to be measured to give significant constraints in the uncertainties of nuclear properties for the r-process nucleosynthesis. Recent results of βγ spectroscopy study using in-flight fission of {sup 238}U-beam will be presented together with our future perspectives.

  10. Big bang nucleosynthesis with independent neutrino distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Christel J.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Michael S.

    2009-05-15

    We have performed new big bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which employ arbitrarily specified, time-dependent neutrino and antineutrino distribution functions for each of up to four neutrino flavors. We self-consistently couple these distributions to the thermodynamics, the expansion rate, and scale factor-time/temperature relationship, as well as to all relevant weak, electromagnetic, and strong nuclear reaction processes in the early Universe. With this approach, we can treat any scenario in which neutrino or antineutrino spectral distortion might arise. These scenarios might include, for example, decaying particles, active-sterile neutrino oscillations, and active-active neutrino oscillations in the presence of significant lepton numbers. Our calculations allow lepton numbers and sterile neutrinos to be constrained with observationally determined primordial helium and deuterium abundances. We have modified a standard big bang nucleosynthesis code to perform these calculations and have made it available to the community.

  11. Dirac fields in loop quantum gravity and big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2008-04-15

    Big bang nucleosynthesis requires a fine balance between equations of state for photons and relativistic fermions. Several corrections to equation of state parameters arise from classical and quantum physics, which are derived here from a canonical perspective. In particular, loop quantum gravity allows one to compute quantum gravity corrections for Maxwell and Dirac fields. Although the classical actions are very different, quantum corrections to the equation of state are remarkably similar. To lowest order, these corrections take the form of an overall expansion-dependent multiplicative factor in the total density. We use these results, along with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, to place bounds on these corrections and especially the patch size of discrete quantum gravity states.

  12. Nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanajo, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2014-05-01

    We present, for the first time, the result of nucleosynthesis calculations based on the fully general-relativistic simulation of a NS-NS merger with approximate neutrino transport taken into account. It is found that the bulk of the dynamical ejecta are appreciably shock-heated and neutrino-processed, resulting in a wide range of electron fraction, Ye ˜ 0.1-0.4. The mass-averaged abundance distribution of calculated nucleosynthesis yields is in remarkable agreement with the full-mass range (A ≈ 90-240) of the solar r-process curve. This implies, if our model is representative of such events, that the dynamical ejecta of NS-NS mergers can be the origin of the Galactic r-process nuclei.

  13. Search for sharp and smooth spectral signatures of μνSSM gravitino dark matter with Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; López-Fogliani, Daniel E.; Muñoz, Carlos; Perez, Andres D.; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    The μνSSM solves the μ problem of supersymmetric models and reproduces neutrino data, simply using couplings with right-handed neutrinos ν's. Given that these couplings break explicitly R parity, the gravitino is a natural candidate for decaying dark matter in the μνSSM. In this work we carry out a complete analysis of the detection of μνSSM gravitino dark matter through γ-ray observations. In addition to the two-body decay producing a sharp line, we include in the analysis the three-body decays producing a smooth spectral signature. We perform first a deep exploration of the low-energy parameter space of the μνSSM taking into account that neutrino data must be reproduced. Then, we compare the γ-ray fluxes predicted by the model with Fermi-LAT observations. In particular, with the 95% CL upper limits on the total diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background using 50 months of data, together with the upper limits on line emission from an updated analysis using 69.9 months of data. For standard values of bino and wino masses, gravitinos with masses larger than about 4 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 1028 s, produce too large fluxes and are excluded as dark matter candidates. However, when limiting scenarios with large and close values of the gaugino masses are considered, the constraints turn out to be less stringent, excluding masses larger than 17 GeV and lifetimes smaller than 4 × 1025 s.

  14. The r-, s-, and p-Processes in Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Bradley S.

    1994-01-01

    A goal of this paper is to review the recent progress astrophysicists, astronomers, and physicists have made in the r-, s-, and p-processes in nucleosynthesis and to point out the problems that remain in our understanding of the formation of the heavy nuclei. Another, perhaps deeper, goal is to to seek some understanding of why there are three major processes available to nature for synthesis of heavy elements.

  15. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  16. Constraints on massive gravity theory from big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambiase, G.

    2012-10-01

    The massive gravity cosmology is studied in the scenario of big bang nucleosynthesis. By making use of current bounds on the deviation from the fractional mass, we derive the constraints on the free parameters of the theory. The cosmological consequences of the model are also analyzed in the framework of the PAMELA experiment, i.e. an excess of positron events, that the conventional cosmology and particle physics cannot explain.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations for r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew Ryan

    2015-11-12

    A Monte Carlo framework is developed for exploring the impact of nuclear model uncertainties on the formation of the heavy elements. Mass measurements tightly constrain the macroscopic sector of FRDM2012. For r-process nucleosynthesis, it is necessary to understand the microscopic physics of the nuclear model employed. A combined approach of measurements and a deeper understanding of the microphysics is thus warranted to elucidate the site of the r-process.

  18. The Effects of Collective Neutrino Oscillations on Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadrow, Shaquann; Frohlich, C.; Duan, H.; Friedland, A.; McLaughlin, G.; Keohane, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova originates from the implosion of the electron degenerate core inside a massive star. Runaway electron capture produces on the order of 1057 neutrinos containing about 1053 erg of energy in total. While the vast majority of neutrinos are eventually released, during the first few seconds these neutrinos drive both the dynamics, and likewise the nucleosynthesis, inside the supernova. Recently, our understanding of oscillations among the different flavors of neutrinos (electron, muon, and tau) has significantly improved, allowing us to ask if neutrino flavor change has a significant effect on nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova. To investigate the effects of collective neutrino flavor oscillations, we use the hydrodynamic conditions from a spherically-symmetrical model of the implosion, bounce, and explosion of the 1.4 solar mass core that is inside an 8.8 solar mass star (Huedepohl et al. 2009). We select 20 mass tracers in the ejecta, varying in initial radii, and follow these trajectories for the first 9 seconds following bounce. We include these trajectories into a nuclear reaction network in order to calculate the detailed nucleosynthesis. We use three sets of neutrino reaction rates, all of which are calculated consistently with the conditions in the supernova model: (i) no collective flavor oscillations, (ii) collective oscillations for normal neutrino mass hierarchy, and (iii) collective oscillations for inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We calculate the detailed nucleosynthesis for each trajectory for all three sets of neutrino rates. We find that the inclusion of collective oscillations (ii or iii) significantly increases the free neutron abundance; however, we obtain similar results regardless of which hierarchy is used. The increase in free neutrons also increases the subsequent rate of neutron capture, but has only a small effect on the predicted final abundances. This work was performed as part of North Carolina State

  19. Solar-system abundances and processes of nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolum, Dorothy S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of the elements is studied. The average elemental composition of the solar system is examined and used to infer the primordial solar system abundances of the individual nuclides. Patterns in these nuclide abundances are used as clues to their origin. The possible cosmic significance of the patterns are considered. The astrophysical settings for nucleosynthesis and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and information based on observed isotopic anomalies in meteorites are taken into account.

  20. {beta}-decay of {sup 23}Al and nova nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J.; Trache, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Bentley, M. A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.

    2010-11-24

    We have studied the {beta}-decay of {sup 23}Al with a novel detector setup at the focal plane of the MARS separator at the Texas A and M University to resolve existing controversies about the proton intensities of the IAS in {sup 23}Mg and to determine the absolute proton branching ratios by combining our results to the latest {gamma}-decay data. Experimental technique, results and the relevance for nova nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  1. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, George

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  2. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  3. Stochastic isocurvature baryon fluctuations, baryon diffusion, and primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kurki-Suonio, H.; Jedamzik, K.; Mathews, G.J.

    1997-04-01

    We examine effects on primordial nucleosynthesis from a truly random, one-dimensional spatial distribution in the baryon-to-photon ratio ({eta}). We generate stochastic fluctuation spectra characterized by different spectral indices and rms fluctuation amplitudes. For the first time we explicitly calculate the effects of baryon diffusion on the nucleosynthesis yields of such stochastic fluctuations. We also consider the collapse instability of large mass scale inhomogeneities. Our results are generally applicable to any primordial mechanism producing fluctuations in {eta} which can be characterized by a spectral index. In particular, these results apply to primordial isocurvature baryon fluctuation (PIB) models. The amplitudes of fluctuations that are scale-invariant in baryon fluctuation (PIB) models. The amplitudes of fluctuations that are scale-invariant in baryon density are found to be severely constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis. However, when the {eta} distribution is characterized by decreasing fluctuation amplitudes with increasing length scale, surprisingly large fluctuation amplitudes on the baryon diffusion scale are allowed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  4. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos & Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sanjay

    2013-09-06

    It is now firmly established that neutrinos, which are copiously produced in the hot and dense core of the supernova, play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism and in the synthesis of heavy elements through a phenomena known as r-process nucleosynthesis. They are also detectable in terrestrial neutrino experiments, and serve as a probe of the extreme environment and complex dynamics encountered in the supernova. The major goal of the UW research activity relevant to this project was to calculate the neutrino interaction rates in hot and dense matter of relevance to core collapse supernova. These serve as key input physics in large scale computer simulations of the supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis being pursued at national laboratories here in the United States and by other groups in Europe and Japan. Our calculations show that neutrino production and scattering rate are altered by the nuclear interactions and that these modifications have important implications for nucleosynthesis and terrestrial neutrino detection. The calculation of neutrino rates in dense matter are difficult because nucleons in the dense matter are strongly coupled. A neutrino interacts with several nucleons and the quantum interference between scattering off different nucleons depends on the nature of correlations between them in dense matter. To describe these correlations we used analytic methods based on mean field theory and hydrodynamics, and computational methods such as Quantum Monte Carlo. We found that due to nuclear effects neutrino production rates at relevant temperatures are enhanced, and that electron neutrinos are more easily absorbed than anti-electron neutrinos in dense matter. The latter, was shown to favor synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements in the supernova.

  5. The Effects of Cold Dark Matter on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ronald John David

    We show that the annihilation of cold, weakly -interacting dark matter candidates (chi) subsequent to chichi freeze -out can significantly affect the primordial abundance of light elements. The largest effects are (1) between the n/p freeze-out temperature (T ~eq 0.7 MeV) and the onset of nucleosynthesis at T ~eq 0.1 MeV, chichi annihilations increase the n/p ratio, leading to increased ^4He production; (2) following ^4He synthesis, baryonic products n,n,p of chichi annihilations dissociate some the the ^4He into D and ^3He, leading to increased D + ^3He abundances; (3) toward the end of nucleosynthesis, neutrons from chi chi annihilation lead to n + ^7 Be to p + ^7 Li, resulting in increased ^7Li + ^7Be production for low values of eta equiv n_{rm b}/n _gamma and decreased ^7 Li + ^7Be production for large eta, and (4) long after nucleosynthesis, once the universe cools below T ~eq 1 keV, the electromagnetic shower produced by electrons, positrons and photons from residual chichi annihilations cause further dissociation of ^4He, leading to increased CD + ^3He abundances. The most important result is that for Direc and Majorna neutrinos, the ^7 Li constraints on eta from SBBN are noticeably affected, with larger values of eta being favored. A summary of scattering rates for processes in the electromagnetic shower, containing corrections to numerous misprints in other sources, is presented in an Appendix. A listing of FORTRAN code used in the shower calculation is also included. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of Maharishi's Vedic Science, an ancient science which presents both knowledge and experience of the transcendental basis of life.

  6. Capture reactions on C-14 in nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiescher, Michael; Gorres, Joachim; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    1990-01-01

    Nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis leads to the production of C-14. The further reaction path depends on the depletion of C-14 by either photon, alpha, or neutron capture reactions. The nucleus C-14 is of particular importance in these scenarios because it forms a bottleneck for the production of heavier nuclei A greater than 14. The reaction rates of all three capture reactions at big bang conditions are discussed, and it is shown that the resulting reaction path, leading to the production of heavier elements, is dominated by the (p, gamma) and (n, gamma) rates, contrary to earlier suggestions.

  7. Let's go: Early universe 2. Primordial nucleosynthesis the computer way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawano, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    This is a revised description and manual for the primordial nucleosynthesis program, NUC123, an updated and modified version of the code of R.V. Wagoner. NUC123 has undergone a number of changes, further enhancing its documentation and ease of use. Presented here is a guide to its use, followed by a series of appendices containing specific details such as a summary of the basic structure of the program, a description of the computational algorithm, and a presentation of the theory incorporated into the program.

  8. Nucleosynthesis of Binary low mass zero-metallicity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ho Bun Herbert; Stancliffe, R. J.; Tout, C. A.

    The Cambridge STARS code is used to model the evolution and nucleosynthesis of binary zero- metallicity low to intermediate mass stars. The surfaces of these stars are enriched in CNO ele- ments after second dredge up. During binary interaction metals can be released from these stars and the secondary enriched in CNO. The observed abundances of HE 0107-5240 can be repro- duced from enhanced wind accretion from a 7 M after second dredge up. HE 1327-2326, richer in nitrogen and Sr, can similarly be formed by wind accretion in a later AGB phase after third dredge up.

  9. Nucleosynthesis and neutrino physics in compact object mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The merger of two compact objects produces a range of environments suitable for interesting element synthesis, from cold or mildly heated prompt ejecta to hot winds influenced by the neutrino emission from the resulting accretion disk. The nuclei newly synthesized in these environments can power an electromagnetic transient via their radioactive decay and likely make key contributions to galactic chemical evolution. Here we will describe how new and anticipated advances in nuclear and neutrino physics are shaping our understanding of nucleosynthesis in this important astrophysical site. Supported in part by the Department of Energy under contract DE-SC0013039.

  10. Stellar nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1988-01-01

    Current theoretical models of nucleosynthesis (N) in stars are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for Galactic chemical evolution. Topics addressed include the Galactic population II red giants and early N; N in the big bang; star formation, stellar evolution, and the ejection of thermonuclearly evolved debris; the chemical evolution of an idealized disk galaxy; analytical solutions for a closed-box model with continuous infall; and nuclear burning processes and yields. Consideration is given to shell N in massive stars, N related to degenerate cores, and the types of observational data used to constrain N models. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  11. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-09-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star. After that, an outward moving shock triggers a successful supernova. However, the supernova ejecta lacks momentum and within a few seconds the newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta has been studied extensively in the past. We use these well-established hydrodynamic models for our accretion disk in order to understand nucleosynthesis, which is mainly advection dominated in the outer regions. Neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. The higher the accretion rate (dot M) is, the higher the density and temperature are in the disks. We deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 Msolar s-1 ≲ dot M ≲ 0.01 Msolar s-1 and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Sirich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they

  12. Experimental studies of reactions relevant for γ-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, P.; Endres, J.; Hennig, A.; Mayer, J.; Netterdon, L.; Zilges, A.; Sauerwein, A.

    2014-05-09

    We report on our recent experimental studies of reactions relevant for the γ process nucleosynthesis. Applying the activation method using the Cologne Clover Counting Setup total cross sections of the reactions {sup 168}Yb(α,γ), {sup 168}Yb(α,n), and {sup 187}Re(α,n) could be obtained. Furthermore, the reaction {sup 89}Y(p,γ) was investigated via the in-beam technique with HPGe detectors at the high-efficiency g-ray spectrometer HORUS in Cologne in order to determine partial and total cross sections.

  13. Nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, I. V.

    2016-03-15

    The current state of the problem of heavy-element production in the astrophysical r-process is surveyed. The nucleosynthesis process in the neutron-star-merger scenario, within which the problem of free-neutron source is solved, is considered most comprehensively. A model that describes well the observed abundances of heavy elements is examined. Theoretical approaches used in this model to calculate a number of features of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei are described. The contributions of various fission processes to the production of heavy elements are assessed. The possibility of superheavy-element production in the r-process is demonstrated.

  14. New nucleosynthesis constraint on the variation of G.

    PubMed

    Copi, Craig J; Davis, Adam N; Krauss, Lawrence M

    2004-04-30

    Big bang nucleosynthesis can provide, via constraints on the expansion rate at that time, limits on possible variations in Newton's constant, G. The original analyses were performed before an independent measurement of the baryon-to-photon ratio from the cosmic microwave background was available. Combining this with recent measurements of the primordial deuterium abundance in quasar absorption systems now allows one to derive a new tighter constraint on G without recourse to considerations of helium or lithium abundances. We find that, compared to today's value, G0, G(BBN)/G(0)=1.01(+0.20)(-0.16) at the 68% confidence level.

  15. Nonequilibrium Decays of Light Particles and Primordial Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A. D.; Kirilova, D. P.

    Possible modifications of the standard big-bang nucleosynthesis scenario, which would loosen the bound on the number of neutrino flavors, are examined. A concrete model with light ((mx=O(MeV)) quasistable particles (τx 1 s) decaying into ν bar {ν } is considered. If the decay products do not thermalize they shift the frozen neutron-to-proton ratio and respectively the abundance of the light element produced primordially. The direction of this shift depends on the parameters of the model. Correspondingly for the particular choice of these parameters the restrictions on the number of neutrino flavors may be considerably weakened.

  16. Capture reactions on C-14 in nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiescher, Michael; Gorres, Joachim; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    1990-01-01

    Nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis leads to the production of C-14. The further reaction path depends on the depletion of C-14 by either photon, alpha, or neutron capture reactions. The nucleus C-14 is of particular importance in these scenarios because it forms a bottleneck for the production of heavier nuclei A greater than 14. The reaction rates of all three capture reactions at big bang conditions are discussed, and it is shown that the resulting reaction path, leading to the production of heavier elements, is dominated by the (p, gamma) and (n, gamma) rates, contrary to earlier suggestions.

  17. The Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars Project - Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillmann, I.; Szücs, T.; Plag, R.; Fülöp, Z.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-06-01

    The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) project is an astrophysical online database for cross sections relevant for nucleosynthesis in the s process and the γ process. The s-process database (http://www.kadonis.org)

  18. METALLICITY-DEPENDENT GALACTIC ISOTOPIC DECOMPOSITION FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu

    2013-09-01

    All stellar evolution models for nucleosynthesis require an initial isotopic abundance set to use as a starting point. Generally, our knowledge of isotopic abundances of stars is fairly incomplete except for the Sun. We present a first model for a complete average isotopic decomposition as a function of metallicity. Our model is based on the underlying nuclear astrophysics processes, and is fitted to observational data, rather than traditional forward galactic chemical evolution modeling which integrates stellar yields beginning from big bang nucleosynthesis. We first decompose the isotopic solar abundance pattern into contributions from astrophysical sources. Each contribution is then assumed to scale as a function of metallicity. The resulting total isotopic abundances are summed into elemental abundances and fitted to available halo and disk stellar data to constrain the model's free parameter values. This procedure allows us to use available elemental observational data to reconstruct and constrain both the much needed complete isotopic evolution that is not accessible to current observations, and the underlying astrophysical processes. As an example, our model finds a best fit for Type Ia contributing {approx_equal} 0.7 to the solar Fe abundance, and Type Ia onset occurring at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.1, in agreement with typical values.

  19. Nucleosynthesis: Stellar and Solar Abundances and Atomic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; DenHartog, E. A.; Collier, Jason; Dodge, Homer L.

    2006-01-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of often surprisingly large amounts of neutron capture (i.e., s- and r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy the progenitors of the halo stars responsible for neutron-capture synthesis. Comparisons of abundance trends can be used to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the nature of heavy element nucleosynthesis. In addition age determinations, based upon long-lived radioactive nuclei abundances, can now be obtained. These stellar abundance determinations depend critically upon atomic data. Improved laboratory transition probabilities have been recently obtained for a number of elements. These new gf values have been used to greatly refine the abundances of neutron-capture elemental abundances in the solar photosphere and in very metal-poor Galactic halo stars. The newly determined stellar abundances are surprisingly consistent with a (relative) Solar System r-process pattern, and are also consistent with abundance predictions expected from such neutron-capture nucleosynthesis.

  20. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  1. Challenges in nucleosynthesis of trans-iron elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, T.

    2014-04-15

    Nucleosynthesis beyond Fe poses additional challenges not encountered when studying astrophysical processes involving light nuclei. Astrophysical sites and conditions are not well known for some of the processes involved. On the nuclear physics side, different approaches are required, both in theory and experiment. The main differences and most important considerations are presented for a selection of nucleosynthesis processes and reactions, specifically the s-, r-, γ-, and νp-processes. Among the discussed issues are uncertainties in sites and production conditions, the difference between laboratory and stellar rates, reaction mechanisms, important transitions, thermal population of excited states, and uncertainty estimates for stellar rates. The utility and limitations of indirect experimental approaches are also addressed. The presentation should not be viewed as confining the discussed problems to the specific processes. The intention is to generally introduce the concepts and possible pitfalls along with some examples. Similar problems may apply to further astrophysical processes involving nuclei from the Fe region upward and/or at high plasma temperatures. The framework and strategies presented here are intended to aid the conception of future experimental and theoretical approaches.

  2. Nucleosynthesis of s-elements in rotating AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Langer, N.

    2004-03-01

    We analyze the s-process nucleosynthesis in models of rotating AGB stars, using a complete nuclear network covering nuclei up to Polonium. During the stage of thermal pulses, the extreme shear field that develops at the base of the convective envelope leads to the injection of protons into the adjacent 12C-rich core. Subsequent proton captures lead to overlapping 14N-rich and 13C-rich layers. While the 13C nuclei release neutrons due to α- captures during the interpulse phase, the persistence of mixing due to differential rotation produces a contamination of the whole 13C-rich layer with 14N. The result is a quenching of the s-process efficiency. Our study emphasizes the sensitivity of the s-process nucleosynthesis to the strength and duration of the shear mixing phase. Uncertainties in the rate of 13C(α,n) turn out to have small effects on the resultant distribution of s-elements. Finally, we show that in this framework, a deeper third dredge-up tends to further inhibit the production of s-elements.

  3. Constraints on Bygone Nucleosynthesis of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Zach; Deibel, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear burning near the surface of an accreting neutron star produces ashes that, when compressed deeper by further accretion, alter the star’s thermal and compositional structure. Bygone nucleosynthesis can be constrained by the impact of compressed ashes on the thermal relaxation of quiescent neutron star transients. In particular, Urca cooling nuclei pairs in nuclear burning ashes that cool the neutron star crust via neutrino emission from {e}--capture/{β }--decay cycles and provide signatures of prior nuclear burning over the ˜century timescales it takes to accrete to the {e}--capture depth of the strongest cooling pairs. Using crust cooling models of the accreting neutron star transient MAXI J0556-332, we show that this source likely lacked Type I X-ray bursts and superbursts ≳120 years ago. Reduced nuclear physics uncertainties in rp-process reaction rates and {e}--capture weak transition strengths for low-lying transitions will improve nucleosynthesis constraints using this technique.

  4. Primordial lithium abundance in catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Chris; Koopmans, Kristen; Pospelov, Maxim

    2008-10-01

    There exists a well-known problem with the Li7+Be7 abundance predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis being larger than the value observed in population II stars. The catalysis of big bang nucleosynthesis by metastable, τX≳103sec, charged particles X- is capable of suppressing the primordial Li7+Be7 abundance and making it consistent with the observations. We show that to produce the correct abundance, this mechanism of suppression places a requirement on the initial abundance of X- at temperatures of 4×108K to be on the order of or larger than 0.02 per baryon, which is within the natural range of abundances in models with metastable electroweak-scale particles. The suppression of Li7+Be7 is triggered by the formation of (Be7X-) compound nuclei, with fast depletion of their abundances by catalyzed proton reactions, and in some models by direct capture of X- on Be7. The combination of Li7+Be7 and Li6 constraints favors the window of lifetimes, 1000s≲τX≤2000s.

  5. Modified big bang nucleosynthesis with nonstandard neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coc, Alain; Pospelov, Maxim; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    During big bang nucleosynthesis, any injection of extra neutrons around the time of the Be7 formation, i.e. at a temperature of order T ≃50 keV, can reduce the predicted freeze-out amount of Be7+Li7 that otherwise remains in sharp contradiction with the Spite plateau value inferred from the observations of Pop II stars. However, the growing confidence in the primordial D /H determinations puts a strong constraint on any such scenario. We address this issue in detail, analyzing different temporal patterns of neutron injection, such as decay, annihilation, resonant annihilation, and oscillation between mirror and standard model world neutrons. For this latter case, we derive the realistic injection pattern taking into account thermal effects (damping and refraction) in the primordial plasma. If the extra-neutron supply is the sole nonstandard mechanism operating during the big bang nucleosynthesis, the suppression of lithium abundance below Li /H≤1.9×10-10 always leads to the overproduction of deuterium, D /H≥3.6×10-5, well outside the error bars suggested by recent observations.

  6. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in GRB Jets Accompanied by Hypernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nagataki, Shigehiro; Mizuta, Akira; Sato, Katsuhiko; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., RESCEU

    2006-09-21

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a collapsar using the model of MacFadyen and Woosley (1999). It is shown that {sup 56}Ni is not produced in the jet of the collapsar sufficiently to explain the observed amount of a hypernova when the duration of the explosion is {approx} 10 sec, which is considered to be the typical timescale of explosion in the collapsar model. Even though a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized if all explosion energy is deposited initially, the opening angles of the jets become too wide to realize highly relativistic outflows and gamma-ray bursts in such a case. From these results, it is concluded that the origin of {sup 56}Ni in hypernovae associated with GRBs is not the explosive nucleosynthesis in the jet. We consider that the idea that the origin is the explosive nucleosynthesis in the accretion disk is more promising. We also show that the explosion becomes bi-polar naturally due to the effect of the deformed progenitor. This fact suggests that the {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the accretion disk and conveyed as outflows are blown along to the rotation axis, which will explain the line features of SN 1998bw and double peaked line features of SN 2003jd. Some fraction of the gamma-ray lines from {sup 56}Ni decays in the jet will appear without losing their energies because the jet becomes optically thin before a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni decays as long as the jet is a relativistic flow, which may be observed as relativistically Lorentz boosted line profiles in future. We show that abundance of nuclei whose mass number {approx} 40 in the ejecta depends sensitively on the energy deposition rate, which is a result of incomplete silicon burning and alpha-rich freezeout. So it may be determined by observations of chemical composition in metal poor stars which model is the proper one as a model of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by a hypernova.

  7. The heavy element yields of neutron capture nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration of the contribution made to the abundances of the heavy element isotopes by the S- and R-processes of nucleosynthesis has led to the determination that the previous assumption concerning the exclusive alignment of isobars to one or the other of these processes is probably in error. If the relatively small odd and even mass number abundance fluctuations characterizing R-process abundances are always the case, as assumed by this study, S-process contributions to the abundances of R-process isobars are substantial, consistent with transient flashing episodes in the S-process neutron production processes. A smooth and monotonically-decreasing curve of the abundance of the S-process yields times the neutron capture cross-section versus mass number is therefore the primary tool for the separation of the abundances due to the two processes.

  8. BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS WITH A NON-MAXWELLIAN DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, C. A.; Fuqua, J.; Hussein, M. S.

    2013-04-10

    The abundances of light elements based on the big bang nucleosynthesis model are calculated using the Tsallis non-extensive statistics. The impact of the variation of the non-extensive parameter q from the unity value is compared to observations and to the abundance yields from the standard big bang model. We find large differences between the reaction rates and the abundance of light elements calculated with the extensive and the non-extensive statistics. We found that the observations are consistent with a non-extensive parameter q = 1{sub -} {sub 0.12}{sup +0.05}, indicating that a large deviation from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics (q = 1) is highly unlikely.

  9. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, P; Luu, T; Platter, L

    2010-12-13

    We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way we use lattice QCD data and an hierarchy of effective field theories. We find that the measured {sup 4}He abundances put a bound of {delta}-1% {approx}< m{sub q}/m{sub 1} {approx}< 0.7%. The effect of quark mass variations on the deuterium abundances can be largely compensated by changes of the baryon-to-photon ratio {eta}. Including the bounds on the variation of {eta} coming from WMAP results and some additional assumptions narrows the range of allowed values of {delta}m{sub q}/m{sub q} somewhat.

  10. [Nucleosynthesis, Rotation and Magnetism in Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This is my final report on the NASA ATP grant on nucleosynthesis, rotation and magnetism in accreting neutron stars (NAG5-8658). In my last two reports, I summarized the science that I have accomplished, which covered a large range of topics. For this report, I want to point out the graduate students that were partially supported on this grant and where they are now. Andrew Cumming is an Assistant Professor of Physics at McGill University, Greg Ushomirsky is a researcher at MIT s Lincoln Laboratories, Dean Townsley is a postdoctoral researcher at Univ. of Chicago, Chris Deloye is a postdoctoral researcher at Northwestern University. The other two students, Phil Chang and Tony Piro, are still at UCSB and will be completing their PhD s in Summer 05 and Summer 06.

  11. Global Monte Carlo Calculations for r-process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpower, Matthew; Surman, Rebecca; Aprahamian, Ani

    2015-10-01

    The rapid neutron capture process is believed to be responsible for the production of approximately half of the heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Nuclear physics properties (e.g. nuclear masses, neutron capture rates, β-decay rates, and β-delayed neutron emission branching ratios) are critical inputs that go into theoretical calculations of this nucleosynthesis process. We highlight the current capabilities of nuclear models to reproduce the pattern of solar r-process residuals by performing global Monte Carlo variations of the uncertain nuclear physics inputs. We also explore the reduction in uncertainties that may arise from new measurements or improved modeling and discuss the implications for using abundance pattern details to constrain the site of the r process. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics Grant Numbers PHY0822648 and PHY1419765, and the Department of Energy under Contracts DE-SC0013039 (RS).

  12. Nucleosynthesis in the neighborhood of a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary results from simulations of nucleosynthesis inside a thick accretion disk around a black hole are discussed as a function of the accretion rate, the viscosity parameter, and the mass of the black hole. Results for the Bondi accretion case are also presented. Taking the case of a 10-solar mass and a 10 to the 6th-solar mass central Schwarzschild hole, detailed evolution of a representative element of matter as it accretes into the hole is presented in the case when the initial abundance (at the outer edge of the disk) is the same as the solar abundance. It is suggested that such studies may eventually shed light on the composition of the outgoing jets observed in the active galaxies and SS433.

  13. Nuclear Mass Systematics With Neural Nets And Astrophysical Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassopoulos, S.; Mavrommatis, E.; Gernoth, K. A.; Clark, J. W.

    2006-04-26

    We construct a neural network model that predicts the differences between the experimental mass-excess values {delta}Mexp and the theoretical values {delta}MFRDM given by the Finite Range Droplet Model of Moeller et al. This difficult study reveals that subtle regularities of nuclear structure not yet embodied in the best microscopic/phenomenological models of atomic-mass systematics do actually exist. By combining the FRDM and the above neural network model we construct a Hybrid Model with improved predictive performance in the majority of the calculations of the systematics of nuclear mass excess and of related quantities. Such systematics is of current interest among others in such astrophysical problems as nucleosynthesis processes and the justification of the present abundances.

  14. Explosive Nucleosynthesis of Ultra-Stripped Type Ic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suwa, Yudai; Umeda, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru; Takahashi, Koh

    We investigate the explosive nucleosynthesis of ultra-stripped Type Ic supernovae (SNe) evolved from 1.45 and 1.5 M ⊙ CO stars. We calculate the SN explosions using two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics code. The explosion energy of these SNe is about 1050 erg and the ejecta mass is about 0.1 M ⊙ . The 56Ni yield is (6-10) × 10-3 M ⊙ . Light curve of ultra-stripped SNe would be fast-fading and subluminous like SN 2005ek. Neutrino-driven winds contain neutron-rich materials and the first-peak r-process elements are produced. Ultra-stripped SNe and sub-energetic SNe evolved from single stars having a small CO core could be sources of light r-elements.

  15. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Luu, Thomas; Platter, Lucas

    2011-04-01

    We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created by a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way, we use lattice QCD data and a hierarchy of effective field theories. We find that the measured He4 abundances put a bound of -1%≲δmq/mq≲0.7% on a possible variation of quark masses. The effect of quark mass variations on the deuterium abundances can be largely compensated by changes of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Including bounds on the variation of η coming from WMAP results and adding some additional assumptions further narrows the range of allowed values of δmq/mq.

  16. Big bang nucleosynthesis and the quark-hadron transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Matzner, Richard A.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1990-01-01

    An examination and brief review is made of the effects of quark-hadron transition induced fluctuations on Big Bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that cosmologically critical densities in baryons are difficult to reconcile with observation, but the traditional baryon density constraints from homogeneous calculations might be loosened by as much as 50 percent, to 0.3 of critical density, and the limit on the number of neutrino flavors remains about N(sub nu) is less than or approximately 4. To achieve baryon densities of greater than or approximately 0.3 of critical density would require initial density contrasts R is much greater the 10(exp e), whereas the simplest models for the transition seem to restrict R to less than of approximately 10(exp 2).

  17. Stau-catalyzed big-bang nucleosynthesis reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-06-01

    We study the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a hypothetical long-lived negatively charged, massive leptonic particle (called X-) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau, the scalar partner of the tau lepton. It is known that if the X- particle has a lifetime of τX>~103 s, it can capture a light element previously synthesized in standard BBN and form a Coulombic bound state and induces various types of reactions in which X- acts as a catalyst. Some of these X- catalyzed reactions have significantly large cross sections so that the inclusion of the reactions into the BBN network calculation can markedly change the abundances of some elements. We use a high-accuracy three-body calculation method developed by the authors and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  18. Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the Quark-Hadron transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Matzner, Richard A.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    An examination and brief review is made of the effects of quark-hadron transistion induced fluctuations on Big Bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that cosmologically critical densities in baryons are difficult to reconcile with observation, but the traditional baryon density constraints from homogeneous calculations might be loosened by as much as 50 percent, to 0.3 of critical density, and the limit on the number of neutrino flavors remains about N(sub nu) is less than or approximately 4. To achieve baryon densities of greater than or approximately 0.3 of critical density would require initial density contrasts R is much greater the 10(exp 3), whereas the simplest models for the transition seem to restrict R to less than of approximately 10(exp 2).

  19. Big bang nucleosynthesis and the quark-hadron transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Matzner, Richard A.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1990-01-01

    An examination and brief review is made of the effects of quark-hadron transition induced fluctuations on Big Bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that cosmologically critical densities in baryons are difficult to reconcile with observation, but the traditional baryon density constraints from homogeneous calculations might be loosened by as much as 50 percent, to 0.3 of critical density, and the limit on the number of neutrino flavors remains about N(sub nu) is less than or approximately 4. To achieve baryon densities of greater than or approximately 0.3 of critical density would require initial density contrasts R is much greater the 10(exp e), whereas the simplest models for the transition seem to restrict R to less than of approximately 10(exp 2).

  20. The R-process, nucleosynthesis, and new nuclear masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Precise, accurate measurements of nuclear masses are crucial for astrophysical modeling, reproducing the observed solar abundances of the elements, and for disentangling the nuclear physics imprinted on those abundances. More generally, masses are necessary for understanding nucleosynthesis via the r-process, thought to be responsible for over 50% of the elements heavier than Iron. The advent of ion traps and storage rings has generated a profusion of very precise measurements since the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation. I compiled an up-to-date list of new measurements from labs worldwide and incorporated them into Bradley Meyer's (Clemson University) classical model of the r-process to examine the impact of the new measurements. Sensitivity studies of various theoretical mass models and the new measurements in the r-process code, showed the largest deviations in the A=70-85 mass region. These studies will be used to plan new measurements of nuclei along the r-process path, near ^78Ni.

  1. Nuclear Physics Issues of r-Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, K.-L.

    2006-03-13

    Nucleosynthesis theory predicts that about half of the chemical elements above iron are formed in explosive stellar scenarios by the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, inverse photodisintegrations, and slower {beta}-decays, {beta}-delayed processes, as well as fission and possibly interactions with neutrinos. A correct modelling of this process, therefore, requires the knowledge of nuclear properties very far from stability and a detailed description of the astrophysical environments. With respect to nuclear data, after an initial period of measuring classical 'waiting-point' nuclei with magic neutron numbers, recent investigations have paid special attention to shape transitions and the erosion of classical shell gaps with possible occurrence of new magic numbers. The status of experimental and theoretical nuclear data on masses and {beta}-decay properties will be briefly reviewed, and consequences on the overall r-process matter flow up to the cosmochronometers 232Th and 238U will be discussed.

  2. Dark/visible parallel universes and Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, C. A.; Frederico, T.; Fuqua, J.; Hussein, M. S.; Oliveira, O.; Paula, W. de

    2012-11-20

    We develop a model for visible matter-dark matter interaction based on the exchange of a massive gray boson called herein the Mulato. Our model hinges on the assumption that all known particles in the visible matter have their counterparts in the dark matter. We postulate six families of particles five of which are dark. This leads to the unavoidable postulation of six parallel worlds, the visible one and five invisible worlds. A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background (CMB) bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. Modification of the statistics underlying the kinetic energy distribution of particles during the BBN is also discussed. The changes in reaction rates during the BBN due to a departure from the Debye-Hueckel electron screening model is also investigated.

  3. Effects of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings on primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Hardy M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    A precise calculation is done of the primordial nucleosynthesis constraint on the energy per length of ordinary and superconducting cosmic strings. A general formula is provided for the constraint on the string tension for ordinary strings. Using the current values for the various parameters that describe the evolution of loops, the constraint for ordinary strings is G mu less than 2.2 x 10 to the minus 5 power. Our constraint is weaker than previously quoted limits by a factor of approximately 5. For superconducting loops, with currents generated by primordial magnetic fields, the constraint can be less or more stringent than this limit, depending on the strength of the magnetic field. It is also found in this case that there is a negligible amount of entropy production if the electromagnetic radiation from strings thermalizes with the radiation background.

  4. Outflows from neutron star merger remnant disks: nucleosynthesis and kilonovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Foucart, Francois; Metzger, Brian; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-03-01

    The accretion disk formed in a neutron star merger can drive powerful winds on timescales of 100ms to seconds after coalescence. The wind material is more strongly irradiated by neutrinos than the dynamical ejecta, and hence has a less neutron-rich composition, with implications for r-process element synthesis and the radioactively-powered kilonova transient. This talk will present preliminary results from projects aimed at quantifying (1) the nucleosynthesis yield from disks around hypermassive neutron stars, (2) the effect of MHD turbulence on mass ejection when a black hole sits at the center, and (3) the interaction between disk wind and dynamical ejecta when the relative masses of these components vary.

  5. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE OF ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, S.; Nomoto, K.; Janka, H.-T.; Kitaura, F. S.; Mueller, B. E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: kitaura@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2009-04-10

    We examine nucleosynthesis in the electron capture supernovae of progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars with an O-Ne-Mg core (with the initial stellar mass of 8.8 M {sub sun}). Thermodynamic trajectories for the first 810 ms after core bounce are taken from a recent state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulation. The presented nucleosynthesis results are characterized by a number of distinct features that are not shared with those of other supernovae from the collapse of stars with iron core (with initial stellar masses of more than 10 M {sub sun}). First is the small amount of {sup 56}Ni (0.002-0.004 M {sub sun}) in the ejecta, which can be an explanation for the observed properties of faint supernovae such as SNe 2008S and 1997D. In addition, the large Ni/Fe ratio is in reasonable agreement with the spectroscopic result of the Crab nebula (the relic of SN 1054). Second is the large production of {sup 64}Zn, {sup 70}Ge, light p-nuclei ({sup 74}Se, {sup 78}Kr, {sup 84}Sr, and {sup 92}Mo), and in particular, {sup 90}Zr, which originates from the low Y{sub e} (0.46-0.49, the number of electrons per nucleon) ejecta. We find, however, that only a 1%-2% increase of the minimum Y{sub e} moderates the overproduction of {sup 90}Zr. In contrast, the production of {sup 64}Zn is fairly robust against a small variation of Y{sub e} . This provides the upper limit of the occurrence of this type of events to be about 30% of all core-collapse supernovae.

  6. Big Bang 6Li nucleosynthesis studied deep underground (LUNA collaboration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trezzi, D.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takacs, M.

    2017-03-01

    The correct prediction of the abundances of the light nuclides produced during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the main topics of modern cosmology. For many of the nuclear reactions that are relevant for this epoch, direct experimental cross section data are available, ushering the so-called "age of precision". The present work addresses an exception to this current status: the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction that controls 6Li production in the Big Bang. Recent controversial observations of 6Li in metal-poor stars have heightened the interest in understanding primordial 6Li production. If confirmed, these observations would lead to a second cosmological lithium problem, in addition to the well-known 7Li problem. In the present work, the direct experimental cross section data on 2H(α,γ)6Li in the BBN energy range are reported. The measurement has been performed deep underground at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The cross section has been directly measured at the energies of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis for the first time, at Ecm = 80, 93, 120, and 133 keV. Based on the new data, the 2H(α,γ)6Li thermonuclear reaction rate has been derived. Our rate is even lower than previously reported, thus increasing the discrepancy between predicted Big Bang 6Li abundance and the amount of primordial 6Li inferred from observations.

  7. Comprehensive nucleosynthesis analysis for ejecta of compact binary mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, O.; Bauswein, A.; Pulpillo, R. Ardevol; Goriely, S.; Janka, H.-T.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of r-process element nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of compact binary mergers (CBMs) and their relic black hole (BH)-torus systems. The evolution of the BH-accretion tori is simulated for seconds with a Newtonian hydrodynamics code including viscosity effects, pseudo-Newtonian gravity for rotating BHs, and an energy-dependent two-moment closure scheme for the transport of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos. The investigated cases are guided by relativistic double neutron star (NS-NS) and NS-BH merger models, producing ˜3-6 M⊙ BHs with rotation parameters of ABH ˜ 0.8 and tori of 0.03-0.3 M⊙. Our nucleosynthesis analysis includes the dynamical (prompt) ejecta expelled during the CBM phase and the neutrino and viscously driven outflows of the relic BH-torus systems. While typically ˜20-25 per cent of the initial accretion-torus mass are lost by viscously driven outflows, neutrino-powered winds contribute at most another ˜1 per cent, but neutrino heating enhances the viscous ejecta significantly. Since BH-torus ejecta possess a wide distribution of electron fractions (0.1-0.6) and entropies, they produce heavy elements from A ˜ 80 up to the actinides, with relative contributions of A ≳ 130 nuclei being subdominant and sensitively dependent on BH and torus masses and the exact treatment of shear viscosity. The combined ejecta of CBM and BH-torus phases can reproduce the solar abundances amazingly well for A ≳ 90. Varying contributions of the torus ejecta might account for observed variations of lighter elements with 40 ≤ Z ≤ 56 relative to heavier ones, and a considerable reduction of the prompt ejecta compared to the torus ejecta, e.g. in highly asymmetric NS-BH mergers, might explain the composition of heavy-element deficient stars.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in Neutrino-Driven Winds in Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibayashi, Sho; Yoshida, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds blown off from massive proto-neutron stars (mPNSs) temporarily formed in the collapse of the rotating massive stars, which are thought to be progenitors of hypernovae. Such an mPNS formation is indicated in a recent numerical relativity simulation. We construct steady, spherically symmetric wind solutions with large neutrino luminosities of ˜1053 erg s-1 and average energies of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the ranges of 9-16 and 11-18 MeV based on the numerical simulation. The winds have much shorter expansion timescale than that of the winds from ordinary PNSs and, depending on the energy of neutrinos, they can be both neutron (n)-rich and proton (p)-rich. In the n-rich wind, the r-process occurs and the abundance distribution of a fiducial wind model gives an approximate agreement with the abundance pattern of a metal-poor weak r star HD 122563, although the third-peak elements are produced only when the antineutrino energy is much larger than the neutrino one. In the p-rich wind, the strong ν p-process occurs and A > 100 nuclides are synthesized. In addition, an interesting nucleosynthesis occur in the wind with Ye ˜ 0.5. In this process, the abundance distribution of heavy nuclei of A > 100 achieves quasi-statistical equilibrium (QSE) at high temperature and the abundance is frozen when the temperature falls. This process can be understood using the "α QSE" abundances we formulated.

  9. Nucleosynthesis in Electron Capture Supernovae of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanajo, S.; Nomoto, K.; Janka, H.-T.; Kitaura, F. S.; Müller, B.

    2009-04-01

    We examine nucleosynthesis in the electron capture supernovae of progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars with an O-Ne-Mg core (with the initial stellar mass of 8.8 M sun). Thermodynamic trajectories for the first 810 ms after core bounce are taken from a recent state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulation. The presented nucleosynthesis results are characterized by a number of distinct features that are not shared with those of other supernovae from the collapse of stars with iron core (with initial stellar masses of more than 10 M sun). First is the small amount of 56Ni (0.002-0.004 M sun) in the ejecta, which can be an explanation for the observed properties of faint supernovae such as SNe 2008S and 1997D. In addition, the large Ni/Fe ratio is in reasonable agreement with the spectroscopic result of the Crab nebula (the relic of SN 1054). Second is the large production of 64Zn, 70Ge, light p-nuclei (74Se, 78Kr, 84Sr, and 92Mo), and in particular, 90Zr, which originates from the low Ye (0.46-0.49, the number of electrons per nucleon) ejecta. We find, however, that only a 1%-2% increase of the minimum Ye moderates the overproduction of 90Zr. In contrast, the production of 64Zn is fairly robust against a small variation of Ye . This provides the upper limit of the occurrence of this type of events to be about 30% of all core-collapse supernovae.

  10. Gas and Dust Layers from Cas A's Explosive Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Lawrence

    2008-05-01

    Our group has developed a new picture of the structure of Cas A's explosion using 5-40 micron images and spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this picture, two roughly spherical shocks (forward and reverse) were initially set up by the outer layers of the exploding star. Deeper layers were ejected in a highly flattened structure with large protrusions in the plane of the flattening; some of these are visible as jets. As these aspherical deeper layers encounter the reverse shock at different locations, they become visible across the electromagnetic spectrum, with different nucleosynthesis layers visible in different directions. In the infrared, we see the gas lines of Ar, Ne, O, Si, S, and Fe at different locations, along with higher ionization states of the same elements visible in the optical and X-ray parts of the spectrum. These different nucleosynthesis layers appear to have formed characteristic types of dust, the deep layers producing dust rich in silicates, while dust from the upper layers is dominated by Al2O3 and carbon grains. In addition, we see circumstellar dust heated by its encounter with the forward shock. We estimate the total dust mass currently visible that was formed in the explosion to be ~0.02-0.05 Msolar. Rough extrapolations of these measurements to SNe in high redshift galaxies may be able to account for the lower limit of their observed dust masses. There is a large amount of gas, and presumably dust, that is currently not visible at any wavelength, including both the cooled post-reverse-shock ejecta and the material which has not yet encountered the reverse shock, where some select infrared emission is apparent.

  11. Heavy sterile neutrinos: bounds from big-bang nucleosynthesis and SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A. D.; Hansen, S. H.; Raffelt, G.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2000-12-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical effects of heavy (10-200 MeV) sterile Dirac neutrinos, mixed with the active ones, are considered. The bounds on mass and mixing angle from both supernovae and big-bang nucleosynthesis are presented.

  12. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, Stan

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  13. Role of clusters in nuclear astrophysics with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Chen, A.; Cherubini, S.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; He, J. J.; Khiem, Le Hong; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Wanajo, S.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-04-01

    The role of nuclear clustering in stellar reactions is discussed, with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before, for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution and explosive stellar phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on α-induced stellar reactions. We report here the first experimental evidence that a cluster resonances dominate the (α,p) stellar reaction cross sections that is crucial for the vp-process in core-collapse supernovae.

  14. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

  15. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical Population III supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Kotake, Kei

    2012-09-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis during neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova (SN) explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI), based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of 11, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40M ⊙ stars with zero metallicity. The magnitude and asymmetry of the explosion energy are estimated with simulations, for a given set of neutrino luminosities and temperatures, not as in the previous study in which the explosion is manually and spherically initiated by means of a thermal bomb or a piston and also some artificial mixing procedures are applied for the estimate of abundances of the SN ejecta. By post-processing calculations with a large nuclear reaction network, we have evaluated abundances and masses of ejecta from the aspherical SNe. We find that matter mixing induced via SASI is important for the abundant production of nuclei with atomic number >= 21, in particular Sc, which is underproduced in the spherical models without artificial mixing. We also find that the IMF-averaged abundances are similar to those observed in extremely metal poor stars. However, observed [K/Fe] cannot be reproduced with our aspherical SN models.

  16. Big bang nucleosynthesis with long-lived charged massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2007-09-15

    We consider big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) with long-lived charged massive particles. Before decaying, the long-lived charged particle recombines with a light element to form a bound state like a hydrogen atom. This effect modifies the nuclear-reaction rates during the BBN epoch through the modifications of the Coulomb field and the kinematics of the captured light elements, which can change the light element abundances. It is possible for heavier nuclei abundances such as {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be to decrease sizably, while the ratios Y{sub p}, D/H, and {sup 3}He/H remain unchanged. This may solve the current discrepancy between the BBN prediction and the observed abundance of {sup 7}Li. If future collider experiments find signals of a long-lived charged particle inside the detector, the information of its lifetime and decay properties could provide insights into not only the particle physics models but also the phenomena in the early Universe, in turn.

  17. Constraining pre-big-bang nucleosynthesis expansion using cosmic antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Schelke, Mia; Catena, Riccardo; Fornengo, Nicolao; Masiero, Antonio; Pietroni, Massimo

    2006-10-15

    A host of dark energy models and nonstandard cosmologies predict an enhanced Hubble rate in the early Universe: perfectly viable models, which satisfy big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background and general relativity tests, may nevertheless lead to enhancements of the Hubble rate up to many orders of magnitude. In this paper we show that strong bounds on the pre-BBN evolution of the Universe may be derived, under the assumption that dark matter is a thermal relic, by combining the dark matter relic density bound with constraints coming from the production of cosmic-ray antiprotons by dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy. The limits we derive apply to the Hubble rate around the temperature of dark matter decoupling. For dark matter masses lighter than 100 GeV, the bound on the Hubble rate enhancement ranges from a factor of a few to a factor of 30, depending on the actual cosmological model, while for a mass of 500 GeV the bound falls in the range 50-500. Uncertainties in the derivation of the bounds and situations where the bounds become looser are discussed. We finally discuss how these limits apply to some specific realizations of nonstandard cosmologies: a scalar-tensor gravity model, kination models and a Randall-Sundrum D-brane model.

  18. Constraint on slepton intergenerational mixing from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Ohta, Shingo; Sato, Joe; Shimomura, Takashi; Yamanaka, Masato

    2012-07-27

    We find constraint on intergenerational mixing of slepton from big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Today, we know that there exist lepton flavor violation (LFV) from the observation of neutrino oscillation, though there do not exist LFV in the standard model of particle physics (SM). LFV in charged lepton sector (cLFV) have also been expected to exist. From theoretical point of view, the effects of long-lived stau on BBN have been investigated and it is known that the stau can solve the cosmological 7Li problem. However, in the study so far, tau flavor is exactly conserved and it contradict with the existence of cLFV. In this study, we generalize the flavor to be violated and call the stau as slepton. Even if the violation is tiny, it drastically changes the lifetime and the evolution of relic density of the slepton. Thus we analyze the effects of the long-lived slepton on BBN, and constrain the magnitude of the cLFV.

  19. Nucleosynthesis and Clump Formation in a Core-Collapse Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kifonidis, K.; Plewa, T.; Janka, H.-Th.; Müller, E.

    2000-03-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional simulations were performed for the first 5 minutes of the evolution of a core-collapse supernova explosion in a 15 Msolar blue supergiant progenitor. The computations start shortly after bounce and include neutrino-matter interactions by using a lightbulb approximation for the neutrinos and a treatment of the nucleosynthesis due to explosive silicon and oxygen burning. We find that newly formed iron-group elements are distributed throughout the inner half of the helium core by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the (Ni + Si)/O and (C + O)/He interfaces, seeded by convective overturn during the early stages of the explosion. Fast-moving nickel mushrooms with velocities up to ~4000 km s-1 are observed. This offers a natural explanation for the mixing required in light-curve and spectral synthesis studies of Type Ib explosions. A continuation of the calculations to later times, however, indicates that the iron velocities observed in SN 1987A cannot be reproduced because of a strong deceleration of the clumps in the dense shell left behind by the shock at the He/H interface.

  20. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on massive, unstable neutrinos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, G.

    1995-01-01

    The tau-neutrino, if sufficiently massive, must be unstable. Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) can provide constraints on the ντ mass and lifetime. The modification to the energy density of the early universe in the case of a massive τ-neutrino which decays via ντ→νμ+φ (where φ is a weakly coupled massless scalar) is described and the results of BBN production of the light elements is presented. Consistency with the primordial abundances of D, 3He, 7Li and, especially, 4He leads to constraints on the mass (mντ) and lifetime (τντ) of the tau-neutrino. Very massive ντ (mντ ≥ 5 - 10 MeV), up to the ARGUS bound of 31 MeV, are only allowed for short lifetimes (≤40 sec). Much lighter (mντ ≤ 0.01 MeV) ντ are permitted for lifetimes longer than ≡0.01 sec but, mντ(MeV) ≤ 10 τν(sec) for shorter lifetimes.

  1. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundances of beryllium and boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Fields, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The recently attained ability to make measurements of Be and B as well as to put constraints on Li-6 abundances in metal-poor stars has led to a detailed reexamination of big bang nucleosynthesis in the A is greater than about 6 regime. The nuclear reaction network has been significantly expanded, with many new rates added. It is demonstrated that although a number of A is greater than 7 reaction rates are poorly determined, even with extreme values chosen, the standard homogeneous model is unable to produce significant yields above A = 7, and the (Li-7)/(Li-6) ratio always exceeds 500. We also preliminarily explore inhomogeneous models, such as those inspired by a first-order quark-hadron phase transition, where regions with high neutron/proton ratios can allow some leakage up to A is greater than 7. However, models that fit the A is not greater than 7 abundances still seem to have difficulty in obtaining significant A is greater than 7 yields.

  2. Nucleosynthesis in Asymmetric, Core-Collapse Supernovae of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Kotake, Kei

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of massive stars of 10.8-40M ȯ , based on 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the SN explosion. We follow long-term evolution of the explosion over 1 s after the core bounce, adopting a neutrino-core model, with which we evaluate the evolution of neutrino luminosities and temperatures. We adopt two sets of parameters for the core model; one results in early explosion of 0.2-0.4 s after the bounce and the other later explosion of 0.4-0.6 s. We then calculate abundance evolution of the SN ejecta through post-processing calculation using a large nuclear reaction network. We find that for both the early and later explosion cases, the explosion energy, Eexp, and ejected masses of 56Ni, 57Ni, and 44Ti strongly correlate with the compactness parameter at 2.5M ȯ . Only for the early explosion case, we well reproduce a correlation of the mass of 56Ni to Eexp observed in Type II-Plateau SNe and find two progenitors (˜ 20 and 25M ȯ ) whose Eexp, and the masses of 56Ni and 57Ni are comparable to those in SN1987A.

  3. Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2012-11-20

    We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La, {sup 180}Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on {theta}{sub 13}, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  4. Primordial comets: big bang nucleosynthesis, dark matter and life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    Primordial comets are comets made of Big Bang synthesized materials—water, ammonium, and carbon ices. These are the basic elements for life, so that these comets can be colonized by cyanobacteria that grow and bioengineer it for life dispersal. In addition, should they exist in large enough quantities, they would easily satisfy the qualifications for dark matter: low albedo with low visibility, gravitationally femtolensing, galactic negative viscosity, early galaxy formation seeds, and a self-interaction providing cosmic structure. The major arguments against their existence are the absence of metals (elements heavier than He) in ancient Population III stars, and the stringent requirements put on the Big Bang (BB) baryonic density by the BB nucleosynthesis (BBN) models. We argue that CI chondrites, hyperbolic comets, and carbon-enriched Pop III stars are all evidence for primordial comets. The BBN models provide the greater obstacle, but we argue that they crucially omit the magnetic field in their homogeneous, isotropic, "ideal baryon gas" model. Should large magnetic fields exist, not only would they undermine the 1-D models, but if their magnitude exceeds some critical field/density ratio, then the neutrino interacts with the fields, changing the equilibrium ratio of protons to neutrons. Since BBN models are strongly dependent on this ratio, magnetic fields have the potential to radically change the production of C, N, and O (CNO) to produce primordial comets. Then the universe from the earliest moments is not only seeded for galaxy formation, but it is seeded with the ingredients for life.

  5. Chaos and turbulent nucleosynthesis prior to a supernova explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, W. D.; Meakin, C.; Viallet, M.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D), time dependent numerical simulations of flow of matter in stars, now have sufficient resolution to be fully turbulent. The late stages of the evolution of massive stars, leading up to core collapse to a neutron star (or black hole), and often to supernova explosion and nucleosynthesis, are strongly convective because of vigorous neutrino cooling and nuclear heating. Unlike models based on current stellar evolutionary practice, these simulations show a chaotic dynamics characteristic of highly turbulent flow. Theoretical analysis of this flow, both in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework and by simple dynamic models, show an encouraging consistency with the numerical results. It may now be possible to develop physically realistic and robust procedures for convection and mixing which (unlike 3D numerical simulation) may be applied throughout the long life times of stars. In addition, a new picture of the presupernova stages is emerging which is more dynamic and interesting (i.e., predictive of new and newly observed phenomena) than our previous one.

  6. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from He-4 at 24% by mass through H-2 and He-3 at parts in 10(exp 5) down to Li-7 at parts in 10(exp 10). Furthermore, the recent large electron positron (LEP) (and the stanford linear collider (SLC)) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conlusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, omega(sub b) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that omega(sub b) approximately equals 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming omega(sub total) = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since omega(sub visible) is less than omega(sub b).

  7. Nucleosynthesis and Clump Formation in a Core-Collapse Supernova.

    PubMed

    Kifonidis; Plewa; Janka; Müller

    2000-03-10

    High-resolution two-dimensional simulations were performed for the first 5 minutes of the evolution of a core-collapse supernova explosion in a 15 M middle dot in circle blue supergiant progenitor. The computations start shortly after bounce and include neutrino-matter interactions by using a lightbulb approximation for the neutrinos and a treatment of the nucleosynthesis due to explosive silicon and oxygen burning. We find that newly formed iron-group elements are distributed throughout the inner half of the helium core by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the (Ni + Si)/O and (C + O)/He interfaces, seeded by convective overturn during the early stages of the explosion. Fast-moving nickel mushrooms with velocities up to approximately 4000 km s-1 are observed. This offers a natural explanation for the mixing required in light-curve and spectral synthesis studies of Type Ib explosions. A continuation of the calculations to later times, however, indicates that the iron velocities observed in SN 1987A cannot be reproduced because of a strong deceleration of the clumps in the dense shell left behind by the shock at the He/H interface.

  8. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from He-4 at 24% by mass through H-2 and He-3 at parts in 10(exp 5) down to Li-7 at parts in 10(exp 10). Furthermore, the recent large electron positron (LEP) (and the stanford linear collider (SLC)) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conlusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, omega(sub b) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that omega(sub b) approximately equals 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming omega(sub total) = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since omega(sub visible) is less than omega(sub b).

  9. Primordial Black Holes and r-Process Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuller, George M; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-08-11

    We show that some or all of the inventory of r-process nucleosynthesis can be produced in interactions of primordial black holes (PBHs) with neutron stars (NSs) if PBHs with masses 10^{-14}  M_{⊙}

  10. Stau-catalyzed big-bang nucleosynthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-06-01

    We study the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a hypothetical long-lived negatively charged, massive leptonic particle (called X{sup -}) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau, the scalar partner of the tau lepton. It is known that if the X{sup -} particle has a lifetime of tau{sub X} > or approx. 10{sup 3} s, it can capture a light element previously synthesized in standard BBN and form a Coulombic bound state and induces various types of reactions in which X{sup -} acts as a catalyst. Some of these X{sup -} catalyzed reactions have significantly large cross sections so that the inclusion of the reactions into the BBN network calculation can markedly change the abundances of some elements. We use a high-accuracy three-body calculation method developed by the authors and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  11. Chaos and turbulent nucleosynthesis prior to a supernova explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, W. D. Meakin, C.; Viallet, M.

    2014-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), time dependent numerical simulations of flow of matter in stars, now have sufficient resolution to be fully turbulent. The late stages of the evolution of massive stars, leading up to core collapse to a neutron star (or black hole), and often to supernova explosion and nucleosynthesis, are strongly convective because of vigorous neutrino cooling and nuclear heating. Unlike models based on current stellar evolutionary practice, these simulations show a chaotic dynamics characteristic of highly turbulent flow. Theoretical analysis of this flow, both in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework and by simple dynamic models, show an encouraging consistency with the numerical results. It may now be possible to develop physically realistic and robust procedures for convection and mixing which (unlike 3D numerical simulation) may be applied throughout the long life times of stars. In addition, a new picture of the presupernova stages is emerging which is more dynamic and interesting (i.e., predictive of new and newly observed phenomena) than our previous one.

  12. PREFACE: Nucleosynthesis and the role of neutrinos: state of the art and open issues Nucleosynthesis and the role of neutrinos: state of the art and open issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Cristina; Baha Balantekin, A.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the origin of the elements around us is one of the main quests of modern science. Realizing that only a few of the lightest elements can have been produced in the early Universe because of the lack of stable nuclei with A = 5 and A = 8, and that stars need to be producing some of the heavier nuclei up to iron so they may shine were triumphs of nuclear physics in the first part of the 20th century. For the synthesis of heavier elements the situation is more complicated. In particular, the site of r-process nucleosynthesis is still an open question. Suggested sites for r-process nucleosynthesis include the high-temperature, high-entropy region outside the newly formed neutron star in a core-collapse supernova, 4He mantles of the metal-poor (i.e. early) supernova progenitors, neutron-star mergers and accretion discs around black holes. The nucleosynthetic outcomes in such sites depend on their neutron- or proton-richness, which is determined by the astrophysical conditions as well as the properties of exotic nuclei, far from the valley of stability. A key development during the last few decades has been the appreciation of the close relationship between neutrinos and nucleosynthesis as physicists and astronomers ascertained the fact that neutrino properties figure prominently in many astrophysical environments. Neutrinos are involved in different types of stellar nucleosynthesis processes: the v-process, the v p process and the r-process. These developments have occurred in parallel with the impressive progress in our understanding of neutrino masses and mixings as well as neutrino flavour conversion in astrophysical (and cosmological) environments. Neutrino interactions with protons and neutrons impact the conditions for proton or neutron richness of a given site. Further investigations are necessary in order to fully unravel neutrino flavour conversion phenomena in these environments and to establish how much these finally impact the nucleosynthesis

  13. Measurements of Volatile Circumstellar Isotopes: Effects of Fractionation vs. Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, Stefanie

    The origin, evolution, and fate of our Universe and/or Galaxy have puzzled humankind for centuries. One approach to answering this question is to gain further understanding of stellar evolution, since stars are fundamental in galaxy development and evolution. A compilation of stellar composition can reveal the age, dynamics, and possibly the evolutionary state of a galaxy. In particular the volatile isotope ratios carry an imprint of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Primitive materials, such as meteorites and IDPs, have revealed a component of ``atypical" isotopic signatures of these fundamental elements denoting a possible stellar origin. Understanding the processes by which these elements derive is essential for astrophysics on cosmochemical, galactic, stellar, and planetary scales. We propose to analyze data obtained from the Herschel Space Observatory of circumstellar envelopes to definitively measure C, N, and O isotope ratios and test current models of photo-selective isotope fractionation vs. nucleosynthetically determined values. This proposal augments data from the Herschel Space Observatory, primarily from the HIFISTARS program and MESS, though the entire Herschel archive will be searched for relevant data. The broader implications for this study include fundamental data necessary for furthering our current understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis, circumstellar chemistry, Galactic chemical evolution, and the origin of presolar grains found in primitive materials. We will focus on isotopologues of species formed in thermochemical equilibrium and trace their natal, nucleosynthetic isotope ratios. We will analyze Herschel data obtained for a survey of evolved stars with varying degrees of nuclear processing, evolutionary states, and envelope chemistry (e.g. oxygen-rich vs. carbon-rich). A full circumstellar model will be developed for each source to address specific affects that may influence either the ratios or chemistry. The isotope ratios of 12C

  14. Gamma-ray observations of explosive nucleosynthesis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco

    In this review I discuss the various γ-ray emission lines that can be expected and, in some cases have been observed, from radioactive explosive nucleosynthesis products. The most important γ-ray lines result from the decay chains of 56Ni, 57Ni, and 44Ti. 56Ni is the prime explosive nucleosynthesis product of Type Ia supernovae, and its decay determines to a large extent the Type Ia light curves. 56Ni is also a product of core-collapse supernovae, and in fact, γ-ray line emission from its daughter product, 56Co, has been detected from SN1987A by several instruments. The early occurrence of this emission was surprising and indicates that some fraction of 56Ni, which is synthesized in the innermost supernova layers, must have mixed with the outermost supernova ejecta. Special attention is given to the γ-ray line emission of the decay chain of 44Ti ( 44Ti → 44Sc → 44Ca), which is accompanied by line emission at 68, 78, and 1157 keV. As the decay time of 44Ti is ˜86 yr, one expects this line emission from young supernova remnants. Although the 44Ti yield (typically 10 -5-10 -4M⊙) is not very high, its production is very sensitive to the energetics and asymmetries of the supernova explosion, and to the mass cut, which defines the mass of the stellar remnant. This makes 44Ti an ideal tool to study the inner layers of the supernova explosion. This is of particular interest in light of observational evidence for asymmetric supernova explosions. The γ-ray line emission from 44Ti has so far only been detected from the supernova remnant Cas A. I discuss these detections, which were made by COMPTEL (the 1157 keV line) and BeppoSAX (the 68 and 78 keV lines), which, combined, give a flux of (2.6 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) × 10 -5 ph cm -2 s -1 per line, suggesting a 44Ti yield of (1.5 ± 1.0) × 10 -4M⊙. Moreover, I present some preliminary results of Cas A observations by INTEGRAL, which so far has yielded a 3 σ detection of the 68 keV line with the ISGRI instrument with a

  15. Constraints on vacuum energy from structure formation and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Alexander, Stephon; Grohs, Evan; Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2017-03-01

    This paper derives an upper limit on the density ρΛ of dark energy based on the requirement that cosmological structure forms before being frozen out by the eventual acceleration of the universe. By allowing for variations in both the cosmological parameters and the strength of gravity, the resulting constraint is a generalization of previous limits. The specific parameters under consideration include the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations, the Planck mass Mpl, the baryon-to-photon ratio η, and the density ratio ΩM/Ωb. In addition to structure formation, we use considerations from stellar structure and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) to constrain these quantities. The resulting upper limit on the dimensionless density of dark energy becomes ρΛ/Mpl4 < 10-90, which is ~30 orders of magnitude larger than the value in our universe ρΛ/Mpl4 ~ 10-120. This new limit is much less restrictive than previous constraints because additional parameters are allowed to vary. With these generalizations, a much wider range of universes can develop cosmic structure and support observers. To constrain the constituent parameters, new BBN calculations are carried out in the regime where η and G = Mpl-2 are much larger than in our universe. If the BBN epoch were to process all of the protons into heavier elements, no hydrogen would be left behind to make water, and the universe would not be viable. However, our results show that some hydrogen is always left over, even under conditions of extremely large η and G, so that a wide range of alternate universes are potentially habitable.

  16. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis and primordial CNO abundances after Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the three historical strong evidences for the big bang model. The recent results by the Planck satellite mission have slightly changed the estimate of the baryonic density compared to the previous WMAP analysis. This article updates the BBN predictions for the light elements using the cosmological parameters determined by Planck, as well as an improvement of the nuclear network and new spectroscopic observations. There is a slight lowering of the primordial Li/H abundance, however, this lithium value still remains typically 3 times larger than its observed spectroscopic abundance in halo stars of the Galaxy. According to the importance of this ''lithium problem{sup ,} we trace the small changes in its BBN calculated abundance following updates of the baryonic density, neutron lifetime and networks. In addition, for the first time, we provide confidence limits for the production of {sup 6}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B and CNO, resulting from our extensive Monte Carlo calculation with our extended network. A specific focus is cast on CNO primordial production. Considering uncertainties on the nuclear rates around the CNO formation, we obtain CNO/H ≈ (5-30)×10{sup -15}. We further improve this estimate by analyzing correlations between yields and reaction rates and identified new influential reaction rates. These uncertain rates, if simultaneously varied could lead to a significant increase of CNO production: CNO/H∼10{sup -13}. This result is important for the study of population III star formation during the dark ages.

  17. rp-Process Nucleosynthesis at Extreme Temperature and Density Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Goerres, J.; Wiescher, M.; Rauscher, T.; Rembges, J. F.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Pfeiffer, B.; Moeller, P.; Kratz, K.-L.; Herndl, H.; Brown, B. A.; Rebel, H.

    1998-02-01

    We present nuclear reaction network calculations to investigate the influence of nuclear structure on the rp-process between Ge and Sn in various scenarios. Due to the lack of experimental data for neutron-deficient nuclei in this region, we discuss currently available model predictions for nuclear masses and deformations as well as methods of calculating reaction rates (Hauser-Feshbach) and beta-decay rates (QRPA and shell model). In addition, we apply a valence nucleon (N_pN_n) correlation scheme for the prediction of masses and deformations. We also describe the calculations of 2p-capture reactions, which had not been considered before in this mass region. We find that in X-ray bursts 2p-capture reactions accelerate the reaction flow into the Z >= 36 region considerably. Therefore, the rp-process in most X-ray bursts does not end in the Z = 32-36 region as previously assumed and overproduction factors of 10^7-10^8 are reached for some light p-nuclei in the A = 80-100 region. This might be of interest in respect of the yet unexplained large observed solar system abundances of these nuclei. Nuclei in this region can also be produced via the rp-process in accretion disks around low mass black holes. Our results indicate that the rp-process energy production in the Z > 32 region cannot be neglected in these scenarios. We discuss in detail the influence of the various nuclear structure input parameters and their current uncertainties on these results. It turns out that rp-process nucleosynthesis is mainly determined by nuclear masses and beta-decay rates of nuclei along the proton drip line. We present a detailed list of nuclei for which mass or beta-decay rate measurements would be crucial to further constrain the models.

  18. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Paris, Mark W.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; ...

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multienergy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our code provides the ability to dissect the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe in the absence of neutrino flavor oscillations. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the νe, ν¯e, νμ, ν¯μ, ντ, ν¯τ energy distribution functions alongsidemore » and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and flow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. This calculation reveals nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions (e.g., electron-positron pair densities), with implications for the phasing between scale factor and plasma temperature; the neutron-to-proton ratio; light-element abundance histories; and the cosmological parameter Neff. We find that our approach of following the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma results in changes in the computed value of the BBN deuterium yield. For example, for particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium. These changes are potentially significant in the context of anticipated improvements in observational and nuclear physics uncertainties.« less

  19. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Paris, Mark W.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multienergy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our code provides the ability to dissect the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe in the absence of neutrino flavor oscillations. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the νe, ν¯e, νμ, ν¯μ, ντ, ν¯τ energy distribution functions alongside and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and flow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. This calculation reveals nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions (e.g., electron-positron pair densities), with implications for the phasing between scale factor and plasma temperature; the neutron-to-proton ratio; light-element abundance histories; and the cosmological parameter Neff. We find that our approach of following the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma results in changes in the computed value of the BBN deuterium yield. For example, for particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium. These changes are potentially significant in the context of anticipated improvements in observational and nuclear physics uncertainties.

  20. Influence of Parallel Dark Matter Sectors on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Venkata Sai Sreeharsha

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is a phenomenological theory that describes the synthesis of light nuclei after a few seconds of the cosmic time in the primordial universe. The twelve nuclear reactions in the first few seconds of the cosmic history are constrained by factors such as baryon to photon ratio, number of neutrino families, and present day element abundances. The belief that the expansion of the universe must be slowed down by gravity, was defeated by the recent observation of an accelerated expansion of the universe. Friedmann equations, which describe the cosmic dynamics, need to be revised considering also the existence of dark matter, another recent astronomical observation. The effects of multiple parallel universes of dark matter (dark sectors) on the accelerated expansion of the universe are studied. Collectively, these additional effects will lead to a new cosmological model. We had developed a numerical code on BBN to address the effects of such dark sectors on the abundances of all the light elements. We have studied the effect of degrees of freedom of dark-matter in the early universe on primordial abundances of light elements. The predicted abundances of light elements are compared with observed constraints to obtain bounds on the number of dark sectors, NDM. Comparison of the obtained results with the observations during the BBN epoch shows that the number of dark matter sectors are only loosely constrained, and the dark matter sectors are colder than the ordinary matter sectors. Also, we verified that the existence of parallel dark matter sectors with colder temperatures does not affect the constraints set by observations on the number of neutrino families, Nnu .

  1. Dark radiation from particle decays during big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menestrina, Justin L.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2012-02-01

    CMB observations suggest the possibility of an extra dark radiation component, while the current evidence from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is more ambiguous. Dark radiation from a decaying particle can affect these two processes differently. Early decays add an additional radiation component to both the CMB and BBN, while late decays can alter the radiation content seen in the CMB while having a negligible effect on BBN. Here, we quantify this difference and explore the intermediate regime by examining particles decaying during BBN, i.e., particle lifetimes τX satisfying 0.1sec<τX<1000sec. We calculate the change in the effective number of neutrino species, Neff, as measured by the CMB, ΔNCMB, and the change in the effective number of neutrino species as measured by BBN, ΔNBBN, as a function of the decaying particle initial energy density and lifetime, where ΔNBBN is defined in terms of the number of additional two-component neutrinos needed to produce the same change in the primordial He4 abundance as our decaying particle. As expected, for short lifetimes (τX≲0.1sec), the particles decay before the onset of BBN, and ΔNCMB=ΔNBBN, while for long lifetimes (τX≳1000sec), ΔNBBN is dominated by the energy density of the nonrelativistic particles before they decay, so that ΔNBBN remains nonzero and becomes independent of the particle lifetime. By varying both the particle energy density and lifetime, one can obtain any desired combination of ΔNBBN and ΔNCMB, subject to the constraint that ΔNCMB≥ΔNBBN. We present limits on the decaying particle parameters derived from observational constraints on ΔNCMB and ΔNBBN.

  2. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Paris, Mark W.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multienergy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our code provides the ability to dissect the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe in the absence of neutrino flavor oscillations. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the νe, ν¯e, νμ, ν¯μ, ντ, ν¯τ energy distribution functions alongside and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and flow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. This calculation reveals nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions (e.g., electron-positron pair densities), with implications for the phasing between scale factor and plasma temperature; the neutron-to-proton ratio; light-element abundance histories; and the cosmological parameter Neff. We find that our approach of following the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma results in changes in the computed value of the BBN deuterium yield. For example, for particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium. These changes are potentially significant in the context of anticipated improvements in observational and nuclear physics uncertainties.

  3. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, G. M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, M. W.; Vlasenko, A.

    2016-04-01

    We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multienergy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our code provides the ability to dissect the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe in the absence of neutrino flavor oscillations. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the νe, ν¯e, νμ, ν¯μ, ντ, ν¯τ energy distribution functions alongside and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and flow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. This calculation reveals nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions (e.g., electron-positron pair densities), with implications for the phasing between scale factor and plasma temperature; the neutron-to-proton ratio; light-element abundance histories; and the cosmological parameter Neff. We find that our approach of following the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma results in changes in the computed value of the BBN deuterium yield. For example, for particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium. These changes are potentially significant in the context of anticipated improvements in observational and nuclear physics uncertainties.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in a massive star associated with magnetohydrodynamical jets from collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-11-12

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis during the stellar evolution and the jet-like supernova explosion of a massive star of 70 M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} having the solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed with large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. As a result s-elements of 60 > A > 90 and r-elements of 90 > A > 160 are highly overproduced relative to the solar system abundances. We find that the Sr-Y-Zr isotopes are primarily synthesized in the explosive nucleosynthesis which could be one of the sites of the lighter element primary process (LEPP).

  5. Population II Li-6 as a probe of nucleosynthesis and stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, Gary; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Walker, Terry P.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the importance of Population II Li-6 as a diagnostic for models of primordial nucleosynthesis, cosmic-ray nucleosyntheses in the early Galaxy, and the structure and evolution of metal-poor solar-type stars. The observation of Li-6 in the subdwarf HD 84937 is shown to be consistent with the existing Population II LiBeB data within the context of a simple three-component model: (1) standard big bang nucleosynthesis, (2) Population II cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis, (3) standard (nonrotating) stellar LiBeB depletion. If this interpretation is correct, we predict a potentially detectable boron abundance for this star: about 2 x 10 exp -12. Subsequent Population II LiBeB observations, and in particular further observations of Population II Li-6, are shown to be crucial to our understanding of the primordial and early galactic creation and destruction mechanisms for light elements.

  6. Abundances in photoionized nebulae of the Local Group and nucleosynthesis of intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Cavichia, O.

    2017-04-01

    Photoionized nebulae, comprising HII regions and planetary nebulae, are excellent laboratories to investigate the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of several elements in the Galaxy and other galaxies of the Local Group. Our purpose in this investigation is threefold: (i) compare the abundances of HII regions and planetary nebulae in each system in order to investigate the differences derived from the age and origin of these objects, (ii) compare the chemical evolution in different systems, such as the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, and other galaxies of the Local Group, and (iii) investigate to what extent the nucleosynthesis contributions from the progenitor stars affect the observed abundances in planetary nebulae, which constrains the nucleosynthesis of intermediate mass stars. We show that all objects in the samples present similar trends concerning distance-independent correlations, and some constraints can be defined on the production of He and N by the PN progenitor stars.

  7. Impact of the α optical model potential on the γ-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Beard, M.; Meyer, B. S.; Roach, B.

    2017-06-01

    γ-process nucleosynthesis that occurs during an explosion of a type II supernova can be modeled via post-processing network calculations that require a model of the stellar environment and the rates for all the nuclear reactions involved in the process. The nuclear input for these calculations relies on reaction rates obtained from statistical models. In this work, the sensitivity of the γ-process nucleosynthesis to the α optical model potential used in statistical model was investigated. Network calculations were performed for two sets of reaction rates, the current version of Reaclib and with rates for α-induced reactions and their inverse replaced with those calculated using Talys. Significant changes in the final abundance pattern were observed and a list of reactions that need to be measured in order to discriminate between the two nucleosynthesis scenarios is provided.

  8. Simplifying silicon burning: Application of quasi-equilibrium to (alpha) network nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hix, W. R.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    While the need for accurate calculation of nucleosynthesis and the resulting rate of thermonuclear energy release within hydrodynamic models of stars and supernovae is clear, the computational expense of these nucleosynthesis calculations often force a compromise in accuracy to reduce the computational cost. To redress this trade-off of accuracy for speed, the authors present an improved nuclear network which takes advantage of quasi- equilibrium in order to reduce the number of independent nuclei, and hence the computational cost of nucleosynthesis, without significant reduction in accuracy. In this paper they will discuss the first application of this method, the further reduction in size of the minimal alpha network. The resultant QSE- reduced alpha network is twice as fast as the conventional alpha network it replaces and requires the tracking of half as many abundance variables, while accurately estimating the rate of energy generation. Such reduction in cost is particularly necessary for future generation of multi-dimensional models for supernovae.

  9. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: Constraints on nuclear reaction rates, neutrino degeneracy, inhomogeneous and Brans-Dicke models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Riou; Hashimoto, Masa-Aki; Ichimasa, Ryotaro; Arai, Kenzo

    We review the recent progress in the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis which includes the standard and nonstandard theory of cosmology, effects of neutrino degeneracy, and inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis within the framework of a Friedmann model. As for a nonstandard theory of gravitation, we adopt a Brans-Dicke theory which incorporates a cosmological constant. We constrain various parameters associated with each subject.

  10. Constraining antimatter domains in the early universe with big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kurki-Suonio, H; Sihvola, E

    2000-04-24

    We consider the effect of a small-scale matter-antimatter domain structure on big bang nucleosynthesis and place upper limits on the amount of antimatter in the early universe. For small domains, which annihilate before nucleosynthesis, this limit comes from underproduction of 4He. For larger domains, the limit comes from 3He overproduction. Since most of the 3He from &pmacr; 4He annihilation are themselves annihilated, the main source of primordial 3He is the photodisintegration of 4He by the electromagnetic cascades initiated by the annihilation.

  11. Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis of A>64 nuclei: the nu p process.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, C; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Liebendörfer, M; Thielemann, F-K; Bravo, E; Hix, W R; Langanke, K; Zinner, N T

    2006-04-14

    We present a new nucleosynthesis process that we denote as the nu p process, which occurs in supernovae (and possibly gamma-ray bursts) when strong neutrino fluxes create proton-rich ejecta. In this process, antineutrino absorptions in the proton-rich environment produce neutrons that are immediately captured by neutron-deficient nuclei. This allows for the nucleosynthesis of nuclei with mass numbers A>64, , making this process a possible candidate to explain the origin of the solar abundances of (92,94)Mo and (96,98)Ru. This process also offers a natural explanation for the large abundance of Sr seen in a hyper-metal-poor star.

  12. NEUTRINO SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISKS: NEUTRINO GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS AND THE CONSEQUENCES FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, O. L.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R. E-mail: olcaball@ncsu.edu E-mail: surmanr@union.edu

    2012-02-01

    Black hole (BH) accretion disks have been proposed as good candidates for a range of interesting nucleosynthesis, including the r-process. The presence of the BH influences the neutrino fluxes and affects the nucleosynthesis resulting from the interaction of the emitted neutrinos and hot outflowing material ejected from the disk. We study the impact of general relativistic effects on the neutrinos emitted from BH accretion disks. We present abundances obtained by considering null geodesics and energy shifts for two different disk models. We find that both the bending of the neutrino trajectories and the energy shifts have important consequences for the nucleosynthetic outcome.

  13. Hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis in neutron stars, supernovae, and the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.

    1996-03-01

    In this proposal we apply laboratory expertise in integrated numerical modeling of relativistic hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and thermonuclear reaction rates to forefront areas of basic research in areas of astrophysical interest. These studies include the last stages of a merging neutron-star binary system; the pre-collapse, collapse, and post-collapse evolution of supernova cores; the violent relaxation, protogalactic mergers, and stellar nucleosynthesis associated with galaxy formation and studies of primordial nucleosynthesis during the big bang. This project provides unique high-visibility solutions to current technical problems while enriching current laboratory capabilities in the relevant disciplines.

  14. Le ciment brûle toujours

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, T.; Fontaine, M.; Le Floch, R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures chimiques par ciment représentent une cause fréquente de corrosion cutanée en France. Elles nécessitent fréquemment un traitement chirurgical. Notre étude rétrospective concerne tous les patients admis pour une brûlure par ciment dans le service entre 2004 et 2016. Quarante-neuf patients âgés de 21 à 71 ans ont été pris en charge dans le centre des brûlés du Centre Hospitalier Saint Joseph Saint Luc à Lyon entre 2004 et 2016. La population concernée était majoritairement masculine, relativement jeune (44 ans en moyenne) et professionnellement active. Les brûlures survenaient principalement dans le cadre d’accidents domestiques (78%). Elles étaient profondes et atteignaient majoritairement les membres inférieurs, de façon bilatérale. La surface brûlée représentait 3% de la surface cutanée totale. Presque tous les patients (98%) ont nécessité une prise en charge chirurgicale pour excision et autogreffe de peau mince. Un seul patient a bénéficié d’une cicatrisation dirigée. Le délai moyen entre la brûlure et la chirurgie était de 13 jours et la durée moyenne d’hospitalisation de 8 jours. Sept patients ont nécessité une prise en charge en centre de rééducation à leur sortie du service. Cette étude confirme la sévérité des brûlures chimiques par ciment. Elle met également en avant l’impact que peut avoir ce type de brûlure en terme de retentissement socio-économique dans une population de patients majoritairement jeune et active. Elle insiste sur le fait que des mesures doivent être prises afin d’informer cette population rarement professionnelle sur les risques encourus lors du mésusage du ciment. La réglementation actuelle, classant le ciment comme irritant, ne prend pas en compte son caractère corrosif et devrait être amendée. PMID:28592929

  15. Radioisotopes and the history of nucleosynthesis in the galaxy.

    PubMed

    Hohenberg, C M

    1969-10-10

    Nearly all of the heavier elements seem to have been assembled by successive neutron captures occurring in two distinct processes: the s (slow) process refers to neutron capture at a rate which is slow compared to the intervening beta-decay; the r (rapid) process refers to neutron capture at a rate which is rapid compared to the beta process. It is becoming increasingly apparent that simple models for galactic r-process nucleosynthesis are inadequate. Modern astronomical observations, which indicate that the bulk of r-process synthesis may have occurred early in the life of the galaxy, cannot be ignored. Recent data on the fissiogenic xenon in whitlockite from the St. Severin meteorite also place stringent conditions on permissible models for element synthesis. It appears that neither sudden nor continuous models for element formation are consistent with isotopic data now available. I propose a more complex model for the synthesis of solar system material in which the r-process is allowed to occur in three distinct modes: a "prompt" synthesis early in the history of the galaxy, a "continuous" synthesis whereby r-process products are continuously added to the galactic mix, and a "last-minute" synthesis which enriches the solar nebula with r-process material shortly before the formation of the solar system. Calculations based on the present abundances of uranium-235, uranium-238, and thorium-232 and the measured abundances of iodine-129 and plutonium-244 present when meteorites began to retain xenon indicate that the galactic age is between 8.0 and 8.8 billion years, with the initial "prompt" synthesis accounting for 81 to 89 percent of the total r-process material ever produced, the "last-minute" synthesis contributing between 11 and 13 percent, and 0 to 8 percent occurring in the continuous mode. The time interval between the isolation of the solar nebula from galactic r-process and the onset of xenon retention in meteorites lies between 176 and 179 million years.

  16. Neutrino-nucleus reactions and their role in supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Neutrino reactions on nuclei play important roles for the dynamics of supernovae and their associated nucleosyn-thesis. This manuscript summarizes the current status in deriving the relevant cross sections for supernova neutrinos and brielly discusses a few recent advances in supernova simulations where these reactions play a role.

  17. Dark matter relic abundance and big bang nucleosynthesis in Horava's gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Lambiase, G.

    2011-05-15

    The cosmological consequences of Horava's gravity are reviewed in the frameworks of the PAMELA experiment (which has reported an excess of positron events that likely can be ascribed to weakly interacting massive particles dark matter) and of big bang nucleosynthesis. Constraints on parameters characterizing Horawa's cosmology are derived.

  18. Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primirdial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

  19. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on the self-gravity of pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, Saul; Schwab, Josiah; Burles, Scott; Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-15

    Using big bang nucleosynthesis and present, high-precision measurements of light element abundances, we constrain the self-gravity of radiation pressure in the early universe. The self-gravity of pressure is strictly non-Newtonian, and thus the constraints we set provide a direct test of this prediction of general relativity and of the standard, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology.

  20. A chart of cosmic ray isotopes. [showing radioactive decay, abundance and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    A chart has been prepared that lists some of the properties relevant to cosmic ray studies of all the significant nuclides between lithium and nickel. On this chart there are shown all the possible decays that might be of interest in the unique conditions experienced by cosmic ray nuclei, various abundance figures and the probable nucleosynthesis processes of origin.

  1. Production of Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron from Baryon inhomogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David; Schramm, David N.; Olive, Keith A.; Mathews, Grant J.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Fields, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis may eventually be used to explain the abundances of Li-6, Be-9, and B in Population II stars. The present work differs from previous studies in that we have used a more extensive reaction network. It is demonstrated that in the simplest scenario the abundances of the light elements with A less than or = 7 constrain the separation of inhomogeneities to sufficently small scales that the model is indistinguishable from homogeneous nucleosynthesis and that the abundnace of Li-6, Be-9, and B are then below observations by several orders of magnitude. This conclusion does not depend on the Li-7 constraint. We also examine alternative scenarios which involve a post-nucleosynthesis reprocessing of the light elements to reproduce the observed abundances of Li and B, while allowing for a somewhat higher baryon density (still well below the cosmological critical density). Future B/H measurements may be able to exclude even this exotic scenario and further restrict primirdial nucleosynthesis to approach the homogeneous model conclusions.

  2. PUSHing Core-Collapse Supernovae to Explosions in Spherical Symmetry: Explodability and Nucleosynthesis Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sanjana; Ebinger, Kevin; Frohlich, Carla; Perego, Albino; Hempel, Matthias; Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2017-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the highly energetic deaths of massive stars. They play a vital role in the synthesis and dissemination of many chemical elements. CCSN nucleosynthesis calculations have previously relied on artificial explosion methods that do not adequately capture the physics of the innermost stellar layers. Multidimensional simulations currently being performed to fully unravel the explosion mechanism of CCSNe are very computationally expensive. The PUSH method, calibrated against SN1987A, provides parametrized spherically symmetric models that follow the consistent evolution of the proto-neutron star as well as the electron fraction of the ejecta. This method is computationally affordable and captures the physics relevant for nucleosynthesis calculations. Here, we present the results of a broad study that investigates the explodability and nucleosynthesis yields of progenitors covering a wide range of ZAMS masses. Comparisons of the predicted explosion properties and yields with observational CCSNe and metal-poor star data will also be presented. The complete set of nucleosynthesis yields will be a valuable input to models of galactic chemical evolution. United States Department of Energy (DOE Grant No. SC0010263).

  3. Supernova heavy element nucleosynthesis: Can it tell us about neutrino masses?

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, George M.

    1997-05-20

    Here we describe a new probe of neutrino properties based on heavy element nucleosynthesis. This technique is in many ways akin to the familiar light element Primordial Nucleosynthesis probe of conditions in the early universe. Our new probe is based on the fact that neutrino masses and vacuum mixings can engender matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the post core bounce supernova environment. Transformations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{sub (r)}<-->{nu}{sub e} in this site will have significant effects on the synthesis of the rapid neutron capture (r-Process) elements and the light p-nuclei. We suggest that an understanding of the origin of these nuclides, combined with the measured abundances of these species, may provide a ''Rosetta Stone'' for neutrino properties. Heavy element nucleosynthesis abundance considerations give either constraints/evidence for neutrino masses and flavor mixings, or strong constraints on the site of origin of r-Process nucleosynthesis. The putative limits on neutrino characteristics are complimentary to those derived from laboratory neutrino oscillation studies and solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. Preliminary studies show that the existence of r-Process nuclei in the abundances observed in the Galaxy cannot be understood unless neutrinos have small masses (possibly in the cosmologically significant range)

  4. Constraints on unparticle long range forces from big bang nucleosynthesis bounds on the variation of the gravitational coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.; Santos, N. M. C.

    2009-06-01

    We use big bang nucleosynthesis bounds on the variation of the gravitational coupling to derive constraints on the strength of the deviation from the gravitational inverse-square law due to tensor and vector unparticle exchange.

  5. Constraints on unparticle long range forces from big bang nucleosynthesis bounds on the variation of the gravitational coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolami, O.; Santos, N. M. C.

    2009-06-15

    We use big bang nucleosynthesis bounds on the variation of the gravitational coupling to derive constraints on the strength of the deviation from the gravitational inverse-square law due to tensor and vector unparticle exchange.

  6. Stable SUSY breaking model with O(10) eV gravitino from combined D-term gauge mediation and U(1)' mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu

    2007-12-17

    We show a calculable example of stable supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking modelswith O(10) eV gravitino mass based on the combination of D-term gauge mediationand U(1)' mediation. A potential problem of the negative mass squared for theSUSY standard model (SSM) sfermions in the D-term gauge mediation is solvedby the contribution from the U(1)' mediation. On the other hand, the splittingbetween the SSM gauginos and sfermions in the U(1)' mediation iscircumvented bythe contributions from the D-term gauge mediation. Since the U(1)' mediation doesnot introduce any new SUSY vacua, we achieve a completely stable model underthermal effects. Our model, therefore, has no cosmological difficulty.

  7. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  8. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more…

  9. Nucleosynthesis of Iron-Peak Elements in Type-Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shing-Chi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    The observed features of typical Type Ia supernovae are well-modeled as the explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs both near Chandrasekhar mass and sub-Chandrasekhar mass. However, observations in the last decade have shown that Type Ia supernovae exhibit a wide diversity, which implies models for wider range of parameters are necessary. Based on the hydrodynamics code we developed, we carry out a parameter study of Chandrasekhar mass models for Type Ia supernovae. We conduct a series of two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of the explosion phase using the turbulent flame model with the deflagration-detonation-transition (DDT). To reconstruct the nucleosynthesis history, we use the particle tracer scheme. We examine the role of model parameters by examining their influences on the final product of nucleosynthesis. The parameters include the initial density, metallicity, initial flame structure, detonation criteria and so on. We show that the observed chemical evolution of galaxies can help constrain these model parameters.

  10. Impact of New Gamow-Teller Strengths on Explosive Type Ia Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kanji; Famiano, Michael A.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Toshio; Hidaka, Jun; Honma, Michio; Iwamoto, Koichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2016-12-01

    Recent experimental results have confirmed a possible reduction in the Gamow-Teller (GT+) strengths of pf-shell nuclei. These proton-rich nuclei are of relevance in the deflagration and explosive burning phases of SNe Ia. While prior GT strengths result in nucleosynthesis predictions with a lower-than-expected electron fraction, a reduction in the GT+ strength can result in a slightly increased electron fraction compared to previous shell model predictions, though the enhancement is not as large as previous enhancements in going from rates computed by Fuller, Fowler, and Newman based on an independent particle model. A shell model parametrization has been developed that more closely matches experimental GT strengths. The resultant electron-capture rates are used in nucleosynthesis calculations for carbon deflagration and explosion phases of SNe Ia, and the final mass fractions are compared to those obtained using more commonly used rates.

  11. Primordial nucleosynthesis with decaying particles. I - Entropy-producing decays. II - Inert decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a nonrelativistic particle X, which decays out of equilibrium, on primordial nucleosynthesis is investigated, including both the energy density of the X particle and the electromagnetic entropy production from its decay. The results are parametrized in terms of the X particle lifetime and the density parameter rm(X), where m(X) is the X particle mass and r is the ratio of X number density to photon number density prior to nucleosynthesis. The results rule out particle lifetimes greater than 1-10 s for large values of rm(X). The question of a decaying particle which produces no electromagnetic entropy in the course of its decay is addressed, and particles which produce both entropy and an inert component in their decay are discussed.

  12. Astrophysical Li-7 as a product of big bang nucleosynthesis and galactic cosmic-ray spallation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The astrophysical Li-7 abundance is considered to be largely primordial, while the Be and B abundances are thought to be due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spallation reactions on top of a much smaller big bang component. But GCR spallation should also produce Li-7. As a consistency check on the combination of big bang nucleosynthesis and GCR spallation, the Be and B data from a sample of hot population II stars is used to subtract from the measured Li-7 abundance an estimate of the amount generated by GCR spallation for each star in the sample, and then to add to this baseline an estimate of the metallicity-dependent augmentation of Li-7 due to spallation. The singly reduced primordial Li-7 abundance is still consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis, and a single GCR spallation model can fit the Be, B, and corrected Li-7 abundances for all the stars in the sample.

  13. Primordial nucleosynthesis with decaying particles. I - Entropy-producing decays. II - Inert decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a nonrelativistic particle X, which decays out of equilibrium, on primordial nucleosynthesis is investigated, including both the energy density of the X particle and the electromagnetic entropy production from its decay. The results are parametrized in terms of the X particle lifetime and the density parameter rm(X), where m(X) is the X particle mass and r is the ratio of X number density to photon number density prior to nucleosynthesis. The results rule out particle lifetimes greater than 1-10 s for large values of rm(X). The question of a decaying particle which produces no electromagnetic entropy in the course of its decay is addressed, and particles which produce both entropy and an inert component in their decay are discussed.

  14. Astrophysical Li-7 as a product of big bang nucleosynthesis and galactic cosmic-ray spallation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The astrophysical Li-7 abundance is considered to be largely primordial, while the Be and B abundances are thought to be due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spallation reactions on top of a much smaller big bang component. But GCR spallation should also produce Li-7. As a consistency check on the combination of big bang nucleosynthesis and GCR spallation, the Be and B data from a sample of hot population II stars is used to subtract from the measured Li-7 abundance an estimate of the amount generated by GCR spallation for each star in the sample, and then to add to this baseline an estimate of the metallicity-dependent augmentation of Li-7 due to spallation. The singly reduced primordial Li-7 abundance is still consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis, and a single GCR spallation model can fit the Be, B, and corrected Li-7 abundances for all the stars in the sample.

  15. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The strong nuclear force meets the weak anthropic principle

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.

    2009-08-15

    Contrary to a common argument that a small increase in the strength of the strong force would lead to destruction of all hydrogen in the big bang due to binding of the diproton and the dineutron with a catastrophic impact on life as we know it, we show that provided the increase in strong force coupling constant is less than about 50% substantial amounts of hydrogen remain. The reason is that an increase in strong force strength leads to tighter binding of the deuteron, permitting nucleosynthesis to occur earlier in the big bang at higher temperature than in the standard big bang. Photodestruction of the less tightly bound diproton and dineutron delays their production to after the bulk of nucleosynthesis is complete. The decay of the diproton can, however, lead to relatively large abundances of deuterium.

  16. PArthENoPE: Public Algorithm Evaluating the Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pisanti, O.; Cirillo, A.; Esposito, S.; Iocco, F.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-05-04

    We describe a program for computing the abundances of light elements produced during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is publicly available at http://parthenope.na.infn.it/. Starting from nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions the program solves the set of coupled ordinary differential equations, follows the departure from chemical equilibrium of nuclear species, and determines their asymptotic abundances as function of several input cosmological parameters as the baryon density, the number of effective neutrino, the value of cosmological constant and the neutrino chemical potential.

  17. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Roberts, Luke F; Hix, William Raphael; Bruner, Blake D; Kozub, R. L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio {eta} given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the {eta} constraint.

  18. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Roberts, Luke F; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint.

  19. PUSHing Core-Collapse Supernovae to Explosions in Spherical Symmetry: Nucleosynthesis Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sanjana; Fröhlich, Carla; Ebinger, Kevin; Perego, Albino; Hempel, Matthias; Eichler, Marius; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the extremely energetic deaths of massive stars. They play a vital role in the synthesis and dissemination of many heavy elements in the universe. In the past, CCSN nucleosynthesis calculations have relied on artificial explosion methods that do not adequately capture the physics of the innermost layers of the star. The PUSH method, calibrated against SN1987A, utilizes the energy of heavy-flavor neutrinos emitted by the proto-neutron star (PNS) to trigger parametrized explosions. This makes it possible to follow the consistent evolution of the PNS and to ensure a more accurate treatment of the electron fraction of the ejecta. Here, we present the Iron group nucleosynthesis results for core-collapse supernovae, exploded with PUSH, for two different progenitor series. Comparisons of the calculated yields to observational metal-poor star data are also presented. Nucleosynthesis yields will be calculated for all elements and over a wide range of progenitor masses. These yields can be immensely useful for models of galactic chemical evolution.

  20. Explosive nucleosynthesis in SN 1987A. II - Composition, radioactivities, and the neutron star mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hashimoto, Masa-Aki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1990-01-01

    The 20 solar mass model of Nomoto and Hashimoto (1988) is utilized with a 6 solar mass. He core is used to perform explosive nucleosynthesis calculations. The employed explosion energy of 10 to the 51st ergs lies within the uncertainty range inferred from the bolometric light curve. The nucleosynthesis processes and their burning products are discussed in detail. The results are compared with abundances from IR observations of SN 1987A and the average nucleosynthesis expected for Type II supernovae in Galactic chemical evolution. The abundances of long-lived radioactive nuclei and their importance for the late light curve and gamma-ray observations are predicted. The position of the mass cut between the neutron star and the ejecta is deduced from the total amount of ejected Ni-56. This requires a neutron star with a baryonic mass of 1.6 + or - 0.045 solar mass, which corresponds to a gravitational mass of 1.43 + or - 0.05 solar mass after subtracting the binding energy of a nonrotating neutron star.

  1. Primordial nucleosynthesis in the Rh = ct cosmology: pouring cold water on the simmering Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Geraint F.; Barnes, Luke A.; Kaushik, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis is rightly hailed as one of the great successes of the standard cosmological model. Here we consider the initial forging of elements in the recently proposed Rh = ct universe, a cosmology that demands linear evolution of the scale factor. Such a universe cools extremely slowly compared to standard cosmologies, considerably depleting the available neutrons during nucleosynthesis; this has significant implications for the resultant primordial abundances of elements, predicting a minuscule quantity of helium which is profoundly at odds with observations. The production of helium can be enhanced in such a `simmering universe' by boosting the baryon to photon ratio, although more than an order of magnitude increase is required to bring the helium mass fraction into accordance with observations. However, in this scenario, the prolonged period of nucleosynthesis results of the efficient cooking of lighter into heavier elements, impacting the resultant abundances of all elements so that, other than hydrogen and helium, there are virtually no light elements present in the universe. Without the addition of substantial new physics in the early universe, it is difficult to see how the Rh = ct universe can be considered a viable cosmological model.

  2. The Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars Project – Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, I.; Szücs, T.; Plag, R.; Fülöp, Z.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-06-15

    The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) project is an astrophysical online database for cross sections relevant for nucleosynthesis in the s process and the γ process. The s-process database ( (http://www.kadonis.org)) was started in 2005 and is presently facing its 4th update (KADoNiS v1.0). The γ-process database (KADoNiS-p, (http://www.kadonis.org/pprocess)) was recently revised and re-launched in March 2013. Both databases are compilations for experimental cross sections with relevance to heavy ion nucleosynthesis. For the s process recommended Maxwellian averaged cross sections for kT=5−100 keV are given for more than 360 isotopes between {sup 1}H and {sup 210}Bi. For the γ-process database all available experimental data from (p,γ),(p,n),(p,α),(α,γ),(α,n), and (α,p) reactions between {sup 70}Ge and {sup 209}Bi in or close to the respective Gamow window were collected and can be compared to theoretical predictions. The aim of both databases is a quick and user-friendly access to the available data in the astrophysically relevant energy regions.

  3. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS TRIGGERED BY A QUARK-HADRON PHASE TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hempel, Matthias; Kaeppeli, Roger; Rauscher, Thomas; Winteler, Christian; Fischer, Tobias; Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Froehlich, Carla; Sagert, Irina

    2012-10-10

    We explore heavy-element nucleosynthesis in the explosion of massive stars that are triggered by a quark-hadron phase transition during the early post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. The present study is based on general-relativistic radiation hydrodynamics simulations with three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport in spherical symmetry, which utilize a quark-hadron hybrid equation of state based on the MIT bag model for strange quark matter. The quark-hadron phase transition inside the stellar core forms a shock wave propagating toward the surface of the proto-neutron star. This shock wave results in an explosion and ejects neutron-rich matter from the outer accreted layers of the proto-neutron star. Later, during the cooling phase, the proto-neutron star develops a proton-rich neutrino-driven wind. We present a detailed analysis of the nucleosynthesis outcome in both neutron-rich and proton-rich ejecta and compare our integrated nucleosynthesis with observations of the solar system and metal-poor stars. For our standard scenario, we find that a 'weak' r-process occurs and elements up to the second peak (A {approx} 130) are successfully synthesized. Furthermore, uncertainties in the explosion dynamics could barely allow us to obtain the strong r-process which produces heavier isotopes, including the third peak (A {approx} 195) and actinide elements.

  4. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  5. Search for 100 MeV to 10 GeV γ-ray lines in the Fermi-LAT data and implications for gravitino dark matter in the μνSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Andrea; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Grefe, Michael; Muñoz, Carlos; Weniger, Christoph; Bloom, Elliott D.; Charles, Eric; Mazziotta, Mario N.; Morselli, Aldo

    2014-10-01

    Dark matter decay or annihilation may produce monochromatic signals in the γ-ray energy range. In this work we argue that there are strong theoretical motivations for studying these signals in the framework of gravitino dark matter decay and we perform a search for γ-ray spectral lines from 100 MeV to 10 GeV with Fermi-LAT data. In contrast to previous line searches at higher energies, the sensitivity of the present search is dominated by systematic uncertainties across most of the energy range considered. We estimate the size of systematic effects by analysing the flux from a number of control regions, and include the systematic uncertainties consistently in our fitting procedure. We have not observed any significant signals and present model-independent limits on γ-ray line emission from decaying and annihilating dark matter. We apply the former limits to the case of the gravitino, a well-known dark matter candidate in supersymmetric scenarios. In particular, the R-parity violating ''μ from ν'' Supersymmetric Standard Model μνSSM) is an attractive scenario in which including right-handed neutrinos solves the μ problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model while simultaneously explaining the origin of neutrino masses. At the same time, the violation of R-parity renders the gravitino unstable and subject to decay into a photon and a neutrino. As a consequence of the limits on line emission, μνSSM gravitinos with masses larger than about 5 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 1028 s, are excluded at 95% confidence level as dark matter candidates.

  6. Search for 100 MeV to 10 GeV γ-ray lines in the Fermi-LAT data and implications for gravitino dark matter in the μνSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Andrea; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Grefe, Michael; Muñoz, Carlos; Bloom, Elliott D.; Charles, Eric; Mazziotta, Mario N.; Morselli, Aldo

    2014-10-13

    We present that dark matter decay or annihilation may produce monochromatic signals in the γ-ray energy range. In this work we argue that there are strong theoretical motivations for studying these signals in the framework of gravitino dark matter decay and we perform a search for γ-ray spectral lines from 100 MeV to 10 GeV with Fermi-LAT data. In contrast to previous line searches at higher energies, the sensitivity of the present search is dominated by systematic uncertainties across most of the energy range considered. We estimate the size of systematic effects by analysing the flux from a number of control regions, and include the systematic uncertainties consistently in our fitting procedure. We have not observed any significant signals and present model-independent limits on γ-ray line emission from decaying and annihilating dark matter. We apply the former limits to the case of the gravitino, a well-known dark matter candidate in supersymmetric scenarios. In particular, the R-parity violating ''μ from ν'' Supersymmetric Standard Model μνSSM) is an attractive scenario in which including right-handed neutrinos solves the μ problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model while simultaneously explaining the origin of neutrino masses. At the same time, the violation of R-parity renders the gravitino unstable and subject to decay into a photon and a neutrino. Finally, as a consequence of the limits on line emission, μνSSM gravitinos with masses larger than about 5 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 1028 s, are excluded at 95% confidence level as dark matter candidates.

  7. Search for 100 MeV to 10 GeV γ-ray lines in the Fermi-LAT data and implications for gravitino dark matter in the μνSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Andrea; Bloom, Elliott D.; Charles, Eric; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Grefe, Michael; Muñoz, Carlos; Mazziotta, Mario N.; Morselli, Aldo E-mail: ggomezv@uc.cl E-mail: carlos.munnoz@uam.es E-mail: elliott@slac.stanford.edu E-mail: marionicola.mazziotta@ba.infn.it

    2014-10-01

    Dark matter decay or annihilation may produce monochromatic signals in the γ-ray energy range. In this work we argue that there are strong theoretical motivations for studying these signals in the framework of gravitino dark matter decay and we perform a search for γ-ray spectral lines from 100 MeV to 10 GeV with Fermi-LAT data. In contrast to previous line searches at higher energies, the sensitivity of the present search is dominated by systematic uncertainties across most of the energy range considered. We estimate the size of systematic effects by analysing the flux from a number of control regions, and include the systematic uncertainties consistently in our fitting procedure. We have not observed any significant signals and present model-independent limits on γ-ray line emission from decaying and annihilating dark matter. We apply the former limits to the case of the gravitino, a well-known dark matter candidate in supersymmetric scenarios. In particular, the R-parity violating ''μ from ν'' Supersymmetric Standard Model μνSSM) is an attractive scenario in which including right-handed neutrinos solves the μ problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model while simultaneously explaining the origin of neutrino masses. At the same time, the violation of R-parity renders the gravitino unstable and subject to decay into a photon and a neutrino. As a consequence of the limits on line emission, μνSSM gravitinos with masses larger than about 5 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 10{sup 28} s, are excluded at 95% confidence level as dark matter candidates.

  8. Search for 100 MeV to 10 GeV γ-ray lines in the Fermi-LAT data and implications for gravitino dark matter in the μνSSM

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Andrea; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Grefe, Michael; ...

    2014-10-13

    We present that dark matter decay or annihilation may produce monochromatic signals in the γ-ray energy range. In this work we argue that there are strong theoretical motivations for studying these signals in the framework of gravitino dark matter decay and we perform a search for γ-ray spectral lines from 100 MeV to 10 GeV with Fermi-LAT data. In contrast to previous line searches at higher energies, the sensitivity of the present search is dominated by systematic uncertainties across most of the energy range considered. We estimate the size of systematic effects by analysing the flux from a number ofmore » control regions, and include the systematic uncertainties consistently in our fitting procedure. We have not observed any significant signals and present model-independent limits on γ-ray line emission from decaying and annihilating dark matter. We apply the former limits to the case of the gravitino, a well-known dark matter candidate in supersymmetric scenarios. In particular, the R-parity violating ''μ from ν'' Supersymmetric Standard Model μνSSM) is an attractive scenario in which including right-handed neutrinos solves the μ problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model while simultaneously explaining the origin of neutrino masses. At the same time, the violation of R-parity renders the gravitino unstable and subject to decay into a photon and a neutrino. Finally, as a consequence of the limits on line emission, μνSSM gravitinos with masses larger than about 5 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 1028 s, are excluded at 95% confidence level as dark matter candidates.« less

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Campo, Nathalie; Bergé, Matthieu J; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host.

  10. The effects of cold dark matter on standard big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelin, John S.; Parker, Ron J. D.

    1990-01-01

    We show that the annihilation of cold, weakly-interacting dark matter candidates (χ) subsequent to χχ freeze-out can significantly affect the primordial abundance of light elements. The largest effects are (i) between the n/p freeze-out temperature (T ⋍ 0.7 MeV) and the onset of nucleosynthesis at T ⋍ 0.1 MeV, χχ annihilations increase the n/p ratio, leading to increased 4He production; (ii) following 4He synthesis, baryonic products p, n, n of χχ annihilations dissociate some of the 4he into D and 3He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances; (iii) toward the end of nucleosynthesis, neutrons from χχ annihilation lead to n + 7Be --> p + 7Li, resulting in increased 7Li + 7Be production for low values of η ≡ nb/nγ and decreased 7Li + 7Be production for large η and (iv) long after nucleosynthesis, once the universe cools below T ⋍ 1 keV, the electromagnetic shower produced by electrons, positrons and photons from residual χχ annihilations causes further dissociation of 4He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances. The most important result is that for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, the 7Li constraints on η from SBBN are significantly affected, with larger values of η being favored. A summary of scattering rates for processes in the electromagnetic shower, including corrections to numerous misprints in other sources, is presented in the appendix.

  11. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE OUTFLOWS ASSOCIATED WITH ACCRETION DISKS OF TYPE II COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata E-mail: bm@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2013-11-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the outflows from gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, massive stars undergo core collapse to form a proto-neutron star initially, and a mild supernova (SN) explosion is driven. The SN ejecta lack momentum, and subsequently this newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics and the nucleosynthesis in these accretion disks have been studied extensively in the past. Several heavy elements are synthesized in the disk, and much of these heavy elements are ejected from the disk via winds and outflows. We study nucleosynthesis in the outflows launched from these disks by using an adiabatic, spherically expanding outflow model, to understand which of these elements thus synthesized in the disk survive in the outflow. While studying this, we find that many new elements like isotopes of titanium, copper, zinc, etc., are present in the outflows. {sup 56}Ni is abundantly synthesized in most of the cases in the outflow, which implies that the outflows from these disks in a majority of cases will lead to an observable SN explosion. It is mainly present when outflow is considered from the He-rich, {sup 56}Ni/{sup 54}Fe-rich zones of the disks. However, outflow from the Si-rich zone of the disk remains rich in silicon. Although emission lines of many of these heavy elements have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of several GRBs by Chandra, BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, etc., Swift seems to have not yet detected these lines.

  12. Multiple main sequence of globular clusters as a result of inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2010-02-01

    A new mechanism for enhancing the helium abundance in the blue main sequence stars of ω Centauri and NGC 2808 is investigated. We suggest that helium enhancement was caused by the inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis. Regions with extremely high baryon-to-photon ratios are assumed to be caused by the baryogenesis. Its mass scale is also assumed to be 106M⊙. An example of the mechanisms to realize these two things was already proposed as the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. As the baryon-to-photon ratio becomes larger, the primordial helium abundance is enhanced. We calculated the big bang nucleosynthesis and found that there exists a parameter region yielding enough helium to account for the split of the main sequence in the aforementioned globular clusters while keeping the abundance of other elements compatible with observations. Our mechanism predicts that heavy elements with the mass number of around 100 is enhanced in the blue main sequence stars. We estimate the time scales of diffusion of the enhanced helium and mass accretion in several stages after the nucleosynthesis to investigate whether these processes diminish the enhancement of helium. We found that the diffusion does not influence the helium content. A cloud with a sufficiently large baryon-to-photon ratio to account for the multiple main sequence collapsed immediately after the recombination. Subsequently, the cloud accreted the ambient matter with the normal helium content. If the star formation occurred both in the collapsed core and the accreted envelope, then the resultant star cluster has a double main sequence.

  13. Multiple main sequence of globular clusters as a result of inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2010-02-15

    A new mechanism for enhancing the helium abundance in the blue main sequence stars of {omega} Centauri and NGC 2808 is investigated. We suggest that helium enhancement was caused by the inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis. Regions with extremely high baryon-to-photon ratios are assumed to be caused by the baryogenesis. Its mass scale is also assumed to be 10{sup 6}M{sub {center_dot}.} An example of the mechanisms to realize these two things was already proposed as the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. As the baryon-to-photon ratio becomes larger, the primordial helium abundance is enhanced. We calculated the big bang nucleosynthesis and found that there exists a parameter region yielding enough helium to account for the split of the main sequence in the aforementioned globular clusters while keeping the abundance of other elements compatible with observations. Our mechanism predicts that heavy elements with the mass number of around 100 is enhanced in the blue main sequence stars. We estimate the time scales of diffusion of the enhanced helium and mass accretion in several stages after the nucleosynthesis to investigate whether these processes diminish the enhancement of helium. We found that the diffusion does not influence the helium content. A cloud with a sufficiently large baryon-to-photon ratio to account for the multiple main sequence collapsed immediately after the recombination. Subsequently, the cloud accreted the ambient matter with the normal helium content. If the star formation occurred both in the collapsed core and the accreted envelope, then the resultant star cluster has a double main sequence.

  14. Astrophysical S-factor for destructive reactions of lithium-7 in big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Kwon, YoungKwan; Moon, JunYoung; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Moon, Chang-Bum; Ozawa, Akira; Sasa, Kimikazu; Onishi, Takahiro; Yuasa, Toshiaki; Okada, Shunsuke; Saito, Yuta; Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-05-02

    One of the most prominent success with the Big Bang models is the precise reproduction of mass abundance ratio for {sup 4}He. In spite of the success, abundances of lithium isotopes are still inconsistent between observations and their calculated results, which is known as lithium abundance problem. Since the calculations were based on the experimental reaction data together with theoretical estimations, more precise experimental measurements may improve the knowledge of the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. As one of the destruction process of lithium-7, we have performed measurements for the reaction cross sections of the {sup 7}L({sup 3}He,p){sup 9}Be reaction.

  15. Density fluctuations from the quark-hadron epoch and primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.; Mathews, G.J.; Alcock, C.R.

    1987-12-01

    We present a simple thermodynamic model of the quark-hadron transition in the early universe and use this model to estimate how the size of isothermal baryon number fluctuations which emerge from this epoch depend on the temperature of the transition and other uncertain quantities of the underlying QCD physics. We calculate primordial nucleosynthesis in the presence of these fluctuations and find that ..cap omega.. = 1 in baryons is possible only if the measured abundances of /sup 7/Li and /sup 2/H reflect substantial destruction during the evolution of the galaxy. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Refined scenario of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis allowing for nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tsukida, Kazuki

    2012-11-12

    The standard scenario of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is generalized to take into account nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma. These reactions are naturally triggered in the BBN epoch by fast particles generated in various exoergic processes. It is found that, although such particles can appreciably enhance the rates of some individual reactions, their influence on the whole process of element production is not significant. The nonthermal corrections to element abundances are obtained to be 0.1% ({sup 3}H), -0.03% ({sup 7}Li), and 0.34 %-0.63% (CNO group).

  17. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on scalar-tensor theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2006-04-15

    We investigate Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in scalar-tensor theories of gravity with arbitrary matter couplings and self-interaction potentials. We first consider the case of a massless dilaton with a quadratic coupling to matter. We perform a full numerical integration of the evolution of the scalar field and compute the resulting light element abundances. We demonstrate in detail the importance of particle mass thresholds on the evolution of the scalar field in a radiation dominated universe. We also consider the simplest extension of this model including a cosmological constant in either the Jordan or Einstein frame.

  18. Proton-capture Nucleosynthesis In Low Mass Stars: Effects of New Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; La Cognata, M.; Cristallo, S.

    2011-10-28

    We present computations of nucleosynthesis in low-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars of solar metallicity experiencing deep mixing. In this framework, we discuss the effects of recent improvements in relevant reaction rates for proton captures on intermediate-mass nuclei. The calculations are then performed on the basis of a parameterized circulation, where the effects of the new nuclear inputs are best compared to previous works. We find that especially the new reaction rate for the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction implies considerable modifications in the composition of low mass red giant stars.

  19. Evidence for nucleosynthesis in the supernova gamma process: universal scaling for p nuclei.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Iwamoto, N; Shizuma, T; Kajino, T; Umeda, H; Nomoto, K

    2004-10-15

    Analyzing the solar system abundance, we find two universal scaling laws concerning the p and s nuclei. They indicate that the gamma process in supernova (SN) explosions is the most probable origin of the p nuclei that has been discussed with many possible nuclear reactions and sites in about 50 years. In addition, the scalings lead to new concepts: a universality of the gamma process and a new nuclear cosmochronometer. We carry out gamma-process nucleosynthesis calculations for typical core-collapse SN explosion models, and the results satisfy the observed scalings.

  20. Extinct technetium in silicon carbide stardust grains: implications for stellar nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savina, Michael R; Davis, Andrew M; Tripa, C Emil; Pellin, Michael J; Gallino, Roberto; Lewis, Roy S; Amari, Sachiko

    2004-01-30

    The isotopic composition of ruthenium (Ru) in individual presolar silicon carbide (SiC) stardust grains bears the signature of s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars, plus an anomaly in 99Ru that is explained by the in situ decay of technetium isotope 99Tc in the grains. This finding, coupled with the observation of Tc spectral lines in certain stars, shows that the majority of presolar SiC grains come from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars, and that the amount of 99Tc produced in such stars is insufficient to have left a detectable 99Ru anomaly in early solar system materials.

  1. New microwave background constraints on the cosmic matter budget: trouble for nucleosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Tegmark; Zaldarriaga

    2000-09-11

    We compute the joint constraints on ten cosmological parameters from the latest cosmic microwave background measurements. The lack of a significant second acoustic peak in the new BOOMERANG and MAXIMA data favors models with more baryons than big bang nucleosynthesis predicts, almost independently of what prior information is included. The simplest flat inflation models with purely scalar scale-invariant fluctuations prefer a baryon density 0. 022

  2. Eternal annihilations: New constraints on long-lived particles from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-05-01

    In the early Universe, the relative abundance of a massive weakly interacting particle species ``freezes out'' when the annihilation rate becomes less than the expansion rate. Although ineffective in reducing the total number of the species, occasional annihilations still occur after freeze-out. The residual annihilations of massive particles (10 MeV<~mX<~1 GeV) after primordial nucleosynthesis can strongly alter the light-element abundances through photodissociation. For particles with typical weak-interaction cross sections and lifetimes τX>~5×106 sec, we find that the mass range mX<~1 GeV is ruled out, independent of how they subsequently decay.

  3. Solving the Crisis in Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis by the Radiative Decay of an Exotic Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtmann, Erich; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Moroi, Takeo

    1996-10-01

    We discuss a new mechanism which can solve the crisis in standard big-bang nucleosynthesis. A long-lived particle X \\(104 sec<~τX<~106 sec\\) which decays into photon(s) will induce cascade photons, and destroy significant amounts of D and 3He without destroying 4He or too much 7Li. We numerically investigate this process and derive a constraint on the properties of X such that the theoretical values of the primordial light-element abundances agree with observation. We also present some candidates for the unstable particle X.

  4. Very small (n,γ) cross sections: two measurements for primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzel, U.; Wiescher, M.; Beer, H.; Käppeler, F.; Steiniger, R.

    1989-04-01

    The measurement of neutron capture cross sections via the activation technique has been extended to cross sections in the μb range. The knowledge of small cross sections is important for the abundances of neutron magic nuclei, for the role of neutron poisons, and for primordial nucleosynthesis. Wherever the activation technique can be applied, such small cross sections can be determined with significantly improved accuracy, as is demonstrated for the examples of 7Li and 208Pb. In both cases, significantly smaller cross sections were obtained compared to previous results, and uncertainties were reduced by more than a factor two.

  5. Neutron injection during primordial nucleosynthesis alleviates the primordial Li7 problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albornoz Vásquez, Daniel; Belikov, Alexander; Coc, Alain; Silk, Joseph; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2012-09-01

    We present a parametrized study of the effects of free thermal neutron injection on primordial nucleosynthesis, where both the rate and the time scale of injection are varied. This generic approach is found to yield a successful solution for reducing the Li7 abundance without causing significant problems to other elemental abundances. Our analysis demonstrates that hadronic injection, possibly due to decays or annihilations of dark matter particles with a mass of about 1 to 30 GeV, provides a possible solution to an outstanding problem in the standard big bang model.

  6. Production of Li and B in Inhomogeneous Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Riou; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    We investigate the light element synthesis, such as Li, Be, and B, in inhomogeneous Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (IBBN) model. We assume the existence of a high-density island at the early universe. In IBBN model, 11B is synthesized in the high density region with η = 10-8-10-6. 7Li can be synthesiszed in the high- and low density regions. As the result, 7Li becomes higher than that of the standard BBN. In present analysis, we discuss the possibility of B production at the BBN epoch.

  7. The Zr92(n,γ) reaction and its implications for stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliente, G.; Milazzo, P. M.; Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-05-01

    Because the relatively small neutron capture cross sections of the zirconium isotopes are difficult to measure, the results of previous measurements are often not adequate for a number of problems in astrophysics and nuclear technology. Therefore, the Zr92(n,γ) cross section has been remeasured at the CERN n_TOF facility, providing a set of improved parameters for 44 resonances in the neutron energy range up to 40 keV. With this information the cross-section uncertainties in the keV region could be reduced to 5% as required for s-process nucleosynthesis studies and technological applications.

  8. Electron-capture Rates for pf-shell Nuclei in Stellar Environments and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Honma, Michio; Mori, Kanji; Famiano, Michael A.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hidakai, Jun; Otsuka, Takaharu

    Gamow-Teller strengths in pf-shell nuclei obtained by a new shell-model Hamltonian, GXPF1J, are used to evaluate electron-capture rates in pf-shell nuclei at stellar environments. The nuclear weak rates with GXPF1J, which are generally smaller than previous evaluations for proton-rich nuclei, are applied to nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernova explosions. The updated rates are found to lead to less production of neutron-rich nuclei such as 58Ni and 54Cr, thus toward a solution of the problem of over-production of neutron-rich isotopes of iron-group nuclei compared to the solar abundance.

  9. Hot CNO and p-capture nucleosynthesis in intermediate-mass AGB stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    When the judgement on the reliability of models for ``multiple" populations in globular clusters is based on the nucleosynthesis needed to produce the anomalous abundances of light elements, the asymptotic giant branch scenario remains the only game in town. We discuss this evidence, together with the difficulties that this model too has to face in dealing with the direct comparison between the observed abundances and predicted yields. We show that a reduction of the cross section of the 23Na(p,alpha )20Ne reaction at T∼100MK is the main requirement that could allow to ease or fully solve the problems.

  10. On the introduction of 17O+p reaction rates evaluated through the THM in AGB nucleosynthesis calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-05-01

    The rates for the 17O(p,αα14N, 17O(p,α)18F and 18O(p,α)15N reactions deduced trough the Trojan Horse Method (THM) have been introduced into a state-of-the-art asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis and cool bottom process. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis.

  11. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-06-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.

  12. The fundamental role of fission during r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.

    2015-02-01

    The rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is known to be of fundamental importance for explaining the origin of approximately half of the A > 60 stable nuclei observed in nature. Despite important efforts, the astrophysical site of the r-process remains unidentified. Here we study r-process nucleosynthesis in a material that is dynamically ejected by tidal and pressure forces during the merging of binary neutron stars. r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression is known to be largely insensitive to the detailed astrophysical conditions because of efficient fission recycling, producing a composition that closely follows the solar r-abundance distribution for nuclei with mass numbers A > 140. Due to the important role played by fission in such a scenario, the impact of fission is carefully analyzed. We consider different state-of-the-art global models for the determination of the fission paths, nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points and fission fragment distributions. Based on such models, the sensitivity of the calculated r-process abundance distribution is studied. The fission path is found to strongly affect the region of heavy nuclei responsible for the fission recycling, while the fission fragment distribution of nuclei along the A ≃ 278 isobars defines the abundance pattern of nuclei produced in the 110 ≲ A ≲ 170 region. The late capture of prompt fission neutrons is also shown to affect the abundance distribution, and in particular the shape of the third r-process peak around A ≃ 195.

  13. Implications for Post-processing Nucleosynthesis of Core-collapse Supernova Models with Lagrangian Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. Austin; Hix, W. Raphael; Chertkow, Merek A.; Lee, C. T.; Lentz, Eric J.; Messer, O. E. Bronson

    2017-07-01

    We investigate core-collapse supernova (CCSN) nucleosynthesis with self-consistent, axisymmetric (2D) simulations performed using the neutrino hydrodynamics code Chimera. Computational costs have traditionally constrained the evolution of the nuclear composition within multidimensional CCSN models to, at best, a 14-species α-network capable of tracking only (α ,γ ) reactions from 4He to 60Zn. Such a simplified network limits the ability to accurately evolve detailed composition and neutronization or calculate the nuclear energy generation rate. Lagrangian tracer particles are commonly used to extend the nuclear network evolution by incorporating more realistic networks into post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. However, limitations such as poor spatial resolution of the tracer particles inconsistent thermodynamic evolution, including misestimation of expansion timescales and uncertain determination of the multidimensional mass cut at the end of the simulation impose uncertainties inherent to this approach. We present a detailed analysis of the impact of such uncertainties for four self-consistent axisymmetric CCSN models initiated from solar-metallicity, nonrotating progenitors of 12, 15, 20, and 25 {M}⊙ and evolved with the smaller α-network to more than 1 s after the launch of an explosion.

  14. Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eggleton, Peter P; Dearborn, David S P; Lattanzio, John C

    2006-12-08

    Low-mass stars, approximately 1 to 2 solar masses, near the Main Sequence are efficient at producing the helium isotope 3He, which they mix into the convective envelope on the giant branch and should distribute into the Galaxy by way of envelope loss. This process is so efficient that it is difficult to reconcile the low observed cosmic abundance of 3He with the predictions of both stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Here we find, by modeling a red giant with a fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic code and a full nucleosynthetic network, that mixing arises in the supposedly stable and radiative zone between the hydrogen-burning shell and the base of the convective envelope. This mixing is due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability within a zone just above the hydrogen-burning shell, where a nuclear reaction lowers the mean molecular weight slightly. Thus, we are able to remove the threat that 3He production in low-mass stars poses to the Big Bang nucleosynthesis of 3He.

  15. Deep Mixing of 3He: Reconciling Big Bang and Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Dearborn, D P; Lattanzio, J

    2006-07-26

    Low-mass stars, {approx} 1-2 solar masses, near the Main Sequence are efficient at producing {sup 3}He, which they mix into the convective envelope on the giant branch and should distribute into the Galaxy by way of envelope loss. This process is so efficient that it is difficult to reconcile the low observed cosmic abundance of {sup 3}He with the predictions of both stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In this paper we find, by modeling a red giant with a fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic code and a full nucleosynthetic network, that mixing arises in the supposedly stable and radiative zone between the hydrogen-burning shell and the base of the convective envelope. This mixing is due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability within a zone just above the hydrogen-burning shell, where a nuclear reaction lowers the mean molecular weight slightly. Thus we are able to remove the threat that {sup 3}He production in low-mass stars poses to the Big Bang nucleosynthesis of {sup 3}He.

  16. Implications for Post-processing Nucleosynthesis of Core-collapse Supernova Models with Lagrangian Particles

    DOE PAGES

    Harris, J. Austin; Hix, W. Raphael; Chertkow, Merek A.; ...

    2017-06-26

    In this paper, we investigate core-collapse supernova (CCSN) nucleosynthesis with self-consistent, axisymmetric (2D) simulations performed using the neutrino hydrodynamics code Chimera. Computational costs have traditionally constrained the evolution of the nuclear composition within multidimensional CCSN models to, at best, a 14-species α-network capable of tracking onlymore » $$(\\alpha ,\\gamma )$$ reactions from 4He to 60Zn. Such a simplified network limits the ability to accurately evolve detailed composition and neutronization or calculate the nuclear energy generation rate. Lagrangian tracer particles are commonly used to extend the nuclear network evolution by incorporating more realistic networks into post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. However, limitations such as poor spatial resolution of the tracer particles; inconsistent thermodynamic evolution, including misestimation of expansion timescales; and uncertain determination of the multidimensional mass cut at the end of the simulation impose uncertainties inherent to this approach. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the impact of such uncertainties for four self-consistent axisymmetric CCSN models initiated from solar-metallicity, nonrotating progenitors of 12, 15, 20, and 25 $${M}_{\\odot }$$ and evolved with the smaller α-network to more than 1 s after the launch of an explosion.« less

  17. Big Bang nucleosynthesis: Accelerator tests and can. cap omega. /sub B/ really be large

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1987-10-01

    The first collider tests of cosmological theory are now underway. The number of neutrino families in nature, N/sub nu/, plays a key role in elementary particle physics as well as in the synthesis of the light elements during the early evolution of the Universe. Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis argues for N/sub nu/ = 3 +- 1. Current limits on N/sub nu/ from the CERN anti pp collider and e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders are presented and compared to the cosmological bound. Supernova SN 1987A is also shown to give a limit on N/sub nu/ comparable to current accelerator bounds. All numbers are found to be small thus verifying the Big Bang model at an earlier epoch than is possible by traditional astronomical observations. Future measurements at SLC and LEP will further tighten this argument. Another key prediction of the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is that the baryon density must be small (..cap omega../sub B/ less than or equal to 0.1). Recent attempts to try to subvert this argument using homogeneities of various types are shown to run afoul of the /sup 7/Li abundance which has now become a rather firm constraint. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  18. β Decay as a Probe of Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; Liddick, S. N.; Bardayan, D. W.; Bowe, A.; Brown, B. A.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Cooper, N.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B.; Irvine, D.; José, J.; Langer, C.; Larson, N.; McNeice, E. I.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Naqvi, F.; Pain, S. D.; O'Malley, P.; Ortez, R.; Ong, W.; Pereira, J.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Prokop, C.; Quaglia, J.; Quinn, S.; Santia, M.; Schatz, H.; Schwartz, S. B.; Simon, A.; Shanab, S.; Spyrou, A.; Suchyta, S.; Thiagalingam, E.; Thompson, P.; Walters, M.

    Classical novae are common thermonuclear explosions in the Milky Way galaxy, occurring on the surfaces of white-dwarf stars that are accreting hydrogen-rich material from companion stars. Nucleosynthesis in classical novae depends on radiative proton-capture reaction rates on radioactive nuclides. Many of these reactions cannot be measured directly at current accelerator facilities due to the lack of intense, high-quality, radioactive-ion beams at the relevant energies. Since most of these reactions proceed via resonant capture, their rates can be determined indirectly by measuring the properties of the resonances. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have used the β-delayed γ decays of 26P and 31Cl to populate resonances in 26Si and 31S and study the radiative proton captures on 25Al and 30P, respectively. These were two out of the three most important nuclear-physics uncertainties associated with the observable products of nova nucleosynthesis. The 26P experiment has enabled a more accurate estimate of the nova contribution to the long-lived Galactic 26Al detected with γ-ray telescopes. The 31Cl experiment, currently under analysis, will calibrate potential nova thermometers and mixing meters based on elemental abundance ratios, and facilitate the identification of pre-solar nova grain candidates found in primitive meteorites based on isotopic ratios.

  19. Recent results in explosive and s-process nucleosynthesis from measurements on radioactive and stable targets

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.; Schatz, H.

    1993-07-01

    Measurements of (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) cross sections are crucial for a better understanding of many scenarios of nucleosynthesis. Current problems in which such reactions play a roll include the possible synthesis of heavy element during the big bang. The production of several rare isotopes in explosive nucleosynthesis, and a better understanding of the role of the s process in the synthesis of light and intermediate mass nuclei. We have recently completed measurements of several (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) cross sections of importance to nuclear astrophysics. The cross sections were measured in the range from thermal energy to approximately 1 MeV by using the white neutron source at the Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) in Los Alamos. We have also made complementary measurements at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff and at thee Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). We discuss the impact of the results on nuclear astrophysics as well as recent improvements and future plans.

  20. Resonant neutrino spin-flavor precession and supernova nucleosynthesis and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nunokawa, H.; Qian, Y.; Fuller, G.M.

    1997-03-01

    We discuss the effects of resonant spin-flavor precession (RSFP) of Majorana neutrinos on heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-heated supernova ejecta and the dynamics of supernovae. In assessing the effects of RSFP, we explicitly include matter-enhanced (MSW) resonant neutrino flavor conversion effects where appropriate. We point out that for plausible ranges of neutrino magnetic moments and protoneutron star magnetic fields, spin-flavor conversion of {nu}{sub {tau}} (or {nu}{sub {mu}}) with a cosmologically significant mass (1{endash}100 eV) into a light {bar {nu}}{sub e} could lead to an enhanced neutron excess in neutrino-heated supernova ejecta. This could be beneficial for models of r-process nucleosynthesis associated with late-time neutrino-heated ejecta from supernovae. Similar spin-flavor conversion of neutrinos at earlier epochs could lead to an increased shock reheating rate and, concomitantly, a larger supernova explosion energy. We show, however, that such increased neutrino heating likely will be accompanied by an enhanced neutron excess which could exacerbate the problem of the overproduction of the neutron number N=50 nuclei in the supernova ejecta from this stage. In all of these scenarios, the average {bar {nu}}{sub e} energy will be increased over those predicted by supernova models with no neutrino mixings. This may allow the SN 1987A data to constrain RSFP-based schemes. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. SHEDDING NEW LIGHT ON EXPLODING STARS: TERASCALE SIMULATIONS OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, Wick

    2012-03-07

    This project was focused on simulations of core-collapse supernovae on parallel platforms. The intent was to address a number of linked issues: the treatment of hydrodynamics and neutrino diffusion in two and three dimensions; the treatment of the underlying nuclear microphysics that governs neutrino transport and neutrino energy deposition; the understanding of the associated nucleosynthesis, including the r-process and neutrino process; the investigation of the consequences of new neutrino phenomena, such as oscillations; and the characterization of the neutrino signal that might be recorded in terrestrial detectors. This was a collaborative effort with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, State University of New York at Stony Brook, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of California at San Diego, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Florida Atlantic University, North Carolina State University, and Clemson. The collaborations tie together experts in hydrodynamics, nuclear physics, computer science, and neutrino physics. The University of Washington contributions to this effort include the further development of techniques to solve the Bloch-Horowitz equation for effective interactions and operators; collaborative efforts on developing a parallel Lanczos code; investigating the nuclear and neutrino physics governing the r-process and neutrino physics; and exploring the effects of new neutrino physics on the explosion mechanism, nucleosynthesis, and terrestrial supernova neutrino detection.

  2. Collective flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos and r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Kar, Kamales; Goswami, Srubabati E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in E-mail: kamales.kar@saha.ac.in

    2010-06-01

    Neutrino-neutrino interactions inside core-collapse supernovae may give rise to collective flavor oscillations resulting in swap between flavors. These oscillations depend on the initial energy spectra, and relative fluxes or relative luminosities of the neutrinos. It has been observed that departure from energy equipartition among different flavors can give rise to one or more sharp spectral swap over energy, termed as splits. We study the occurrence of splits in the neutrino and antineutrino spectra, varying the initial relative fluxes for different models of initial energy spectrum, in both normal and inverted hierarchy. These initial relative flux variations give rise to several possible split patterns whereas variation over different models of energy spectra give similar results. We explore the effect of these spectral splits on the electron fraction, Y{sub e}, that governs r-process nucleosynthesis inside supernovae. Since spectral splits modify the electron neutrino and antineutrino spectra in the region where r-process is postulated to happen, and since the pattern of spectral splits depends on the initial conditions of the spectra and the neutrino mass hierarchy, we show that the condition Y{sub e} < 0.5 required for successful r-process nucleosynthesis will lead to constraints on the initial spectral conditions, for a given neutrino mass hierarchy.

  3. STANDARD BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS UP TO CNO WITH AN IMPROVED EXTENDED NUCLEAR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain; Saimpert, Matthias; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2012-01-10

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the three strong pieces of evidence for the big bang model together with the expansion of the universe and cosmic microwave background radiation. In this study, we improve the standard BBN calculations taking into account new nuclear physics analyses and enlarge the nuclear network up to sodium. This is, in particular, important to evaluate the primitive value of CNO mass fraction that could affect Population III stellar evolution. For the first time we list the complete network of more than 400 reactions with references to the origin of the rates, including Almost-Equal-To 270 reaction rates calculated using the TALYS code. Together with the cosmological light elements, we calculate the primordial beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei. We performed a sensitivity study to identify the important reactions for CNO, {sup 9}Be, and boron nucleosynthesis. We re-evaluated those important reaction rates using experimental data and/or theoretical evaluations. The results are compared with precedent calculations: a primordial beryllium abundance increase by a factor of four compared to its previous evaluation, but we note a stability for B/H and for the CNO/H abundance ratio that remains close to its previous value of 0.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15}. On the other hand, the extension of the nuclear network has not changed the {sup 7}Li value, so its abundance is still 3-4 times greater than its observed spectroscopic value.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in Hot Bubbles of SNe-Origin of EMP Stars: HNe or SNe ?

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2010-08-12

    The observational trends of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars reflect SN nucleosynthesis of Population III, or almost metal-free stars. The observation of EMP stars can be reproduced by HNe, not by normal SNe. However, if the innermost neutron-rich or proton-rich matter is ejected, the abundance patterns of ejected matter are changed, and there is a possibility that normal SNe can also reproduce the observations of EMP stars. In this paper, we calculate nucleosynthesis with various Y{sub e} and entropy taking into account neutrino processes. We investigate whether normal SNe with this innermost matter can reproduce the observations of EMP stars. We find that neutron-rich (Y{sub e} = 0.45-0.50) and proton-rich (Y{sub e} = 0.51-0.55) matters can improve Zn and Co, but tend to overproduce other Fe-peak elements. On the other hand, HNe can naturally reproduce the observations of EMP stars.

  5. S-process nucleosynthesis in AGB models with the FST prescription for convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Lugaro, M.

    The chemical evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars depends greatly on the input physics (e.g., mass loss recipe, convective model). Variations in the hot bottom burning (HBB) strength, third dredge-up (TDU) efficiency and AGB evolutionary timescale are among the main consequences of adopting different input physics. The ATON evolutionary code stands apart from others in that it uses the Blöcker mass loss prescription and the Full Spectrum of Turbulence (FST) convective model. We have developed an s-process module for ATON by extending the element network from 30 to 320 elements, which uses the physical inputs (such as temperature or density) calculated by ATON. Here we present the first preliminary results of s-process nucleosynthesis for ATON AGB models with different progenitor masses. These preliminary results are compared with predictions from other AGB nucleosynthesis models that use different input physics. We also outline our future tasks to improve the current s-process ATON simulations.

  6. The Lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs: A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that observations of the Lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs - A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Lawrence; Schramm, David N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that observations of the lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations.

  8. The impact of nuclear mass models on r-process nucleosynthesis network calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Kelly

    2002-10-01

    An insight into understanding various nucleosynthesis processes is via modelling of the process with network calculations. My project focus is r-process network calculations where the r-process is nucleosynthesis via rapid neutron capture thought to take place in high entropy supernova bubbles. One of the main uncertainties of the simulations is the Nuclear Physics input. My project investigates the role that nuclear masses play in the resulting abundances. The code tecode, involves rapid (n,γ) capture reactions in competition with photodisintegration and β decay onto seed nuclei. In order to fully analyze the effects of nuclear mass models on the relative isotopic abundances, calculations were done from the network code, keeping the initial environmental parameters constant throughout. The supernova model investigated by Qian et al (1996) in which two r-processes, of high and low frequency with seed nucleus ^90Se and of fixed luminosity (fracL_ν_e(0)r_7(0)^2 ˜= 8.77), contribute to the nucleosynthesis of the heavier elements. These two r-processes, however, do not contribute equally to the total abundance observed. The total isotopic abundance produced from both events was therefore calculated using equation refabund. Y(H+L) = fracY(H)+fY(L)f+1 <~belabund where Y(H) denotes the relative isotopic abundance produced in the high frequency event, Y(L) corresponds to the low freqeuncy event and f is the ratio of high event matter to low event matter produced. Having established reliable, fixed parameters, the network code was run using data files containing parameters such as the mass excess, neutron separation energy, β decay rates and neutron capture rates based around three different nuclear mass models. The mass models tested are the HFBCS model (Hartree-Fock BCS) derived from first principles, the ETFSI-Q model (Extended Thomas-Fermi with Strutinsky Integral including shell Quenching) known for its particular successes in the replication of Solar System

  9. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  10. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  11. Lepton asymmetry and primordial nucleosynthesis in the era of precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2005-06-01

    We calculate and display the primordial light-element abundances as a function of a neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ common to all flavors. It is the only unknown parameter characterizing the thermal medium at the primordial nucleosynthesis epoch. The observed primordial helium abundance Yp is the most sensitive cosmic “leptometer.” Adopting the conservative Yp error analysis of Olive and Skillman implies -0.04≲ξ≲0.07 whereas the errors stated by Izotov and Thuan imply ξ=0.0245±0.0092 (1σ). Improved determinations of the baryon abundance have no significant impact on this situation. A determination of Yp that reliably distinguishes between a vanishing or nonvanishing ξ is a crucial test of the cosmological standard assumption that sphaleron effects equilibrate the cosmic lepton and baryon asymmetries.

  12. Nuclear Halos and Borromeans in the Primordial Nucleosynthesis Process and in Astrophysical Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Özer, O.

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear halo structures and Borromean nuclei have been intensely studied almost two decades. They have a cloud of neutrons and protons extended well beyond the surface of tightly bound core of neutrons and protons which is classically forbidden. Since the extended tail of the valance neutron wave-function of the neutron halos the cross-sections are much larger and their sizes become substantially much larger than the ordinary nuclei. Inferred expectations of halo and Borroeman nuclei in astrophysics due to their novel structures have been suggested to influence the astrophysical reactions, especially in the primordial furnace during the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) process. It is seen that the large spatial extension directly implies that both elastic and absorption cross-sections are large for the reactions involving halo nuclei. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) reaction cross-sections calculations are discussed for low energies.

  13. Observation of the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis-Clock Isotope in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 105 iron nuclei, with energies 195 to 500 megaelectron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe56Fe source ratio is (7.5 2.9) 105. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, 1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  14. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-10-22

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy.

  15. Measurement of the Ca40(α,γ)Ti44 reaction relevant for supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Ouellet, C. O.; The, L.-S.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; Crawford, H.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davids, B.; Fogarty, L.; Frekers, D.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Kutschera, W.; Laird, A. M.; Lewis, R.; O'Connor, E.; Ottewell, D.; Paul, M.; Pavan, M. M.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Wales, B.; Wallner, A.

    2007-09-01

    The short-lived nuclide Ti44 is an important nuclide for the understanding of explosive nucleosynthesis. The main production reaction, Ca40(α,γ)Ti44, has been studied in inverse kinematics with the recoil mass spectrometer DRAGON located at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility in Vancouver, Canada. The temperature range relevant for α-rich freeze-out during a core-collapse supernova has been covered entirely with a Ca40 beam of 0.60 to 1.15 MeV/nucleon. All relevant quantities for the calculation of the astrophysical reaction rate have been measured directly. Because of many previously undiscovered resonances, the reaction rate derived from the energy dependent Ti44 yield is higher than the one based on previous prompt γ-ray studies commonly used in supernova models. The presented new rate results in an increased Ti44 production in supernovae.

  16. The lithium problem: new insight in the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) beyond the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, T. R.; El Eid, M. F.

    2017-06-01

    The production of the light elements in the framework of the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model (SBBN) matches the observed abundances except in case of 7Li, where observations lie a factor 2.4-4.3 below SBBN+WMAP(Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) predictions. This so-called “Lithium problem” needs to be resolved beyond the SBBN. In this contribution we focus on the effect of degenerate neutrinos and the addition of dark component, including dark energy density and dark entropy. We find that the effect of the degeneracy parameter is significant if chemical potentials of neutrino families are different. Concerning the dark component, the major effect comes from adding dark entropy.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical supernovae of population III stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Kotake, Kei

    2012-11-12

    We examine explosive nucleosynthesis during neutrino-driven, aspherical supernovae of Population III stars, based on two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of 11-40M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} stars with zero metallicity. The magnitude and asymmetry of the explosion energy are estimated with the simulations. By post-processing calculations with a large nuclear reaction network, we have evaluated abundances and masses of ejecta from the aspherical SNe. We find that the evaluated abundance patterns are similar to those observed in extremely metal poor stars, as shown in spherical and 2D models, in which the explosion is manually and spherically initiated. Matter mixing induced via standing accretion shock instability is important for the abundances and masses of the SN ejecta.

  18. Constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis on the mass of the tau neutrino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S.; Chakravorty, A.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that primordial nucleosynthesis excludes a tau-neutrino mass from 0.3 to 25 MeV (Dirac) and 0.5 to 25 MeV (Majorana) provided that its lifetime is not less than about 1 sec, and from 0.3 to 30 MeV (Dirac) and 0.5 to 32 MeV (Majorana) for a lifetime of not less than about 1000 sec. A modest improvement in the laboratory mass limit - from 35 to 25 MeV - would imply that the tau-neutrino mass must be less than 0.5 MeV (provided the lifetime is not less than about 1 sec).

  19. Computational Models of X-Ray Burst Quenching Times and 12C Nucleosynthesis Following a Superburst

    SciTech Connect

    Fisker, J L

    2009-03-19

    Superbursts are energetic events on neutron stars that are a thousand times more powerful than ordinary type I X-ray bursts. They are believed to be powered by a thermonuclear explosion of accumulated {sup 12}C. However, the source of this {sup 12}C remains elusive to theoretical calculations and its concentration and ignition depth are both unknown. Here we present the first computational simulations of the nucleosynthesis during the thermal decay of a superbust, where X-ray bursts are quenched. Our calculations of the quenching time verify previous analytical calculations and shed new light on the physics of stable burning at low accretion rates. We show that concentrated (X{sub {sup 12}C} {approx}> 0.40), although insufficient, amounts of {sup 12}C are generated during the several weeks following the superburst where the decaying thermal flux of the superburst stabilizes the burning of the accreted material.

  20. Explosive nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events of massive white dwarfs, and their debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nakasato, Naohito; Hachisu, Izumi

    We perform SPH simulations coupled with nuclear reactions to follow tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). We consider an oxygen-neon-magnesium (ONeMg) WD with 1.2M ⊙ as well as a helium (He) WD with 0.3M ⊙, and a carbon-oxygen (CO) WD with 0.6M ⊙. Our WD models have different numbers of SPH particles, N, up to a few 10 million. We find that nucleosynthesis does not converge against N even for N > 107. For all the WDs, the amount of radioactive nuclei, such as 56Ni, decreases with increasing N. Nuclear reactions might be extinguished for infinitely large N. Our results show that these kinds of TDEs, if solely powered by radioactive decays, are much dimmer optical transients similar to Type Ia supernovae as previously suggested.

  1. Lepton asymmetry and primordial nucleosynthesis in the era of precision cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2005-06-15

    We calculate and display the primordial light-element abundances as a function of a neutrino degeneracy parameter {xi} common to all flavors. It is the only unknown parameter characterizing the thermal medium at the primordial nucleosynthesis epoch. The observed primordial helium abundance Y{sub p} is the most sensitive cosmic 'leptometer'. Adopting the conservative Y{sub p} error analysis of Olive and Skillman implies -0.04 < or approx. {xi} < or approx. 0.07 whereas the errors stated by Izotov and Thuan imply {xi}=0.0245{+-}0.0092 (1{sigma}). Improved determinations of the baryon abundance have no significant impact on this situation. A determination of Y{sub p} that reliably distinguishes between a vanishing or nonvanishing {xi} is a crucial test of the cosmological standard assumption that sphaleron effects equilibrate the cosmic lepton and baryon asymmetries.

  2. Observation of the 60Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 × 105 iron nuclei, with energies ~195 to ~500 mega-electron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe/56Fe source ratio is (7.5 ± 2.9) × 10-5. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  3. Revisiting constraints on small scale perturbations from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the constraints on the small scale density perturbations (1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 ) from the modification of the freeze-out value of the neutron-proton ratio at the big-bang nucleosynthesis era. Around the freeze-out temperature T ˜0.5 MeV , the universe can be divided into several local patches that have different temperatures since any perturbation that enters the horizon after the neutrino decoupling has not diffused yet. Taking account of this situation, we calculate the freeze-out value in detail. We find that the small scale perturbations decrease the n -p ratio in contrast to previous works. With the use of the latest observed 4He abundance, we obtain the constraint on the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations as ΔR2≲0.018 on 1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 .

  4. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of 92Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, G. M.; Spyrou, A.; Schwengner, R.; Naqvi, F.; Larsen, A. C.; Eriksen, T. K.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Meyer, B. S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p -nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. The lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average γ strength function of 92Mo. State-of-the-art p -process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of this isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the 91Nb(p ,γ )92Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of 92Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the 92Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.

  5. Observation of the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis-Clock Isotope in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 105 iron nuclei, with energies 195 to 500 megaelectron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe56Fe source ratio is (7.5 2.9) 105. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, 1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  6. Some remarks on luminosity distance and nucleosynthesis in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S. )

    1992-09-01

    Using a previous cosmological solution of the present author, the behavior of luminosity distance is analyzed in multidimensional spacetime. It is observed that the de Sitter spacetime sets an upper limit to the absolute distance of any cosmological source where the generally accepted value of the deceleration parameter q(0) greater than -1 is taken. This generalizes an earlier result of Barnes to higher dimensions. Further, an attempt is made to investigate, in brief, the phenomenon of nucleosynthesis in the early universe. While it is premature to make a definite statement in this regard, it is found that there may be significant differences, in principle at least, from the analogous situation in four-dimensional spacetime. 15 refs.

  7. Some remarks on luminosity distance and nucleosynthesis in higher dimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.

    1992-09-01

    Using a previous cosmological solution of the present author, the behavior of luminosity distance is analyzed in multidimensional spacetime. It is observed that the de Sitter spacetime sets an upper limit to the absolute distance of any cosmological source where the generally accepted value of the deceleration parameter q(0) greater than -1 is taken. This generalizes an earlier result of Barnes to higher dimensions. Further, an attempt is made to investigate, in brief, the phenomenon of nucleosynthesis in the early universe. While it is premature to make a definite statement in this regard, it is found that there may be significant differences, in principle at least, from the analogous situation in four-dimensional spacetime.

  8. Constraining f(T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis: f(T) cosmology and BBN.

    PubMed

    Capozziello, S; Lambiase, G; Saridakis, E N

    2017-01-01

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f(T) gravity. The three most studied viable f(T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f(T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints.

  9. Constraining f( T) teleparallel gravity by big bang nucleosynthesis. f(T) cosmology and BBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, S.; Lambiase, G.; Saridakis, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    We use Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) observational data on the primordial abundance of light elements to constrain f( T) gravity. The three most studied viable f( T) models, namely the power law, the exponential and the square-root exponential are considered, and the BBN bounds are adopted in order to extract constraints on their free parameters. For the power-law model, we find that the constraints are in agreement with those obtained using late-time cosmological data. For the exponential and the square-root exponential models, we show that for reliable regions of parameters space they always satisfy the BBN bounds. We conclude that viable f( T) models can successfully satisfy the BBN constraints.

  10. Constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis on the mass of the tau neutrino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S.; Chakravorty, A.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that primordial nucleosynthesis excludes a tau-neutrino mass from 0.3 to 25 MeV (Dirac) and 0.5 to 25 MeV (Majorana) provided that its lifetime is not less than about 1 sec, and from 0.3 to 30 MeV (Dirac) and 0.5 to 32 MeV (Majorana) for a lifetime of not less than about 1000 sec. A modest improvement in the laboratory mass limit - from 35 to 25 MeV - would imply that the tau-neutrino mass must be less than 0.5 MeV (provided the lifetime is not less than about 1 sec).

  11. Neutron capture cross section of unstable 63Ni: implications for stellar nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lederer, C; Massimi, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Zugec, P

    2013-01-11

    The 63Ni(n,γ) cross section has been measured for the first time at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN from thermal neutron energies up to 200 keV. In total, capture kernels of 12 (new) resonances were determined. Maxwellian averaged cross sections were calculated for thermal energies from   kT=5-100  keV with uncertainties around 20%. Stellar model calculations for a 25M⊙ star show that the new data have a significant effect on the s-process production of 63Cu, 64Ni, and 64Zn in massive stars, allowing stronger constraints on the Cu yields from explosive nucleosynthesis in the subsequent supernova.

  12. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy. PMID:24101483

  13. Beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaboration

    2012-11-12

    A scientific program of beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to r-process nucleosynthesis has been started using high intensity U-beam at the RIBF. The first results of {beta}-decay half-lives of very neutron-rich Kr to Tc nuclides, all of which lie close to the r-process path, suggest a systematic enhancement of the the {beta}-decay rates of the Zr and Nb isotopes around A110 with respect to the predictions of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation model (FRDM + QRPA). An impact of the results on the astrophysical r-process is discussed together with the future perspective of the {beta}-decay spectroscopy with the EURICA.

  14. 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti reaction in the energy regime of supernova nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nassar, H; Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Ben-Dov, Y; Caggiano, J; Ghelberg, S; Goriely, S; Greene, J P; Hass, M; Heger, A; Heinz, A; Henderson, D J; Janssens, R V F; Jiang, C L; Kashiv, Y; Nara Singh, B S; Ofan, A; Pardo, R C; Pennington, T; Rehm, K E; Savard, G; Scott, R; Vondrasek, R

    2006-02-03

    The 44Ti(t1/2=59 yr) nuclide, an important signature of supernova nucleosynthesis, has recently been observed as live radioactivity by gamma-ray astronomy from the Cas A remnant. We investigate in the laboratory the major 44Ti production reaction 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti (Ec.m. approximately 0.6-1.2 MeV/u by direct off-line counting of 44Ti nuclei. The yield, significantly higher than inferred from previous experiments, is analyzed in terms of a statistical model using microscopic nuclear inputs. The associated stellar rate has important astrophysical consequences, increasing the calculated supernova 44Ti yield by a factor approximately 2 over previous estimates and bringing it closer to Cas A observations.

  15. Big-bang nucleosynthesis and the baryon density of the universe.

    PubMed

    Copi, C J; Schramm, D N; Turner, M S

    1995-01-13

    For almost 30 years, the predictions of big-bang nucleosynthesis have been used to test the big-bang model to within a fraction of a second of the bang. The agreement between the predicted and observed abundances of deuterium, helium-3, helium-4, and lithium-7 confirms the standard cosmology model and allows accurate determination of the baryon density, between 1.7 x 10(-31) and 4.1 x 10(-31) grams per cubic centimeter (corresponding to about 1 to 15 percent of the critical density). This measurement of the density of ordinary matter is pivotal to the establishment of two dark-matter problems: (i) most of the baryons are dark, and (ii) if the total mass density is greater than about 15 percent of the critical density, as many determinations indicate, the bulk of the dark matter must be "non-baryonic," composed of elementary particles left from the earliest moments.

  16. Stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis of 7Be: measurement of 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be.

    PubMed

    Di Leva, A; Gialanella, L; Kunz, R; Rogalla, D; Schürmann, D; Strieder, F; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; D'Onofrio, A; Fülöp, Z; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Mangano, G; Ordine, A; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Somorjai, E; Terrasi, F

    2009-06-12

    The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction presently represents the largest nuclear uncertainty in the predicted solar neutrino flux and has important implications on the big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e., the production of primordial 7Li. We present here the results of an experiment using the recoil separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) to detect directly the 7Be ejectiles. In addition, off-beam activation and coincidence gamma-ray measurements were performed at selected energies. At energies above 1 MeV a large discrepancy compared to previous results is observed both in the absolute value and in the energy dependence of the cross section. Based on the available data and models, a robust estimate of the cross section at the astrophysical relevant energies is proposed.

  17. Aspherical nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova with 25 M {sub ☉} standard progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, M. V.; Filina, A. A.; Baranov, A. A.; Chardonnet, P.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2014-03-01

    The problem of nucleosynthesis was studied within an aspherical supernova model. The explosive burning was computed in a star of 25 M {sub ☉} initial mass on its final stage of evolution. The chemical composition of a presupernova was taken from realistic evolutionary computations. A piecewise parabolic method on a local stencil was applied to simulate the hydrodynamics of the explosion. The gravity was recomputed by a Poisson solver on a fine grid as the explosion developed. A detailed yield of chemical elements was performed as a post-processing step using the tracer particles method. The produced nuclei formed a layer-like structure enclosing large fragments of nickel and iron-group isotopes that were pushed away from the central region by an explosion along the polar direction. The light nuclei were preferentially moving along the equatorial plane forming a torus-like structure.

  18. Nuclear Halos and Borromeans in the Primordial Nucleosynthesis Process and in Astrophysical Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, M.; Oezer, O.

    2007-04-23

    Nuclear halo structures and Borromean nuclei have been intensely studied almost two decades. They have a cloud of neutrons and protons extended well beyond the surface of tightly bound core of neutrons and protons which is classically forbidden. Since the extended tail of the valance neutron wave-function of the neutron halos the cross-sections are much larger and their sizes become substantially much larger than the ordinary nuclei. Inferred expectations of halo and Borroeman nuclei in astrophysics due to their novel structures have been suggested to influence the astrophysical reactions, especially in the primordial furnace during the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) process. It is seen that the large spatial extension directly implies that both elastic and absorption cross-sections are large for the reactions involving halo nuclei. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) reaction cross-sections calculations are discussed for low energies.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Evolution and nucleosynthesis of AGB stars (Fishlock+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishlock, C. K.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.; Yong, D.

    2017-08-01

    We calculate AGB stellar models for a range of initial masses from 1 Mȯ to 7 Mȯ with a metallicity of Z=0.001 ([Fe/H]=-1.2) and a helium abundance of Y=0.25. For the purposes of this study, we define the low-mass models to be those with an initial mass up to and including 3 Mȯ, and the intermediate-mass models, 3.25 Mȯ and above. Each stellar model is evolved from the zero-age main sequence to near the end of the AGB phase when the majority of the convective envelope is lost by stellar winds. A two-step procedure is performed to calculate the structure and detailed nucleosynthesis for each stellar model. (5 data files).

  20. THE IMPACT OF HELIUM-BURNING REACTION RATES ON MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander; Austin, Sam M. E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu

    2013-05-20

    We study the sensitivity of presupernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars to variations of the helium-burning reaction rates within the range of their uncertainties. The current solar abundances from Lodders are used for the initial stellar composition. We compute a grid of 12 initial stellar masses and 176 models per stellar mass to explore the effects of independently varying the {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O and 3{alpha} reaction rates, denoted R{sub {alpha},12} and R{sub 3{alpha}}, respectively. The production factors of both the intermediate-mass elements (A = 16-40) and the s-only isotopes along the weak s-process path ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 76}Se, {sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 86}Sr, and {sup 87}Sr) were found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions for variations of R{sub 3{alpha}} and R{sub {alpha},12} of {+-}25%; the s-only isotopes, however, tend to favor higher values of R{sub 3{alpha}} than the intermediate-mass isotopes. The experimental uncertainty (one standard deviation) in R{sub 3{alpha}}(R{sub {alpha},12}) is approximately {+-}10%({+-}25%). The results show that a more accurate measurement of one of these rates would decrease the uncertainty in the other as inferred from the present calculations. We also observe sharp changes in production factors and standard deviations for small changes in the reaction rates, due to differences in the convection structure of the star. The compactness parameter was used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and hence contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We also provide the approximate remnant masses for each model and the carbon mass fractions at the end of core-helium burning as a key parameter for later evolution stages.

  1. s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Advanced Burning Phases of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Lih-Sin; El Eid, Mounib F.; Meyer, Bradley S.

    2007-02-01

    We present a detailed study of s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars of solar-like initial composition and masses 15, 20, 25, and 30 Msolar. We update our previous results of s-process nucleosynthesis during the core He burning of these stars and then focus on an analysis of the s-process under the physical conditions encountered during the shell carbon burning. We show that the recent compilation of the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg rate leads to a remarkable reduction of the efficiency of the s-process during core He burning. In particular, this rate leads to the lowest overproduction factor of 80Kr found to date during core He burning in massive stars. The s-process yields resulting from shell carbon burning turn out to be very sensitive to the structural evolution of the carbon shell. This structure is influenced by the mass fraction of 12C attained at the end of core helium burning, which in turn is mainly determined by the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction. The still-present uncertainty in the rate for this reaction implies that the s-process in massive stars is also subject to this uncertainty. We identify some isotopes like 70Zn and 87Rb as the signatures of the s-process during shell carbon burning in massive stars. In determining the relative contribution of our s-only stellar yields to the solar abundances, we find it is important to take into account the neutron exposure of shell carbon burning. When we analyze our yields with a Salpeter initial mass function, we find that massive stars contribute at least 40% to s-only nuclei with mass A<=87. For s-only nuclei with mass A>90, massive stars contribute on average ~7%, except for 152Gd, 187Os, and 198Hg, which contribute ~14%, ~13%, and ~11%, respectively.

  2. Implication of the Proton-Deuteron Radiative Capture for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, L E; Mangano, G; Kievsky, A; Viviani, M

    2016-03-11

    The astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture d(p,γ)^{3}He in the energy range of interest for big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is calculated using an ab initio approach. The nuclear Hamiltonian retains both two- and three-nucleon interactions-the Argonne v_{18} and the Urbana IX, respectively. Both one- and many-body contributions to the nuclear current operator are included. The former retain for the first time, besides the 1/m leading order contribution (m is the nucleon mass), also the next-to-leading order term, proportional to 1/m^{3}. The many-body currents are constructed in order to satisfy the current conservation relation with the adopted Hamiltonian model. The hyperspherical harmonics technique is applied to solve the A=3 bound and scattering states. Particular attention is paid in this second case in order to obtain, in the energy range of BBN, an uncertainty on the astrophysical S factor of the order or below ∼1%. Then, in this energy range, the S factor is found to be ∼10% larger than the currently adopted values. Part of this increase (1%-3%) is due to the 1/m^{3} one-body operator, while the remaining is due to the new more accurate scattering wave functions. We have studied the implication of this new determination for the d(p,γ)^{3}He S factor on the deuterium primordial abundance. We find that the predicted theoretical value for ^{2}H/H is in excellent agreement with its experimental determination, using the most recent determination of the baryon density of the Planck experiment, and with a standard number of relativistic degrees of freedom N_{eff}=3.046 during primordial nucleosynthesis. This calls for a more accurate measurement of the astrophysical S factor in order to confirm the present predictions.

  3. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DELAYED DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Roepke, F.K.; Fink, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Travaglio, C.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2010-03-20

    For the explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), different scenarios have been suggested. In these, the propagation of the burning front through the exploding white dwarf (WD) star proceeds in different modes, and consequently imprints of the explosion model on the nucleosynthetic yields can be expected. The nucleosynthetic characteristics of various explosion mechanisms are explored based on three two-dimensional explosion simulations representing extreme cases: a pure turbulent deflagration, a delayed detonation following an approximately spherical ignition of the initial deflagration, and a delayed detonation arising from a highly asymmetric deflagration ignition. Apart from this initial condition, the deflagration stage is treated in a parameter-free approach. The detonation is initiated when the turbulent burning enters the distributed burning regime. This occurs at densities around 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}-relatively low as compared to existing nucleosynthesis studies for one-dimensional spherically symmetric models. The burning in these multidimensional models is different from that in one-dimensional simulations as the detonation wave propagates both into unburned material in the high-density region near the center of a WD and into the low-density region near the surface. Thus, the resulting yield is a mixture of different explosive burning products, from carbon-burning products at low densities to complete silicon-burning products at the highest densities, as well as electron-capture products synthesized at the deflagration stage. Detailed calculations of the nucleosynthesis in all three models are presented. In contrast to the deflagration model, the delayed detonations produce a characteristic layered structure and the yields largely satisfy constraints from Galactic chemical evolution. In the asymmetric delayed detonation model, the region filled with electron capture species (e.g., {sup 58}Ni, {sup 54}Fe) is within a shell, showing a large off

  4. ALMA spectral survey of Supernova 1987A - molecular inventory, chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Woosley, S.; Bujarrabal, V.; Abellán, F. J.; McCray, R.; Kamenetzky, J.; Fransson, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Gomez, H. L.; Cigan, P.; De Looze, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Roche, P.; Larsson, J.; Viti, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Wheeler, J. C.; Baes, M.; Chevalier, R.; Lundqvist, P.; Marcaide, J. M.; Dwek, E.; Meixner, M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Sonneborn, G.; Yates, J.

    2017-08-01

    We report the first molecular line survey of Supernova 1987A in the millimetre wavelength range. In the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 210-300 and 340-360 GHz spectra, we detected cold (20-170 K) CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO from ejecta. This is the first identification of HCO+ and SO in a young supernova remnant. We find a dip in the J = 6-5 and 5-4 SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities cause mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure. We obtained isotopologue ratios of 28SiO/29SiO > 13, 28SiO/30SiO > 14 and 12CO/13CO > 21, with the most likely limits of 28SiO/29SiO >128, 28SiO/30SiO >189. Low 29Si and 30Si abundances in SN 1987A are consistent with nucleosynthesis models that show inefficient formation of neutron-rich isotopes in a low-metallicity environment, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud. The deduced large mass of HCO+ (∼5 × 10-6 M⊙) and small SiS mass (<6 × 10-5 M⊙) might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have caused some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon- and oxygen-rich zones after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may have penetrated into silicon and sulphur zones, suppressing formation of SiS. Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  5. Constraining nuclear data via cosmological observations: Neutrino energy transport and big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Mark; Fuller, George; Grohs, Evan; Kishimoto, Chad; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new computational capability that moves toward a self-consistent calculation of neutrino transport and nuclear reactions for big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Such a self-consistent approach is needed to be able to extract detailed information about nuclear reactions and physics beyond the standard model from precision cosmological observations of primordial nuclides and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multi-energy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our approach allows the dissection of the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe. Such an approach allows a detailed account of the evolution of the active neutrino energy distribution functions alongside and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and 'ow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. Our calculations reveal nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions. We discuss the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma. These e↑ects result in changes in the computed values of the BBN deuterium and helium-4 yields that are on the order of a half-percent relative to a baseline standard BBN calculation with no neutrino transport. This is an order of magnitude larger e↑ect than in previous estimates. For particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium and a 0.6% decrease in 4He over our baseline. The magnitude of these changes are on the order of uncertainties in the nuclear

  6. Implication of the Proton-Deuteron Radiative Capture for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, L. E.; Mangano, G.; Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M.

    2016-03-01

    The astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture d (p ,γ ) 3He in the energy range of interest for big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is calculated using an ab initio approach. The nuclear Hamiltonian retains both two- and three-nucleon interactions—the Argonne v18 and the Urbana IX, respectively. Both one- and many-body contributions to the nuclear current operator are included. The former retain for the first time, besides the 1 /m leading order contribution (m is the nucleon mass), also the next-to-leading order term, proportional to 1 /m3. The many-body currents are constructed in order to satisfy the current conservation relation with the adopted Hamiltonian model. The hyperspherical harmonics technique is applied to solve the A =3 bound and scattering states. Particular attention is paid in this second case in order to obtain, in the energy range of BBN, an uncertainty on the astrophysical S factor of the order or below ˜1 %. Then, in this energy range, the S factor is found to be ˜10 % larger than the currently adopted values. Part of this increase (1%-3%) is due to the 1 /m3 one-body operator, while the remaining is due to the new more accurate scattering wave functions. We have studied the implication of this new determination for the d (p ,γ )3He S factor on the deuterium primordial abundance. We find that the predicted theoretical value for 2H/H is in excellent agreement with its experimental determination, using the most recent determination of the baryon density of the Planck experiment, and with a standard number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff=3.046 during primordial nucleosynthesis. This calls for a more accurate measurement of the astrophysical S factor in order to confirm the present predictions.

  7. Dynamics of primordial phase transitions, primordial magnetic fields, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, I have studied the dynamics of the inflationary universe and the possible cosmological consequences of a series of phase transitions which the universe may have undergone. Specially, I have studied the dynamics of primordial phase transitions, primordial magnetic fields, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In particular, (1) I have derived the effects of magnetic fields on nucleon and particle reaction rates of astrophysical significance. The sensitivity to the presence of arbitrary degeneracy and polarization has also been examined. (2) I have calculated the effects of magnetic fields on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and explored the impacts on the abundances of the light elements numerically. An upper limit on the strength and coherence scale of primordial magnetic fields compatible with observations of light element abundances has been placed. (3) I have proposed a new mechanism by which a magnetic field of magnitude 106 gauss is generated on scales of 44 m at the quark-hadron phase transition. The possibility of further enhancements due to dynamo action and of the astrophysical applications are discussed. (4) I have explored the dynamics of a general first order phase transition. A covariant jump condition across a bubble wall, including surface tendon and dissipation, for a nongravitational moving surface, has been derived. Specially, the cosmological quark-hadron phase transition has been examined as a specific application of the general formalism, and the possible mechanism of energy transport during the phase transition is studied. (5) I have examined the role of bulk viscosity in the inflationary universe during the GUT phase transition and its effects on cosmological inflation, density fluctuations, and entropy production. Finally, I have investigated the role of gravitation in an inflationary universe and the possible relationship between gravity and inflation The initial condition and the identification of inflation problems are probed in the

  8. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  9. REVISED BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS WITH LONG-LIVED, NEGATIVELY CHARGED MASSIVE PARTICLES: UPDATED RECOMBINATION RATES, PRIMORDIAL {sup 9}Be NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND IMPACT OF NEW {sup 6}Li LIMITS

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: kyungsik@kau.ac.kr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp E-mail: gmathews@nd.edu

    2014-09-01

    We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X {sup –}, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X {sup –} particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, {sup 7}Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X {sup –} particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 4}He with X {sup –}. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X {sup –} mass, m{sub X} ≳ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for {sup 7}Li and {sup 7,} {sup 9}Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the {sup 7}Be recombination for m{sub X} = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for {sup 9}Be production: the recombination of {sup 7}Li and X {sup –} followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of {sup 7}Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of {sup 7}Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X {sup –} are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial {sup 6}Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the {sup 7}Li problem and the primordial {sup 9}Be abundances are revised.

  10. Revised Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with Long-lived, Negatively Charged Massive Particles: Updated Recombination Rates, Primordial 9Be Nucleosynthesis, and Impact of New 6Li Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant. J.

    2014-09-01

    We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X -, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X - particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the 6, 7Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, 7Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X - particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of 7Be, 7Li, 9Be, and 4He with X -. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X - mass, mX >~ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for 7Li and 7, 9Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the 7Be recombination for mX = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for 9Be production: the recombination of 7Li and X - followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of 7Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of 7Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X - are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial 6Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the 7Li problem and the primordial 9Be abundances are revised.

  11. Prendre le virage des partenariats.

    PubMed

    Sebestyen, Norma; Sulatycky, Ron; Rondos, Spyro; Davis, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Deux projets démontrent que la mise en œuvre de données colligées sur le terrain peut contribuer à régler des problèmes dans le milieu de la santé pour favoriser de meilleurs résultats et de plus grandes efficiences. Dans le premier exemple, une vaste coalition de partenaires publics et privés de l'Alberta recourt aux techniques de mesures améliorées et à la méthodologie du Triple objectif pour améliorer les résultats cliniques de populations de cas complexes et lourds du quartier Eastwood d'Edmonton. On espère que les conclusions novatrices qui en sont tirées seront adaptées à d'autres régions de la province. Dans le deuxième exemple, la Childhood Obesity Foundation s'associe à Merck au Canada et à Ayogo (une société de thérapies numériques située à Vancouver) et utilise le concept novateur de la « ludification » pour mobiliser les jeunes de plus en plus sédentaires du Canada et modifier leurs comportements. © 2015 Collège canadien des leaders en santé

  12. Les hommes regardent le ciel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Contents: 1. Le ciel nocturne. 2. Le mouvement du soleil. 3. La lune et ses mouvements. 4. L'orientation des bâtiments. 5. Les étoiles et les constellations. 6. Les planètes. 7. Les comètes, météores et météorites. 8. Les phénomènes météorologico-astronomiques. 9. Les éclipses. 10. Le temps et les calendriers. 11. Astres et destinée humaine - l'astrologie. 12. Les mythes de la création du monde. 13. Les mythes de la fin du monde. 14. Astronomie et société.

  13. {sup 44}Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F.; Trap, G.; Decourchelle, A.

    2009-05-11

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: {sup 44}Ti{gamma}-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  14. Big-bang nucleosynthesis in comparison with observed helium and deuterium abundances: Possibility of a nonstandard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimasa, R.; Nakamura, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Arai, K.

    2014-07-01

    Comparing the latest observed abundances of He4 and D, we make a χ2 analysis to see whether it is possible to reconcile primordial nucleosynthesis using the up-to-date nuclear data of NACRE II and the mean life of neutrons. If we adopt the observational data of He4 by Izotov et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 558, A57 (2013)], we find that it is impossible to get a reasonable agreement with the standard big-bang nucleosynthesis. However, by including degenerate neutrinos, we succeed in obtaining consistent constraints between the neutrino degeneracy and the baryon-to-photon ratio from a detailed comparison of calculated abundances with the observational data of He4 and D: the baryon-to-photon ratio in units of 10-10 is found to be in the range 6.02≲η10≲6.54 for the specified parameters of neutrino degeneracy.

  15. On the introduction of {sup 17}O+p reaction rates evaluated through the THM in AGB nucleosynthesis calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-05-09

    The rates for the {sup 17}O(p,αα{sup 14}N, {sup 17}O(p,α){sup 18}F and {sup 18}O(p,α){sup 15}N reactions deduced trough the Trojan Horse Method (THM) have been introduced into a state-of-the-art asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis and cool bottom process. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis.

  16. 44Ti Nucleosynthesis Lines and Hard X-ray Continuum in Young SNRs: from INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, M.; Terrier, R.; Trap, G.; Lebrun, F.; Decourchelle, A.; Vink, J.

    2009-05-01

    Supemovae and their remnants are the main Galactic nucleosynthesis sites and the privileged sources of Galactic cosmic rays. The youngest of such remnants can be studied through two distinct observational features: 44Ti γ-ray lines and the hard X-ray nonthermal continuum emission. The former gives unique information on the nucleosynthesis conditions occuring during the first stages of the explosion, while the latter provides clues on acceleration processes at supernova remnant shocks. In this contribution, we present new INTEGRAL results on Tycho, the remnant of a historical supernova, and on G1.9+0.3, which has been recently unveiled as the youngest Galactic supernova remnant. Expectations with Simbol-X are also addressed.

  17. Big-bang nucleosynthesis and the relic abundance of dark matter in a stau-neutralino coannihilation scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Jittoh, Toshifumi; Koike, Masafumi; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Kohri, Kazunori; Shimomura, Takashi

    2008-09-01

    A scenario of the big-bang nucleosynthesis is analyzed within the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is consistent with a stau-neutralino coannihilation scenario to explain the relic abundance of dark matter. We find that we can account for the possible discrepancy of the abundance of {sup 7}Li between the observation and the prediction of the big-bang nucleosynthesis by taking the mass of the neutralino as 300 GeV and the mass difference between the stau and the neutralino as (100-120) MeV. We can therefore simultaneously explain the abundance of the dark matter and that of {sup 7}Li by these values of parameters. The lifetime of staus in this scenario is predicted to be O(100-1000) sec.

  18. Neutron-Capture Nucleosynthesis and the Chemical Evolution of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingles, Luke J.

    2015-09-01

    Elements heavier than iron are almost entirely produced in stars through neutron captures and radioactive decays. Of these heavy elements, roughly half are produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process), which takes place under extended exposure to low neutron densities. Most of the s-process production occurs in stars with initial masses between roughly 0.8 and 8 solar masses (Msun), which evolve through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. This thesis explores several topics related to AGB stars and the s-process, with a focus on comparing theoretical models to observations in the literature on planetary nebulae, post-AGB stars, and globular cluster stars. A recurring theme is the uncertainty of carbon-13-pocket formation, which is crucial for building accurate models of s-process nucleosynthesis. We first investigated whether neutron-capture reactions in AGB stars are the cause of the low sulphur abundances in planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars relative to the interstellar medium. Accounting for uncertainties in the size of the partial mixing zone that forms carbon-13 pockets and the rates of neutron-capture and neutron-producing reactions, our models failed to reproduce the observed levels of sulphur destruction. From this, we concluded that AGB nucleosynthesis is not the cause of the sulphur anomaly. We also discovered a new method to constrain the extent of the partial mixing zone using neon abundances in planetary nebulae. We next aimed to discover the stellar sites of the s-process enrichment in globular clusters that have inter- and intra-cluster variation, with the examples of M4 (relative to M5) and M22, respectively. Using a new chemical evolution code developed by the candidate, we tested models with stellar yields from rotating massive stars and AGB stars. We compared our model predictions for the production of s-process elements with abundances from s-poor and s-rich populations. We found that rotating massive stars alone do not

  19. The r-process nucleosynthesis in an expanding hot bubble in supernovae explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee; Duorah, H. L.; Duorah, K.

    2006-08-01

    The r-process is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron. Recent models of r-process nucleosynthesis rely on a neutrino-heated bubble developing at late times, which provides both the necessary conditions and the requisite amount of ejected mass for the r-process (Wooseley et al '94) . In the neutrino-driven explosion, only a small amount of matter is heated to the requisite high specific energy and entropy. Meyer et al (1992) first calculated the r-process under conditions appropriate to a neutrino-heated bubble and found that the solar r-process abundances could be replicated. They showed that the hot bubble that forms outside the protoneutron star during a SN explosion may be a viable site for the r-process as long as the entropy per baryon can be made sufficiently high. But in a very neutron rich environment such as a neutron star , the r-process could occur even at low entropy (Cowan and Thielemann, 2004). The high entropy wind is not the correct r-process site , owing to the inherent deficiencies in the abundance pattern below A=110 as well as the problems in obtaining the high entropies in SN II explosions required for producing the massive r-process nuclei up to A ≅ 195 and beyond ( Freiburghaus et al., 1999). Modelers of r-process nucleosynthesis find the entropy of the expanding matter and the overall n/p ratio to be more useful parameter than the temp and neutron density. We have tried to associate the explosion entropies with the site-independent classical approach (n[n] and T) and thereby compare the results of the two approaches from the abundances at different entropy conditions. We find that en entropy of ≈ 300 with Y[e] ≈ 0.45 can lead to a successful r-process. This is in agreement with the r-process abundance peaks at n[n] ≈ 10^32 cm^-3 and T[9] ≈ 1.5 . References : 1. Cowan J.J. and Thielemann F. K., Physics Today, 2004 2. Woosley S.E., Wilson J.R., Mathews G. J., Hoffman

  20. Study on the dominant reaction path in nucleosynthesis during stellar evolution by means of the Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.; Hashizume, K.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Suda, T.; Nishimura, T.; Fujimoto, M. Y.; Kato, K.; Aikawa, M.

    2006-07-12

    We propose a Monte Carlo method to study the reaction paths in nucleosynthesis during stellar evolution. Determination of reaction paths is important to obtain the physical picture of stellar evolution. The combination of network calculation and our method gives us a better understanding of physical picture. We apply our method to the case of the helium shell flash model in the extremely metal poor star.

  1. Lowest l=0 proton resonance in {sup 26}Si and implications for nucleosynthesis of {sup 26}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Peplowski, P. N.; Baby, L. T.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Diffenderfer, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Rojas, A.; Volya, A.; Dekat, S. E.; Gay, D. L.; Grubor-Urosevic, O.; Kaye, R. A.; Keeley, N.

    2009-03-15

    Using a beam of the radioactive isotope {sup 25}Al, produced with the new RESOLUT facility, we measured the direct (d,n) proton-transfer reaction leading to low-lying proton resonances in {sup 26}Si. We observed the lowest l=0 proton resonance, identified with the 3{sup +} state at 5.914-MeV excitation energy. This result eliminates the largest uncertainty in astrophysical reaction rates involved in the nucleosynthesis of {sup 26}Al.

  2. Impact of new data for neutron-rich heavy nuclei on theoretical models for r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2017-08-01

    Current models for the r process are summarized with an emphasis on the key constraints from both nuclear physics measurements and astronomical observations. In particular, we analyze the importance of nuclear physics input such as beta-decay rates; nuclear masses; neutron-capture cross sections; beta-delayed neutron emission; probability of spontaneous fission, beta- and neutron-induced fission, fission fragment mass distributions; neutrino-induced reaction cross sections, etc. We highlight the effects on models for r-process nucleosynthesis of newly measured β-decay half-lives, masses, and spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei near the r-process path. We overview r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutrino driven wind above the proto-neutron star in core collapse supernovae along with the possibility of magneto-hydrodynamic jets from rotating supernova explosion models. We also consider the possibility of neutron star mergers as an r-process environment. A key outcome of newly measured nuclear properties far from stability is the degree of shell quenching for neutron rich isotopes near the closed neutron shells. This leads to important constraints on the sites for r-process nucleosynthesis in which freezeout occurs on a rapid timescale.

  3. Impact of new data for neutron-rich heavy nuclei on theoretical models for r-process nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J

    2017-08-01

    Current models for the r process are summarized with an emphasis on the key constraints from both nuclear physics measurements and astronomical observations. In particular, we analyze the importance of nuclear physics input such as beta-decay rates; nuclear masses; neutron-capture cross sections; beta-delayed neutron emission; probability of spontaneous fission, beta- and neutron-induced fission, fission fragment mass distributions; neutrino-induced reaction cross sections, etc. We highlight the effects on models for r-process nucleosynthesis of newly measured β-decay half-lives, masses, and spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei near the r-process path. We overview r-process nucleosynthesis in the neutrino driven wind above the proto-neutron star in core collapse supernovae along with the possibility of magneto-hydrodynamic jets from rotating supernova explosion models. We also consider the possibility of neutron star mergers as an r-process environment. A key outcome of newly measured nuclear properties far from stability is the degree of shell quenching for neutron rich isotopes near the closed neutron shells. This leads to important constraints on the sites for r-process nucleosynthesis in which freezeout occurs on a rapid timescale.

  4. The influence of neutrinos on r-process nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of black hole-neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Luke F.; Lippuner, Jonas; Duez, Matthew D.; Faber, Joshua A.; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C., Jr.; Ning, Sandra; Ott, Christian D.; Ponce, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    During the merger of a black hole and a neutron star, baryonic mass can become unbound from the system. Because the ejected material is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. In this work, we map general relativistic models of black hole-neutron star mergers into a Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code and follow the evolution of the thermodynamics and morphology of the ejecta until the outflows become homologous. We investigate how the subsequent evolution depends on our mapping procedure and find that the results are robust. Using thermodynamic histories from the SPH particles, we then calculate the expected nucleosynthesis in these outflows while varying the level of neutrino irradiation coming from the post-merger accretion disc. We find that the ejected material robustly produces r-process nucleosynthesis even for unrealistically high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. None the less, we find that neutrinos can have an impact on the detailed pattern of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Electron neutrinos are captured by neutrons to produce protons while neutron capture is occurring. The produced protons rapidly form low-mass seed nuclei for the r-process. These low-mass seeds are eventually incorporated into the first r-process peak at A ˜ 78. We consider the mechanism of this process in detail and discuss if it can impact galactic chemical evolution of the first peak r-process nuclei.

  5. Abundance of live 244Pu in deep-sea reservoirs on Earth points to rarity of actinide nucleosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, A.; Faestermann, T.; Feige, J.; Feldstein, C.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Kutschera, W.; Ofan, A.; Paul, M.; Quinto, F.; Rugel, G.; Steier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Half of the heavy elements including all actinides are produced in r-process nucleosynthesis, whose sites and history remain a mystery. If continuously produced, the Interstellar Medium is expected to build-up a quasi-steady state of abundances of short-lived nuclides (with half-lives ≤100 My), including actinides produced in r-process nucleosynthesis. Their existence in today’s interstellar medium would serve as a radioactive clock and would establish that their production was recent. In particular 244Pu, a radioactive actinide nuclide (half-life=81 My), can place strong constraints on recent r-process frequency and production yield. Here we report the detection of live interstellar 244Pu, archived in Earth’s deep-sea floor during the last 25 My, at abundances lower than expected from continuous production in the Galaxy by about 2 orders of magnitude. This large discrepancy may signal a rarity of actinide r-process nucleosynthesis sites, compatible with neutron-star mergers or with a small subset of actinide-producing supernovae. PMID:25601158

  6. HEAVY ELEMENT NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE BRIGHTEST GALACTIC ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.

    2012-05-20

    We present updated calculations of stellar evolutionary sequences and detailed nucleosynthesis predictions for the brightest asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Galaxy with masses between 5 M{sub Sun} and 9 M{sub Sun }, with an initial metallicity of Z = 0.02 ([Fe/H] = 0.14). In our previous studies we used the Vassiliadis and Wood mass-loss rate, which stays low until the pulsation period reaches 500 days after which point a superwind begins. Vassiliadis and Wood noted that for stars over 2.5 M{sub Sun} the superwind should be delayed until P Almost-Equal-To 750 days at 5 M{sub Sun }. We calculate evolutionary sequences where we delay the onset of the superwind to pulsation periods of P Almost-Equal-To 700-800 days in models of M = 5, 6, and 7 M{sub Sun }. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations show that the 6 and 7 M{sub Sun} models produce the most Rb, with [Rb/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 1 dex, close to the average of most of the Galactic Rb-rich stars ([Rb/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 1.4 {+-} 0.8 dex). Changing the rate of the {sup 22}Ne +{alpha} reactions results in variations of [Rb/Fe] as large as 0.5 dex in models with a delayed superwind. The largest enrichment in heavy elements is found for models that adopt the NACRE rate of the {sup 22}Ne({alpha}, n){sup 25}Mg reaction. Using this rate allows us to best match the composition of most of the Rb-rich stars. A synthetic evolution algorithm is then used to remove the remaining envelope resulting in final [Rb/Fe] of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 dex although with C/O ratios >1. We conclude that delaying the superwind may account for the large Rb overabundances observed in the brightest metal-rich AGB stars.

  7. Monte Carlo modelling of the propagation and annihilation of nucleosynthesis positrons in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexis, A.; Jean, P.; Martin, P.; Ferrière, K.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We want to estimate whether the positrons produced by the β+-decay of 26Al, 44Ti, and 56Ni synthesised in massive stars and supernovae are sufficient to explain the 511 keV annihilation emission observed in our Galaxy. Such a possibility has often been put forward in the past. In a previous study, we showed that nucleosynthesis positrons cannot explain the full annihilation emission. Here, we extend this work using an improved propagation model. Methods: We developed a Monte Carlo Galactic propagation code for ~MeV positrons in which the Galactic interstellar medium, the Galactic magnetic field, and the propagation are finely described. This code allows us to simulate the spatial distribution of the 511 keV annihilation emission. We tested several Galactic magnetic fields models and several positron escape fractions from type-Ia supernova for 56Ni positrons to account for the large uncertainties in these two parameters. We considered the collisional/ballistic transport mode and then compared the simulated 511 keV intensity spatial distributions to the INTEGRAL/SPI data. Results: Regardless of the Galactic magnetic field configuration and the escape fraction chosen for 56Ni positrons, the 511 keV intensity distributions are very similar. The main reason is that ~MeV positrons do not propagate very far away from their birth sites in our model. The direct comparison to the data does not allow us to constrain the Galactic magnetic field configuration and the escape fraction for 56Ni positrons. In any case, nucleosynthesis positrons produced in steady state cannot explain the full annihilation emission. The comparison to the data shows that (a) the annihilation emission from the Galactic disk can be accounted for; (b) the strongly peaked annihilation emission from the inner Galactic bulge can be explained by positrons annihilating in the central molecular zone, but this seems to require more positron sources than the population of massive stars and type Ia

  8. The evolution and explosion of massive Stars II: Explosive hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E. |; Weaver, T.A.

    1995-08-30

    The nucleosynthetic yield of isotopes lighter than A = 66 (zinc) is determined for a grid of stellar masses and metallicities including stars of 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, and 40 M{sub {circle_dot}} and metallicities Z = 0, 10{sup {minus}4}, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 times solar (a slightly reduced mass grid is employed for non-solar metallicities). Altogether 78 different model supernova explosions are calculated. In each case nucleosynthesis has already been determined for 200 isotopes in each of 600 to 1200 zones of the presupernova star, including the effects of time dependent convection. Here each star is exploded using a piston to give a specified final kinetic energy at infinity (typically 1.2 {times} 10{sup 51} erg), and the explosive modifications to the nucleosynthesis, including the effects of neutrino irradiation, determined. A single value of the critical {sup 12}C({sub {alpha},{gamma}}){sup 16}O reaction rate corresponding to S(300 keV) = 170 keV barns is used in all calculations. The synthesis of each isotope is discussed along with its sensitivity to model parameters. In each case, the final mass of the collapsed remnant is also determined and often found not to correspond to the location of the piston (typically the edge of the iron core), but to a ``mass cut`` farther out. This mass cut is sensitive not only to the explosion energy, but also to the presupernova structure, stellar mass, and the metallicity. Unless the explosion mechanism, for unknown reasons, provides a much larger characteristic energy in more massive stars, it appears likely that stars larger than about 30 M{sub {center_dot}} will experience considerable reimplosion of heavy elements following the initial launch of a successful shock. While such explosions will produce a viable, bright Type II supernova light curve, lacking the radioactive tail, they will have dramatically reduced yields of heavy elements and may leave black hole remnants of up to 10 and more solar masses.

  9. Fluorine Abundances in the Large Magellanic Cloud and ω Centauri: Evidence for Neutrino Nucleosynthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2003-09-01

    The behavior of fluorine with metallicity has not yet been probed in any stellar population. In this work, we present the first fluorine abundances measured outside of the Milky Way from a sample of red giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), as well the Galactic globular cluster ω Centauri. The fluorine abundances are derived from vibration-rotation transitions of HF using infrared spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South 8.1 m telescope. It is found that the abundance ratio of F/O declines as the oxygen abundance decreases. The values of F/O are especially low in the two ω Cen giants; this very low value of F/O probably indicates that 19F synthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is not the dominant source of fluorine in stellar populations. The observed decline in F/O with lower O abundances is in qualitative agreement with what is expected if 19F is produced via H- and He-burning sequences in very massive stars, with this fluorine then ejected in high mass-loss rate Wolf-Rayet winds. A quantitative comparison of observations with this process awaits results from more detailed chemical evolution models incorporating the yields from Wolf-Rayet winds. Perhaps of more significance is the quantitative agreement between the Galactic and LMC results with predictions from models in which 19F is produced from neutrino nucleosynthesis during core collapse in supernovae of Type II. The very low values of F/O in ω Cen are also in agreement with neutrino nucleosynthesis models if the ``peculiar'' star formation history of ω Cen, with two to four distinct episodes of star formation, is considered. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreeement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom

  10. SYSTEMATICS OF DYNAMICAL MASS EJECTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND RADIOACTIVELY POWERED ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS FROM NEUTRON-STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Goriely, S.

    2013-08-10

    We investigate systematically the dynamical mass ejection, r-process nucleosynthesis, and properties of electromagnetic counterparts of neutron-star (NS) mergers in dependence on the uncertain properties of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) by employing 40 representative, microphysical high-density EOSs in relativistic, hydrodynamical simulations. The crucial parameter determining the ejecta mass is the radius R{sub 1.35} of a 1.35 M{sub Sun} NS. NSs with smaller R{sub 1.35} (''soft'' EOS) eject systematically higher masses. These range from {approx}10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.35-1.35 M{sub Sun} binaries and from {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} to {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} for 1.2-1.5 M{sub Sun} systems (with kinetic energies between {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg and 10{sup 51} erg). Correspondingly, the bolometric peak luminosities of the optical transients of symmetric (asymmetric) mergers vary between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} (9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and 14.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}) on timescales between {approx}2 hr and {approx}12 hr. If these signals with absolute bolometric magnitudes from -15.0 to -16.7 are measured, the tight correlation of their properties with those of the merging NSs might provide valuable constraints on the high-density EOS. The r-process nucleosynthesis exhibits a remarkable robustness independent of the EOS, producing a nearly solar abundance pattern above mass number 130. By the r-process content of the Galaxy and the average production per event the Galactic merger rate is limited to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1} (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1}) for a soft (stiff) NS EOS, if NS mergers are the main source of heavy r-nuclei. The production ratio of radioactive {sup 232}Th to {sup 238}U attains a

  11. Nucleosynthesis of 92Nb and the relevance of the low-lying isomer at 135.5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Background: Because of its half-life of about 35 million years, 92Nb is considered as a chronometer for nucleosynthesis events prior to the birth of our sun. The abundance of 92Nb in the early solar system can be derived from meteoritic data. It has to be compared to theoretical estimates for the production of 92Nb to determine the time between the last nucleosynthesis event before the formation of the early solar system. Purpose: The influence of a low-lying short-lived isomer on the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb is analyzed. The thermal coupling between the ground state and the isomer via so-called intermediate states affects the production and survival of 92Nb. Method: The properties of the lowest intermediate state in 92Nb are known from experiment. From the lifetime of the intermediate state and from its decay branchings, the transition rate from the ground state to the isomer and the effective half-life of 92Nb are calculated as functions of the temperature. Results: The coupling between the ground state and the isomer is strong. This leads to thermalization of ground state and isomer in the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb in any explosive production scenario and almost 100% survival of 92Nb in its ground state. However, the strong coupling leads to a temperature-dependent effective half-life of 92Nb which makes the 92Nb survival very sensitive to temperatures as low as about 8 keV, thus turning 92Nb at least partly into a thermometer. Conclusions: The low-lying isomer in 92Nb does not affect the production of 92Nb in explosive scenarios. In retrospect this validates all previous studies where the isomer was not taken into account. However, the dramatic reduction of the effective half-life at temperatures below 10 keV may affect the survival of 92Nb after its synthesis in supernovae, which are the most likely astrophysical sites for the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb.

  12. r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Jet-driven Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Goni; Moesta, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We investigate rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions as a site for the production of heavy elements through r-process nucleosynthesis. While CCSNe have long been considered a potential astrophysical site of this process explaining the origin of observed abundances for stable nuclei heavier than iron, the neutron-rich conditions necessary have not been robustly produced in simulations. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying the fraction of all core-collapse events that produce r-process material and the quantity of ejected material in a typical explosion.We perform three-dimensional (3D) dynamical-spacetime general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of jet-driven CCSNe. These simulations are run using the Einstein toolkit, an open-source community-driven numerical relativity and computational relativistic astrophysics code. They include microphysical finite-temperature equation of state effects and employ a leakage scheme that captures the overall energetics and lepton number exchange due to postbounce neutrino emission. The nuclear products of the simulated explosions are then calculated using SkyNet, a self-heating nuclear reaction network. We explore the robustness of r-process production in magnetorotational core-collapse and the properties of the ejected material.

  13. NEUTRINO-DRIVEN WINDS IN THE AFTERMATH OF A NEUTRON STAR MERGER: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Perego, A.; Arcones, A.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Korobkin, O.; Rosswog, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a comprehensive nucleosynthesis study of the neutrino-driven wind in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. Our focus is the initial remnant phase when a massive central neutron star is present. Using tracers from a recent hydrodynamical simulation, we determine total masses and integrated abundances to characterize the composition of unbound matter. We find that the nucleosynthetic yields depend sensitively on both the life time of the massive neutron star and the polar angle. Matter in excess of up to 9 × 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} becomes unbound until ∼200 ms. Due to electron fractions of Y{sub e} ≈ 0.2–0.4, mainly nuclei with mass numbers A < 130 are synthesized, complementing the yields from the earlier dynamic ejecta. Mixing scenarios with these two types of ejecta can explain the abundance pattern in r-process enriched metal-poor stars. Additionally, we calculate heating rates for the decay of the freshly produced radioactive isotopes. The resulting light curve peaks in the blue band after about 4 hr. Furthermore, high opacities due to heavy r-process nuclei in the dynamic ejecta lead to a second peak in the infrared after 3–4 days.

  14. 26Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O.; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-01

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of 26Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce 26Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for 26Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the 28Si(d,α)26 Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced 26Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  15. Observation of the ⁶⁰Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Binns, W R; Israel, M H; Christian, E R; Cummings, A C; de Nolfo, G A; Lave, K A; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Stone, E C; von Rosenvinge, T T; Wiedenbeck, M E

    2016-05-06

    Iron-60 ((60)Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 × 10(5) iron nuclei, with energies ~195 to ~500 mega-electron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 (60)Fe nuclei. The (60)Fe/(56)Fe source ratio is (7.5 ± 2.9) × 10(-5) The detection of supernova-produced (60)Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the (60)Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the (60)Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec. A natural place for (60)Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Completing the nuclear reaction puzzle of the nucleosynthesis of Mo92

    DOE PAGES

    Tveten, G. M.; Spyrou, A.; Schwengner, R.; ...

    2016-08-22

    One of the greatest questions for modern physics to address is how elements heavier than iron are created in extreme astrophysical environments. A particularly challenging part of that question is the creation of the so-called p-nuclei, which are believed to be mainly produced in some types of supernovae. Here, the lack of needed nuclear data presents an obstacle in nailing down the precise site and astrophysical conditions. In this work, we present for the first time measurements on the nuclear level density and average γ strength function of 92Mo. State-of-the-art p-process calculations systematically underestimate the observed solar abundance of thismore » isotope. Our data provide stringent constraints on the 91Nb(p,γ) 92Mo reaction rate, which is the last unmeasured reaction in the nucleosynthesis puzzle of 92Mo. Based on our results, we conclude that the 92Mo abundance anomaly is not due to the nuclear physics input to astrophysical model calculations.« less

  17. Isospin mixing reveals 30P(p, γ)31S resonance influencing nova nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; ...

    2016-03-08

    Here, the thermonuclear 30P(p, γ)31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex = 6390.2(7) keV, with a 30P(p, γ)31S resonance energy of Er =more » 259.3(8) keV, in the middle of the 30P(p, γ)31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex = 6279.0(6) keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2+ and making it an important l = 0 resonance for proton capture on 30P.« less

  18. Measurements Of Stellar And Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis Reactions Using Inertially-Confined Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Alex; Herrmann, Hans; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Kim, Yongho; Frenje, Johan; Hale, Gerry; Li, Chikang; Rubery, Mike; Paris, Mark; Bacher, Andy; Brune, Carl; Forrest, Chad; Glebov, Vladimir; Janezic, Roger; McNabb, Dennis; Nikroo, Abbas; Pino, Jesse; Sangster, Craig; Seguin, Fredrick; Sio, Hong; Stoeckl, Christian; Petrasso, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The 3He+ 3He, T+3He, and p+D reactions directly relevant to either Stellar or Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) have been studied at the OMEGA laser facility using inertially-confined plasmas, created using shock-driven `exploding pusher' implosions. These plasmas better mimic astrophysical systems than cold-target accelerator experiments. A new measured S-factor for the T(3He, γ)6Li reaction rules out an anomalously-high 6Li production during the Big Bang as an explanation to the high observed values in metal poor first generation stars. Our value is also inconsistent with values used in previous BBN calculations. Proton spectra from the 3He+3He and T+3He reactions are used to constrain nuclear R-matrix modeling, and recent experiments have probed the p+D reaction for the first time in a plasma. This work was partially supported by the LDRD program at LANL, US DOE, NLUF, LLE, and GA.

  19. Review on effects of long-lived negatively charged massive particles on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Mathews, Grant J.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    We review important reactions in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) model involving a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X‑, which is much heavier than nucleons. This model can explain the observed 7Li abundances of metal-poor stars, and predicts a primordial 9Be abundance that is larger than the standard BBN prediction. In the BBN epoch, nuclei recombine with the X‑ particle. Because of the heavy X‑ mass, the atomic size of bound states AX is as small as the nuclear size. The nonresonant recombination rates are then dominated by the D-wave → 2P transition for 7Li and 7,9Be. The 7Be destruction occurs via a recombination with the X‑ followed by a proton capture, and the primordial 7Li abundance is reduced. Also, the 9Be production occurs via the recombination of 7Li and X‑ followed by deuteron capture. The initial abundance and the lifetime of the X‑ particles are constrained from a BBN reaction network calculation. We derived parameter region for the 7Li reduction allowed in supersymmetric or Kaluza-Klein (KK) models. We find that either the selectron, smuon, KK electron or KK muon could be candidates for the X‑ with mX ˜𝒪(1) TeV, while the stau and KK tau cannot.

  20. Radiative neutron capture on a proton at big-bang nucleosynthesis energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, S.; Cyburt, R. H.; Hong, S. W.; Hyun, C. H.

    2006-08-15

    The total cross section for radiative neutron capture on a proton, np{yields}d{gamma}, is evaluated at big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) energies. The electromagnetic transition amplitudes are calculated up to next-to-leading-order within the framework of pionless effective field theory with dibaryon fields. We also calculate the d{gamma}{yields}np cross section and the photon analyzing power for the d{gamma}(vector sign){yields}np process from the amplitudes. The values of low-energy constants that appear in the amplitudes are estimated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis using the relevant low-energy experimental data. Our result agrees well with those of other theoretical calculations except for the np{yields}d{gamma} cross section at some energies estimated by an R-matrix analysis. We also study the uncertainties in our estimation of the np{yields}d{gamma} cross section at relevant BBN energies and find that the estimated cross section is reliable to within {approx}1% error.

  1. Limits on brane-world and particle dark radiation from big bang nucleosynthesis and the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasankan, N.; Gangopadhyay, Mayukh R.; Mathews, G. J.; Kusakabe, M.

    The term dark radiation is used both to describe a noninteracting neutrino species and as a correction to the Friedmann Equation in the simplest five-dimensional (5D) RS-II brane-world cosmology. In this paper, we consider the constraints on both the meanings of dark radiation-based upon the newest results for light-element nuclear reaction rates, observed light-element abundances and the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Adding dark radiation during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) alters the Friedmann expansion rate causing the nuclear reactions to freeze out at a different temperature. This changes the final light element abundances at the end of BBN. Its influence on the CMB is to change the effective expansion rate at the surface of the last scattering. We find that the BBN constraint reduces the allowed range for both types of dark radiation at 10Mev to between ‑ 12.1% and + 6.2% of the total background energy density at 10Mev. Combining this result with fits to the CMB power spectrum, produces different results for particle versus brane-world dark radiation. In the brane-world, the range decreases from + 6.2% to ‑ 6.0%. Thus, we find that the ratio of dark radiation to the background total relativistic mass energy density ρDR/ρ is consistent with zero although there remains a very slight preference for a positive (rather than negative) contribution.

  2. The surprising influence of late charged current weak interactions on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    The weak interaction charged current processes (νe + n ↔ p +e-; νbare + p ↔ n +e+; n ↔ p +e- +νbare) interconvert neutrons and protons in the early universe and have significant influence on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light-element abundance yields, particularly that for 4He. We demonstrate that the influence of these processes is still significant even when they operate well below temperatures T ∼ 0.7 MeV usually invoked for "weak freeze-out," and in fact down nearly into the alpha-particle formation epoch (T ≈ 0.1 MeV). This physics is correctly captured in commonly used BBN codes, though this late-time, low-temperature persistent effect of the isospin-changing weak processes, and the sensitivity of the associated rates to lepton energy distribution functions and blocking factors are not widely appreciated. We quantify this late-time influence by analyzing weak interaction rate dependence on the neutron lifetime, lepton energy distribution functions, entropy, the proton-neutron mass difference, and Hubble expansion rate. The effects we point out here render BBN a keen probe of any beyond-standard-model physics that alters lepton number/energy distributions, even subtly, in epochs of the early universe all the way down to near T = 100 keV.

  3. Isospin Mixing Reveals 30P (p ,γ ) 31S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; Langer, C.; Larson, N. R.; McNeice, E. I.; Meisel, Z.; Ong, W.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Prokop, C. J.; Schatz, H.; Schwartz, S. B.; Suchyta, S.; Thompson, P.; Walters, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-03-01

    The thermonuclear 30P (p ,γ ) 31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31 proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β -delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex=6390.2 (7 ) keV , with a 39P (p ,γ )31S resonance energy of Er=259.3 (8 ) keV , in the middle of the 30P (p ,γ )31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex=6279.0 (6 ) keV , giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3 /2+ and making it an important l =0 resonance for proton capture on 30P 30.

  4. Constraints on lepton asymmetry from nucleosynthesis in a linearly coasting cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parminder; Lohiya, Daksh

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of neutrino degeneracy on primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe in which the cosmological scale factor evolves linearly with time. The degeneracy parameter of electron type neutrinos (ξe) determines the n/p (neutron to proton) ratio, which in turn determines the abundance of 4He in a manner quite distinct from the Standard Scenario. The observed abundances of 4He, YP = 0.254 ± 0.003, and the minimum metallicity that is essential for fragmentation and cooling processes in star forming prestellar gas clouds (Z = Zcr = 10-6Zsolar), constrain the baryon to photon ratio, ηB = (3.927±0.292)10-9, corresponding to a baryonic matter density, ΩB = 0.263 ± 0.026 and ξe = -2.165 ± 0.171. This closes the dynamic mass estimates of matter in the universe, obtained from large scale velocity dispersion in galaxy clusters, by baryons alone. Useful byproducts are the threshold X(CNO) abundances required to trigger the CNO cycle in the observed low metallicity stars in the universe.

  5. {sup 26}Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Lucio, O. de; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-23

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of {sup 26}Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce {sup 26}Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for {sup 26}Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the {sup 28}Si(d,α){sup 26} Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced {sup 26}Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  6. Observation of the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis-Clock Isotope in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    We have measured the abundance of 60Fe, a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis in supernovae and cosmic ray acceleration. The ACE-CRIS instrument has collected 3.55 ×105 iron nuclei from which we have resolved 15 60Fe nuclei. From this a 60Fe/56Fe source ratio of (7.5 +/-2.9) ×10-5 is obtained. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 Myr and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, < 1 kpc. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars. This research is supported by NASA under Grant # NNX13AH66G.

  7. Cosmological nucleosynthesis and active-sterile neutrino oscillations with small mass differences: the resonant case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, D. P.; Chizhov, M. V.

    2000-12-01

    We have provided a numerical study of the influence of the resonant active-sterile neutrino oscillations νe↔ νs, on the primordial production of helium-4. The evolution of the neutrino ensembles was followed selfconsistently with the evolution of the nucleons, using exact kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix and the nucleon number densities in momentum space, from the time of neutrino decoupling till the freeze-out of nucleons at 0.3 MeV. The exact kinetic approach enabled us to study precisely the neutrino depletion, spectrum distortion and neutrino mixing generated asymmetry due to oscillations at each momentum mode, and to prove that their effect on nucleosynthesis is considerable. We have calculated the dependence of the primordially produced helium-4 on the oscillation parameters Yp( δm2, ϑ) for the full range of mixing parameters of the model of oscillations with small mass differences δm2≤10 -7 eV 2. We have obtained iso-helium contours on the δm2- ϑ plane. Cosmological constraints on oscillation parameters, more precise than the existing ones were extracted, due to the exact kinetic approach and the proper account for the neutrino spectrum distortion and the oscillations generated asymmetry.

  8. The r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression of neutron star crust material

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.

    2014-05-02

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the so-called rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved, for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present paper emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Both the astrophysics and the nuclear physics difficulties are critically reviewed with special attention paid to the r-process taking place during the decompression of neutron star matter following the merging of two neutron stars.

  9. Isospin Mixing Reveals ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M B; Wrede, C; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schatz, H; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-03-11

    The thermonuclear ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key ^{31}S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of ^{31}Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a ^{31}S state at E_{x}=6390.2(7)  keV, with a ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S resonance energy of E_{r}=259.3(8)  keV, in the middle of the ^{30}P(p,γ)^{31}S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at E_{x}=6279.0(6)  keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2^{+} and making it an important l=0 resonance for proton capture on ^{30}P.

  10. Constraints on lepton asymmetry from nucleosynthesis in a linearly coasting cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Parminder; Lohiya, Daksh E-mail: dl116@cam.ac.uk

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of neutrino degeneracy on primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe in which the cosmological scale factor evolves linearly with time. The degeneracy parameter of electron type neutrinos (ξ{sub e}) determines the n/p (neutron to proton) ratio, which in turn determines the abundance of {sup 4}He in a manner quite distinct from the Standard Scenario. The observed abundances of {sup 4}He, Y{sub P} = 0.254 ± 0.003, and the minimum metallicity that is essential for fragmentation and cooling processes in star forming prestellar gas clouds (Z = Z{sub cr} = 10{sup −6}Z{sub ⊙}), constrain the baryon to photon ratio, η{sub B} = (3.927±0.292)10{sup −9}, corresponding to a baryonic matter density, Ω{sub B} = 0.263 ± 0.026 and ξ{sub e} = -2.165 ± 0.171. This closes the dynamic mass estimates of matter in the universe, obtained from large scale velocity dispersion in galaxy clusters, by baryons alone. Useful byproducts are the threshold X(CNO) abundances required to trigger the CNO cycle in the observed low metallicity stars in the universe.

  11. A New Era in Extragalactic Background Light Measurements: The Cosmic History of Accretion, Nucleosynthesis and Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Amblard, Alexandre; Beichman, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bock, James J.; Brodwin, Mark; Bromm, Volker; Cen, Renyue; Chary, Ranga R.; Devlin, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Dole, Herve; Dwek, Eli; Elbaz, David; ' Fall, Michael; Fazio, Giovanni; Ferguson, Henry; Furlanetto, Steven; Gardner, Jonathan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gilmore, Rudy; Gnedin, Nickolay; Gonzalez, Anthony; Haiman, Zoltan; Kelsall, Thomas; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Lagache, Guilaine; Levenson, Louis R.; Loeb, Avi; Badau, Piero; Mather, John C.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Mattila, Kalevi; Moseley, Marvey; Moustakas, Leonidas; Oh, S. Peng; Petro, Larry; Primack, Joel; Reach, William; Renbarger, Tom; Shapiro, Paul; Stern, Daniel; Sullivan, Ian; Venkatesan, Aparna; Werner, Michael; Windhorst, Rogier; Wright, Edward L.; Zemcov, Michael

    (Brief Summary) What is the total radiative content of the Universe since the epoch of recombination? The extragalactic background light (EBL) spectrum captures the redshifted energy released from the first stellar objects, protogalaxies, and galaxies throughout cosmic history. Yet, we have not determined the brightness of the extragalactic sky from UV/optical to far-infrared wavelengths with sufficient accuracy to establish the radiative content of the Universe to better than an order of magnitude. Among many science topics, an accurate measurement of the EBL spectrum from optical to far-IR wavelengths, will address: What is the total energy released by stellar nucleosynthesis over cosmic history? Was significant energy released by non-stellar processes? Is there a diffuse component to the EBL anywhere from optical to sub-millimeter? When did first stars appear and how luminous was the reionization epoch? Absolute optical to mid-IR EBL spectrum to an astrophysically interesting accuracy can be established by wide field imagingat a distance of 5 AU or above the ecliptic plane where the zodiacal foreground is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude.

  12. New effects of a long-lived negatively charged massive particle on big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-01

    Primordial 7Li abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor stars is a factor of about 3 lower than the theoretical value of standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. One of the solutions to the Li problem is 7Be destruction during the BBN epoch caused by a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X-. The particle can bind to nuclei, and X-bound nuclei (X-nuclei) can experience new reactions. The radiative X- capture by 7Be nuclei followed by proton capture of the bound state of 7Be and X- (7Bex) is a possible 7Be destruction reaction. Since the primordial abundance of 7Li originates mainly from 7Li produced via the electron capture of 7Be after BBN, the 7Be destruction provides a solution to the 7Li problem. We suggest a new route of 7Bex formation, that is the 7Be charge exchange at the reaction of 7Be3+ ion and X-. The formation rate depends on the ionization fraction of 7Be3+ ion, the charge exchange cross section of 7Be3+, and the probability that excited states 7Bex* produced at the charge exchange are converted to the ground state. We find that this reaction can be equally important as or more important than ordinary radiative recombination of 7Be and X-. The effect of this new route is shown in a nuclear reaction network calculation.

  13. Nucleosynthesis Modes in the High-Entropy-Wind Scenario of Type II Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Cowan, J. J.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Pfeiffer, B.; Sneden, C.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Truran, J. W.

    2008-03-11

    In an attempt to constrain the astrophysical conditions for the nucleosynthesis of the classical r-process elements beyond Fe, we have performed large-scale dynamical network calculations within the model of an adiabatically expanding high- entropy wind (HEW) of type II supernovae (SN II). A superposition of several entropy-components (S) with model-inherent weightings results in an excellent reproduction of the overall Solar System (SS) isotopic r-process residuals (N{sub r,{center_dot}}), as well as the more recent observations of elemental abundances of metal-poor, r-process rich halo stars in the early Galaxy. For the heavy r-process elements beyond Sn, our HEW model predicts a robust abundance pattern up to the Th, U r-chronometer region. For the lighter neutron-capture region, an S-dependent superposition of (i) a normal {alpha}-component directly producing stable nuclei, including s-only isotopes, and (ii) a component from a neutron-rich {alpha}-freezeout followed by the rapid recapture of {beta}-delayed neutrons ({beta}dnrpar; emitted from the far-unstable seed nuclei is indicated. In agreement with several recent halo-star observations in the 60

  14. Nucleosynthesis in Neutrino-driven Winds. II. Implications for Heavy Element Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R. D.; Woosley, S. E.; Qian, Y.-Z.

    1997-06-01

    During the first 20 s of its life, the enormous neutrino luminosity of a neutron star drives appreciable mass loss from its surface. This neutrino-driven wind has been previously identified as a likely site for the r-process. Qian & Woosley have derived, both analytically and numerically, the physical conditions relevant for heavy element synthesis in the wind. These conditions include the entropy (S), the electron fraction (Ye), the dynamic timescale, and the mass loss rate. Here we explore the implications of these conditions for nucleosynthesis. We find that the standard wind models derived in that paper are inadequate to make the r-process, though they do produce some rare species above the iron group. We further determine the general restrictions on the entropy, the electron fraction, and the dynamic timescale that are required to make the r-process. In particular, we derive from nuclear reaction network calculations the conditions required to give a sufficient neutron-to-seed ratio for production of the platinum peak. These conditions range from Ye ~ 0.2 and S <~ 100 baryon-1 for reasonable dynamic timescales of ~0.001-0.1 s, to Ye ~ 0.4-0.495 and S >~ 400 baryon-1 for a dynamic timescale of ~0.1 s. These conditions are also derived analytically to illustrate the physics determining the neutron-to-seed ratio.

  15. 31Cl beta decay and the 30P31S reaction rate in nova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Michael; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; NSCL e12028 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 30P31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, identifying the origin of presolar nova grains, and calibrating proposed nova thermometers. Unfortunately, this rate is essentially experimentally unconstrained because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonances are not known, due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using a 31Cl beam produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have populated several 31S states for study via beta decay and devised a new decay scheme which includes updated beta feedings and gamma branchings as well as multiple states previously unobserved in 31Cl beta decay. Results of this study, including the unambiguous identification due to isospin mixing of a new l = 0 , Jπ = 3 /2+ 31S resonance directly in the middle of the Gamow Window, will be presented, and significance to the evaluation of the 30P31S reaction rate will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. Natl. Sci. Foundation (Grants No. PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, PHY-1419765, and PHY-1431052); U.S. Dept. of Energy, Natl. Nucl. Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0000979); Nat. Sci. and Eng. Research Council of Canada.

  16. The r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression of neutron star crust material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.

    2014-05-01

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the so-called rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved, for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present paper emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Both the astrophysics and the nuclear physics difficulties are critically reviewed with special attention paid to the r-process taking place during the decompression of neutron star matter following the merging of two neutron stars.

  17. The r-process nucleosynthesis during the decompression of neutron star crust material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Panebianco, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Hilaire, S.; Dubray, N.

    2016-01-01

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the so-called rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved, for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present paper emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Both the astrophysics and the nuclear physics difficulties are critically reviewed with special attention paid to the r-process taking place during the decompression of neutron star matter following the merging of two neutron stars.

  18. The chemical abundances of the Cassiopeia A fast-moving knots - Explosive nucleosynthesis on a minicomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. D.; Joss, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified nuclear reaction network for explosive nucleosynthesis calculations is described in which only the most abundant nuclear species and the most important reactions linking these species are considered. This scheme permits the exploration of many cases without excessive computational effort. Good agreement with previous calculations employing more complex reaction networks is obtained. This scheme is applied to the observed chemical abundances of the fast-moving knots in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A and it is found that a wide range of initial conditions could yield the observed abundances. The abundances of four of the knots with significant and different amounts of elements heavier than oxygen are consistent with an origin in material of the same initial composition but processed at different peak temperatures and densities. Despite the observed high oxygen abundances and low abundances of light elements in the knots, they did not necessarily undergo incomplete oxygen burning; in fact, it is not even necessary that oxygen have been present in the initial composition. The agreement between the calculated and observed chemical abundances in Cas A and similar supernova remnants depends primarily upon the relevant nuclear physics and does not provide strong evidence in favor of any particular model of the supernova event.

  19. Le verifiche della relatività generale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesti, Piero

    2005-10-01

    La relatività di Einstein. La relatività generale messa alla prova. Le tre verifiche classiche: L'avanzamento del perielio di Mercurio - La deflessione della luce - Il redshift gravitazionale. Le verifiche di seconda generazione: Il rallentamento della luce - L'effetto Nordtvedt - Le onde gravitazionali e la "pulsar binaria".

  20. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-12-01

    XMM à la recherche de la matière exotique; Ancienne étoile; Le Trou noir volant; Magnétar; Stardust et Annefrank; Le centre de la galaxie; Deux trous noirs dans la même galaxie; Eruption géante sur Io; Le Soleil;

  1. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d’autres termes, qu’est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l’Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l’univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l’Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L’énergie noire ? Pourquoi l’antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l’Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l’exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l’évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d’années, notre compréhension de l’univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l’appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  2. An update on the big bang nucleosynthesis prediction for {sup 7}Li: the problem worsens

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H; Fields, Brian D; Olive, Keith A E-mail: bdfields@uiuc.edu

    2008-11-15

    The lithium problem arises from the significant discrepancy between the primordial {sup 7}Li abundance as predicted by big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) baryon density, and the pre-Galactic lithium abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor (Population II) stars. This problem has loomed for the past decade, with a persistent discrepancy of a factor of 2-3 in {sup 7}Li/H. Recent developments have sharpened all aspects of the Li problem. Namely: (1) BBN theory predictions have sharpened due to new nuclear data; in particular, the uncertainty on the reaction rate for{sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be has reduced to 7.4%, nearly a factor of 2 tighter than previous determinations. (2) The WMAP five-year data set now yields a cosmic baryon density with an uncertainty reduced to 2.7%. (3) Observations of metal-poor stars have tested for systematic effects. With these, we now find that the BBN+WMAP predicts{sup 7}Li/H = (5.24{sub -0.67}{sup +0.71}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. The central value represents an increase by 23%, most of which is due to the upward shift in the{sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be rate. More significant is the reduction in the{sup 7}Li/H uncertainty by almost a factor of 2, tracking the reduction in the{sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be error bar. These changes exacerbate the Li problem; the discrepancy is now a factor 2.4 or 4.2{sigma} (from globular cluster stars) to 4.3 or 5.3{sigma} (from halo field stars). Possible resolutions to the lithium problem are briefly reviewed, and key experimental and astronomical measurements highlighted.

  3. Pygmy and core polarization dipole modes in 206Pb: Connecting nuclear structure to stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Goriely, S.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution study of the electromagnetic response of 206Pb below the neutron separation energy is performed using a (γ → ,γ‧) experiment at the HI γ → S facility. Nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly polarized photon beams is used to measure spins, parities, branching ratios, and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 to 8.1 MeV. The extracted ΣB (E 1) ↑ and ΣB (M 1) ↑ values for the total electric and magnetic dipole strength below the neutron separation energy are 0.9 ± 0.2 e2fm2 and 8.3 ± 2.0 μN2, respectively. These measurements are found to be in very good agreement with the predictions from an energy-density functional (EDF) plus quasiparticle phonon model (QPM). Such a detailed theoretical analysis allows to separate the pygmy dipole resonance from both the tail of the giant dipole resonance and multi-phonon excitations. Combined with earlier photonuclear experiments above the neutron separation energy, one extracts a value for the electric dipole polarizability of 206Pb of αD = 122 ± 10 mb /MeV. When compared to predictions from both the EDF+QPM and accurately calibrated relativistic EDFs, one deduces a range for the neutron-skin thickness of Rskin206 = 0.12- 0.19 fm and a corresponding range for the slope of the symmetry energy of L = 48- 60 MeV. This newly obtained information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section 205Pb (n , γ)206Pb at 30 keV to be σ = 130 ± 25 mb. The astrophysical impact of this measurement-on both the s-process in stellar nucleosynthesis and on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter-is discussed.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in the Hot Convective Bubble in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Woosley, S E; Buras, R; Janka, H; Hoffman, R D

    2004-09-02

    As an explosion develops in the collapsed core of a massive star, neutrino emission drives convection in a hot bubble of radiation, nucleons, and pairs just outside a proto-neutron star. Shortly thereafter, neutrinos drive a wind-like outflow from the neutron star. In both the convective bubble and the early wind, weak interactions temporarily cause a proton excess (Y{sub e} {approx}> 0.50) to develop in the ejected matter. This situation lasts for at least the first second, and the approximately 0.05-0.1 M{sub {circle_dot}} that is ejected has an unusual composition that may be important for nucleosynthesis. Using tracer particles to follow the conditions in a two-dimensional model of a successful supernova explosion calculated by Janka, Buras, and Rampp (2003), they determine the composition of this material. most of it is helium and {sup 56}Ni. The rest is relatively rare species produced by the decay of proton-rich isotopes unstable to positron emission. In the absence of pronounced charged-current neutrino capture, nuclear flow will be held up by long-lived waiting point nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 64}Ge. The resulting abundance pattern can be modestly rich in a few interesting rare isotopes like {sup 45}Sc, {sup 49}Ti, and {sup 64}Zn. The present calculations imply yields that, when compared with the production of major species in the rest of the supernova, are about those needed to account for the solar abundance of {sup 45}Sc and {sup 49}Ti. Since the synthesis will be nearly the same in stars of high and low metallicity, the primary production of these species may have discernible signatures in the abundances of low metallicity stars. They also discuss uncertainties in the nuclear physics and early supernova evolution to which abundances of interesting nuclei are sensitive.

  5. PArthENoPE: Public algorithm evaluating the nucleosynthesis of primordial elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanti, O.; Cirillo, A.; Esposito, S.; Iocco, F.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Serpico, P. D.

    2008-06-01

    We describe a program for computing the abundances of light elements produced during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is publicly available at http://parthenope.na.infn.it/. Starting from nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions the program solves the set of coupled ordinary differential equations, follows the departure from chemical equilibrium of nuclear species, and determines their asymptotic abundances as function of several input cosmological parameters as the baryon density, the number of effective neutrino, the value of cosmological constant and the neutrino chemical potential. The program requires commercial NAG library routines. Catalogue identifier: AEAV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 033 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 46 002 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: PC-compatible running Fortran on Unix, MS Windows or Linux Operating system: Windows 2000, Windows XP, Linux Classification: 1.2, 1.9, 17.8 External routines: NAG Libraries Nature of problem: Computation of yields of light elements synthesized in the primordial universe. Solution method: BDF method for the integration of the ODEs, implemented in a NAG routine. Running time: 90 sec with default parameters on a Dual Xeon Processor 2.4 GHz with 2 GB RAM.

  6. Using Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to extend CMB probes of neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shimon, M.; Miller, N.J.; Fuller, G.M.; Keating, B.G.; Kishimoto, C.T.; Smith, C.J. E-mail: nmiller@physics.ucsd.edu E-mail: christel.smith@asu.edu E-mail: bkeating@ucsd.edu

    2010-05-01

    We present calculations showing that upcoming Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments will have the power to improve on current constraints on neutrino masses and provide new limits on neutrino degeneracy parameters. The latter could surpass those derived from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the observationally-inferred primordial helium abundance. These conclusions derive from our Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations which incorporate a full BBN nuclear reaction network. This provides a self-consistent treatment of the helium abundance, the baryon number, the three individual neutrino degeneracy parameters and other cosmological parameters. Our analysis focuses on the effects of gravitational lensing on CMB constraints on neutrino rest mass and degeneracy parameter. We find for the PLANCK experiment that total (summed) neutrino mass M{sub ν} > 0.29 eV could be ruled out at 2σ or better. Likewise neutrino degeneracy parameters ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.11 and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 0.49 could be detected or ruled out at 2σ confidence, or better. For POLARBEAR we find that the corresponding detectable values are M{sub ν} > 0.75 eV, ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.62, and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 1.1, while for EPIC we obtain M{sub ν} > 0.20 eV, ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.045, and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 0.29. Our forcast for EPIC demonstrates that CMB observations have the potential to set constraints on neutrino degeneracy parameters which are better than BBN-derived limits and an order of magnitude better than current WMAP-derived limits.

  7. Advancing Nucleosynthesis in Core-Collapse Supernovae Models Using 2D CHIMERA Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. A.; Hix, W. R.; Chertkow, M. A.; Bruenn, S. W.; Lentz, E. J.; Messer, O. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.; Yakunin, K.

    2014-01-01

    The deaths of massive stars as core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) serve as a crucial link in understanding galactic chemical evolution since the birth of the universe via the Big Bang. We investigate CCSN in polar axisymmetric simulations using the multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics code CHIMERA. Computational costs have traditionally constrained the evolution of the nuclear composition in CCSN models to, at best, a 14-species α-network. However, the limited capacity of the α-network to accurately evolve detailed composition, the neutronization and the nuclear energy generation rate has fettered the ability of prior CCSN simulations to accurately reproduce the chemical abundances and energy distributions as known from observations. These deficits can be partially ameliorated by "post-processing" with a more realistic network. Lagrangian tracer particles placed throughout the star record the temporal evolution of the initial simulation and enable the extension of the nuclear network evolution by incorporating larger systems in post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. We present post-processing results of the four ab initio axisymmetric CCSN 2D models of Bruenn et al. (2013) evolved with the smaller α-network, and initiated from stellar metallicity, non-rotating progenitors of mass 12, 15, 20, and 25 M⊙ from Woosley & Heger (2007). As a test of the limitations of post-processing, we provide preliminary results from an ongoing simulation of the 15 M⊙ model evolved with a realistic 150 species nuclear reaction network in situ. With more accurate energy generation rates and an improved determination of the thermodynamic trajectories of the tracer particles, we can better unravel the complicated multidimensional "mass-cut" in CCSN simulations and probe for less energetically significant nuclear processes like the νp-process and the r-process, which require still larger networks.

  8. Evolution and Nucleosynthesis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stellar Models of Low Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Lugaro, Maria; Yong, David

    2014-12-01

    We present stellar evolutionary tracks and nucleosynthetic predictions for a grid of stellar models of low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at Z = 0.001 ([Fe/H] =-1.2). The models cover an initial mass range from 1 M ⊙ to 7 M ⊙. Final surface abundances and stellar yields are calculated for all elements from hydrogen to bismuth as well as isotopes up to the iron group. We present the first study of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in intermediate-mass AGB models, including a super-AGB model, of [Fe/H] = -1.2. We examine in detail a low-mass AGB model of 2 M ⊙ where the 13C(α,n)16O reaction is the main source of neutrons. We also examine an intermediate-mass AGB model of 5 M ⊙ where intershell temperatures are high enough to activate the 22Ne neutron source, which produces high neutron densities up to ~1014 n cm-3. Hot bottom burning is activated in models with M >= 3 M ⊙. With the 3 M ⊙ model, we investigate the effect of varying the extent in mass of the region where protons are mixed from the envelope into the intershell at the deepest extent of each third dredge-up. We compare the results of the low-mass models to three post-AGB stars with a metallicity of [Fe/H] ~= - 1.2. The composition is a good match to the predicted neutron-capture abundances except for Pb and we confirm that the observed Pb abundances are lower than what is calculated by AGB models.

  9. Nucleosynthesis Predictions for Intermediate-Mass AGB Stars: Comparison to Observations of Type I Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; vanRaai, Mark A.; Lugaro, Maria; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2008-01-01

    Type I planetary nebulae (PNe) have high He/H and N/O ratios and are thought to be descendants of stars with initial masses of approx. 3-8 Stellar Mass. These characteristics indicate that the progenitor stars experienced proton-capture nucleosynthesis at the base of the convective envelope, in addition to the slow neutron capture process operating in the He-shell (the s-process). We compare the predicted abundances of elements up to Sr from models of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to measured abundances in Type I PNe. In particular, we compare predictions and observations for the light trans-iron elements Se and Kr, in order to constrain convective mixing and the s-process in these stars. A partial mixing zone is included in selected models to explore the effect of a C-13 pocket on the s-process yields. The solar-metallicity models produce enrichments of [(Se, Kr)/Fe] less than or approx. 0.6, consistent with Galactic Type I PNe where the observed enhancements are typically less than or approx. 0.3 dex, while lower metallicity models predict larger enrichments of C, N, Se, and Kr. O destruction occurs in the most massive models but it is not efficient enough to account for the greater than or approx. 0.3 dex O depletions observed in some Type I PNe. It is not possible to reach firm conclusions regarding the neutron source operating in massive AGB stars from Se and Kr abundances in Type I PNe; abundances for more s-process elements may help to distinguish between the two neutron sources. We predict that only the most massive (M grester than or approx.5 Stellar Mass) models would evolve into Type I PNe, indicating that extra-mixing processes are active in lower-mass stars (3-4 Stellar Mass), if these stars are to evolve into Type I PNe.

  10. New effects of a long-lived negatively charged massive particle on big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-02

    Primordial {sup 7}Li abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor stars is a factor of about 3 lower than the theoretical value of standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. One of the solutions to the Li problem is {sup 7}Be destruction during the BBN epoch caused by a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X{sup −}. The particle can bind to nuclei, and X-bound nuclei (X-nuclei) can experience new reactions. The radiative X{sup −} capture by {sup 7}Be nuclei followed by proton capture of the bound state of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −} ({sup 7}Be{sub x}) is a possible {sup 7}Be destruction reaction. Since the primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li originates mainly from {sup 7}Li produced via the electron capture of {sup 7}Be after BBN, the {sup 7}Be destruction provides a solution to the {sup 7}Li problem. We suggest a new route of {sup 7}Be{sub x} formation, that is the {sup 7}Be charge exchange at the reaction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion and X{sup −}. The formation rate depends on the ionization fraction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion, the charge exchange cross section of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+}, and the probability that excited states {sup 7}Be{sub x}* produced at the charge exchange are converted to the ground state. We find that this reaction can be equally important as or more important than ordinary radiative recombination of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −}. The effect of this new route is shown in a nuclear reaction network calculation.

  11. Evolution and nucleosynthesis of asymptotic giant branch stellar models of low metallicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Yong, David; Lugaro, Maria E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu

    2014-12-10

    We present stellar evolutionary tracks and nucleosynthetic predictions for a grid of stellar models of low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at Z = 0.001 ([Fe/H] =–1.2). The models cover an initial mass range from 1 M {sub ☉} to 7 M {sub ☉}. Final surface abundances and stellar yields are calculated for all elements from hydrogen to bismuth as well as isotopes up to the iron group. We present the first study of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in intermediate-mass AGB models, including a super-AGB model, of [Fe/H] = –1.2. We examine in detail a low-mass AGB model of 2 M {sub ☉} where the {sup 13}C(α,n){sup 16}O reaction is the main source of neutrons. We also examine an intermediate-mass AGB model of 5 M {sub ☉} where intershell temperatures are high enough to activate the {sup 22}Ne neutron source, which produces high neutron densities up to ∼10{sup 14} n cm{sup –3}. Hot bottom burning is activated in models with M ≥ 3 M {sub ☉}. With the 3 M {sub ☉} model, we investigate the effect of varying the extent in mass of the region where protons are mixed from the envelope into the intershell at the deepest extent of each third dredge-up. We compare the results of the low-mass models to three post-AGB stars with a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≅ – 1.2. The composition is a good match to the predicted neutron-capture abundances except for Pb and we confirm that the observed Pb abundances are lower than what is calculated by AGB models.

  12. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of Low-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars at Different Metallicities. II. The FRUITY Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Domínguez, I.; Abia, C.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M.; Bisterzo, S.

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 <=M/M ⊙ <= 3.0 and metallicities 1 × 10-3 <= Z <= 2 × 10-2, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  13. High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we

  14. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W. E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu E-mail: mparis@lanl.gov

    2015-05-01

    We show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, and scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  15. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T+^{3}He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Herrmann, H W; Johnson, M Gatu; Kim, Y H; Frenje, J A; Hale, G; Li, C K; Rubery, M; Paris, M; Bacher, A; Brune, C R; Forrest, C; Glebov, V Yu; Janezic, R; McNabb, D; Nikroo, A; Pino, J; Sangster, T C; Séguin, F H; Seka, W; Sio, H; Stoeckl, C; Petrasso, R D

    2016-07-15

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of ^{6}Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T(^{3}He,γ)^{6}Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high ^{6}Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  16. Using inertial fusion implosions to measure the T+He3 fusion cross section at nucleosynthesis-relevant energies

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; ...

    2016-07-11

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high energy-density plasmas we measure the T(3He,γ)6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. In conclusion, this is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  17. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T + 3He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Kim, Y. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Hale, G.; Li, C. K.; Rubery, M.; Paris, M.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Forrest, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Janezic, R.; McNabb, D.; Nikroo, A.; Pino, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-07-01

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T (3He, ,γ )6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  18. Structure And Decay Of Neutron-Rich Nuclides In The 115 {<=} A {<=} 138 Mass Range And r-Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.B.; Stoyer, M.A.; Shergur, J.; Hoteling, N.; Ressler, J.J.; Rikovska, J.; Kratz, K.-L.; Woehr, A.; Pfeiffer, B.; Arndt, O.; Mantica, P.F.; Tomlin, B.; Schatz, H.; Montes, F.; Brown, B.A.; Seweryniak, D.; Ravn, H.; Fedoseyev, V.; Koester, U.; Wu, C.Y.

    2005-04-05

    The structure and decay of neutron-rich r-process nuclides has been studied by a variety of means that take advantage of enhanced selectivity to permit identification of exotic nuclides. New level structures are presented for 134,135Sb along with data for Ag isomers and Cd yrast structures. Some of the properties measured play an important role in calculations of the yields of elements and isotopes produced in r-process nucleosynthesis that takes place at high temperature in the presence of large densities of neutrons.

  19. A new limit on the time between the nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants using the Co/Ni ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Gupta, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using new cross section measurements of Ni into Co, data on the Co/Ni ratio in cosmic rays from the HEAO C spacecraft have been reinterpreted in terms of the time between nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays, delta t. The observed Co/Ni ratio is now consistent with interstellar fragmentation only, leading to a small or zero source abundance. In terms of the decay of e-process nucleosynthesis nuclides into Co after a supernova explosion, this permits an estimate of delta t = 4-30,000 yr for the time between nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays if supernovae are the direct progenitors of cosmic rays. These age limits are used in conjunction with models of the expansion of supernova remnants (SNRs), to estimate that cosmic rays are accelerated when the radius of these remnants is between 0.1 and 25 pc.

  20. Gamow-Teller strength in the exotic odd-odd nuclei 138La and 180Ta and its relevance for neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Byelikov, A; Adachi, T; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Heger, A; Kalmykov, Y; Kawase, K; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Nakanishi, K; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Neveling, R; Richter, A; Sakamoto, N; Sakemi, Y; Shevchenko, A; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Woosley, S E; Yosoi, M

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in 138La and 180Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the (3He,t) reaction at 0 degrees, allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all 138La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of 180Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer.

  1. Gamow-Teller Strength in the Exotic Odd-Odd Nuclei {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and Its Relevance for Neutrino Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Byelikov, A.; Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Shevchenko, A.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Heger, A.

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the ({sup 3}He,t) reaction at 0 deg., allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all {sup 138}La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of {sup 180}Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer.

  2. Nuclear structure of 30S and its implications for nucleosynthesis in classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoodehnia, K.; Chen, A. A.; Kahl, D.; Komatsubara, T.; José, J.; Longland, R.; Abe, Y.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cherubini, S.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Fukuoka, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Hendriks, J.; Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Kubono, S.; Lennard, W. N.; Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T.; Ozawa, A.; Parker, P. D.; Seiler, D.; Shizuma, T.; Suzuki, H.; Wrede, C.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yuasa, T.

    2013-06-01

    .Conclusions: The uncertainty in the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction rate is reduced to the point that it no longer affects the silicon isotopic abundance ratios significantly, and, thus, the results of our nova hydrodynamic simulation for the nucleosynthesis in the Si-Ca mass region are more reliable than before.

  3. Massive black holes and light-element nucleosynthesis in a baryonic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Rees, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    We reexamine the model proposed by Gnedin & Ostriker (1992) in which Jeans mass black holes (M(sub BH) approximately = 10(exp 6) solar mass) form shortly after decoupling. There is no nonbaryonic dark matter in this model, but we examine the possibility that Omega(sub b) is considerably larger than given by normal nucleosynthesis. Here we allow for the fact that much of the high baryon-to-photon ratio material will collapse leaving the universe of remaining material with light-element abundances more in accord with the residual baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -2)) than with Omega(sub 0) and the initial baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -1)). We find that no reasonable model can be made with random-phase density fluctuations, if the power on scales smaller than 10(exp 6) solar mass is as large as expected. However, phase-correlated models of the type that might occur in connection with topological singularities can be made with Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.013 +/- 0.001, 0.15 approximately less than Omega(sub 0) approximately less than 0.4, which are either flat (Omega(sub lambda) = 1 - Omega(sub 0)) or open (Omega(sub lambda) = 0) and which satisfy all the observational constraints which we apply, including the large baryon-to-total mass ratio found in the X-ray clusters. The remnant baryon density is thus close to that obtained in the standard picture (Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.0125 +/- 0.0025; Walker et al. 1991). The spectral index implied for fluctuations in the baryonic isocurvature scenario, -1 less than m less than 0, is in the range expected by other arguments based on large-scale structure and microwave fluctuation constraints. The dark matter in this picture is in the form of massive black holes. Accretion onto them at early epochs releases high-energy photons which significantly heat and reionize the universe. But photodissociation does not materially change light-element abundances. A typical model gives bar-y approximately = 1 x 10(exp -5

  4. Chemical abundances associated with gamma-ray bursts: nucleosynthesis in afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta carries huge amounts of energy expanding into the surrounding medium and heats up these materials, making it possible that nucleosynthesis can take place in such hot sites in afterglow stage. Here, we study possible changes in chemical abundances in the GRB afterglow processes of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star wind environments (Case A) and constant density surroundings (Case B). We find that the light element of lithium-beryllium-boron could occur in the afterglows via He+He process and spallation reactions. Some isotopes of F, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Fe-group elements are also new species formed in the afterglows via proton-, neutron- and α-capture. The results show that the nucleosynthetic yields might be a diagnostic of the GRB's ambient environment. Our calculations indicate that Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have trended to appear in Case A, while Ne, Ti and Ni trend to occur in Case B. Furthermore, although some species have occurred both in Cases A and B, their mass fractions are quite different in these two cases. Here, we show that the mass fractions of 7Li, 7Be, 24Mg and 30Si are higher in Case A than that in Case B, but 18F gives an opposite conclusion. Nucleosynthetic outputs might also be an indice to estimate the luminosity-temperature relation factor β. In this study, when β reduces, the mass abundances of 11B and 20Ne are higher in Case B than that in Case A; in contrast, as the β becomes larger, this trend would be reversed; therefore, perhaps we could select the above elements as the indicators to estimate the properties of the surroundings around the GRBs. We also suggest that the spectroscopic observations of a GRB afterglow could only reveal the nucleosynthetic outputs from the interaction site between the GRB jet and its ambient matter, but could not represent the original composition of the pre-GRB surrounding medium.

  5. Massive black holes and light-element nucleosynthesis in a baryonic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Rees, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    We reexamine the model proposed by Gnedin & Ostriker (1992) in which Jeans mass black holes (M(sub BH) approximately = 10(exp 6) solar mass) form shortly after decoupling. There is no nonbaryonic dark matter in this model, but we examine the possibility that Omega(sub b) is considerably larger than given by normal nucleosynthesis. Here we allow for the fact that much of the high baryon-to-photon ratio material will collapse leaving the universe of remaining material with light-element abundances more in accord with the residual baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -2)) than with Omega(sub 0) and the initial baryonic density (approximately = 10(exp -1)). We find that no reasonable model can be made with random-phase density fluctuations, if the power on scales smaller than 10(exp 6) solar mass is as large as expected. However, phase-correlated models of the type that might occur in connection with topological singularities can be made with Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.013 +/- 0.001, 0.15 approximately less than Omega(sub 0) approximately less than 0.4, which are either flat (Omega(sub lambda) = 1 - Omega(sub 0)) or open (Omega(sub lambda) = 0) and which satisfy all the observational constraints which we apply, including the large baryon-to-total mass ratio found in the X-ray clusters. The remnant baryon density is thus close to that obtained in the standard picture (Omega(sub b) h(exp 2) = 0.0125 +/- 0.0025; Walker et al. 1991). The spectral index implied for fluctuations in the baryonic isocurvature scenario, -1 less than m less than 0, is in the range expected by other arguments based on large-scale structure and microwave fluctuation constraints. The dark matter in this picture is in the form of massive black holes. Accretion onto them at early epochs releases high-energy photons which significantly heat and reionize the universe. But photodissociation does not materially change light-element abundances. A typical model gives bar-y approximately = 1 x 10(exp -5

  6. Neutron-capture Nucleosynthesis in the He-Flash Convective Zone in Extremely Metal-Poor Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takanori; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Suda, Takuma; Aikawa, Masayuki; Iben, Icko Jr.

    2006-07-12

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in the helium flash convective zone, triggered by the hydrogen mixing, for extremely metal-poor stars of low and intermediate mass. Mixed hydrogen is converted into neutron through 12C(p,{gamma})13N(e+{nu})13C({alpha},n)16O and the doubly neutron-recycling reactions 12C(n,{gamma})13C({alpha},n)16O(n,{gamma})17O({alpha},n)20Ne operate. In addition to oxygen and neon, not only light elements from sodium through phosphorus but also the s-process elements, heavier than iron, are synthesized via successive neutron captures with 20Ne as seeds even in the stars originally devoid of metals. We follow the both the doubly neutron-recycling reactions and the s-process nucleosynthesis up to Pb and Bi by varying model parameters such as the amount of mixed 13C. The resultant abundance patterns is shown to reproduce the observed enhancement not only of oxygen, the light elements but also Sr observed from HE 0107-5240 and HE 1327-2326.

  7. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  8. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  9. A new candidate for probing Population III nucleosynthesis with carbon-enhanced damped Lyα systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max; Murphy, Michael T.

    2012-09-01

    We report the identification of a very metal poor damped Lyα system (DLA) at zabs = 3.067 295 that is modestly carbon enhanced, with an iron abundance of ˜1/700 solar ([Fe/H] =-2.84) and [C,O/Fe] ≃ +0.6. Such an abundance pattern is likely to be the result of nucleosynthesis by massive stars. On the basis of 17 metal absorption lines, we derive a 2σ upper limit on the DLA's kinetic temperature of TDLA ≤ 4700 K, which is broadly consistent with the range of spin temperature estimates for DLAs at this redshift and metallicity. While the best-fitting abundance pattern shows the expected hallmarks of Population III nucleosynthesis, models of high-mass Population II stars can match the abundance pattern almost as well. We discuss current limitations in distinguishing between these two scenarios and the marked improvement in identifying the remnants of Population III stars expected from the forthcoming generation of 30-m class telescopes. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  11. The 17O(p,α)14N reaction measurement via the Trojan horse method and its application to 17O nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Burjan, S. V.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Gulino, M.; Hammache, F.; Hons, Z.; Irgaziev, B.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; de Séréville, N.; Somorjai, E.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    The role of oxygen in astrophysics is related to different problems as novae nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray astronomy. In particular, owing to the still present uncertainties on its rate, the 17O(p,α)14N is one of the most important reaction to be studied in order to get more information about the fate of oxygen in different astrophysical scenarios.

  12. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  13. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  14. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  15. Probing the Site for r-Process Nucleosynthesis with Abundances of Barium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-poor Stars.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto; Shigeyama; Yoshii

    2000-03-01

    We suggest that if the astrophysical site for r-process nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy is confined to a narrow mass range of Type II supernova (SN II) progenitors, with a lower mass limit of Mms=20 M middle dot in circle, a unique feature in the observed distribution of [Ba/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for extremely metal-poor stars can be adequately reproduced. We associate this feature, a bifurcation of the observed elemental ratios into two branches in the Mg abundance interval -3.7nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy. An SN-induced chemical evolution model with this Mms-dependent Ba yield creates the y-branch, reflecting the different nucleosynthesis yields of [Ba/Mg] for each SN II with Mms greater, similar20 M middle dot in circle. The second branch, which we call the i-branch, is associated with the elemental abundance ratios of stars which were formed in the dense shells of the interstellar medium swept up by SNe II with Mms<20 M middle dot in circle that do not synthesize r-process elements, and it applies to stars with observed Mg abundances in the range &sqbl0;Mg&solm0;H&sqbr0;<-2.7. The Ba abundances in these stars reflect those of the interstellar gas at the (later) time of their formation. The existence of a [Ba/Mg] i-branch strongly suggests that SNe II that are associated with stars of progenitor mass Mms

  16. Stellar and Primordial Nucleosynthesis of {sup 7}Be: Measurement of {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Mangano, G.; Ordine, A.; Kunz, R.; Rogalla, D.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F.; Rolfs, C.; De Cesare, M.; D'Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F.; De Cesare, N.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E.; Imbriani, G.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.

    2009-06-12

    The {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be reaction presently represents the largest nuclear uncertainty in the predicted solar neutrino flux and has important implications on the big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e., the production of primordial {sup 7}Li. We present here the results of an experiment using the recoil separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) to detect directly the {sup 7}Be ejectiles. In addition, off-beam activation and coincidence {gamma}-ray measurements were performed at selected energies. At energies above 1 MeV a large discrepancy compared to previous results is observed both in the absolute value and in the energy dependence of the cross section. Based on the available data and models, a robust estimate of the cross section at the astrophysical relevant energies is proposed.

  17. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    DOE PAGES

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; ...

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, andmore » scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.« less

  18. Neutron-capture rates for explosive nucleosynthesis: the case of 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Spyrou, Artemis; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Liddick, Sean N.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Neutron-capture reactions play an important role in heavy element nucleosynthesis, since they are the driving force for the two processes that create the vast majority of the heavy elements. When a neutron capture occurs on a short-lived nucleus, it is extremely challenging to study the reaction directly and therefore the use of indirect techniques is essential. The present work reports on such an indirect measurement that provides strong constraints on the 68Ni(n,g)69Ni reaction rate.The commonly used reaction libraries JINA-REACLIB and BRUSLIB are in relatively good agreement with the experimental rate. The impact of the new rate on weak r-process calculationsmore » is discussed.« less

  19. How neutrino oscillations can induce an effective neutrino number of less than three during big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    Ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations can generate significant neutrino asymmetry in the early Universe. In this paper we extend this work by computing the evolution of neutrino asymmetries and light element abundances during the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. We show that a significant electron-neutrino asymmetry can be generated in a way that is approximately independent of the oscillation parameters {delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta} for a range of parameters in an interesting class of models. The numerical value of the asymmetry leads to the {ital prediction} that the effective number of neutrino flavors during BBN is either about 2.5 or 3.4, depending on the sign of the asymmetry. Interestingly, one class of primordial deuterium abundance data favors an effective number of neutrino flavors during the epoch of BBN of less than 3. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, and scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.