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Sample records for nucleotidyl transferase subunits

  1. Distinct and cooperative activities of HESO1 and URT1 nucleotidyl transferases in microRNA turnover in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Liu, Li; Xu, Chi; Zhai, Jixian; Li, Shengben; Lopez, Miguel A; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yu; Ramachandran, Vanitharani; Ren, Guodong; Yu, Bin; Li, Shigui; Meyers, Blake C; Mo, Beixin; Chen, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    3' uridylation is increasingly recognized as a conserved RNA modification process associated with RNA turnover in eukaryotes. 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose protects micro(mi)RNAs from 3' truncation and 3' uridylation in Arabidopsis. Previously, we identified HESO1 as the nucleotidyl transferase that uridylates most unmethylated miRNAs in vivo, but substantial 3' tailing of miRNAs still remains in heso1 loss-of-function mutants. In this study, we found that among nine other potential nucleotidyl transferases, UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase 1 (URT1) is the single most predominant nucleotidyl transferase that tails miRNAs. URT1 and HESO1 prefer substrates with different 3' end nucleotides in vitro and act cooperatively to tail different forms of the same miRNAs in vivo. Moreover, both HESO1 and URT1 exhibit nucleotidyl transferase activity on AGO1-bound miRNAs. Although these enzymes are able to add long tails to AGO1-bound miRNAs, the tailed miRNAs remain associated with AGO1. Moreover, tailing of AGO1-bound miRNA165/6 drastically reduces the slicing activity of AGO1-miR165/6, suggesting that tailing reduces miRNA activity. However, monouridylation of miR171a by URT1 endows the miRNA the ability to trigger the biogenesis of secondary siRNAs. Therefore, 3' tailing could affect the activities of miRNAs in addition to leading to miRNA degradation. PMID:25928405

  2. Synergistic and independent actions of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shuxin; Dou, Yongchao; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Bin; Ren, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an) enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1. Here, we report that UTP: RNA uridylyltransferase (URT1) is a functional paralog of HESO1. URT1 interacts with AGO1 and plays a predominant role in miRNA uridylation when HESO1 is absent. Uridylation of miRNA is globally abolished in a hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant, accompanied by an extensive increase of 3'-to-5' trimming. In contrast, disruption of URT1 appears not to affect the heterochromatic siRNA uridylation. This indicates the involvement of additional nucleotidyl transferases in the siRNA pathway. Analysis of miRNA tailings in the hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant also reveals the existence of previously unknown enzymatic activities that can add non-uridine nucleotides. Importantly, we show HESO1 may also act redundantly with URT1 in miRNA uridylation when HEN1 is fully competent. Taken together, our data not only reveal a synergistic action of HESO1 and URT1 in the 3' uridylation of miRNAs, but also independent activities of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs and an antagonistic relationship between uridylation and trimming. Our results may provide further insight into the mechanisms of small RNA 3' end modification and stability control. PMID:25928341

  3. Flock house virus RNA polymerase initiates RNA synthesis de novo and possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhaowei; Xia, Hongjie; Liu, Yongxiang; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Yujie; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Flock House virus (FHV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a bipartite genome of RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2, and belongs to the family Nodaviridae. As the most extensively studied nodavirus, FHV has become a well-recognized model for studying various aspects of RNA virology, particularly viral RNA replication and antiviral innate immunity. FHV RNA1 encodes protein A, which is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for RNA replication. Although the RNA replication of FHV has been studied in considerable detail, the mechanism employed by FHV protein A to initiate RNA synthesis has not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of FHV protein A in detail and revealed that it can initiate RNA synthesis via a de novo (primer-independent) mechanism. Moreover, we found that FHV protein A also possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase (TNTase) activity, which was able to restore the nucleotide loss at the 3'-end initiation site of RNA template to rescue RNA synthesis initiation in vitro, and may function as a rescue and protection mechanism to protect the 3' initiation site, and ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis. Altogether, our study establishes the de novo initiation mechanism of RdRP and the terminal rescue mechanism of TNTase for FHV protein A, and represents an important advance toward understanding FHV RNA replication. PMID:24466277

  4. X-ray Crystal Structures Elucidate the Nucleotidyl Transfer Reaction of Transcript Initiation Using Two Nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    M Gleghorn; E Davydova; R Basu; L Rothman-Denes; K Murakami

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the pre- and postcatalytic forms of the initiation complex of bacteriophage N4 RNA polymerase that provide the complete set of atomic images depicting the process of transcript initiation by a single-subunit RNA polymerase. As observed during T7 RNA polymerase transcript elongation, substrate loading for the initiation process also drives a conformational change of the O helix, but only the correct base pairing between the +2 substrate and DNA base is able to complete the O-helix conformational transition. Substrate binding also facilitates catalytic metal binding that leads to alignment of the reactive groups of substrates for the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. Although all nucleic acid polymerases use two divalent metals for catalysis, they differ in the requirements and the timing of binding of each metal. In the case of bacteriophage RNA polymerase, we propose that catalytic metal binding is the last step before the nucleotidyl transfer reaction.

  5. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase β subunit is essential for male fertility and tip growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Marta; Nowakowska, Julita; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Stronkowski, Michal M; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins, key players in vesicular transport in all eukaryotic cells, are post-translationally modified by lipid moieties. Two geranylgeranyl groups are attached to the Rab protein by the heterodimeric enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGT) αβ. Partial impairment in this enzyme activity in Arabidopsis, by disruption of the AtRGTB1 gene, is known to influence plant stature and disturb gravitropic and light responses. Here it is shown that mutations in each of the RGTB genes cause a tip growth defect, visible as root hair and pollen tube deformations. Moreover, FM 1-43 styryl dye endocytosis and recycling are affected in the mutant root hairs. Finally, it is demonstrated that the double mutant, with both AtRGTB genes disrupted, is non-viable due to absolute male sterility. Doubly mutated pollen is shrunken, has an abnormal exine structure, and shows strong disorganization of internal membranes, particularly of the endoplasmic reticulum system.

  6. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site.

    PubMed

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme.

  7. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site

    PubMed Central

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. PMID:26487708

  8. Arabidopsis RAB geranylgeranyl transferase beta-subunit mutant is constitutively photomorphogenic, and has shoot growth and gravitropic defects.

    PubMed

    Hála, Michal; Soukupová, Hana; Synek, Lukás; Zárský, Viktor

    2010-05-01

    RAB GTPases are important directional regulators of intracellular vesicle transport. Membrane localization of RAB GTPases is mediated by C-terminal double geranylgeranylation. This post-translational modification is catalyzed by the alpha-beta-heterodimer catalytic core of RAB geranylgeranyl transferase (RAB-GGT), which cooperates with the RAB escort protein (REP) that presents a nascent RAB. Here, we show that RAB-geranylgeranylation activity is significantly reduced in two homozygous mutants of the major Arabidopsis beta-subunit of RAB-GGT (AtRGTB1), resulting in unprenylated RAB GTPases accumulation in the cytoplasm. Both endocytosis and exocytosis are downregulated in rgtb1 homozygotes defective in shoot growth and morphogenesis. Root gravitropism is normal in rgtb1 roots, but is significantly compromised in shoots. Mutants are defective in etiolation and show constitutive photomorphogenic phenotypes that cannot be rescued by brassinosteroid treatment, similarly to the det3 mutant that is also defective in the secretory pathway. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an upregulation of specific RAB GTPases in etiolated wild-type plants. Taken together, these data suggest that the downregulation of the secretory pathway is interpreted as a photomorphogenic signal in Arabidopsis.

  9. Indole-3-carbinol induces a rat liver glutathione transferase subunit (Yc2) with high activity toward aflatoxin B1 exo-epoxide. Association with reduced levels of hepatic aflatoxin-DNA adducts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stresser, D M; Williams, D E; McLellan, L I; Harris, T M; Bailey, G S

    1994-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a metabolite of the grain mold Aspergillus flavus, is a potent hepatocarcinogen and widespread contaminant of human food supplies. AFB1-induced tumors or preneoplastic lesions in experimental animals can be inhibited by cotreatment with several compounds, including indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a component of cruciferous vegetables, and the well-known Ah receptor agonist beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). This study examines the influence of these two agents on the AFB1-glutathione detoxication pathway and AFB1-DNA adduction in rat liver. After 7 days of feeding approximately equally inhibitory doses of I3C (0.2%) or BNF (0.04%) alone or in combination, male Fischer 344 rats were administered [3H]AFB1 (0.5 mg/kg, 480 microCi/kg) intraperitoneally and killed 2 hr later. All three experimental diets inhibited in vivo AFB1-DNA adduction (BNF, 46%; I3C, 68%; combined, 51%). Based on Western blots using antibodies specific for the glutathione S-transferase (GST), subunit Yc2 (subunit 10) appeared to be substantially elevated by the diets containing I3C (I3C diet, 4.0-fold increase in band density; combined diet, 2.8-fold). The BNF diet appeared to elevate Yc2 to a lesser extent (2.2-fold increase in band density).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Characterization of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE): A xenobiotic responsive element controlling expression of the rat glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene by phenolic antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Rushmore, T.H.; Pickett, C.B. )

    1991-03-11

    The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) is responsible for part of the basal level expression of the Ya subunit gene and for the induction by phenolic antioxidants and metabolites of planar aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). As an initial step in the characterization of the mechanism(s) by which phenolic antioxidants and metabolites of PAH activate transcription via the ARE, the authors prepared 5{prime} and 3{prime}-deletions and point mutants of the 41 bp ARE, transfected them into HepG2 cells and monitored the basal and {beta}-NF inducible activities. Deletion analysis permitted separation of the basal and {beta}-NF inducible components of the ARE. The minimum sequence required for {beta}-NF inducible expression was PuGTGACAAAGCAPu, nucleotides {minus}697 to {minus}687. Point mutations at nucleotides {minus}696, {minus}695, {minus}694, {minus}693, {minus}689 or {minus}688 abolished the {beta}-NF inducible expression. Mutations at the other positions had little or no effect on {beta}-NF inducible expression. Gel shift assays suggest that at least 2 proteins bind to regions within the ARE shown to be important for basal and {beta}-NF inducible expression.

  11. Characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit gene, GSTA5: identification of a putative antioxidant-responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of rat GSTA5 that may mediate chemoprotection against aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Pulford, D J; Hayes, J D

    1996-08-15

    We have isolated and characterized genomic DNA encoding the rat glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit. This protein is now referred to as rGSTA5 and is noteworthy because of its high activity towards aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide, its marked inducibility by chemoprotectors, its sex-specific regulation, and its over-expression in hepatoma and preneoplastic nodules. The rGSTA5 gene, which was isolated on two overlapping bacteriophage lambda clones, is approx. 12 kb in length and, unlike other class Alpha genes described to date, it comprises six exons. The transcription start site has been identified 228 bp upstream from the ATG translational initiation codon, and is situated 51 bp downstream from a consensus TATA-box. Deletion analysis, using luciferase reporter constructs, has shown that the region between -177 bp and +65 bp from the transcriptional start site contains a functional promoter. Computer-assisted analysis of the upstream sequence has indicated the presence of an antioxidant-responsive element (ARE), and several elements thought to be required for tissue-specific expression of the enzyme. In addition, several putative oestrogen-responsive half sites were observed in both upstream and intronic sequences. PMID:8761455

  12. Discovery of an essential nucleotidylating activity associated with a newly delineated conserved domain in the RNA polymerase-containing protein of all nidoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Kathleen C.; Gulyaeva, Anastasia; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Janssen, George M. C.; Ruben, Mark; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; van Veelen, Peter A.; Samborskiy, Dmitry V.; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Leontovich, Andrey M.; Sidorov, Igor A.; Snijder, Eric J.; Posthuma, Clara C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that catalyzes the synthesis of their RNA(s). In the case of positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the order Nidovirales, the RdRp resides in a replicase subunit that is unusually large. Bioinformatics analysis of this non-structural protein has now revealed a nidoviral signature domain (genetic marker) that is N-terminally adjacent to the RdRp and has no apparent homologs elsewhere. Based on its conservation profile, this domain is proposed to have nucleotidylation activity. We used recombinant non-structural protein 9 of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV) and different biochemical assays, including irreversible labeling with a GTP analog followed by a proteomics analysis, to demonstrate the manganese-dependent covalent binding of guanosine and uridine phosphates to a lysine/histidine residue. Most likely this was the invariant lysine of the newly identified domain, named nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN), whose substitution with alanine severely diminished the described binding. Furthermore, this mutation crippled EAV and prevented the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in cell culture, indicating that NiRAN is essential for nidoviruses. Potential functions supported by NiRAN may include nucleic acid ligation, mRNA capping and protein-primed RNA synthesis, possibilities that remain to be explored in future studies. PMID:26304538

  13. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  14. Rubisco small subunit, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyl transferase gene expression and sugar status in single barley leaf cells in situ. Cell type specificity and induction by light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chungui; Koroleva, Olga A; Farrar, John F; Gallagher, Joe; Pollock, Chris J; Tomos, A Deri

    2002-11-01

    We describe a highly efficient two-step single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique for analyzing gene expression at the single-cell level. Good reproducibility and a linear dose response indicated that the technique has high specificity and sensitivity for detection and quantification of rare RNA. Actin could be used as an internal standard. The expression of message for Rubisco small subunit (RbcS), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab), sucrose (Suc):fructan-6-fructosyl transferase (6-SFT), and Actin were measured in individual photosynthetic cells of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf. Only Actin was found in the non-photosynthetic epidermal cells. Cab, RbcS, and 6-SFT genes were expressed at a low level in mesophyll and parenchymatous bundle sheath (BS) cells when sampled from plants held in dark for 40 h. Expression increased considerably after illumination. The amount of 6-SFT, Cab, and RbcS transcript increased more in mesophyll cells than in the parenchymatous BS cells. The difference may be caused by different chloroplast structure and posttranscriptional control in mesophyll and BS cells. When similar single-cell samples were assayed for Suc, glucose, and fructan, there was high correlation between 6-SFT gene expression and Suc and glucose concentrations. This is consistent with Suc concentration being the trigger for transcription. Together with earlier demonstrations that the mesophyll cells have a higher sugar threshold for fructan polymerization, our data may indicate separate control of transcription and enzyme activity. Values for the sugar concentrations of the individual cell types are reported.

  15. cNMP-AMs mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Ulrike; Grundmann, Manuel; Wolter, Sabine; Schwede, Frank; Rehmann, Holger; Kaever, Volkhard; Kostenis, Evi; Seifert, Roland

    2014-09-01

    In addition to the well-known second messengers cAMP and cGMP, mammalian cells contain the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoY massively increases cGMP and cUMP in cells, whereas the Bordetella pertussis toxin CyaA increases cAMP and, to a lesser extent, cCMP. To mimic and dissect toxin effects, we synthesized cNMP-acetoxymethylesters as prodrugs. cNMP-AMs rapidly and effectively released the corresponding cNMP in cells. The combination of cGMP-AM plus cUMP-AM mimicked cytotoxicity of ExoY. cUMP-AM and cGMP-AM differentially activated gene expression. Certain cCMP and cUMP effects were independent of the known cNMP effectors protein kinases A and G and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. In conclusion, cNMP-AMs are useful tools to mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects. PMID:25108158

  16. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs. PMID:16399376

  17. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs.

  18. Two proton transfers in the transition state for nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by RNA- and DNA-dependent RNA and DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Castro, Christian; Smidansky, Eric; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; Arnold, Jamie J; Korneeva, Victoria S; Götte, Matthias; Konigsberg, William; Cameron, Craig E

    2007-03-13

    The rate-limiting step for nucleotide incorporation in the pre-steady state for most nucleic acid polymerases is thought to be a conformational change. As a result, very little information is available on the role of active-site residues in the chemistry of nucleotidyl transfer. For the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)), chemistry is partially (Mg(2+)) or completely (Mn(2+)) rate limiting. Here we show that nucleotidyl transfer depends on two ionizable groups with pK(a) values of 7.0 or 8.2 and 10.5, depending upon the divalent cation used in the reaction. A solvent deuterium isotope effect of three to seven was observed on the rate constant for nucleotide incorporation in the pre-steady state; none was observed in the steady state. Proton-inventory experiments were consistent with two protons being transferred during the rate-limiting transition state of the reaction, suggesting that both deprotonation of the 3'-hydroxyl nucleophile and protonation of the pyrophosphate leaving group occur in the transition state for phosphodiester bond formation. Importantly, two proton transfers occur in the transition state for nucleotidyl-transfer reactions catalyzed by RB69 DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. Interpretation of these data in the context of known polymerase structures suggests the existence of a general base for deprotonation of the 3'-OH nucleophile, although use of a water molecule cannot be ruled out conclusively, and a general acid for protonation of the pyrophosphate leaving group in all nucleic acid polymerases. These data imply an associative-like transition-state structure.

  19. Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1 hepatocarcinogenesis by coumarin, a natural benzopyrone that is a potent inducer of aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase, the glutathione S-transferase A5 and P1 subunits, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kelly, V P; Ellis, E M; Manson, M M; Chanas, S A; Moffat, G J; McLeod, R; Judah, D J; Neal, G E; Hayes, J D

    2000-02-15

    Structurally diverse compounds can confer resistance to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Treatment with either phytochemicals [benzyl isothiocyanate, coumarin (CMRN), or indole-3-carbinol] or synthetic antioxidants and other drugs (butylated hydroxyanisole, diethyl maleate, ethoxyquin, beta-naphthoflavone, oltipraz, phenobarbital, or trans-stilbene oxide) has been found to increase hepatic aldo-keto reductase activity toward AFB1-dialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity toward AFB1-8,9-epoxide in both male and female rats. Under the conditions used, the natural benzopyrone CMRN was a major inducer of the AFB1 aldehyde reductase (AFAR) and the aflatoxin-conjugating class-alpha GST A5 subunit in rat liver, causing elevations of between 25- and 35-fold in hepatic levels of these proteins. Induction was not limited to AFAR and GSTA5: treatment with CMRN caused similar increases in the amount of the class-pi GST P1 subunit and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase in rat liver. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the overexpression of AFAR, GSTA5, GSTP1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase affected by CMRN is restricted to the centrilobular (periacinar) zone of the lobule, sometimes extending almost as far as the portal tract. This pattern of induction was also observed with ethoxyquin, oltipraz, and trans-stilbene oxide. By contrast, induction of these proteins by beta-naphthoflavone and diethyl maleate was predominantly periportal. Northern blotting showed that induction of these phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes by CMRN was accompanied by similar increases in the levels of their mRNAs. To assess the biological significance of enzyme induction by dietary CMRN, two intervention studies were performed in which the ability of the benzopyrone to inhibit either AFB1-initiated preneoplastic nodules (at 13 weeks) or AFB1-initiated liver tumors (at 50 weeks) was investigated. Animals pretreated with CMRN for 2 weeks prior to administration of

  20. Preferred WMSA catalytic mechanism of the nucleotidyl transfer reaction in human DNA polymerase κ elucidates error-free bypass of a bulky DNA lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lior-Hoffmann, Lee; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Shenglong; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Broyde, Suse; Zhang, Yingkai

    2012-01-01

    Human DNA Pol κ is a polymerase enzyme, specialized for near error-free bypass of certain bulky chemical lesions to DNA that are derived from environmental carcinogens present in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and cooked food. By employing ab initio QM/MM–MD (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics–Molecular Dynamics) simulations with umbrella sampling, we have determined the entire free energy profile of the nucleotidyl transfer reaction catalyzed by Pol κ and provided detailed mechanistic insights. Our results show that a variant of the Water Mediated and Substrate Assisted (WMSA) mechanism that we previously deduced for Dpo4 and T7 DNA polymerases is preferred for Pol κ as well, suggesting its broad applicability. The hydrogen on the 3′-OH primer terminus is transferred through crystal and solvent waters to the γ-phosphate of the dNTP, followed by the associative nucleotidyl transfer reaction; this is facilitated by a proton transfer from the γ-phosphate to the α,β-bridging oxygen as pyrophosphate leaves, to neutralize the evolving negative charge. MD simulations show that the near error-free incorporation of dCTP opposite the major benzo[a]pyrene—derived dG lesion is compatible with the WMSA mechanism, allowing for an essentially undisturbed pentacovalent phosphorane transition state, and explaining the bypass of this lesion with little mutation by Pol κ. PMID:22772988

  1. Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketoadipate: succinyl-coenzyme A transferase in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Harwood, C S

    1992-01-01

    beta-Ketoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A transferase (beta-ketoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase) (EC 2.8.3.6) carries out the penultimate step in the conversion of benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in bacteria utilizing the beta-ketoadipate pathway. This report describes the characterization of a DNA fragment from Pseudomonas putida that encodes this enzyme. The fragment complemented mutants defective in the synthesis of the CoA transferase, and two proteins of sizes appropriate to encode the two nonidentical subunits of the enzyme were produced in Escherichia coli when the fragment was placed under the control of a phage T7 promoter. DNA sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames, designated pcaI and pcaJ, that were separated by 8 bp, suggesting that they may comprise an operon. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the P. putida CoA transferase genes with the sequences of two other bacterial CoA transferases and that of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase from pig heart suggests that the homodimeric structure of the mammalian enzyme may have resulted from a gene fusion of the bacterial alpha and beta subunit genes during evolution. Conserved functional groups important to the catalytic activity of CoA transferases were also identified. Images PMID:1624453

  2. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Nucleotidyl Cyclase Activity of Particulate Guanylyl Cyclase A: Comparison with Particulate Guanylyl Cyclases E and F, Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Bacterial Adenylyl Cyclases Cyaa and Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Beste, Kerstin Y.; Spangler, Corinna M.; Burhenne, Heike; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs) and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC). Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis and edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis possess nucleotidyl cyclase (NC) activity. pGC-A is a natriuretic peptide-activated homodimer with two catalytic sites that act cooperatively. Here, we studied the NC activity of rat pGC-A in membranes of stably transfected HEK293 cells using a highly sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS technique. GTP and ITP were effective, and ATP and XTP were only poor, pGC-A substrates. In contrast to sGC, pGC-A did not use CTP and UTP as substrates. pGC-E and pGC-F expressed in bovine rod outer segment membranes used only GTP as substrate. In intact HEK293 cells, pGC-A generated only cGMP. In contrast to pGCs, EF and CyaA showed very broad substrate-specificity. In conclusion, NCs exhibit different substrate-specificities, arguing against substrate-leakiness of enzymes and pointing to distinct physiological functions of cyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:23922959

  4. tRNA[superscript His] guanylyltransferase (THG1), a unique 3;#8242;-5;#8242; nucleotidyl transferase, shares unexpected structural homology with canonical 5;#8242;-3;#8242; DNA polymerases

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Samantha J.; Eckenroth, Brian E.; Smith, Brian A.; Eberley, William A.; Heintz, Nicholas H.; Jackman, Jane E.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-11-07

    All known DNA and RNA polymerases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds in a 5' to 3' direction, suggesting this property is a fundamental feature of maintaining and dispersing genetic information. The tRNA{sup His} guanylyltransferase (Thg1) is a member of a unique enzyme family whose members catalyze an unprecedented reaction in biology: 3'-5' addition of nucleotides to nucleic acid substrates. The 2.3-{angstrom} crystal structure of human THG1 (hTHG1) reported here shows that, despite the lack of sequence similarity, hTHG1 shares unexpected structural homology with canonical 5'-3' DNA polymerases and adenylyl/guanylyl cyclases, two enzyme families known to use a two-metal-ion mechanism for catalysis. The ability of the same structural architecture to catalyze both 5'-3' and 3'-5' reactions raises important questions concerning selection of the 5'-3' mechanism during the evolution of nucleotide polymerases.

  5. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  6. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  7. Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Aaron

    2011-05-01

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are one of the most important families of detoxifying enzymes in nature. The classic activity of the GSTs is conjugation of compounds with electrophilic centers to the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), but many other activities are now associated with GSTs, including steroid and leukotriene biosynthesis, peroxide degradation, double-bond cis-trans isomerization, dehydroascorbate reduction, Michael addition, and noncatalytic "ligandin" activity (ligand binding and transport). Since the first GST structure was determined in 1991, there has been an explosion in structural data across GSTs of all three families: the cytosolic GSTs, the mitochondrial GSTs, and the membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG family). In this review, the major insights into GST structure and function will be discussed.

  8. Cloning and expression of clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N. ); Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase (acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase (butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase) (EC 2.8.3.9)) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is an important enzyme in the metabolic shift between the acid-producing and solvent-forming states of this organism. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme have been cloned and subsequent subcloning experiments established the position of the structural genes for CoA-transferase. Complementation of Escherichia coli ato mutants with the recombinant plasmid pCoAT4 (pUC19 carrying a 1.8-kilobase insert of C. acetobutylicum DNA encoding CoA-transferase activity) enabled the transformants to grow on butyrate as a sole carbon source. Despite the ability of CoA-transferase to complement the ato defect in E. coli mutants, Southern blot and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses showed showed that neither the C. acetobutylicum genes encoding CoA-transferase nor the enzyme itself shared any apparent homology with its E. coli counterpart. Polypeptides of M{sub r} of the purified CoA-transferase subunits were observed by Western blot and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E.coli harboring pCoAT4. The proximity and orientation of the genes suggest that the genes encoding the two subunits of CoA-transferase may form an operon similar to that found in E. coli. In the plasmid, however, transcription appears to be primarily from the lac promoter of the vector.

  9. Glutathione analogue sorbents selectively bind glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Castro, V M; Kelley, M K; Engqvist-Goldstein, A; Kauvar, L M

    1993-06-01

    Novel affinity sorbents for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were created by binding glutathione (GSH) analogues to Sepharose 6B. The GSH molecule was modified at the glycine moiety and at the group attached to the sulphur of cysteine. When tested by affinity chromatography in a flow-through microplate format, several of these sorbents selectively bound GST isoenzymes. gamma E-C(Hx)-phi G (glutathione with a hexyl moiety bound to cysteine and phenylglycine substituted for glycine) specifically bound rat GST 7-7, the Pi-class isoenzyme, from liver, kidney and small intestine. gamma E-C(Bz)-beta A (benzyl bound to cysteine and beta-alanine substituted for glycine) was highly selective for rat subunits 3 and 4, which are Mu-class isoenzymes. By allowing purification of the isoenzymes under mild conditions that preserve activity, the novel sorbents should be useful in characterizing the biological roles of GSTs in both normal animal and cancer tissues.

  10. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in human tumours and tumour derived cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A. D.; Forrester, L. M.; Hayes, J. D.; Wareing, C. J.; Carmichael, J.; Harris, A. L.; Mooghen, M.; Wolf, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that glutathione S-transferases play a role in the intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumours to anticancer drugs. In view of the wide use of tumour cell lines to understand the factors which confer either sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapeutic agents we have determined glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and isozyme composition in nine human cell lines. These data have been compared with the values obtained in solid tumours. In most cases overall GST activity was higher in the tumours than in the cell lines. This was most pronounced for the breast tumour samples relative to MCF7 cell line. The pi class GST subunit was present at similar concentration in the cell lines and the tumours, and in most cases was the most abundant subunit present. The alpha and mu class GST were expressed in most of the cell lines but at much lower concentration than the pi class subunit. Also considerable variability particularly in the expression of the mu subunits was observed. This was also the case for the expression of these subunits in the solid tumour samples. The levels of these GSTs (when expressed) in the solid tumours was invariably higher than that observed in the cell lines. There are therefore several similarities but also some significant differences in GST expression in solid tumours and cell lines. Whether the differences are because expression is lost during the generation of the cell lines or whether it reflects the individuality of human tumours remains to be clearly established. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:2789940

  11. [Structure and functions of glutathione transferases].

    PubMed

    Fedets, O M

    2014-01-01

    Data about classification, nomenclature, structure, substrate specificity and role of many glutathione transferase's isoenzymes in cell functions have been summarised. The enzyme has been discovered more than 50 years ago. This family of proteins is updated continuously. It has very different composition and will have demand for system analysis for many years.

  12. Irreversible Inhibition of Glutathione S-Transferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC), a Dietary Cancer Chemopreventive Phytochemical

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Vandana; Dyba, Marzena A.; Holland, Ryan J.; Liang, Yu-He; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates abundant as glucosinolate precursors in many edible cruciferous vegetables are effective for prevention of cancer in chemically-induced and transgenic rodent models. Some of these agents, including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), have already advanced to clinical investigations. The primary route of isothiocyanate metabolism is its conjugation with glutathione (GSH), a reaction catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST). The pi class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTP1) is much more effective than the alpha class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTA1) in catalyzing the conjugation. Here, we report the crystal structures of hGSTP1 and hGSTA1 each in complex with the GSH adduct of PEITC. We find that PEITC also covalently modifies the cysteine side chains of GST, which irreversibly inhibits enzymatic activity. PMID:27684484

  13. Probing functions of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center by nucleotide analog interference.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Matthias D; Polacek, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a huge ribonucleoprotein complex in charge of protein synthesis in every living cell. The catalytic center of this dynamic molecular machine is entirely built up of 23S ribosomal RNA and therefore the ribosome can be referred to as the largest natural ribozyme known so far. The in vitro reconstitution approach of large ribosomal subunits described herein allows nucleotide analog interference studies to be performed. The approach is based on the site-specific introduction of nonnatural nucleotide analogs into the peptidyl transferase center, the active site located on the interface side of the large ribosomal subunit. This method combined with standard tests of ribosomal functions broadens the biochemical repertoire to investigate the mechanism of diverse aspects of translation considerably and adds another layer of molecular information on top of structural and mutational studies of the ribosome. PMID:22315072

  14. Differentiation Between Intracellular and Cell Surface Glycosyl Transferases: Galactosyl Transferase Activity in Intact Cells and in Cell Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Deppert, Wolfgang; Werchau, Hermann; Walter, Gernot

    1974-01-01

    Intact BHK (baby hamster kidney) cells catalyze the hydrolysis of UDP-galactose to free galactose. The generation of galactose from UDP-galactose and its intracellular utilization impede the detection of possible galactosyl transferases on the cell surface of intact cells. Several independent procedures have been used to distinguish between intracellular and cell surface glycosyl transferases. With these procedures, no evidence was obtained for the presence of detectable amounts of galactosyl transferase activity on the surface of BHK cells. The data suggest that galactosyl transferases do not play a general role in the phenomena of cell adhesion and contact inhibition. PMID:4528509

  15. Genetic and functional analyses of PptA, a phospho-form transferase targeting type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Naessan, Cecilia L; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Heiniger, Ryan W; Wolfgang, Matthew C; Aas, Finn Erik; Røhr, Asmund; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Koomey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The PilE pilin subunit protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae undergoes unique covalent modifications with phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC). The pilin phospho-form transferase A (PptA) protein, required for these modifications, shows sequence relatedness with and architectural similarities to lipopolysaccharide PE transferases. Here, we used regulated expression and mutagenesis as means to better define the relationships between PptA structure and function, as well as to probe the mechanisms by which other factors impact the system. We show here that pptA expression is coupled at the level of transcription to its distal gene, murF, in a division/cell wall gene operon and that PptA can act in a dose-dependent fashion in PilE phospho-form modification. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis provided the first direct evidence that PptA is a member of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily of metalloenzymes with similar metal-binding sites and conserved structural folds. Through phylogenetic analyses and sequence alignments, these conclusions were extended to include the lipopolysaccharide PE transferases, including members of the disparate Lpt6 subfamily, and the MdoB family of phosphoglycerol transferases. Each of these enzymes thus likely acts as a phospholipid head group transferase whose catalytic mechanism involves a trans-esterification step generating a protein-phospho-form ester intermediate. Coexpression of PptA with PilE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa resulted in high levels of PE modification but was not sufficient for PC modification. This and other findings show that PptA-associated PC modification is governed by as-yet-undefined ancillary factors unique to N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:17951381

  16. Topology of subunits of the mammalian cytochrome c oxidase: Relationship to the assembly of the enzyme complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Zhong Zhang; Ewart, G.; Capaldi, R.A. )

    1991-04-16

    The arrangement of three subunits of beef heart cytochrome c oxidase, subunits Va, VIa, and VIII, has been explored by chemical labeling and protease digestion studies. Subunit Va is an extrinsic protein located on the C side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. This subunit was found to label with N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethane({sup 35}S)sulfonate and sodium methyl 4-({sup 3}H)formylphenyl phosphate in reconstituted vesicles in which 90% of cytochrome c oxidase complexes were oriented with the C domain outermost. Subunit VIa was cleaved by trypsin both in these reconstituted vesicles and in submitochondrial particles, indicating a transmembrane orientation. The epitope for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to subunit VIa was lost or destroyed when cleavage occurred in reconstituted vesicles. This epitope was localized to the C-terminal part of the subunit by antibody binding to a fusion protein consisting of glutathione S-transferase (G-ST) and the C-terminal amino acids 55-85 of subunit VIa. No antibody binding was obtained with a fusion protein containing G-ST and the N-terminal amino acids 1-55. The mAb reaction orients subunit VIa with its C-terminus in the C-domain. Subunit VIII was cleaved by trypsin in submitochondrial particles but not in reconstituted vesicles. N-Terminal sequencing of the subunit VIII cleavage produce from submitochondrial particles gave the same sequence as the untreated subunit, i.e., ITA, indicating that it is the C-terminus which is cleaved from the M side. Subunits Va and VIII each contain N-terminal extensions or leader sequences in the precursor polypeptides; subunit VIa is made without an N-terminal extension.

  17. Structural basis for the interaction of antibiotics with peptidyl transferase center in eubacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Harms, Jörg; Bashan, Anat; Tocilj, Ante; Albrecht, Renate; Yonath, Ada; Franceschi, Francois

    2009-10-07

    Ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis, are a major target for natural and synthetic antibiotics. Detailed knowledge of antibiotic binding sites is central to understanding the mechanisms of drug action. Conversely, drugs are excellent tools for studying the ribosome function. To elucidate the structural basis of ribosome-antibiotic interactions, we determined the high-resolution X-ray structures of the 50S ribosomal subunit of the eubacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, complexed with the clinically relevant antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin and the three macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin. We found that antibiotic binding sites are composed exclusively of segments of 23S ribosomal RNA at the peptidyl transferase cavity and do not involve any interaction of the drugs with ribosomal proteins. Here we report the details of antibiotic interactions with the components of their binding sites. Our results also show the importance of putative Mg{sup +2} ions for the binding of some drugs. This structural analysis should facilitate rational drug design.

  18. Glucose-induced expression of MIP-1 genes requires O-GlcNAc transferase in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Hashiba, Waka; Sekine, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2010-04-16

    O-glycosylation has emerged as an important modification of nuclear proteins, and it appears to be involved in gene regulation. Recently, we have shown that one of the histone methyl transferases (MLL5) is activated through O-glycosylation by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Addition of this monosaccharide is essential for forming a functional complex. However, in spite of the abundance of OGT in the nucleus, the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation by OGT remains largely unclear. To address this issue, the present study was undertaken to test the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation in a monocytic cell line, THP-1. Using a cytokine array, MIP-1{alpha} and -1{beta} genes were found to be regulated by nuclear O-glycosylation. Biochemical purification of the OGT interactants from THP-1 revealed that OGT is an associating partner for distinct co-regulatory complexes. OGT recruitment and protein O-glycosylation were observed at the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter; however, the known OGT partner (HCF-1) was absent when the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter was not activated. From these findings, we suggest that OGT could be a co-regulatory subunit shared by functionally distinct complexes supporting epigenetic regulation.

  19. SecM-Stalled Ribosomes Adopt an Altered Geometry at the Peptidyl Transferase Center

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Shashi; Hoffmann, Thomas; Seidelt, Birgit; Frauenfeld, Jens; Mielke, Thorsten; Berninghausen, Otto; Wilson, Daniel N.; Beckmann, Roland

    2011-01-01

    As nascent polypeptide chains are synthesized, they pass through a tunnel in the large ribosomal subunit. Interaction between specific nascent chains and the ribosomal tunnel is used to induce translational stalling for the regulation of gene expression. One well-characterized example is the Escherichia coli SecM (secretion monitor) gene product, which induces stalling to up-regulate translation initiation of the downstream secA gene, which is needed for protein export. Although many of the key components of SecM and the ribosomal tunnel have been identified, understanding of the mechanism by which the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome is inactivated has been lacking. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a SecM-stalled ribosome nascent chain complex at 5.6 Å. While no cascade of rRNA conformational changes is evident, this structure reveals the direct interaction between critical residues of SecM and the ribosomal tunnel. Moreover, a shift in the position of the tRNA–nascent peptide linkage of the SecM-tRNA provides a rationale for peptidyl transferase center silencing, conditional on the simultaneous presence of a Pro-tRNAPro in the ribosomal A-site. These results suggest a distinct allosteric mechanism of regulating translational elongation by the SecM stalling peptide. PMID:21267063

  20. Purification and partial characterization of glutathione transferase from the teleost Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Liang, Li; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Daming; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) catalyze the transfer of glutathione to a variety of xenobiotic and toxic endogenous compounds. GSTs are phase II biotransformation enzymes and are proposed as biomarkers of environmental pollution. In this study, a cytosolic glutathione transferase (maGST) was purified from liver of the freshwater fish Monopterus albus by affinity chromatography. The maGST appeared to be a homodimer composed of two subunits each with a molecular weight of 26 kDa. This maGST showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with CDNB as substrate revealed a K(m) of 0.28 mM and V(max) of 15.68 micromol/min per mg of protein. It had maximum activity in the pH range 7.0-7.5, a broad optimum T(m) range of 30 degrees C-55 degrees C, and a high thermal stability with 77% of its initial activity at 45 degrees C. This high thermal stability of maGST could be related to the physiological adaptation of M. albus to high temperatures in tropical and subtropical environments.

  1. Glutathione transferase gene family from the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Syvanen, M; Zhou, Z H; Wang, J Y

    1994-10-17

    Three new glutathione transferase (GST) genes from the housefly Musca domestica are described. These genes, identified as MdGST-2, -3, and -4, were from cDNA clones obtained from a cDNA bank in phage lambda. The bank was prepared using poly(A)+ RNA from a housefly that is highly resistant to organophosphate insecticides because of enhanced expression of multiple members of the glutathione transferase gene family. The DNA sequence of each is reported and has a complete open reading frame that specified an amino acid sequence similar to other dipteran glutathione transferases. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we can conclude that the insect glutathione transferase gene family falls into two groups, each of which evolves at a different rate, presumably due to differences in functional constraints. We show that MdGST-1 (and their homologues from Drosophila and Lucilia) evolve at a significantly slower rate than the other members of the gene family. Each housefly GST cDNA was inserted into a bacterial plasmid expression system and a glutathione transferase activity was expressed in Escherichia coli. The transcription pattern of each of these glutathione transferases was examined in a variety of different housefly strains that are known to differ in their resistance to organophosphate insecticides due to different patterns of glutathione transferase expression. We found that the level of transcription for two of our clones was positively correlated with the level of organophosphate resistance.

  2. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:l-Malate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Steindorf, Astrid; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle has been proposed to operate as the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. In this pathway, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and two bicarbonate molecules are converted to malate. Acetyl-CoA is regenerated from malyl-CoA by l-malyl-CoA lyase. The enzyme forming malyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA:l-malate coenzyme A transferase, was purified. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its two subunits, the corresponding genes were identified on a gene cluster which also contains the gene for l-malyl-CoA lyase, the subsequent enzyme in the pathway. Both enzymes were severalfold up-regulated under autotrophic conditions, which is in line with their proposed function in CO2 fixation. The two CoA transferase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and studied. Succinyl-CoA:l-malate CoA transferase forms a large (αβ)n complex consisting of 46- and 44-kDa subunits and catalyzes the reversible reaction succinyl-CoA + l-malate → succinate + l-malyl-CoA. It is specific for succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor but accepts l-citramalate instead of l-malate as the CoA acceptor; the corresponding d-stereoisomers are not accepted. The enzyme is a member of the class III of the CoA transferase family. The demonstration of the missing CoA transferase closes the last gap in the proposed 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. PMID:16547052

  3. High resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from a Mesophilic Eubacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Joerg; Schluenzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Bashan, Anat; Gat, Sharon; Agmon, Ilana; Bartels, Heike; Franceschi, Francois; Yonath, Ada

    2009-10-07

    We describe the high resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans (D50S), a gram-positive mesophile suitable for binding of antibiotics and functionally relevant ligands. The over-all structure of D50S is similar to that from the archae bacterium Haloarcula marismortui (H50S); however, a detailed comparison revealed significant differences, for example, in the orientation of nucleotides in peptidyl transferase center and in the structures of many ribosomal proteins. Analysis of ribosomal features involved in dynamic aspects of protein biosynthesis that are partially or fully disordered in H50S revealed the conformations of intersubunit bridges in unbound subunits, suggesting how they may change upon subunit association and how movements of the L1-stalk may facilitate the exit of tRNA.

  4. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  5. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, C H

    1976-02-29

    In man congential lack of enzyme of the purine salvage system, hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HG-PRT E.C. 2.4.2.8), is mostly accompanied by a picture known as the Lesch-Nyhan snydrome. The degree of deficiency may vary from zero to a few percent of normal activity but a correlation between the severity of HG-PRT deficiency and the clinical picture has not been observed, no more than a correlation HG-PRT deficiency and neurological dysfunction. But individuals with undetectable HG-PRT activity but without the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome have been described. Patients with partial HG-PRT defiency have clinically distinctive findings. Sometimes mild neurological abnormalities are observed. Because of marked overproduction of ric acid severe gouty arthritis and renal dysfunction are often encountered in both complete and partial deficiency. There is considerable molecular heterogeneity in HG-PRT deficiency in man. Mutant ebnzymes may exhibit different kinetic and electrophoretic properties, indicating that hterwe might be a mutation on the structural gene coding for HG-PRT. Lack of HG-PRT disturbs purine interconversions profoundly. In addition to an important function of HG-PRT in the uptake of the purine hypoxantine and guanine into the cell, the effective uptake of inosine, guanosine and adenosine also seems to be dependent on HG-PRT...

  6. Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José Carlos; Campos, Alexandre; Osório, Hugo; da Fonseca, Rute; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs), in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST) were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties) between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism. PMID:24473139

  7. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene*

    PubMed Central

    Thyagaraju, K.; Hemavathi, B.; Vasundhara, K.; Rao, A.D.; Devi, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and β-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Yβ and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or β-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ of π class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Yβ of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene stress. PMID:16052709

  8. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  9. Glutathione transferases in the bioactivation of azathioprine.

    PubMed

    Modén, Olof; Mannervik, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The prodrug azathioprine is primarily used for maintaining remission in inflammatory bowel disease, but approximately 30% of the patients suffer adverse side effects. The prodrug is activated by glutathione conjugation and release of 6-mercaptopurine, a reaction most efficiently catalyzed by glutathione transferase (GST) A2-2. Among five genotypes of GST A2-2, the variant A2*E has threefold-fourfold higher catalytic efficiency with azathioprine, suggesting that the expression of A2*E could boost 6-mercaptopurine release and adverse side effects in treated patients. Structure-activity studies of the GST A2-2 variants and homologous alpha class GSTs were made to delineate the determinants of high catalytic efficiency compared to other alpha class GSTs. Engineered chimeras identified GST peptide segments of importance, and replacing the corresponding regions in low-activity GSTs by these short segments produced chimeras with higher azathioprine activity. By contrast, H-site mutagenesis led to decreased azathioprine activity when active-site positions 208 and 213 in these favored segments were mutagenized. Alternative substitutions indicated that hydrophobic residues were favored. A pertinent question is whether variant A2*E represents the highest azathioprine activity achievable within the GST structural framework. This issue was addressed by mutagenesis of H-site residues assumed to interact with the substrate based on molecular modeling. The mutants with notably enhanced activities had small or polar residues in the mutated positions. The most active mutant L107G/L108D/F222H displayed a 70-fold enhanced catalytic efficiency with azathioprine. The determination of its structure by X-ray crystallography showed an expanded H-site, suggesting improved accommodation of the transition state for catalysis.

  10. A Novel Method of Production and Biophysical Characterization of the Catalytic Domain of Yeast Oligosaccharyl Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Mohanty, Smita; Banerjee, Monimoy

    2010-01-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase (OT) is a multi-subunit enzyme that catalyzes N-linked glycosylation of nascent polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OT is composed of nine integral membrane protein subunits. Defects in N-linked glycosylation cause a series of disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). The C-terminal domain of Stt3p subunit has been reported to contain the acceptor protein recognition site and/or catalytic site. We report here the subcloning, overexpression, a robust but novel method of production of pure C-terminal domain of Stt3p at 60∼70 mg/L in E. coli. CD spectra indicate that the C-terminal Stt3p is highly helical and has a stable tertiary structure in SDS micelles. The well dispersed 2D {1H-15N}-HSQC spectrum in SDS micelles indicates that it is feasible to determine the atomic structure by NMR. The effect of the conserved D518E mutation on the conformation of the C-terminal Stt3p is particularly interesting. The comparative analysis of the fluorescence and NMR data of the mutant and the wild-type C-terminal domain of Stt3p revealed that the replacement of the key residue Asp518, which is located within the WWDYG signature motif (residues 516-520), led to a distinct tertiary structure, even though both proteins have similar overall secondary structures. This observation strongly suggests that Asp518, which was previously proposed to primarily function as a catalytic residue, also plays a critical structural role. Moreover, the activity of the protein was confirmed by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) and NMR titration studies. PMID:20047336

  11. Crystal structure of Glycine max glutathione transferase in complex with glutathione: investigation of the mechanism operating by the Tau class glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Axarli, Irene; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2009-08-13

    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione transferases) are a multifunctional group of enzymes widely distributed in Nature and involved in cellular detoxification processes. The three-dimensional structure of GmGSTU4-4 (Glycine max GST Tau 4-4) complexed with GSH was determined by the molecular replacement method at 2.7 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The bound GSH is located in a region formed by the beginning of alpha-helices H1, H2 and H3 in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. Significant differences in the G-site (GSH-binding site) as compared with the structure determined in complex with Nb-GSH [S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione] were found. These differences were identified in the hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interaction pattern and, consequently, GSH was found bound in two different conformations. In one subunit, the enzyme forms a complex with the ionized form of GSH, whereas in the other subunit it can form a complex with the non-ionized form. However, only the ionized form of GSH may form a productive and catalytically competent complex. Furthermore, a comparison of the GSH-bound structure with the Nb-GSH-bound structure shows a significant movement of the upper part of alpha-helix H4 and the C-terminal. This indicates an intrasubunit modulation between the G-site and the H-site (electrophile-binding site), suggesting that the enzyme recognizes the xenobiotic substrates by an induced-fit mechanism. The reorganization of Arg111 and Tyr107 upon xenobiotic substrate binding appears to govern the intrasubunit structural communication between the G- and H-site and the binding of GSH. The structural observations were further verified by steady-state kinetic analysis and site-directed mutagenesis studies.

  12. Interaction of factor XIII subunits.

    PubMed

    Katona, Eva; Pénzes, Krisztina; Csapó, Andrea; Fazakas, Ferenc; Udvardy, Miklós L; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Orosz, Zsuzsanna Z; Muszbek, László

    2014-03-13

    Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a heterotetramer consisting of 2 catalytic A subunits (FXIII-A2) and 2 protective/inhibitory B subunits (FXIII-B2). FXIII-B, a mosaic protein consisting of 10 sushi domains, significantly prolongs the lifespan of catalytic subunits in the circulation and prevents their slow progressive activation in plasmatic conditions. In this study, the biochemistry of the interaction between the 2 FXIII subunits was investigated. Using a surface plasmon resonance technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding assay, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for the interaction was established in the range of 10(-10) M. Based on the measured Kd, it was calculated that in plasma approximately 1% of FXIII-A2 should be in free form. This value was confirmed experimentally by measuring FXIII-A2 in plasma samples immunodepleted of FXIII-A2B2. Free plasma FXIII-A2 is functionally active, and when activated by thrombin and Ca(2+), it can cross-link fibrin. In cerebrospinal fluid and tears with much lower FXIII subunit concentrations, >80% of FXIII-A2 existed in free form. A monoclonal anti-FXIII-B antibody that prevented the interaction between the 2 subunits reacted with the recombinant combined first and second sushi domains of FXIII-B, and its epitope was localized to the peptide spanning positions 96 to 103 in the second sushi domain. PMID:24408323

  13. Thioltransferase activity of bovine lens glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Dal Monte, M; Cecconi, I; Buono, F; Vilardo, P G; Del Corso, A; Mura, U

    1998-01-01

    A Mu-class glutathione S-transferase purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from bovine lens displayed thioltransferase activity, catalysing the transthiolation reaction between GSH and hydroxyethyldisulphide. The thiol-transfer reaction is composed of two steps, the formation of GSSG occurring through the generation of an intermediate mixed disulphide between GSH and the target disulphide. Unlike glutaredoxin, which is only able to catalyse the second step of the transthiolation process, glutathioneS-transferase catalyses both steps of the reaction. Data are presented showing that bovine lens glutathione S-transferase and rat liver glutaredoxin, which was used as a thioltransferase enzyme model, can operate in synergy to catalyse the GSH-dependent reduction of hydroxyethyldisulphide. PMID:9693102

  14. Coenzyme A transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its role in the uptake of acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenborn, D.P.; Rudolph, F.B.; Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1989-02-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was purified 81-fold to homogeneity. This enzyme was stable in the presence of 0.5 M ammonium sulfate and 20% (vol/vol) glycerol, whereas activity was rapidly lost in the absence of these stabilizers. The kinetic binding mechanism was Ping Pong Bi Bi, and the K{sub m} values at pH 7.5 and 30{degree}C for acetate, propionate, and butyrate were, respectively, 1,200, 1,000, and 660 mM, while the K{sub m} value for acetoacetyl-CoA ranged from about 7 to 56{mu}M, depending on the acid substrate. The K{sub m} values for butyrate and acetate were high relative to the intracellular concentrations of these species; consequently, in vivo enzyme activity is expected to be sensitive to changes in those concentrations. In addition to the carboxylic acids listed above, this CoA transferase was able to convert valerate, isobutyrate, and crotonate; however, the conversion of formate, n-caproate, and isovalerate was not detected. The acetate and butyrate conversion reactions in vitro were inhibited by physiological levels of acetone and butanol, and this may be another factor in the in vivo regulation of enzyme activity. The optimum pH of acetate conversion was broad, with at least 80% of maximal activity from pH 5.9 to greater than 7.8. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer with subunit molecular weights of about 23,000 and 25,000.

  15. Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.

    2010-08-17

    A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

  16. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system. 862.1535 Section 862.1535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1535 Ornithine...

  18. Histamine N-methyl transferase: inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, G M; Donatelli, P; Giuliani, L

    1992-01-01

    1. Histamine N-methyl transferase activity was measured in samples of human liver, brain, kidney, lung and intestinal mucosa. The mean (+/- s.d.) rate (nmol min-1 mg-1 protein) of histamine N-methylation was 1.78 +/- 0.59 (liver, n = 60), 1.15 +/- 0.38 (renal cortex, n = 8), 0.79 +/- 0.14 (renal medulla, n = 8), 0.35 +/- 0.08 (lung, n = 20), 0.47 +/- 0.18 (human intestine, n = 30) and 0.29 +/- 0.14 (brain, n = 13). 2. Inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase by 15 drugs was investigated in human liver. The IC50 for the various drugs ranged over three orders of magnitude; chloroquine was the most potent inhibitor. 3. The average IC50 values for chloroquine were 12.6, 22.0, 19.0, 21.6 microM in liver, renal cortex, brain and colon, respectively. These values are lower than the Michaelis-Menten constant for histamine N-methyltransferase in liver (43.8 microM) and kidney (45.5 microM). Chloroquine carried a mixed non-competitive inhibition of hepatic histamine N-methyl transferase. Some side-effects of chloroquine may be explained by inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase. PMID:1457266

  19. The large subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase interacts with beta-actin.

    PubMed Central

    Hottiger, M; Gramatikoff, K; Georgiev, O; Chaponnier, C; Schaffner, W; Hübscher, U

    1995-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is a dimeric enzyme mainly involved in the replication of the viral genome. A filamentous phage cDNA expression library from human lymphocytes was used to select cellular proteins interacting with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Affinity selections using the bacterially expressed monomeric large subunit of reverse transcriptase (p66) yielded host beta-actin. This clone was expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein which was identified by using a specific antibody against beta-actin. Furthermore we show that also the eukaryotic beta-actin binds to either the large subunit of reverse transcriptase or to the Pol precursor polyprotein in vitro. The reverse transcriptase/beta-actin interaction might be important for the secretion of HIV-1 virions. Images PMID:7535922

  20. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  1. N-terminal region of the large subunit of Leishmania donovani bisubunit topoisomerase I is involved in DNA relaxation and interaction with the smaller subunit.

    PubMed

    Das, Benu Brata; Sen, Nilkantha; Dasgupta, Somdeb Bose; Ganguly, Agneyo; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2005-04-22

    Leishmania donovani topoisomerase I is an unusual bisubunit enzyme. We have demonstrated earlier that the large and small subunit could be reconstituted in vitro to show topoisomerase I activity. We extend our biochemical study to evaluate the role of the large subunit in topoisomerase activity. The large subunit (LdTOP1L) shows a substantial degree of homology with the core DNA binding domain of the topoisomerase IB family. Two N-terminal truncation constructs, LdTOP1Delta39L (lacking amino acids 1-39) and LdTOP1Delta99L (lacking amino acids 1-99) of the large subunit were generated and mixed with intact small subunit (LdTOP1S). Our observations reveal that residues within amino acids 1-39 of the large subunit have significant roles in modulating topoisomerase I activity (i.e. in vitro DNA relaxation, camptothecin sensitivity, cleavage activity, and DNA binding affinity). Interestingly, the mutant LdTOP1Delta99LS was unable to show topoisomerase I activity. Investigation of the loss of activity indicates that LdTOP1Delta99L was unable to pull down glutathione S-transferase-LdTOP1S in an Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid co-immobilization experiment. For further analysis, we co-expressed LdTOP1L and LdTOP1S in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The lysate shows topoisomerase I activity. Immunoprecipitation revealed that LdTOP1L could interact with LdTOP1S, indicating the subunit interaction in bacterial cells, whereas immunoprecipitation of bacterial lysate co-expressing LdTOP1Delta99L and LdTOP1S reveals that LdTOP1Delta99L was significantly deficient at interacting with LdTOP1S to reconstitute topoisomerase I activity. This study demonstrates that heterodimerization between the large and small subunits of the bisubunit enzyme appears to be an absolute requirement for topoisomerase activity. The residue within amino acids 1-39 from the N-terminal end of the large subunit regulates DNA topology during relaxation by controlling noncovalent DNA binding or by

  2. Functional characterization of alpha-class glutathione s-transferases from the Turkey (meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Bunderson, Brett R; Croasdell, Amanda; Coulombe, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Six Alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits were cloned from domestic turkey livers, which are one of the most susceptible animals known to the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B₁. In most animals, GST dysfunction is a risk factor for susceptibility toward AFB₁, and we have shown that turkeys lack GSTs with affinity toward the carcinogenic intermediate exo-aflatoxin B(1)-8-9-epoxide (AFBO). Conversely, mice are resistant to AFB₁ carcinogenesis, due to high constitutive expression of mGSTA3 that has high affinity toward AFBO. When expressed in Escherichia coli, all six tGSTA subunits possessed conjugating activities toward substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (ECA), and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) with tGSTA1.2 appearing most active. Interestingly, tGSTA1.1, which lacks one of the four Alpha-class signature motifs, possessed enzymatic activities toward all substrates. All had comparable activities toward AFBO conjugation, an activity absent in turkey liver cytosols. E. coli-expressed mGSTA3 conjugated AFBO with more than 3-fold greater activity than that of tGSTAs and had higher activity toward GST prototype substrates. Mouse hepatic cytosols had approximately 900-fold higher catalytic activity toward AFBO compared with those from turkey. There was no apparent amino acid profile in tGSTAs that might correspond to specificity toward AFBO, although tGSTA1.2, which had slightly higher AFBO-trapping ability, shared Tyr¹⁰⁸ with mGSTA3, a residue postulated to be critical for AFBO trapping activity in mammalian systems. The observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are silenced by one or more regulatory mechanisms.

  3. Glutathione S-transferases interact with AMP-activated protein kinase: evidence for S-glutathionylation and activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Anna; Zorman, Sarah; Berthier, Alexandre; Polge, Cécile; Ramirez, Sacnicte; Michelland, Sylvie; Sève, Michel; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark; Lentze, Nicolas; Auerbach, Daniel; Schlattner, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular and whole body energy sensor with manifold functions in regulating energy homeostasis, cell morphology and proliferation in health and disease. Here we apply multiple, complementary in vitro and in vivo interaction assays to identify several isoforms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) as direct AMPK binding partners: Pi-family member rat GSTP1 and Mu-family members rat GSTM1, as well as Schistosoma japonicum GST. GST/AMPK interaction is direct and involves the N-terminal domain of the AMPK β-subunit. Complex formation of the mammalian GSTP1 and -M1 with AMPK leads to their enzymatic activation and in turn facilitates glutathionylation and activation of AMPK in vitro. GST-facilitated S-glutathionylation of AMPK may be involved in rapid, full activation of the kinase under mildly oxidative physiological conditions.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency Enable Javascript to view ... PDF Open All Close All Description Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inherited ...

  5. Phosphorylation and inhibition of. gamma. -glutamyl transferase activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, L.S.; Chernov, N.N.

    1986-10-20

    It was shown that preparations of bovine kidney ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase of differing degrees of purity are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This is accompanied by a decrease in both the transferase and hydrolase activities of the enzyme. Consequently, ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase may serve as the substrate and target of the regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  6. Purification and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from Mucor mucedo.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ragaa R; Abu-Shady, Mohamed R; El-Beih, Fawkia M; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem A; Afifi, Ola M

    2005-01-01

    An intracellular glutathione transferase was purified to homogenity from the fungus, Mucor mucedo, using DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange and glutathione affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the purified GST is a homodimer with approximate native and subunit molecular mass of 53 kDa and 23.4 kDa, respectively. The enzyme has a pI value of 4.8, a pH optimum at pH 8.0 and apparent activation energy (Ea) of 1.42 kcal mol(-1). The purified GST acts readily on CDNB with almost negligible peroxidase activity and the activity was inhibited by Cibacron Blue (IC50 0.252 microM) and hematin (IC50 3.55 microM). M. mucedo GST displayed a non-Michaelian behavior. At low (0.1-0.3 mM) and high (0.3-2 mM) substrate concentration, Km (GSH) was calculated to be 0.179 and 0.65 mM, whereas Km(CDNB) was 0.531 and 11 mM and k(cat) was 39.8 and 552 s(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed apparent pKa values of 6-6.5 and 8.0.

  7. Conjugation of 4-hydroxynonenal by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Pham, Robert T; Gardner, James L; Gallagher, Evan P

    2002-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a major group of conjugative enzymes involved in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds and products of oxidative stress. We have previously described the kinetics of hepatic GST conjugation in largemouth bass using a variety of synthetic GST reference substrates. In the present study, we investigated the ability of largemouth bass hepatic GSTs to conjugate 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4HNE), a mutagenic and cytotoxic alpha-beta-unsaturated aldehyde produced during oxidative injury. Hepatic cytosolic fractions from largemouth bass rapidly catalyzed GSH-dependent 4HNE conjugation, with the rate of GST-4HNE conjugation in bass liver exceeding those of several other mammalian and aquatic species. No apparent sex-related differences in GST-4HNE activity were observed among adult bass. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of GSH affinity-purified bass liver cytosolic GST revealed the presence of two major GST subunits of approximately 30 and 27 KDa that exhibited slight cross-reactivity when probed with a rat alpha class GST antibody, but not to rat mu, pi or theta class GST. The rapid conjugation of 4HNE by hepatic GST suggests an important role for GSTs in protecting against peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bass liver.

  8. Purification and kinetic mechanism of the major glutathione S-transferase from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Young, P R; Briedis, A V

    1989-01-01

    The major glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme from bovine brain was isolated and purified approx. 500-fold. The enzyme has a pI of 7.39 +/- 0.02 and consists of two non-identical subunits having apparent Mr values of 22,000 and 24,000. The enzyme is uniformly distributed in brain, and kinetic data at pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate suggest a random rapid-equilibrium mechanism. The kinetics of inhibition by product, by GSH analogues and by NADH are consistent with the suggested mechanism and require inhibitor binding to several different enzyme forms. Long-chain fatty acids are excellent inhibitors of the enzyme, and values of 1nKi for hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid and lauric acid form a linear series when plotted as a function of alkyl chain length. A free-energy change of -1900 J/mol (-455 cal/mol) per CH2 unit is calculated for the contribution of hydrophobic binding energy to the inhibition constants. The turnover number of the purified enzyme dimer is approx. 3400/min. When compared with the second-order rate constant for the reaction between CDNB and GSH, the enzyme is providing a rate acceleration of about 1000-fold. The role of entropic contributions to this small rate acceleration is discussed. PMID:2930465

  9. Glutathione S-transferases of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica have unusually large molecular mass.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, V; Sheehan, D

    1998-01-01

    Two similar glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which do not bind to glutathione- or S-hexylglutathione-agarose affinity resins, have been purified from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. An approx. 400-fold purification was obtained by a combination of DEAE-Sephadex, phenyl-Sepharose, hydroxyapatite and Mono-Q anion-exchange chromatography. The native molecular mass of both proteins was estimated as approx. 110 kDa by both Superose-12 gel-filtration chromatography and non-denaturing electrophoresis. SDS/PAGE indicated a subunit mass of 50 kDa. Reverse-phase HPLC of purified proteins gave a single, well-resolved, peak, suggesting that the proteins are homodimers. Identical behaviour on HPLC, native electrophoresis and SDS/PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, sensitivity to a panel of inhibitors and identical specific activities with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate suggest that the two isoenzymes are very similar. The enzymes do not immunoblot with antisera to any of the main GST classes, and N-terminal sequencing suggests no clear relationship with previously characterized enzymes, such as that of the fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium [Dowd, Buckley and Sheehan (1997) Biochem. J. 324, 243-248]. It is possible that the two isoenzymes arise as a result of post-translational modification of a single GST isoenzyme. PMID:9677348

  10. The HTLV-1-encoded protein HBZ directly inhibits the acetyl transferase activity of p300/CBP

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Torsten; Wright, Diana G.; Polakowski, Nicholas; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Lemasson, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The homologous cellular coactivators p300 and CBP contain intrinsic lysine acetyl transferase (termed HAT) activity. This activity is responsible for acetylation of several sites on the histones as well as modification of transcription factors. In a previous study, we found that HBZ, encoded by the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), binds to multiple domains of p300/CBP, including the HAT domain. In this study, we found that HBZ inhibits the HAT activity of p300/CBP through the bZIP domain of the viral protein. This effect correlated with a reduction of H3K18 acetylation, a specific target of p300/CBP, in cells expressing HBZ. Interestingly, lower levels of H3K18 acetylation were detected in HTLV-1 infected cells compared to non-infected cells. The inhibitory effect of HBZ was not limited to histones, as HBZ also inhibited acetylation of the NF-κB subunit, p65, and the tumor suppressor, p53. Recent studies reported that mutations in the HAT domain of p300/CBP that cause a defect in acetylation are found in certain types of leukemia. These observations suggest that inhibition of the HAT activity by HBZ is important for the development of adult T-cell leukemia associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:22434882

  11. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from Bufo bufo embryos at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Dragani, B; Angelucci, S; Miranda, M; Poma, A; Amicarelli, F; Barra, D; Federici, G

    1992-01-01

    Six forms of glutathione transferase (GST) were resolved from the cytosolic fraction of Bufo bufo embryos at developmental stage 4 by GSH-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by f.p.l.c. chromatofocusing in the 9-6 pH range. They have apparent isoelectric points at pH 8.37 (GST I), 8.22 (GST II), 8.10 (GST III), 7.84 (GST IV), 7.37 (GST V) and 7.12 (GST VI), and each displayed an apparent subunit molecular mass of 23 kDa by SDS/PAGE. The Bufo bufo embryo enzymes showed very similar structural, catalytic and immunological properties, as indicated by their substrate-specificities, inhibition characteristics, c.d. spectra, h.p.l.c. elution profiles and immunological reactivities, as well as by their N-terminal amino acid sequences. Although Bufo bufo embryo GSTs do not correspond to any other known GSTs, the results of our experiments indicate that amphibian GSTs could be included in the Pi family of GSTs. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of c.d. spectra, and by the fact that mammalian Pi class GSTs and amphibian GSTs showed about 80% identity in their N-terminal amino acid sequences. Furthermore, antisera prepared against Bufo bufo GST III cross-reacted in immunoblotting analysis with Pi class GSTs, and vice versa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1567369

  12. Glutathione S-transferase localization in aflatoxin B1-treated rat livers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D J; May, L; Hayes, J D; Neal, G E

    1990-06-01

    Overexpression of detoxication enzymes is associated with the development of drug-resistant, preneoplastic nodules in the carcinogen-treated rat liver. The most consistent marker of preneoplasia in many experimental models is increased expression of the pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) YfYf. We have confirmed by immunostaining that the pi-class GST is overexpressed in aflatoxin B1-induced preneoplastic nodules and liver tumours in rats. However, pi-class GST YfYf has low activity against aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide, and most activity against this cytotoxic and genotoxic metabolite is associated with the alpha-class GSTs YaYa, YaYc and YcYc. We have demonstrated that there is also a consistent increase in the alpha-class GSTs in this model. It seems likely that the overexpression of the Ya and Yc subunits, rather than increased levels of the pi-class GST YfYf, is responsible for the acquisition of a drug-resistant phenotype in rat liver preneoplastic nodules and tumours induced by aflatoxin B1. PMID:2112061

  13. S-(4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)glutathione: A new affinity label for the 4-4 isoenzyme of rat liver glutathione S-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Katusz, R.M.; Colman, R.F. )

    1991-11-26

    S-(4-Bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)glutathione (S-BDB-G), a reactive analogue of glutathione, has been synthesized and characterized by UV spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, as well as by bromide and primary amine analysis. Incubation of S-BDB-G (200 {mu}M) with the 4-4 isoenzyme of rat liver glutathione S-transferase at pH 6.5 and 25C results in a time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme. The k{sub obs} exhibits a nonlinear dependence on S-BDB-G concentration from 50 to 1000 {mu}M. Modified enzyme, prepared by incubating glutathione S-transferase with ({sup 3}H)S-BDB-G in the absence or in the presence of S-hexylglutathione, was reduced with NaBH{sub 4}, carboxymethylated, and digested with trypsin. The tryptic digest was fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Two radioactive peptides were identified. These results suggest that S-BDB-G functions as an affinity label at or near the active site of glutathione S-transferase and that modification of one site per enzyme subunit causes inactivation. It is proposed that the new compound, S-(4-bromo-2,3-dioxobutyl)glutathione, may have general applicability as an affinity label of other enzymes with glutathione binding sites.

  14. Magnesium deficiency upregulates serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT 1 and SPT 2) in cardiovascular tissues: relationship to serum ionized Mg and cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2010-09-01

    The present work tested the hypothesis that a short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would result in the upregulation of the two major subunits of serine palmitoyl-CoA-transferase, serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT 1) and SPT 2 (the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of ceramides) in left ventricular, right ventricular, and atrial heart muscle and abdominal aortic smooth muscle, as well as induce a reduction in serum sphingomyelin concomitant with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyto c) in these tissues. Our data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (MgD) resulted in an upregulation of SPT 1 and SPT 2, concomitant with a very significant release of Cyto c in left ventricular, right ventricular, atrial, and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. Short-term MgD also produced a lowering of serum sphingomyelin and ionized Mg. The greater the reduction in serum ionized Mg, the greater the upregulation of SPT 1 and 2 and the more the increase in free Cyto c. The data suggest that MgD, most likely, causes a biosynthesis of ceramides via two pathways in cardiovascular tissues, viz., via the activation of serine palmitoyl-CoA-transferase and sphingomyelinase, which lead to apoptotic events via intrinsic (present study) and extrinsic pathways (previous studies). Low levels of drinking water Mg were cardio- and vasculoprotective.

  15. Proton mobilities in crambin and glutathione S-transferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Corsaro, C.; Hayward, R. L.; Bée, M.; Middendorf, H. D.

    2003-08-01

    Using a neutron backscattering spectrometer, the temperature dependence of mean-square atomic displacements derived from window-integrated quasielastic spectra was measured for two D 2O-hydrated proteins: crambin and glutathione S-transferase. Analyses show that the anharmonic dynamics observed around and above 200 K is consistent with a description in terms of proton/deuteron jumps within asymmetric double-minimum potentials. Also determined were activation energies along with estimates of effective masses and average oscillator energies.

  16. The three-dimensional structure of class pi glutathione S-transferase in complex with glutathione sulfonate at 2.3 A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Reinemer, P; Dirr, H W; Ladenstein, R; Schäffer, J; Gallay, O; Huber, R

    1991-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of class pi glutathione S-transferase from pig lung, a homodimeric enzyme, has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement at 3 A resolution and preliminarily refined at 2.3 A resolution (R = 0.24). Each subunit (207 residues) is folded into two domains of different structure. Domain I (residues 1-74) consists of a central four-stranded beta-sheet flanked on one side by two alpha-helices and on the other side, facing the solvent, by a bent, irregular helix structure. The topological pattern resembles the bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin fold, in spite of their dissimilar sequences. Domain II (residues 81-207) contains five alpha-helices. The dimeric molecule is globular with dimensions of about 55 A x 52 A x 45 A. Between the subunits and along the local diad, is a large cavity which could possibly be involved in the transport of nonsubstrate ligands. The binding site of the competitive inhibitor, glutathione sulfonate, is located on domain I, and is part of a cleft formed between intrasubunit domains. Glutathione sulfonate is bound in an extended conformation through multiple interactions. Only three contact residues, namely Tyr7, Gln62 and Asp96 are conserved within the family of cytosolic glutathione S-transferases. The exact location of the binding site(s) of the electrophilic substrate is not clear. Catalytic models are discussed on the basis of the molecular structure. Images PMID:2065650

  17. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  20. Cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the spinach chloroplast ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofayel; Yin, Zhan; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. Deletions and insertions occur throughout the rRNA sequence of the chloro-ribosome (except for the conserved peptidyl transferase center region) but the overall length of the rRNAs do not change significantly, compared to the E. coli. Although, recent advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided detailed high-resolution structures of ribosomes from many different sources, a high-resolution structure of the chloro-ribosome is still lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the chloro-ribosome from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) at an average resolution of 3.5 Å. High-resolution map enabled us to localize and model chloro-ribosome proteins, chloroplast-specific protein extensions, two PSRPs (PSRP5 and 6) and three rRNA molecules present in the chloro-ribosome. Although comparable to E. coli, the polypeptide tunnel and the tunnel exit site show chloroplast-specific features. PMID:27762343

  1. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins influences subunit association and translation of poly (U) in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Mikulík, Karel; Bobek, Jan; Ziková, Alice; Smětáková, Magdalena; Bezoušková, Silvie

    2011-03-01

    The occurrence of phosphorylated proteins in ribosomes of Streptomyces coelicolor was investigated. Little is known about which biological functions these posttranslational modifications might fulfil. A protein kinase associated with ribosomes phosphorylated six ribosomal proteins of the small subunit (S3, S4, S12, S13, S14 and S18) and seven ribosomal proteins of the large subunit (L2, L3, L7/L12, L16, L17, L23 and L27). The ribosomal proteins were phosphorylated mainly on the Ser/Thr residues. Phosphorylation of the ribosomal proteins influences ribosomal subunits association. Ribosomes with phosphorylated proteins were used to examine poly (U) translation activity. Phosphorylation induced about 50% decrease in polyphenylalanine synthesis. After preincubation of ribosomes with alkaline phosphatase the activity of ribosomes was greatly restored. Small differences were observed between phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ribosomes in the kinetic parameters of the binding of Phe-tRNA to the A-site of poly (U) programmed ribosomes, suggesting that the initial binding of Phe-tRNA is not significantly affected by phosphorylation. On contrary, the rate of peptidyl transferase was about two-fold lower than that in unphosphorylated ribosomes. The data presented demonstrate that phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins affects critical steps of protein synthesis.

  2. Interaction of glutathione transferase P1-1 with captan and captafol.

    PubMed

    di Ilio, C; Sacchetta, P; Angelucci, S; Bucciarelli, T; Pennelli, A; Mazzetti, A P; Lo Bello, M; Aceto, A

    1996-07-12

    Glutathione transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) P1-1 was strongly inhibited by captan and captafol in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for captan and captafol were 5.8 microM and 1.5 microM, respectively. Time-course inactivation of GSTP1-1 by two pesticides was prevented by 3 microM of hexyl-glutathione, but not by methylglutathione. The fact that the inactivated enzyme recovered all the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) titrable thiol groups, with concomitant recovery of all its original activity after treatment with 100 microM dithiothreitol, suggested that captan and captafol were able to induce the formation of disulfide bonds. That the inactivation of GSTP1-1 by captan and captafol involves the formation of disulfide bonds between the four cysteinil groups of the enzymes was confirmed by the SDS-PAGE experiments on nondenaturant conditions. In fact, on SDS-PAGE, GSTP1-1 as well as the cys47ala, cys101ala, and cys47ala/cys101ala GSTP1-1 mutants treated with captan and captafol showed several extra bands, with apparent molecular masses higher and lower than the molecular mass of native GSTP1-1 (23.5 kDa), indicating that both intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bonds were formed. These extra bands returned to the native 23.5 kDa band with concomitant restoration of activity when treated with dithiothreitol.

  3. Activities of the peptidyl transferase center of ribosomes lacking protein L27

    PubMed Central

    Maracci, Cristina; Wohlgemuth, Ingo; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is the molecular machine responsible for protein synthesis in all living organisms. Its catalytic core, the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), is built of rRNA, although several proteins reach close to the inner rRNA shell. In the Escherichia coli ribosome, the flexible N-terminal tail of the ribosomal protein L27 contacts the A- and P-site tRNA. Based on computer simulations of the PTC and on previous biochemical evidence, the N-terminal α-amino group of L27 was suggested to take part in the peptidyl-transfer reaction. However, the contribution of this group to catalysis has not been tested experimentally. Here we investigate the role of L27 in peptide-bond formation using fast kinetics approaches. We show that the rate of peptide-bond formation at physiological pH, both with aminoacyl-tRNA or with the substrate analog puromycin, is independent of the presence of L27; furthermore, translation of natural mRNAs is only marginally affected in the absence of L27. The pH dependence of the puromycin reaction is unaltered in the absence of L27, indicating that the N-terminal α-amine is not the ionizing group taking part in catalysis. Likewise, L27 is not required for the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis during termination. Thus, apart from the known effect on subunit association, which most likely explains the phenotype of the deletion strains, L27 does not appear to be a key player in the core mechanism of peptide-bond formation on the ribosome. PMID:26475831

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara G; Andersen, Marianne A; Ringholm, Stine; Risis, Steve; Larsen, Per S; Kristensen, Jonas M; Frøsig, Christian; Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Jørgensen, Sebastian; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Zierath, Juleen R; Goodyear, Laurie J; Pilegaard, Henriette; Treebak, Jonas T

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylases such as sirtuins (SIRTs) convert NAD to nicotinamide (NAM). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway responsible for converting NAM to NAD to maintain cellular redox state. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SIRT activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits SIRTs, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependent. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein by 16% (P < 0.05) in the trained, but not the untrained leg. Moreover, increases in Nampt mRNA following acute exercise or AICAR treatment (P < 0.05 for both) were maintained in mouse skeletal muscle lacking a functional AMPK α2 subunit. Nampt protein was reduced in skeletal muscle of sedentary AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD), but 6.5 weeks of endurance exercise training increased skeletal muscle Nampt protein to a similar extent in both wild-type (WT) (24%) and AMPK α2 KD (18%) mice. In contrast, 4 weeks of daily AICAR treatment increased Nampt protein in skeletal muscle in WT mice (27%), but this effect did not occur in AMPK α2 KD mice. In conclusion, functional α2-containing AMPK heterotrimers are required for elevation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein, but not mRNA induction. These findings suggest AMPK plays a post-translational role in the regulation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein abundance, and further indicate that the regulation of cellular energy charge and nutrient sensing is mechanistically related. PMID:23918774

  5. Activities of the peptidyl transferase center of ribosomes lacking protein L27.

    PubMed

    Maracci, Cristina; Wohlgemuth, Ingo; Rodnina, Marina V

    2015-12-01

    The ribosome is the molecular machine responsible for protein synthesis in all living organisms. Its catalytic core, the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), is built of rRNA, although several proteins reach close to the inner rRNA shell. In the Escherichia coli ribosome, the flexible N-terminal tail of the ribosomal protein L27 contacts the A- and P-site tRNA. Based on computer simulations of the PTC and on previous biochemical evidence, the N-terminal α-amino group of L27 was suggested to take part in the peptidyl-transfer reaction. However, the contribution of this group to catalysis has not been tested experimentally. Here we investigate the role of L27 in peptide-bond formation using fast kinetics approaches. We show that the rate of peptide-bond formation at physiological pH, both with aminoacyl-tRNA or with the substrate analog puromycin, is independent of the presence of L27; furthermore, translation of natural mRNAs is only marginally affected in the absence of L27. The pH dependence of the puromycin reaction is unaltered in the absence of L27, indicating that the N-terminal α-amine is not the ionizing group taking part in catalysis. Likewise, L27 is not required for the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis during termination. Thus, apart from the known effect on subunit association, which most likely explains the phenotype of the deletion strains, L27 does not appear to be a key player in the core mechanism of peptide-bond formation on the ribosome.

  6. Cloning, expression and analysis of the olfactory glutathione S-transferases in coho salmon

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Shireman, Laura M.; McClain, Valerie; Atkins, William; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2013-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) provide cellular protection by detoxifying xenobiotics, maintaining redox status, and modulating secondary messengers, all of which are critical to maintaining olfaction in salmonids. Here, we characterized the major coho salmon olfactory GSTs (OlfGSTs), namely omega, pi, and rho subclasses. OlfGST omega contained an open reading frame of 720 bp and encoded a protein of 239 amino acids. OlfGST pi and OlfGST rho contained open reading frames of 727 and 681 bp, respectively, and encoded proteins of 208 and 226 amino acids. Whole-protein mass spectrometry yielded molecular weights of 29,950, 23,354, and 26,655 Da, respectively, for the GST omega, pi, and rho subunits. Homology modeling using four protein-structure prediction algorithms suggest that the active sites in all three OlfGST isoforms resembled counterparts in other species. The olfactory GSTs conjugated prototypical GST substrates, but only OlfGST rho catalyzed the demethylation of the pesticide methyl parathion. OlfGST pi and rho exhibited thiol oxidoreductase activity towards 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide (2-HEDS) and conjugated 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde with neurodegenerative properties. The kinetic parameters for OlfGST pi conjugation of HNE were KM = 0.16 ± 0.06 mM and Vmax = 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol min−1 mg−1 for OlfGST pi, whereas OlfGST rho was more efficient at catalyzing HNE conjugation (KM = 0.022 ± 0.008 mM and Vmax = 0.47 ± 0.05 μmol min−1 mg−1). Our findings indicate that the peripheral olfactory system of coho expresses GST isoforms that detoxify certain electrophiles and pesticides and that help maintain redox statusand signal transduction. PMID:23261526

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of glutathione S-transferase kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Enache, Teodor Adrian; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), are a family of enzymes belonging to the phase II metabolism that catalyse the formation of thioether conjugates between the endogenous tripeptide glutathione and xenobiotic compounds. The voltammetric behaviour of glutathione (GSH), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as the catalytic conjugation reaction of GSH to CDNB by GST was investigated at room temperature, T=298.15K (25°C), at pH6.5, for low concentration of substrates and enzyme, using differential pulse (DP) voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode. Only GSH can be oxidized; a sensitivity of 0.14nA/μM and a LOD of 6.4μM were obtained. The GST kinetic parameter electrochemical evaluation, in relation to its substrates, GSH and CDNB, using reciprocal Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots, was determined. A value of KM~100μM was obtained for either GSH or CDNB, and Vmax varied between 40 and 60μmol/min per mg of GST.

  8. Caffeine Junkie: an Unprecedented Glutathione S-Transferase-Dependent Oxygenase Required for Caffeine Degradation by Pseudomonas putida CBB5

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ryan M.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Quandt, Erik M.; Yu, Chi Li; Barrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine and other N-methylated xanthines are natural products found in many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it is not surprising that bacteria have evolved to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The caffeine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida CBB5 utilizes an unprecedented glutathione-S-transferase-dependent Rieske oxygenase for demethylation of 7-methylxanthine to xanthine, the final step in caffeine N-demethylation. The gene coding this function is unusual, in that the iron-sulfur and non-heme iron domains that compose the normally functional Rieske oxygenase (RO) are encoded by separate proteins. The non-heme iron domain is located in the monooxygenase, ndmC, while the Rieske [2Fe-2S] domain is fused to the RO reductase gene, ndmD. This fusion, however, does not interfere with the interaction of the reductase with N1- and N3-demethylase RO oxygenases, which are involved in the initial reactions of caffeine degradation. We demonstrate that the N7-demethylation reaction absolutely requires a unique, tightly bound protein complex composed of NdmC, NdmD, and NdmE, a novel glutathione-S-transferase (GST). NdmE is proposed to function as a noncatalytic subunit that serves a structural role in the complexation of the oxygenase (NdmC) and Rieske domains (NdmD). Genome analyses found this gene organization of a split RO and GST gene cluster to occur more broadly, implying a larger function for RO-GST protein partners. PMID:23813729

  9. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  10. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  11. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  12. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  13. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  14. Succinyl-CoA:3-Sulfinopropionate CoA-Transferase from Variovorax paradoxus Strain TBEA6, a Novel Member of the Class III Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Family

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Marc; Hirsch, Beatrice; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Stöveken, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The act gene of Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 encodes a succinyl-CoA:3-sulfinopropionate coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase, ActTBEA6 (2.8.3.x), which catalyzes the activation of 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), an intermediate during 3,3′-thiodipropionate (TDP) degradation. In a previous study, accumulation of 3SP was observed in a Tn5::mob-induced mutant defective in growth on TDP. In contrast to the wild type and all other obtained mutants, this mutant showed no growth when 3SP was applied as the sole source of carbon and energy. The transposon Tn5::mob was inserted in a gene showing high homology to class III CoA-transferases. In the present study, analyses of the translation product clearly allocated ActTBEA6 to this protein family. The predicted secondary structure indicates the lack of a C-terminal α-helix. ActTBEA6 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Lemo21(DE3) and was then purified by Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity chromatography. Analytical size exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric structure with a molecular mass of 96 ± 3 kDa. Enzyme assays identified succinyl-CoA, itaconyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA as potential CoA donors and unequivocally verified the conversion of 3SP to 3SP-CoA. Kinetic studies revealed an apparent Vmax of 44.6 μmol min−1 mg−1 for succinyl-CoA, which corresponds to a turnover number of 36.0 s−1 per subunit of ActTBEA6. For 3SP, the apparent Vmax was determined as 46.8 μmol min−1 mg−1, which corresponds to a turnover number of 37.7 s−1 per subunit of ActTBEA6. The apparent Km values were 0.08 mM for succinyl-CoA and 5.9 mM for 3SP. Nonetheless, the V. paradoxus Δact mutant did not reproduce the phenotype of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant. This defined deletion mutant was able to utilize TDP or 3SP as the sole carbon source, like the wild type. Complementation of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant with pBBR1MCS5::acdDPN7 partially restored growth on 3SP, which indicated a polar effect of the Tn5::mob transposon

  15. 1-3-A Resolution Structure of Human Glutathione S-Transferase With S-Hexyl Glutathione Bound Reveals Possible Extended Ligandin Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Trong, I.Le; Stenkamp, R.E.; Ibarra, C.; Atkins, W.M.; Adman, E.T.

    2005-08-22

    Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in xenobiotic binding and metabolism, as well as in modulation of oxidative stress. Here, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of homodimeric human GSTA1-1 in the apo form and in complex with S-hexyl glutathione (two data sets) are reported at 1.8, 1.5, and 1.3A respectively. At this level of resolution, distinct conformations of the alkyl chain of S-hexyl glutathione are observed, reflecting the nonspecific nature of the hydrophobic substrate binding site (H-site). Also, an extensive network of ordered water, including 75 discrete solvent molecules, traverses the open subunit-subunit interface and connects the glutathione binding sites in each subunit. In the highest-resolution structure, three glycerol moieties lie within this network and directly connect the amino termini of the glutathione molecules. A search for ligand binding sites with the docking program Molecular Operating Environment identified the ordered water network binding site, lined mainly with hydrophobic residues, suggesting an extended ligand binding surface for nonsubstrate ligands, the so-called ligandin site. Finally, detailed comparison of the structures reported here with previously published X-ray structures reveal a possible reaction coordinate for ligand-dependent conformational changes in the active site and the C-terminus.

  16. Elevation of alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase produced by pyoverdin, a photolabile pigment of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Eraso, A J; Albesa, I

    1998-01-01

    The effect of three forms pyoverdin on mouse liver was studied. Significant increases of alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were obtained in mice after ingestion of water with forms A and C. The effect on liver was more evident with A than with C. Pyoverdin was purified by means of salt saturation, solvent extractions and ion-exchange chromatography. Fluorescent peaks obtained in the presence of light were different from those eluted under dark conditions. The relative amounts of pyoverdin A, B and C varied when dark purification procedure was employed. Form A decreased while C increased in the absence of light. Optimum conditions for C were in the dark without iron. When C was exposed to light, it changed to form A. Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry of pyoverdin form C gave a form at M+ = 1324 m.u., which is 9 m.u. less than pyoverdin purified in the presence of light. The results suggest that light can influence pyoverdin stability and toxicity. PMID:9888631

  17. Geranylgeranyl transferase type II inhibition prevents myeloma bone disease.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Michelle A; Coulton, Les; Ebetino, Frank H; Vanderkerken, Karin; Croucher, Peter I

    2008-12-12

    Geranylgeranyl transferase II (GGTase II) is an enzyme that plays a key role in the isoprenylation of proteins. 3-PEHPC, a novel GGTase II inhibitor, blocks bone resorption and induces myeloma cell apoptosis in vitro. Its effect on bone resorption and tumor growth in vivo is unknown. We investigated the effect of 3-PEHPC on tumor burden and bone disease in the 5T2MM model of multiple myeloma in vivo. 3-PEHPC significantly reduced osteoclast numbers and osteoclast surface. 3-PEHPC prevented the bone loss and the development of osteolytic bone lesions induced by 5T2MM myeloma cells. Treatment with 3-PEHPC also significantly reduced myeloma burden in bone. The magnitude of response was similar to that seen with the bisphosphonate, risedronate. These data show that targeting GGTase II with 3-PEHPC can prevent osteolytic bone disease and reduce tumor burden in vivo, and represents a novel approach to treating tumors that grow in bone.

  18. Pleiotropic Functions of Glutathione S-Transferase P

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Grek, Christina; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Manevich, Yefim; Tew, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) is one member of the GST superfamily that is prevalently expressed in mammals. Known to possess catalytic activity through deprotonating glutathione allowing formation of thioether bonds with electrophilic substrates, more recent discoveries have broadened our understanding of the biological roles of this protein. In addition to catalytic detoxification, other properties so far ascribed to GSTP include chaperone functions, regulation of nitric oxide pathways, regulation of a variety of kinase signaling pathways, and participation in the forward reaction of protein S-glutathionylation. The expression of GSTP has been linked with cancer and other human pathologies and more recently even with drug addiction. With respect to human health, polymorphic variants of GSTP may determine individual susceptibility to oxidative stress and/or be critical in the design and development of drugs that have used redox pathways as a discovery platform. PMID:24974181

  19. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Pleiotropic functions of glutathione S-transferase P.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Grek, Christina; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Manevich, Yefim; Tew, Kenneth D; Townsend, Danyelle M

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) is one member of the GST superfamily that is prevalently expressed in mammals. Known to possess catalytic activity through deprotonating glutathione allowing formation of thioether bonds with electrophilic substrates, more recent discoveries have broadened our understanding of the biological roles of this protein. In addition to catalytic detoxification, other properties so far ascribed to GSTP include chaperone functions, regulation of nitric oxide pathways, regulation of a variety of kinase signaling pathways, and participation in the forward reaction of protein S-glutathionylation. The expression of GSTP has been linked with cancer and other human pathologies and more recently even with drug addiction. With respect to human health, polymorphic variants of GSTP may determine individual susceptibility to oxidative stress and/or be critical in the design and development of drugs that have used redox pathways as a discovery platform.

  1. Subunit arrangement in beef heart complex III

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Halphen, D.; Lindorfer, M.A.; Capaldi, R.A.

    1988-09-06

    Beef heart mitochondrial complex III was separated into 12 polypeptide bands representing 11 different subunits by using the electrophoresis conditions described previously. Eight of the 12 polypeptide bands were identified from their NH/sub 2/-terminal sequences as obtained by electroblotting directly from the NaDodSO/sub 4/-polyacrylamide gel onto a solid support. The topology of the subunits in complex III was explored by three different approaches. (1) Protease digestion experiments of submitochrondial particles in the presence and absence of detergent showed that subunits II and VI are on the M side of the inner membrane and subunits V and XI on the C side. (2) Labeling experiments with the membrane-intercalated probes (/sup 125/I)TID and arylazidoPE indicated that cytochrome b is the predominant bilayer embedded subunit of complex III, while the non-heme iron protein appears to be peripherally located. (3) Cross-linking studies with carbodiimides and homobifunctional cleavable reagents demonstrated that near-neighbor pairs include subunits I+II, II+VI, III+VI, IV+V, V+X, and V+VII. The cytochrome c binding site was found to include subunits IV, VII, and X. The combined data are used to provide an updated model of the topology of beef heart complex III.

  2. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the design touting its simplicity and effectiveness. The objectives of this article are to summarize the basic tenets of respecting the philtral subunit, accurate measurement and planning, and tips for transitioning to this subunit approach.

  3. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the design touting its simplicity and effectiveness. The objectives of this article are to summarize the basic tenets of respecting the philtral subunit, accurate measurement and planning, and tips for transitioning to this subunit approach. PMID:27097136

  4. Purification of glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes from tumour and nontumour human stomach and inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Demirdag, Ramazan; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Kufrevioglu, Omer Irfan; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2013-10-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme was purified from nontumour and tumour human gastric tissue and in vitro effects of heavy metals on the enzyme were examined. GST was purified 3089 fold with a specific activity of 20 U/mg and a yield of 78% from gastric tumour tissue; and 1185 fold with a specific activity of 5.69 U/mg and a yield of 50% from nontumour tissue by using glutathione-agarose affinity column, respectively. Enzyme purity was verified by SDS-PAGE and subunit molecular mass was calculated around 26 kDa. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated as 52 kDa by using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column. Then, inhibitory effects of metal ions on the enzymes were investigated. Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) had inhibitory effect on the enzymes activities. Other kinetic properties of the enzymes were also determined.

  5. Chemical engineering of the peptidyl transferase center reveals an important role of the 2′-hydroxyl group of A2451

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Matthias D.; Lang, Kathrin; Shankaran, Nisha; Wotzel, Brigitte; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Micura, Ronald; Mankin, Alexander S.; Polacek, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The main enzymatic reaction of the large ribosomal subunit is peptide bond formation. Ribosome crystallography showed that A2451 of 23S rRNA makes the closest approach to the attacking amino group of aminoacyl-tRNA. Mutations of A2451 had relatively small effects on transpeptidation and failed to unequivocally identify the crucial functional group(s). Here, we employed an in vitro reconstitution system for chemical engineering the peptidyl transferase center by introducing non-natural nucleosides at position A2451. This allowed us to investigate the peptidyl transfer reaction performed by a ribosome that contained a modified nucleoside at the active site. The main finding is that ribosomes carrying a 2′-deoxyribose at A2451 showed a compromised peptidyl transferase activity. In variance, adenine base modifications and even the removal of the entire nucleobase at A2451 had only little impact on peptide bond formation, as long as the 2′-hydroxyl was present. This implicates a functional or structural role of the 2′-hydroxyl group at A2451 for transpeptidation. PMID:15767286

  6. Deduced amino acid sequence, gene structure and chromosomal location of a novel human class Mu glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, S; Spurr, N K; Hayes, J D; Wolf, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Mu-Class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are subject to marked inter-individual variation in man, owing to the fact that 40-50% of the population fail to express M1 subunits. Mu-Class GST from two lymphoblastoid cell lines (expressing M1 subunits and the other 'nulled' for M1) have been studied. Both cell lines were found to express a Mu-Class GST that has not been described previously. The cDNA encoding this novel transferase, designated 'GSTM4' has been isolated and the enzyme shown to be comprised of 218 amino acids (including the initiator methionine residue) with an M(r) of approx. 25.5 kDa. Molecular cloning demonstrated that the lymphoblastoid cell line which expressed GSTM1 possessed the b allelic variant (i.e. that with an asparagine residue at position 173). The genes for GSTM4 and GSTM1b have been cloned and found to contain seven introns and eight exons. The coding region of the GSTM4 gene, including the seven introns, encompasses 5.0 kb, whereas the same region of GSTM1b is 5.5 kb; the difference in the size of the two genes is due to the length of intron 7. DNA sequencing allowed a GSTM4-gene-specific oligo-primer to be designed which has been utilized in a PCR-based assay to determine that the GSTM4 gene is located on chromosome 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:8471052

  7. Specific Prenylation of Tomato Rab Proteins by Geranylgeranyl Type-II Transferase Requires a Conserved Cysteine-Cysteine Motif.

    PubMed

    Yalovsky, S.; Loraine, A. E.; Gruissem, W.

    1996-04-01

    Posttranslational isoprenylation of some small GTP-binding proteins is required for their biological activity. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGTase) uses geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to modify Rab proteins, its only known substrates. Geranylgeranylation of Rabs is believed to promote their association with target membranes and interaction with other proteins. Plants, like other eukaryotes, contain Rab-like proteins that are associated with intracellular membranes. However, to our knowledge, the geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins has not yet been characterized from any plant source. This report presents an activity assay that allows the characterization of prenylation of Rab-like proteins in vitro, by protein extracts prepared from plants. Tomato Rab1 proteins and mammalian Rab1a were modified by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not by farnesyl pyrophosphate. This modification required a conserved cysteine-cysteine motif. A mutant form lacking the cysteine-cysteine motif could not be modified, but inhibited the geranylgeranylation of its wild-type homolog. The tomato Rab proteins were modified in vitro by protein extract prepared from yeast, but failed to become modified when the protein extract was prepared from a yeast strain containing a mutant allele for the [alpha] subunit of yeast Rab GGTase (bet4 ts). These results demonstrate that plant cells, like other eukaryotes, contain Rab GGTase-like activity.

  8. Some effects of the fungicide propiconazole on cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Egaas, E; Sandvik, M; Fjeld, E; Källqvist, T; Goksøyr, A; Svensen, A

    1999-03-01

    The fungicide propiconazole (1-(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl) -1H-1,2,4-triazole) induced the hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity towards ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), the content of CYP1A protein as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity towards the three commonly used substrates CDNB(1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene), cumene hydroperoxide (CU) and ethachrynic acid (EA) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) depending on dose and body weight. An exponential dose response relationship existed between propiconazole exposure and CYP1A activity. A 2. order polynomial regression of the propiconazole concentration (square root transformed) on the data for CDNB, EU and CU revealed a bell-shaped pattern of the GST induction. Reverse-phase HPLC of the GSH-affinity chromatography purified GST isozymes in trout exposed to respectively 8.3, 23, 93, 313 and 606 microg l(-1) propiconazole in the water indicated that the propiconazole treatment may lead to changes in the composition of the subunits compared to the controls. Thus, propiconazole exposure through the water changed the properties of the brown trout hepatic CYP1A and GST, and these changes may be used as a bioindicator on the molecular level of exposure and effect of propiconazole in controlled experiments. The use in monitoring of propiconazole exposure under natural field conditions is possible, however needs further investigation.

  9. Interaction between 25S rRNA A loop and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B promotes subunit joining and ensures stringent AUG selection.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Shin, Byung-Sik; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Nemoto, Naoki; Chowdhury, Wasimul; Graham, Jymie; Cox, Christian; Reid, Megan; Brown, Susan J; Asano, Katsura

    2013-09-01

    In yeast, 25S rRNA makes up the major mass and shape of the 60S ribosomal subunit. During the last step of translation initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) promotes the 60S subunit joining with the 40S initiation complex (IC). Malfunctional 60S subunits produced by misfolding or mutation may disrupt the 40S IC stalling on the start codon, thereby altering the stringency of initiation. Using several point mutations isolated by random mutagenesis, here we studied the role of 25S rRNA in start codon selection. Three mutations changing bases near the ribosome surface had strong effects, allowing the initiating ribosomes to skip both AUG and non-AUG codons: C2879U and U2408C, altering the A loop and P loop, respectively, of the peptidyl transferase center, and G1735A, mapping near a Eukarya-specific bridge to the 40S subunit. Overexpression of eIF5B specifically suppressed the phenotype caused by C2879U, suggesting functional interaction between eIF5B and the A loop. In vitro reconstitution assays showed that C2879U decreased eIF5B-catalyzed 60S subunit joining with a 40S IC. Thus, eIF5B interaction with the peptidyl transferase center A loop increases the accuracy of initiation by stabilizing the overall conformation of the 80S initiation complex. This study provides an insight into the effect of ribosomal mutations on translation profiles in eukaryotes.

  10. Serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT) deficiency and sphingolipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2005-10-15

    Sphingolipids play a very important role in cell membrane formation, signal transduction, and plasma lipoprotein metabolism, and all these functions may have an impact on atherosclerotic development. Serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT) is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. To evaluate in vivo SPT activity and its role in sphingolipid metabolism, we applied homologous recombination to embryonic stem cells, producing mice with long chain base 1 (Sptlc1) and long chain base 2 (Sptlc2), two subunits of SPT, gene deficiency. Homozygous Sptlc11 and Sptlc2 mice are embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous versions of both animals (Sptlc1(+/-), Sptlc2(+/-)) are healthy. Analysis showed that, compared with WT mice, Sptlc1(+/-) and Sptlc2(+/-) mice had: (1) decreased liver Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 mRNA by 44% and 57% (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively); (2) decreased liver Sptlc1 mass by 50% and Sptlc2 mass by 70% (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), moreover, Sptlc1 mass decreased by 70% in Sptlc2(+/-) mouse liver, while Sptlc2 mass decreased by 53% in Sptlc1(+/-) mouse liver (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively); (3) decreased liver SPT activity by 45% and 60% (P<0.01, respectively); (4) decreased liver ceramide (22% and 39%, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) and sphingosine levels (22% and 31%, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively); (5) decreased plasma ceramide (45% and 39%, P<0.01, respectively), sphingosine-1-phosphate (31% and 32%, P<0.01, respectively) and sphingosine levels (22.5% and 25%, P<0.01, respectively); (6) dramatically decreased plasma lysosphingomyelin (17-fold and 16-fold, P<0.0001, respectively); and (7) no change of plasma sphingomyelin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and liver sphingomyelin levels. These results indicated that both Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 interactions are necessary for SPT activity in vivo, and that SPT activity directly influences plasma sphingolipid levels. Furthermore, manipulation of SPT activity might well influence the

  11. Serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT) deficiency and sphingolipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2005-10-15

    Sphingolipids play a very important role in cell membrane formation, signal transduction, and plasma lipoprotein metabolism, and all these functions may have an impact on atherosclerotic development. Serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT) is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. To evaluate in vivo SPT activity and its role in sphingolipid metabolism, we applied homologous recombination to embryonic stem cells, producing mice with long chain base 1 (Sptlc1) and long chain base 2 (Sptlc2), two subunits of SPT, gene deficiency. Homozygous Sptlc11 and Sptlc2 mice are embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous versions of both animals (Sptlc1(+/-), Sptlc2(+/-)) are healthy. Analysis showed that, compared with WT mice, Sptlc1(+/-) and Sptlc2(+/-) mice had: (1) decreased liver Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 mRNA by 44% and 57% (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively); (2) decreased liver Sptlc1 mass by 50% and Sptlc2 mass by 70% (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), moreover, Sptlc1 mass decreased by 70% in Sptlc2(+/-) mouse liver, while Sptlc2 mass decreased by 53% in Sptlc1(+/-) mouse liver (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively); (3) decreased liver SPT activity by 45% and 60% (P<0.01, respectively); (4) decreased liver ceramide (22% and 39%, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) and sphingosine levels (22% and 31%, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively); (5) decreased plasma ceramide (45% and 39%, P<0.01, respectively), sphingosine-1-phosphate (31% and 32%, P<0.01, respectively) and sphingosine levels (22.5% and 25%, P<0.01, respectively); (6) dramatically decreased plasma lysosphingomyelin (17-fold and 16-fold, P<0.0001, respectively); and (7) no change of plasma sphingomyelin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and liver sphingomyelin levels. These results indicated that both Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 interactions are necessary for SPT activity in vivo, and that SPT activity directly influences plasma sphingolipid levels. Furthermore, manipulation of SPT activity might well influence the

  12. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Marimo, Patience; Hayeshi, Rose; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1) was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA) was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs. PMID:26925266

  13. Crystal structure of E. coli lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Guotao; Zhao, Yan; Kang, Xusheng; Li, Zhijie; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Fei; Sankaran, Krishnan; Zhang, Xuejun C.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein biogenesis is essential for bacterial survival. Phosphatidylglycerol:prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the three-step post-translational lipid modification. Deletion of the lgt gene is lethal to most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the crystal structures of Escherichia coli Lgt in complex with phosphatidylglycerol and the inhibitor palmitic acid at 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the presence of two binding sites and support the previously reported structure–function relationships of Lgt. Complementation results of lgt-knockout cells with different mutant Lgt variants revealed critical residues, including Arg143 and Arg239, that are essential for diacylglyceryl transfer. Using a GFP-based in vitro assay, we correlated the activities of Lgt with structural observations. Together, the structural and biochemical data support a mechanism whereby substrate and product, lipid-modified lipobox-containing peptide, enter and leave the enzyme laterally relative to the lipid bilayer. PMID:26729647

  14. Benzene oxide is a substrate for glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Zarth, Adam T; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-12-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen which must be activated to benzene oxide (BO) to exert its carcinogenic potential. BO can be detoxified in vivo by reaction with glutathione and excretion in the urine as S-phenylmercapturic acid. This process may be catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), but kinetic data for this reaction have not been published. Therefore, we incubated GSTA1, GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 with glutathione and BO and quantified the formation of S-phenylglutathione. Kinetic parameters were determined for GSTT1 and GSTP1. At 37 °C, the putative Km and Vmax values for GSTT1 were 420 μM and 450 fmol/s, respectively, while those for GSTP1 were 3600 μM and 3100 fmol/s. GSTA1 and GSTM1 did not exhibit sufficient activity for determination of kinetic parameters. We conclude that GSTT1 is a critical enzyme in the detoxification of BO and that GSTP1 may also play an important role, while GSTA1 and GSTM1 seem to be less important.

  15. Mannosyl transferase activity in homogenates of adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rumjanek, F D; Smithers, S R

    1978-08-01

    Homogenates of adult Schistosoma mansoni contain enzymes which are capable of transferring [14C]mannose from GDP[U-14C]mannose to a lipid acceptor which migrates as a single peak on a silica gel thin-layer plate. This lipid may belong to the class of polyprenol monophosphates which are intermediate elements in the glycosylation of nascent proteins. The schistosome mannosyl transferase activity is associated with membranous particles and is dependent on the presence of Mn2+. However, other divalent metals such as Mg2+ or Ca2+ can, in decreasing order of efficiency, replace Mn2+. When UDP[U-14C]glucose was incubated with the homogenates in the same conditions, relatively little label was transferred to the lipid acceptor. Live worms incubated in a medium containing GDP[U-14C]mannose seem to incorporate the label preferentially on the tegument and on adjacent subtegumental structures. By adding foetal calf serum to the medium, incorporation of the label can be stimulated.

  16. Glutathione S-transferase, incense burning and asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-J; Tsai, C-H; Chen, C-H; Tung, K-Y; Lee, Y L

    2011-06-01

    Incense burning is a popular practice in many family homes and temples. However, little is known about the effects of indoor incense burning and genetic polymorphisms on asthma. This study evaluated the effects of indoor incense burning and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms on asthma and wheeze. In 2007, 3,764 seventh-grade schoolchildren (mean±sd age 12.42±0.65 yrs) were evaluated using a standard questionnaire for information about respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the association between GST polymorphisms and incense burning frequency on asthma and wheeze, after adjusting for potential confounders. The frequency of incense burning at home was associated with increased risk of current asthma (p=0.05), medication use (p=0.03) and exercise wheeze (p=0.001). GST1 (GSTT1) null genotypes were associated with current asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00-2.04) and medication use (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.22). GSTT1 showed a significant interactive effect with incense burning on current asthma, current wheeze and nocturnal wheeze. The frequency of incense burning was associated with increased risk of current asthma, medication use, lifetime wheeze, nocturnal wheeze and exercise wheeze in an exposure-response manner among children with GSTT1 null genotype (p<0.05). Incense burning is a risk factor for asthma and wheezing, especially in GSTT1 genetically susceptible children.

  17. Glucuronyl transferase deficiency and mild hereditary spherocytosis: effect of splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Eber, S W; Ullrich, D; Speer, C P; Armbrust, R; Schröter, W

    1988-08-01

    In a 6-year-old girl an association of hereditary spherocytosis and a defect in hepatic bilirubin metabolism has been found. The patient suffered from mild compensated haemolytic anaemia and excessive hyperbilirubinaemia (maximum concentration 581 mumol/l), the serum activity of liver enzymes was slightly increased. Examination of the erythrocyte membrane proteins revealed a deficiency of the major membrane skeletal protein, spectrin (about 75% of normal) which is probably the basic genetic defect of hereditary spherocytosis. Examination of the patient's family revealed a recessive mode of inheritance. The concentration of bilirubin conjugates in the patient's serum was decreased due to a reduced UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity found in homogenates of liver tissue. Histological liver examination showed an intrahepatic cholestasis, which is a secondary and reversible alteration resulting from severe hyperbilirubinaemia. After splenectomy, normalization of the increased haemolysis and hepatic dysfunction was observed. The excessive hyperbilirubinaemia can be explained by the association of an increased bilirubin load due to haemolytic anaemia and the diminished hepatic conjugation of bilirubin.

  18. Cloning and characterization of GST fusion tag stabilized large subunit of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Ji-Yu; Gao, Wen-Yun

    2016-01-01

    There are three acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) isozymes (I, II, and III) in the enterobacteria Escherichia coli among which AHAS I is the most active. Its large subunit (LSU) possesses full catalytic machinery, but is unstable in the absence of the small subunit (SSU). To get applicable LSU of AHAS I, we prepared and characterized in this study the polypeptide as a His-tagged (His-LSU) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged (GST-LSU) fusion protein, respectively. The results showed that the His-LSU is unstable, whereas the GST-LSU displays excellent stability. This phenomenon suggests that the GST polypeptide fusion tag could stabilize the target protein when compared with histidine tag. It is the first time that the stabilizing effect of the GST tag was observed. Further characterization of the GST-LSU protein indicated that it possesses the basic functions of AHAS I with a specific activity of 20.8 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and a Km value for pyruvate of 0.95 mM. These observations imply that introduction of the GST fusion tag to LSU of AHAS I does not affect the function of the protein. The possible reasons that the GST fusion tag could make the LSU stable are initially discussed.

  19. Regulation of rat glutathione S-transferase A5 by cancer chemopreventive agents: mechanisms of inducible resistance to aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J D; Pulford, D J; Ellis, E M; McLeod, R; James, R F; Seidegård, J; Mosialou, E; Jernström, B; Neal, G E

    1998-04-24

    The rat can be protected against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hepatocarcinogenesis by being fed on a diet containing the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin. Evidence suggests that chemoprotection against AFB1 is due to increased detoxification of the mycotoxin by one or more inducible drug-metabolising enzymes. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes in rat liver that contribute to ethoxyquin-induced chemoprotection against AFB1 have been identified by protein purification. This approach resulted in the isolation of several heterodimeric class alpha GST, all of which contained the A5 subunit and possessed at least 50-fold greater activity towards AFB1-8,9-epoxide than previously studied transferases. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of rat GSTA5-5 has led to the demonstration that it exhibits substantially greater activity for AFB1-8,9-epoxide than other rat transferases. The A5 homodimer can also catalyse the conjugation of glutathione with other epoxides, such as trans-stilbene oxide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane, and possesses high catalytic activity for the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal. Western blotting has shown that the A5 subunit is not only induced by ethoxyquin but that it is also induced by other cancer chemopreventive agents, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, oltipraz, benzyl isothiocyanate, indole-3-carbinol and coumarin. In addition to GSTA5, we have identified a novel aflatoxin-aldehyde reductase (AFAR) that is similarly induced by ethoxyquin. However, immunoblotting has shown that GSTA5 and AFAR are not always co-ordinately regulated by chemoprotectors. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the induction of GSTA5 protein, the GSTA5 gene has been cloned. It was isolated on two overlapping bacteriophage lambda clones and found to be approximately 12 kb in length. The transcriptional start site of GSTA5 has been identified 228 bp upstream from the ATG translational initiation codon. Computer

  20. Random mutagenesis of yeast 25S rRNA identify bases critical for 60S subunit structural integrity and function

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Naoki; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Chowdhury, Wasimul; Kitabatake, Makoto; Shin, Byung-shik; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Wang, Suzhi; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Brown, Susan J.; Ohno, Mutsuhito; Asano, Katsura

    2013-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 25S rRNA makes up the major mass and shape of the 60S ribosomal subunit. During translation initiation, the 60S subunit joins the 40S initiation complex, producing the 80S initiation complex. During elongation, the 60S subunit binds the CCA-ends of aminoacyl- and peptidyl-tRNAs at the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, transferring the peptide onto the α-amino group of the aminoacyl-tRNA. To study the role of 25S rRNA in translation in vivo, we randomly mutated 25S rRNA and isolated and characterized seven point mutations that affected yeast cell growth and polysome profiles. Four of these mutations, G651A, A1435U, A1446G and A1587G, change a base involved in base triples crucial for structural integrity. Three other mutations change bases near the ribosomal surface: C2879U and U2408C alter the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, and G1735A maps near a Eukarya-specific bridge to the 40S subunit. By polysome profiling in mmslΔ mutants defective in nonfunctional 25S rRNA decay, we show that some of these mutations are defective in both the initiation and elongation phases of translation. Of the mutants characterized, C2879U displays the strongest defect in translation initiation. The ribosome transit-time assay directly shows that this mutation is also defective in peptide elongation/termination. Thus, our genetic analysis not only identifies bases critical for structural integrity of the 60S subunit, but also suggests a role for bases near the peptidyl transferase center in translation initiation. PMID:26824023

  1. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-08-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3' aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNA(Leu) (anticodon 5'-CAG-3') isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNA(Leu) (CAG)-a G₃:C₇₀ base pair and a set of 4 nt (C₇₂, A₄:U₆₉, C₆₈)-that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed.

  2. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3′ aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNALeu (anticodon 5′-CAG-3′) isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNALeu (CAG)—a G3:C70 base pair and a set of 4 nt (C72, A4:U69, C68)—that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed. PMID:24935875

  3. The K+-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA–protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  4. The K⁺-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-02-29

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA-protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  5. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  6. Selection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against glutathione S-transferase Mu.

    PubMed Central

    't Hoen, Peter A C; Out, Ruud; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vermeulen, Nico P E; van Batenburg, F H D; Manoharan, Muthiah; van Berkel, Theo J C; Biessen, Erik A L; Bijsterbosch, Martin K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify functional antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against the rat glutathione S-transferase Mu (GSTM) isoforms, GSTM1 and GSTM2. These antisense ODNs would enable the study of the physiological consequences of GSTM deficiency. Because it has been suggested that the effectiveness of antisense ODNs is dependent on the secondary mRNA structures of their target sites, we made mRNA secondary structure predictions with two software packages, Mfold and STAR. The two programs produced only marginally similar structures, which can probably be attributed to differences in the algorithms used. The effectiveness of a set of 18 antisense ODNs was evaluated with a cell-free transcription/translation assay, and their activity was correlated with the predicted secondary RNA structures. Four phosphodiester ODNs specific for GSTM1, two ODNs specific for GSTM2, and four ODNs targeted at both GSTM isoforms were found to be potent, sequence-specific, and RNase H-dependent inhibitors of protein expression. The IC50 value of the most potent ODN was approximately 100 nM. Antisense ODNs targeted against regions that were predicted by STAR to be predominantly single stranded were more potent than antisense ODNs against double-stranded regions. Such a correlation was not found for the Mfold prediction. Our data suggest that simulation of the local folding of RNA facilitates the discovery of potent antisense sequences. In conclusion, we selected several promising antisense sequences, which, when synthesized as biologically stable oligonucleotides, can be applied for study of the physiological impact of reduced GSTM expression. PMID:12515389

  7. Glutathione transferase classes alpha, pi, and mu: GSH activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Daniel F A R; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2010-10-14

    Since the early 1960s, glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been described as detoxification enzymes. In fact, GSTs are the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of electrophilic xenobiotic/endobiotic compounds. These enzymes are able to catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione (GSH) sulfur thiolate to a wide range of electrophilic substrates, building up a less toxic and more soluble compound. Cytosolic classes alpha, pi, and mu are the most extensively studied GSTs. However, many of the catalytic events are still poorly understood. In the present work, we have resorted to density functional theory (DFT) and to potential of mean force (PMF) calculations to determine the GSH activation mechanism of GSTP1-1 and GSTM1-1 isoenzymes. For the GSTP1-1 enzyme, we have demonstrated that a water molecule, after an initial conformational rearrangement of GSH, can assist a proton transfer between the GSH cysteine thiol (GSH-SH) and the GSH glutamate alpha carboxylate (GSH-COO(-)) groups. The energy barrier associated with the proton transfer is 11.36 kcal·mol(-1). The GSTM1-1 enzyme shows a completely different behavior from the previous isoenzyme. In this case, two water molecules, positioned between the GSH-SH and the ξ N atom of His107, working like a bridge, are able to promote the proton transfer between these two active groups with an energy barrier of 7.98 kcal·mol(-1). All our results are consistent with all the enzymes kinetics and mutagenesis experimental studies.

  8. 2',6'-Dihalostyrylanilines, pyridines, and pyrimidines for the inhibition of the catalytic subunit of methionine S-adenosyltransferase-2.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Zhang, Wen; Balia, Andrii G; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Nickell, Justin R; Gizard, Florence; Yu, Tianxin; Lee, Eun Y; Dwoskin, Linda P; Liu, Chunming; Watt, David S

    2014-07-24

    Inhibition of the catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric methionine S-adenosyl transferase-2 (MAT2A) with fluorinated N,N-dialkylaminostilbenes (FIDAS agents) offers a potential avenue for the treatment of liver and colorectal cancers where upregulation of this enzyme occurs. A study of structure-activity relationships led to the identification of the most active compounds as those with (1) either a 2,6-difluorostyryl or 2-chloro-6-fluorostyryl subunit, (2) either an N-methylamino or N,N-dimethylamino group attached in a para orientation relative to the 2,6-dihalostyryl subunit, and (3) either an N-methylaniline or a 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine ring. These modifications led to FIDAS agents that were active in the low nanomolar range, that formed water-soluble hydrochloride salts, and that possessed the desired property of not inhibiting the human hERG potassium ion channel at concentrations at which the FIDAS agents inhibit MAT2A. The active FIDAS agents may inhibit cancer cells through alterations of methylation reactions essential for cancer cell survival and growth.

  9. Novel subunit-subunit interactions in the structure of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Almassy, R J; Janson, C A; Hamlin, R; Xuong, N H; Eisenberg, D

    We present an atomic model for glutamine synthetase, an enzyme of central importance in bacterial nitrogen metabolism, from X-ray crystallography. The 12 identical subunits are arranged as the carbon atoms in two face-to-face benzene rings, with unusual subunit contacts. Our model, which places the active sites at the subunit interfaces, suggests a mechanism for the main functional role of glutamine synthetase: how the enzyme regulates the rate of synthesis of glutamine in response to covalent modification and feedback inhibition. PMID:2876389

  10. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: identification and characterization.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Koen W A; Rosnowsky, Silke; van Weelden, Susanne W H; Pütz, Simone; van der Giezen, Mark; Martin, William; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Henze, Katrin

    2008-01-18

    Acetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes such as Trichomonas vaginalis, no acetate producing enzyme has ever been identified in these organelles. Acetate production is the last unidentified enzymatic reaction of hydrogenosomal carbohydrate metabolism. We identified a gene encoding an enzyme for acetate production in the genome of the hydrogenosome-containing protozoan parasite T. vaginalis. This gene shows high similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-CoA hydrolase and Clostridium kluyveri succinyl-CoA:CoA-transferase. Here we demonstrate that this protein is expressed and is present in the hydrogenosomes where it functions as the T. vaginalis acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (TvASCT). Heterologous expression of TvASCT in CHO cells resulted in the expression of an active ASCT. Furthermore, homologous overexpression of the TvASCT gene in T. vaginalis resulted in an equivalent increase in ASCT activity. It was shown that the CoA transferase activity is succinate-dependent. These results demonstrate that this acetyl-CoA hydrolase/transferase homolog functions as the hydrogenosomal ASCT of T. vaginalis. This is the first hydrogenosomal acetate-producing enzyme to be identified. Interestingly, TvASCT does not share any similarity with the mitochondrial ASCT from Trypanosoma brucei, the only other eukaryotic succinate-dependent acetyl-CoA-transferase identified so far. The trichomonad enzyme clearly belongs to a distinct class of acetate:succinate CoA-transferases. Apparently, two completely different enzymes for succinate-dependent acetate production have evolved independently in ATP-generating organelles. PMID:18024431

  11. Characterization of glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Mihaljevic, Ivan; Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Kovacevic, Radmila; Smital, Tvrtko

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the key enzymes that mediate phase II of cellular detoxification. The aim of our study was a comprehensive characterization of GSTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an important vertebrate model species frequently used in environmental research. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of GST superfamily revealed 27 zebrafish gst genes. Further insights into the orthology relationships between human and zebrafish GSTs/Gsts were obtained by the conserved synteny analysis. Expression of gst genes in six tissues (liver, kidney, gills, intestine, brain and gonads) of adult male and female zebrafish was determined using qRT-PCR. Functional characterization was performed on 9 cytosolic Gst enzymes after overexpression in E. coli and subsequent protein purification. Enzyme kinetics was measured for GSH and a series of model substrates. Our data revealed ubiquitously high expression of gstp, gstm (except in liver), gstr1, mgst3a and mgst3b, high expression of gsto2 in gills and ovaries, gsta in intestine and testes, gstt1a in liver, and gstz1 in liver, kidney and brain. All zebrafish Gsts catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to model GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and monochlorobimane (MCB), apart from Gsto2 and Gstz1 that catalyzed GSH conjugation to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), respectively. Affinity toward CDNB varied from 0.28 mM (Gstp2) to 3.69 mM (Gstm3), while affinity toward MCB was in the range of 5 μM (Gstt1a) to 250 μM (Gstp1). Affinity toward GSH varied from 0.27 mM (Gstz1) to 4.45 mM (Gstt1a). Turnover number for CDNB varied from 5.25s(-1) (Gstt1a) to 112s(-1) (Gstp2). Only Gst Pi enzymes utilized ethacrynic acid (ETA). We suggest that Gstp1, Gstp2, Gstt1a, Gstz1, Gstr1, Mgst3a and Mgst3b have important role in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, while Gst Alpha, Mu, Pi, Zeta and Rho classes are involved in the crucial physiological processes. In summary, this study provides the

  12. Unusual metal ion catalysis in an acyl-transferase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Suga, H; Cowan, J A; Szostak, J W

    1998-07-14

    Most studies of the roles of catalytic metal ions in ribozymes have focused on inner-sphere coordination of the divalent metal ions to the substrate or ribozyme. However, divalent metal ions are strongly hydrated in water, and some proteinenzymes, such as Escherichia coli RNase H and exonuclease III, are known to use metal cofactors in their fully hydrated form [Duffy, T. H., and Nowak, T. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 1152-1160; Jou, R., and Cowan, J. A. (1991) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 6685-6686]. It is therefore important to consider the possibility of outer-sphere coordination of catalytic metal ions in ribozymes. We have used an exchange-inert metal complex, cobalt hexaammine, to show that the catalytic metal ion in an acyl-transferase ribozyme acts through outer-sphere coordination. Our studies provide an example of a fully hydrated Mg2+ ion that plays an essential role in ribozyme catalysis. Kinetic studies of wild-type and mutant ribozymes suggest that a pair of tandem G:U wobble base pairs adjacent to the reactive center constitute the metal-binding site. This result is consistent with recent crystallographic studies [Cate, J. H., and Doudna, J. A. (1996) Structure 4, 1221-1229; Cate, J. H., Gooding, A. R., Podell, E., Zhou, K., Golden, B. L., Kundrot, C. E., Cech, T. R., and Doudna, J. A. (1996) Science 273, 1678-1685; Cate, J. H., Hanna, R. L., and Doudna, J. A. (1997) Nat. Struct. Biol. 4, 553-558] showing that tandem wobble base pairs are good binding sites for metal hexaammines. We propose a model in which the catalytic metal ion is bound in the major groove of the tandem wobble base pairs, is precisely positioned by the ribozyme within the active site, and stabilizes the developing oxyanion in the transition state. Our results may have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of protein synthesis [Noller, H. F., Hoffarth, V., and Zimniak, L. (1992) Science 256, 1416-1419].

  13. Peptidyl transferase inhibition by the nascent leader peptide of an inducible cat gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1993-01-01

    The site of ribosome stalling in the leader of cat transcripts is critical to induction of downstream translation. Site-specific stalling requires translation of the first five leader codons and the presence of chloramphenicol, a sequence-independent inhibitor of ribosome elongation. We demonstrate in this report that a synthetic peptide (the 5-mer) corresponding to the N-terminal five codons of the cat-86 leader inhibits peptidyl transferase in vitro. The N-terminal 2-, 3-, and 4-mers and the reverse 5-mer (reverse amino acid sequence of the 5-mer) are virtually without effect on peptidyl transferase. A missense mutation in the cat-86 leader that abolishes induction in vivo corresponds to an amino acid replacement in the 5-mer that completely relieves peptidyl transferase inhibition. In contrast, a missense mutation that does not interfere with in vivo induction corresponds to an amino acid replacement in the 5-mer that does not significantly alter peptidyl transferase inhibition. Our results suggest that peptidyl transferase inhibition by the nascent cat-86 5-mer peptide may be the primary determinant of the site of ribosome stalling in the leader. A model based on this concept can explain the site specificity of ribosome stalling as well as the response of induction to very low levels of the antibiotic inducer. Images PMID:7690023

  14. Involvement of proteasomal subunits zeta and iota in RNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Petit, F; Jarrousse, A S; Dahlmann, B; Sobek, A; Hendil, K B; Buri, J; Briand, Y; Schmid, H P

    1997-01-01

    We have identified two distinct subunits of 20 S proteasomes that are associated with RNase activity. Proteasome subunits zeta and iota, eluted from two-dimensional Western blots, hydrolysed tobacco mosaic virus RNA, whereas none of the other subunits degraded this substrate under the same conditions. Additionally, proteasomes were dissociated by 6 M urea, and subunit zeta, containing the highest RNase activity, was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Purified subunit zeta migrated as a single spot on two-dimensional PAGE with a molecular mass of approx. 28 kDa. Addition of anti-(subunit zeta) antibodies led to the co-precipitation of this proteasome subunit and nuclease activity. This is the first evidence that proteasomal alpha-type subunits are associated with an enzymic activity, and our results provide further evidence that proteasomes may be involved in cellular RNA metabolism. PMID:9337855

  15. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Egner, Patricia A.; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  16. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Vakharia, Dilip; Egner, Patricia A; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N(7)-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N(7)-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3. PMID:19850059

  17. Isolation of the alpha subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins by affinity chromatography with immobilized beta gamma subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, I H; Sternweis, P C

    1989-01-01

    Immobilized beta gamma subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to isolate alpha subunits from solubilized membranes of bovine tissues and to separate specific alpha subunits based on their differential affinities for beta gamma subunits. The beta gamma subunits were cross-linked to omega-aminobutyl agarose. Up to 7 nmol of alpha subunit could bind to each milliliter of beta gamma-agarose and be recovered by elution with AIF4-. This affinity resin effectively separated the alpha subunits of Gi1 and Gi2 from "contaminating" alpha subunits of Go, the most abundant G protein in bovine brain, by taking advantage of the apparent lower affinity of the alpha subunits of Go for beta gamma subunits. The beta gamma-agarose was also used to isolate mixtures of alpha subunits from cholate extracts of membranes from different bovine tissues. alpha subunits of 39-41 kDa (in various ratios) as well as the alpha subunits of Gs were purified. The yields from extracts exceeded 60% for all alpha subunits examined and apparently represented the relative content of alpha subunits in the tissues. This technique can rapidly isolate and identify, from a small amount of sample, the endogenous G proteins in various tissues and cells. So far, only polypeptides in the range of 39-52 kDa have been detected with this approach. If other GTP-binding proteins interact with these beta gamma subunits, the interaction is either of low affinity or mechanistically unique from the alpha subunits isolated in this study. Images PMID:2510152

  18. The Interaction of the Chemotherapeutic Drug Chlorambucil with Human Glutathione Transferase A1-1: Kinetic and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karpusas, Michael; Axarli, Irine; Chiniadis, Lykourgos; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Bethanis, Kostas; Scopelitou, Katholiki; Clonis, Yannis D.; Labrou, Nikolaos E.

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that contribute to cellular detoxification by catalysing the nucleophilic attack of glutathione (GSH) on the electrophilic centre of a number of xenobiotic compounds, including several chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present work we investigated the interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil (CBL) with human GSTA1-1 (hGSTA1-1) using kinetic analysis, protein crystallography and molecular dynamics. In the presence of GSH, CBL behaves as an efficient substrate for hGSTA1-1. The rate-limiting step of the catalytic reaction between CBL and GSH is viscosity-dependent and kinetic data suggest that product release is rate-limiting. The crystal structure of the hGSTA1-1/CBL-GSH complex was solved at 2.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement. CBL is bound at the H-site attached to the thiol group of GSH, is partially ordered and exposed to the solvent, making specific interactions with the enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure indicated high mobility of the CBL moiety and stabilization of the C-terminal helix due to the presence of the adduct. In the absence of GSH, CBL is shown to be an alkylating irreversible inhibitor for hGSTA1-1. Inactivation of the enzyme by CBL followed a biphasic pseudo-first-order saturation kinetics with approximately 1 mol of CBL per mol of dimeric enzyme being incorporated. Structural analysis suggested that the modifying residue is Cys112 which is located at the entrance of the H-site. The results are indicative of a structural communication between the subunits on the basis of mutually exclusive modification of Cys112, indicating that the two enzyme active sites are presumably coordinated. PMID:23460799

  19. Characterization of a Highly pH Stable Chi-Class Glutathione S-Transferase from Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Chhetri, Gaurav; Tripathi, Timir; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes present in virtually all organisms. Besides having an essential role in cellular detoxification, they also perform various other functions, including responses in stress conditions and signaling. GSTs are highly studied in plants and animals; however, the knowledge regarding GSTs in cyanobacteria seems rudimentary. In this study, we report the characterization of a highly pH stable GST from the model cyanobacterium--Synechocystis PCC 6803. The gene sll0067 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The expressed protein exists as a homo-dimer, which is composed of about 20 kDa subunit. The results of the steady-state enzyme kinetics displayed protein's glutathione conjugation activity towards its class specific substrate- isothiocyanate, having the maximal activity with phenethyl isothiocyanate. Contrary to the poor catalytic activity and low specificity towards standard GST substrates such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene by bacterial GSTs, PmGST B1-1 from Proteus mirabilis, and E. coli GST, sll0067 has broad substrate degradation capability like most of the mammalian GST. Moreover, we have shown that cyanobacterial GST sll0067 is catalytically efficient compared to the best mammalian enzymes. The structural stability of GST was studied as a function of pH. The fluorescence and CD spectroscopy in combination with size exclusion chromatography showed a highly stable nature of the protein over a broad pH range from 2.0 to 11.0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first GST with such a wide range of pH related structural stability. Furthermore, the presence of conserved Proline-53, structural motifs such as N-capping box and hydrophobic staple further aid in the stability and proper folding of cyanobacterial GST-sll0067.

  20. The interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil with human glutathione transferase A1-1: kinetic and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Karpusas, Michael; Axarli, Irine; Chiniadis, Lykourgos; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Bethanis, Kostas; Scopelitou, Katholiki; Clonis, Yannis D; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that contribute to cellular detoxification by catalysing the nucleophilic attack of glutathione (GSH) on the electrophilic centre of a number of xenobiotic compounds, including several chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present work we investigated the interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil (CBL) with human GSTA1-1 (hGSTA1-1) using kinetic analysis, protein crystallography and molecular dynamics. In the presence of GSH, CBL behaves as an efficient substrate for hGSTA1-1. The rate-limiting step of the catalytic reaction between CBL and GSH is viscosity-dependent and kinetic data suggest that product release is rate-limiting. The crystal structure of the hGSTA1-1/CBL-GSH complex was solved at 2.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement. CBL is bound at the H-site attached to the thiol group of GSH, is partially ordered and exposed to the solvent, making specific interactions with the enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations based on the crystal structure indicated high mobility of the CBL moiety and stabilization of the C-terminal helix due to the presence of the adduct. In the absence of GSH, CBL is shown to be an alkylating irreversible inhibitor for hGSTA1-1. Inactivation of the enzyme by CBL followed a biphasic pseudo-first-order saturation kinetics with approximately 1 mol of CBL per mol of dimeric enzyme being incorporated. Structural analysis suggested that the modifying residue is Cys112 which is located at the entrance of the H-site. The results are indicative of a structural communication between the subunits on the basis of mutually exclusive modification of Cys112, indicating that the two enzyme active sites are presumably coordinated.

  1. Dissociation of ribosomes into large and small subunits.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-04-01

    Structural and functional studies of ribosomal subunits require the dissociation of intact ribosomes into individual small and large ribosomal subunits. The dissociation of the prokaryotic 70S ribosomes into the 50S and 30S subunits is achieved by dialysis against a buffer containing a lower Mg(2+) concentration. Eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are dissociated into 60S and 40S subunits by incubation in a buffer containing puromycin and higher KCl and Mg(2+) concentrations.

  2. Degradation of the Separase-cleaved Rec8, a Meiotic Cohesin Subunit, by the N-end Rule Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jiao; Liu, Chao; Chang, ZeNan; Wadas, Brandon; Brower, Christopher S; Song, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Shang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Wei-Xiao; Wang, Li-Na; Dong, Wen; Varshavsky, Alexander; Hu, Rong-Gui; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The Ate1 arginyltransferase (R-transferase) is a component of the N-end rule pathway, which recognizes proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, polyubiquitylates these proteins, and thereby causes their degradation by the proteasome. Ate1 arginylates N-terminal Asp, Glu, or (oxidized) Cys. The resulting N-terminal Arg is recognized by ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule pathway. In the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, the separase-mediated cleavage of the Scc1/Rad21/Mcd1 cohesin subunit generates a C-terminal fragment that bears N-terminal Arg and is destroyed by the N-end rule pathway without a requirement for arginylation. In contrast, the separase-mediated cleavage of Rec8, the mammalian meiotic cohesin subunit, yields a fragment bearing N-terminal Glu, a substrate of the Ate1 R-transferase. Here we constructed and used a germ cell-confinedAte1(-/-)mouse strain to analyze the separase-generated C-terminal fragment of Rec8. We show that this fragment is a short-lived N-end rule substrate, that its degradation requires N-terminal arginylation, and that maleAte1(-/-)mice are nearly infertile, due to massive apoptotic death ofAte1(-/-)spermatocytes during the metaphase of meiosis I. These effects ofAte1ablation are inferred to be caused, at least in part, by the failure to destroy the C-terminal fragment of Rec8 in the absence of N-terminal arginylation. PMID:26858254

  3. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  4. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs. PMID:24755349

  5. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  6. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs.

  7. Structure of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Xu, Han-Yang; Wang, Yi-Cui; Shi, Zhu-Bing; Zhang, Nan-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) plays a crucial role in ketone-body metabolism. SCOT from Drosophila melanogaster (DmSCOT) was purified and crystallized. The crystal structure of DmSCOT was determined at 2.64 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 76.638, b = 101.921, c = 122.457 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Sequence alignment and structural analysis identified DmSCOT as a class I CoA transferase. Compared with Acetobacter aceti succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, DmSCOT has a different substrate-binding pocket, which may explain the difference in their substrate specificities. PMID:24100554

  8. Subunit organization in cytoplasmic dynein subcomplexes

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen J.; Bonilla, Myriam; Rodgers, Michael E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    2002-01-01

    Because cytoplasmic dynein plays numerous critical roles in eukaryotic cells, determining the subunit composition and the organization and functions of the subunits within dynein are important goals. This has been difficult partly because of accessory polypeptide heterogeneity of dynein populations. The motor domain containing heavy chains of cytoplasmic dynein are associated with multiple intermediate, light intermediate, and light chain accessory polypeptides. We examined the organization of these subunits within cytoplasmic dynein by separating the molecule into two distinct subcomplexes. These subcomplexes were competent to reassemble into a molecule with dynein-like properties. One subcomplex was composed of the dynein heavy and light intermediate chains whereas the other subcomplex was composed of the intermediate and light chains. The intermediate and light chain subcomplex could be further separated into two pools, only one of which contained dynein light chains. The two pools had distinct intermediate chain compositions, suggesting that intermediate chain isoforms have different light chain–binding properties. When the two intermediate chain pools were characterized by analytical velocity sedimentation, at least four molecular components were seen: intermediate chain monomers, intermediate chain dimers, intermediate chain monomers with bound light chains, and a mixture of intermediate chain dimers with assorted bound light chains. These data provide new insights into the compositional heterogeneity and assembly of the cytoplasmic dynein complex and suggest that individual dynein molecules have distinct molecular compositions in vivo. PMID:11967380

  9. Arrangement of subunits in microribbons from Giardia.

    PubMed

    Holberton, D V

    1981-02-01

    Ultrasound has been used to disperse the cytoplasm of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis trophozoites, releasing disk cytoskeletons for negative staining and study by electron microscopy. Sonication also breaks down the corss-bridges uniting microribbons in disks. Individual ribbons and small bundles of these structures, are found in these preparations and have been imaged both from their edges and in flat face view. The outer layers of ribbons are 2 sheets of regularly arranged globular subunits, held apart by a fibrous inner core. The axial repeat of the microribbon is 15 nm, which is also the distance separating cross-bridge sites along ribbons. Pronounced striping at this interval is a feature of ribbon faces where they are joined in bundles. Subunits in the outer layer are arranged in vertical protofilaments that are set orthogonally to the long axis of the ribbon. Protofilaments bind tannic acid and are seen clearly in sectioned ribbons. Three protofilaments fit into the 15-nm longitudinal spacing. Optical diffraction patterns from ribbon images are dominated by orders of the 15-nm periodicity, including the third-order reflexions expected from protofilaments spacings. Fourth-order reflexions indicate that the ribbon core may also be structured. Ribbon face images give rise to a strong 4-nm layer line, corresponding to the vertical spacing of subunits in protofilaments. Neighbouring protofilaments are staggered by about 0.67 nm. The lattices found in ribbons are consistent with studies of cytoskeleton composition.

  10. Activity Detection of GalNAc Transferases by Protein-Based Fluorescence Sensors In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Lina; Bachert, Collin; Linstedt, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation occurring in the Golgi apparatus is an important protein posttranslational modification initiated by up to 20 GalNAc-transferase isozymes with largely distinct substrate specificities. Regulation of this enzyme family affects a vast array of proteins transiting the secretory pathway and misregulation causes human diseases. Here we describe the use of protein-based fluorescence sensors that traffic in the secretory pathway to monitor GalNAc-transferase activity in living cells. The sensors can either be "pan" or isozyme specific.

  11. Activity Detection of GalNAc Transferases by Protein-Based Fluorescence Sensors In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Song, Lina; Bachert, Collin; Linstedt, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation occurring in the Golgi apparatus is an important protein posttranslational modification initiated by up to 20 GalNAc-transferase isozymes with largely distinct substrate specificities. Regulation of this enzyme family affects a vast array of proteins transiting the secretory pathway and misregulation causes human diseases. Here we describe the use of protein-based fluorescence sensors that traffic in the secretory pathway to monitor GalNAc-transferase activity in living cells. The sensors can either be "pan" or isozyme specific. PMID:27632006

  12. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes for producing the A and B subunits of cholera toxin and preparations containing so-obtained subunit or subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Harford, N.; De Wilde, M.

    1987-05-19

    A recombinant DNA molecule is described comprising at least a portion coding for subunits A and B of cholera toxin, or a fragment or derivative of the portion wherein the fragment or derivative codes for a polypeptide have an activity which can induce an immune response to subunit A; can induce an immune response to subunit A and cause epithelial cell penetration and the enzymatic effect leading to net loss of fluid into the gut lumen; can bind to the membrane receptor for the B subunit of cholera toxin; can induce an immune response to subunit B; can induce an immune response to subunit B and bind to the membrane receptor; or has a combination of the activities.

  13. Na+ Channel β Subunits: Overachievers of the Ion Channel Family

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, William J.; Isom, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in mammals contain a pore-forming α subunit and one or more β subunits. There are five mammalian β subunits in total: β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4, encoded by four genes: SCN1B–SCN4B. With the exception of the SCN1B splice variant, β1B, the β subunits are type I topology transmembrane proteins. In contrast, β1B lacks a transmembrane domain and is a secreted protein. A growing body of work shows that VGSC β subunits are multifunctional. While they do not form the ion channel pore, β subunits alter gating, voltage-dependence, and kinetics of VGSCα subunits and thus regulate cellular excitability in vivo. In addition to their roles in channel modulation, β subunits are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and regulate cell adhesion and migration. β subunits are also substrates for sequential proteolytic cleavage by secretases. An example of the multifunctional nature of β subunits is β1, encoded by SCN1B, that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development, and whose function is dependent on Na+ current and γ-secretase activity. Functional deletion of SCN1B results in Dravet Syndrome, a severe and intractable pediatric epileptic encephalopathy. β subunits are emerging as key players in a wide variety of physiopathologies, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and cancer. β subunits mediate multiple signaling pathways on different timescales, regulating electrical excitability, adhesion, migration, pathfinding, and transcription. Importantly, some β subunit functions may operate independently of α subunits. Thus, β subunits perform critical roles during development and disease. As such, they may prove useful in disease diagnosis and therapy. PMID:22007171

  14. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  15. PKA catalytic subunit mutations in adrenocortical Cushing's adenoma impair association with the regulatory subunit.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Hannawacker, Annette; Lyga, Sandra; Bathon, Kerstin; Zabel, Ulrike; Ronchi, Cristina; Beuschlein, Felix; Reincke, Martin; Lorenz, Kristina; Allolio, Bruno; Kisker, Caroline; Fassnacht, Martin; Lohse, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified a high prevalence of mutations affecting the catalytic (Cα) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. The two identified mutations (Leu206Arg and Leu199_Cys200insTrp) are associated with increased PKA catalytic activity, but the underlying mechanisms are highly controversial. Here we utilize a combination of biochemical and optical assays, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells, to analyze the consequences of the two mutations with respect to the formation of the PKA holoenzyme and its regulation by cAMP. Our results indicate that neither mutant can form a stable PKA complex, due to the location of the mutations at the interface between the catalytic and the regulatory subunits. We conclude that the two mutations cause high basal catalytic activity and lack of regulation by cAMP through interference of complex formation between the regulatory and the catalytic subunits of PKA. PMID:25477193

  16. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci; James, Margaret O. McKenna, Robert

    2014-01-21

    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  17. A tyrosine-reactive irreversible inhibitor for glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1).

    PubMed

    Crawford, L A; Weerapana, E

    2016-05-24

    Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) mediates cellular defense against reactive electrophiles. Here, we report LAS17, a dichlorotriazine-containing compound that irreversibly inhibits GSTP1 and is selective for GSTP1 within cellular proteomes. Mass spectrometry and mutational studies identified Y108 as the site of modification, providing a unique mode of GSTP1 inhibition. PMID:27113843

  18. Maize white seedling 3 results from disruption of homogentisate solanesyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show here that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This re...

  19. Glutathione S-transferase class mu in French alcoholic cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Groppi, A; Coutelle, C; Fleury, B; Iron, A; Begueret, J; Couzigou, P

    1991-09-01

    The lack of glutathione S-transferase mu (GST mu) was examined in 45 healthy French Caucasians and 45 alcoholic cirrhotic French Caucasians: microsamples of blood were taken and DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. We have concluded that there is no relationship between this genotype and the development of alcoholic cirrhosis in these heavy consumers of ethanol.

  20. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. Development of isoform-specific sensors of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Lina; Bachert, Collin; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Clausen, Henrik; Linstedt, Adam D

    2014-10-31

    Humans express up to 20 isoforms of GalNAc-transferase (herein T1-T20) that localize to the Golgi apparatus and initiate O-glycosylation. Regulation of this enzyme family affects a vast array of proteins transiting the secretory pathway and diseases arise upon misregulation of specific isoforms. Surprisingly, molecular probes to monitor GalNAc-transferase activity are lacking and there exist no effective global or isoform-specific inhibitors. Here we describe the development of T2- and T3-isoform specific fluorescence sensors that traffic in the secretory pathway. Each sensor yielded little signal when glycosylated but was strongly activated in the absence of its glycosylation. Specificity of each sensor was assessed in HEK cells with either the T2 or T3 enzymes deleted. Although the sensors are based on specific substrates of the T2 and T3 enzymes, elements in or near the enzyme recognition sequence influenced their activity and required modification, which we carried out based on previous in vitro work. Significantly, the modified T2 and T3 sensors were activated only in cells lacking their corresponding isozymes. Thus, we have developed T2- and T3-specific sensors that will be valuable in both the study of GalNAc-transferase regulation and in high-throughput screening for potential therapeutic regulators of specific GalNAc-transferases.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  7. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315...

  9. A practical fluorogenic substrate for high-throughput screening of glutathione S-transferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Yuuta; Morisaki, Fumika; Ogura, Asami; Morohashi, Kana; Enya, Sora; Niwa, Ryusuke; Goto, Shinji; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Inoue, Hideshi

    2015-07-21

    We report a new fluorogenic substrate for glutathione S-transferase (GST), 3,4-DNADCF, enabling the assay with a low level of nonenzymatic background reaction. Inhibitors against Noppera-bo/GSTe14 from Drosophila melanogaster were identified by high throughput screening using 3,4-DNADCF, demonstrating the utility of this substrate.

  10. A tyrosine-reactive irreversible inhibitor for glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1).

    PubMed

    Crawford, L A; Weerapana, E

    2016-05-24

    Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) mediates cellular defense against reactive electrophiles. Here, we report LAS17, a dichlorotriazine-containing compound that irreversibly inhibits GSTP1 and is selective for GSTP1 within cellular proteomes. Mass spectrometry and mutational studies identified Y108 as the site of modification, providing a unique mode of GSTP1 inhibition.

  11. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  3. Effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphisms on biomarkers of exposure and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J

    1998-01-01

    Genotypes responsible for interindividual differences in ability to activate or detoxify genotoxic agents are recognized as biomarkers of susceptibility. Among the most studied genotypes are human glutathione transferases. The relationship of genetic susceptibility to biomarkers of exposure and effects was studied especially in relation to the genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1). For this review papers reporting the effect of GSTM1 genotype on DNA adducts, protein adducts, urine mutagenicity, Comet assay parameters, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations were assessed. Subjects in groups occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzidine, pesticides, and 1,3-butadiene were included. As environmentally exposed populations, autopsy donors, coal tar-treated patients, smokers, nonsmokers, mothers, postal workers, and firefighters were followed. From all biomarkers the effect of GSTM1 and N-acetyl transferase 2 was seen in coke oven workers on mutagenicity of urine and of glutathione S-transferase T1 on the chromosomal aberrations in subjects from 1,3-butadiene monomer production units. Effects of genotypes on DNA adducts were found from lung tissue of autopsy donors and from placentas of mothers living in an air-polluted region. The GSTM1 genotype affected mutagenicity of urine in smokers and subjects from polluted regions, protein adducts in smokers, SCE in smokers and nonsmokers, and Comet assay parameters in postal workers. A review of all studies on GSTM1 polymorphisms suggests that research probably has not reached the stage where results can be interpreted to formulate preventive measures. The relationship between genotypes and biomarkers of exposure and effects may provide an important guide to the risk assessment of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:9539016

  4. Purification and Characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus Bacillithiol Transferase BstA

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Varahenage R.; Newton, Gerald L.; Parnell, Jonathan M.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Pogliano, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes synthesize the low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol rather than glutathione or mycothiol. The bacillithiol transferase YfiT from Bacillus subtilis was identified as a new member of the recently discovered DinB/YfiT-like Superfamily. Based on structural similarity using the Superfamily program, we have determined 30 of 31 Staphylococcus aureus strains encode a single bacillithiol transferase from the DinB/YfiT-like Superfamily, while the remaining strain encodes two proteins. Methods We have cloned, purified, and confirmed the activity of a recombinant bacillithiol transferase (henceforth called BstA) encoded by the S. aureus Newman ORF NWMN_2591. Moreover, we have studied the saturation kinetics and substrate specificity of this enzyme using in vitro biochemical assays. Results BstA was found to be active with the co-substrate bacillithiol, but not with other low molecular weight thiols tested. BstA catalyzed bacillithiol conjugation to the model substrates monochlorobimane, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and the antibiotic cerulenin. Several other molecules, including the antibiotic rifamycin S, were found to react directly with bacillithiol, but the addition of BstA did not enhance the rate of reaction. Furthermore, cells growing in nutrient rich medium exhibited low BstA activity. Conclusions BstA is a bacillithiol transferase from Staphylococcus aureus that catalyzes the detoxification of cerulenin. Additionally, we have determined that bacillithiol itself might be capable of directly detoxifying electrophilic molecules. General Significance BstA is an active bacillithiol transferase from Staphylococcus aureus Newman and is the first DinB/YfiT-like Superfamily member identified from this organism. Interestingly, BstA is highly divergent from Bacillus subtilis YfiT. PMID:24821014

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver that is involved in the detoxification of 4-hydroxynonenal.

    PubMed

    Doi, Adriana M; Pham, Robert T; Hughes, Erin M; Barber, David S; Gallagher, Evan P

    2004-06-01

    We are currently investigating the role of detoxification pathways in protecting against the sublethal effects of chemicals in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). To this end, previous work in our laboratory indicated a remarkable ability of bass liver glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) to detoxify 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), a common mutagenic and cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde produced during the peroxidation of lipids. In the current study, we observed that GST-mediated 4HNE conjugation in bass liver follows high efficiency single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics, suggesting that an individual GST isoform is involved in 4HNE detoxification. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), a full-length GST cDNA of 957 base pairs (bp) in length, containing an open reading frame of 678 bp and encoding a polypeptide of 225 amino acids, has been cloned. Interestingly, a search of the BLAST protein database revealed the presence of homologous GST proteins in the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), European flounder (Platichthys flesus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), but not in other fish species. Furthermore, the bass GST protein exhibited little homology with the mammalian GSTA4 subclass of proteins which rapidly metabolize 4HNE. The recombinant 6 x His-tagged expressed GST protein showed high catalytic activity towards 4HNE, while showing moderate or low activity toward other class specific GST substrates. HPLC-GST subunit analysis, followed by sequencing, demonstrated that the isolated bass liver GST subunit constitutes the major GST protein in bass liver, with a molecular mass of 26.4 kDa. In summary, the presence of a highly expressed GST isozyme in bass and several evolutionarily divergent fish species indicates the conservation of an important and distinct detoxification protein that protects against oxidative damage in certain aquatic organisms.

  6. N-myristoylation is required for function of the pheromone-responsive G alpha protein of yeast: conditional activation of the pheromone response by a temperature-sensitive N-myristoyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Stone, D E; Cole, G M; de Barros Lopes, M; Goebl, M; Reed, S I

    1991-11-01

    In a screen designed to identify novel mutations in the mating response pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we isolated conditional alleles of NMT1, the gene encoding N-myristoyl transferase. Genetic data indicate that Nmt1 deficiency results in the activation of the pheromone response at the level of Gpa1, the alpha subunit of the pheromone-responsive G protein. We show that Gpa1 is myristoylated by Nmt1, and without this normally stable modification, Gpa1 is unable to inhibit pheromone signaling. This loss of Gpa1 function is probably not the result of improper subcellular localization. Unlike the mammalian G alpha i proteins alpha i and alpha o, nonmyristoylated Gpa1 is able to associate with membranes. In addition to Gpa1, our data indicate that Nmt1 myristoylates other proteins essential to vegetative growth. PMID:1936988

  7. Subunit Arrangement and Function in NMDA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa,H.; Singh, S.; Mancusso, R.; Gouaux, E.

    2005-01-01

    Excitatory neurotransmission mediated by NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors is fundamental to the physiology of the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are heteromeric ion channels that for activation require binding of glycine and glutamate to the NR1 and NR2 subunits, respectively. NMDA receptor function is characterized by slow channel opening and deactivation, and the resulting influx of cations initiates signal transduction cascades that are crucial to higher functions including learning and memory. Here we report crystal structures of the ligand-binding core of NR2A with glutamate and that of the NR1-NR2A heterodimer with glutamate and glycine. The NR2A-glutamate complex defines the determinants of glutamate and NMDA recognition, and the NR1-NR2A heterodimer suggests a mechanism for ligand-induced ion channel opening. Analysis of the heterodimer interface, together with biochemical and electrophysiological experiments, confirms that the NR1-NR2A heterodimer is the functional unit in tetrameric NMDA receptors and that tyrosine 535 of NR1, located in the subunit interface, modulates the rate of ion channel deactivation.

  8. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jesse R; Mullins, Elwood A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  9. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jesse; Mullins, Elwood; Kappock, T.

    2016-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates less than 3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analogue dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analogue of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  10. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA. PMID:27242998

  11. Strong cooperativity between subunits in voltage-gated proton channels

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Koch, Hans P.; Drum, Ben M.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-activated proton (HV) channels are essential components in the innate immune response. HV channels are dimeric proteins with one proton permeation pathway per subunit. It is not known how HV channels are activated by voltage and whether there is any cooperativity between subunits during voltage activation. Using cysteine accessibility measurements and voltage clamp fluorometry, we show data that are consistent with that the fourth transmembrane segment S4 functions as the voltage sensor in HV channels from Ciona intestinalis. Surprisingly, in a dimeric HV channel, S4 in both subunits have to move to activate the two proton permeation pathways. In contrast, if HV subunits are prevented from dimerizing, then the movement of a single S4 is sufficient to activate the proton permeation pathway in a subunit. These results suggest a strong cooperativity between subunits in dimeric HV channels. PMID:20023639

  12. Subunit stoichiometry of the chloroplast photosystem I complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, B.D.; Malkin, R.

    1988-05-25

    A native photosystem I (PS I) complex and a PS I core complex depleted of antenna subunits has been isolated from the uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled aquatic higher plant, Lemna. These complexes have been analyzed for their subunit stoichiometry by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results for both preparations indicate that one copy of each high molecular mass subunit is present per PS I complex and that a single copy of most low molecular mass subunits is also present. These results suggest that iron-sulfur center X, an early PS I electron acceptor proposed to bind to the high molecular mass subunits, contains a single (4Fe-4S) cluster which is bound to a dimeric structure of high molecular mass subunits, each providing 2 cysteine residues to coordinate this cluster.

  13. Effects of 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole pretreatment on cefpiramide binding to mouse glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nishiya, H; Haga, T; Nozue, N; Komatsu, T; Baba, M; Ueda, Y; Ono, Y; Kunii, O

    1989-01-01

    Binding of cefpiramide (CPM) and other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents to 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA)-induced liver glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18) from CD-1 mice was studied. A marked induction of hepatic GSH S-transferase from mice fed BHA was observed. Gel chromatography of liver cytosol from mice fed BHA showed an increased binding of CPM, cefotetan and cefazolin to BHA-induced GSH S-transferases. The extent of their binding to GSH S-transferase seemed to be correlated with the extent of their excretion into the bile. Binding of CPM to the GSH S-transferase fraction was inhibited by both indocyanine green, which is known to bind liver GSH S-transferases intensively, and by cefoperazon, which is mainly excreted into the bile. This study suggests that GSH S-transferases are the main binding proteins of CPM in the liver cytosol fraction and play an important role as carrier proteins of CPM and some antimicrobial agents in mouse liver.

  14. Subunit structure of the phycobiliproteins of blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Glazer, A N; Cohen-Bazire, G

    1971-07-01

    The phycobiliproteins of the blue-green algae Synechococcus sp. and Aphanocapsu sp. were characterized with respect to homogeneity, isoelectric point, and subunit composition. Each of the biliproteins consisted of two different noncovalently associated subunits, with molecular weights of about 20,000 and 16,000 for phycocyanin, 17,500 and 15,500 for allophycocyanin, and 22,000 and 20,000 for phycoerythrin. Covalently bound chromophore was associated with each subunit.

  15. Diversity of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits in plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are present in most eukaryotes and mediate signaling in numerous biological processes. In plants, Gγ subunits were shown to provide functional selectivity to G-proteins. Three unconventional Gγ subunits were recently reported in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean but no structural analysis has been reported so far. Their relationship with conventional Gγ subunits and taxonomical distribution has not been yet demonstrated. Results After an extensive similarity search through plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes we assembled over 200 non-redundant proteins related to the known Gγ subunits. Structural analysis of these sequences revealed that most of them lack the obligatory C-terminal prenylation motif (CaaX). According to their C-terminal structures we classified the plant Gγ subunits into three distinct types. Type A consists of Gγ subunits with a putative prenylation motif. Type B subunits lack a prenylation motif and do not have any cysteine residues in the C-terminal region, while type C subunits contain an extended C-terminal domain highly enriched with cysteines. Comparative analysis of C-terminal domains of the proteins, intron-exon arrangement of the corresponding genes and phylogenetic studies suggested a common origin of all plant Gγ subunits. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses suggest that types C and B most probably originated independently from type A ancestors. We speculate on a potential mechanism used by those Gγ subunits lacking isoprenylation motifs to anchor the Gβγ dimer to the plasma membrane and propose a new flexible nomenclature for plant Gγ subunits. Finally, in the light of our new classification, we give a word of caution about the interpretation of Gγ research in Arabidopsis and its generalization to other plant species. PMID:23113884

  16. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  17. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-05-19

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes.

  18. The role of the C-terminal region on the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Wanda M; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Defelipe, Lucas A; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier; Delfino, José M

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcHPRT) is a critical enzyme for the survival of the parasite. This work demonstrates that the full-length form in solution adopts a stable and enzymatically active tetrameric form, exhibiting large inter-subunit surfaces. Although this protein irreversibly aggregates during unfolding, oligomerization is reversible and can be modulated by low concentrations of urea. When the C-terminal region, which is predicted as a disordered stretch, is excised by proteolysis, TcHPRT adopts a dimeric state, suggesting that the C-terminal region acts as a main guide for the quaternary arrangement. These results are in agreement with X-ray crystallographic data presented in this work. On the other hand, the C-terminal region exhibits a modulatory role on the enzyme, as attested by the enhanced activity observed for the dimeric form. Bisphosphonates act as substrate-mimetics, uncovering long-range communications among the active sites. All in all, this work contributes to establish new ways applicable to the design of novel inhibitors that could eventually result in new drugs against parasitic diseases. PMID:26969784

  19. Biochemical responses in seabream (Sparus aurata) caged in-field or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and paraquat. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Banni, Mohamed; Guerbej, Hamadi; Boussetta, Hamadi; López-Barea, Juan; Alhama, José

    2013-02-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were caged in-field at the Téboulba harbour or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] or to paraquat [PQ] plus B(a)P, and several biochemical biomarker responses were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, significantly increased in the in-field and B(a)P+PQ exposures, but were only moderately affected by B(a)P alone. Glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases significantly diminished after in-field exposure. Different responses with biotransformation enzymes were observed: the P4501A-associated EROD activity was highly induced in response to B(a)P and B(a)P+PQ exposures, while total activity of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) was similar to control. However, after purification of the GST proteins by affinity chromatograpy and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, nineteen highly reproducible isoforms were resolved. In addition, some of reproducible isoforms showed different and specific expression patterns in response to contaminants. Thus, proteomic analysis of the purified GST subunits is a reliable tool for ecotoxicological research, useful in polluted marine ecosystem as an effective biomarker of contamination.

  20. Characterization of the molecular forms of glutathione S-transferase P1 in human gastric cancer cells (Kato III) and in normal human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Perungavar N; Whalen, Richard; Boyer, Thomas D

    2005-03-15

    GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi) is involved in stress responses and in cellular proliferation pathways as an inhibitor of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). It has been proposed that monomeric GSTP1 functions as a JNK inhibitor. All of the studies to date have been performed using rodent cells, and it is unclear if monomeric GSTP1 exists in human cells. Monomeric GSTP1 was sought in human gastric cancer cells (Kato III) and in normal human erythrocytes using gel filtration, ELISA and Western blots. Monomeric GSTP1 was found in conditioned medium, in cytosol of Kato III cells and in cytosol of erythrocytes. GSTP1 subunits from Kato III cells and erythrocytes were heterogeneous when analysed by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS, suggesting that there were post-translational modifications to GSTP1. One post-translational modification, phosphorylation of a serine residue in the C-terminal portion of GSTP1 where JNK binds, was identified in GSTP1 purified from Kato III cells, but not in GSTP1 purified from human erythrocytes. Therefore normal and malignant human cells contain GSTP1 monomers with post-translational modifications, and it is likely that GSTP1 monomers regulate JNK activity in human cells in the same manner as in rodent cells. PMID:15471539

  1. Characterization of the molecular forms of glutathione S-transferase P1 in human gastric cancer cells (Kato III) and in normal human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi) is involved in stress responses and in cellular proliferation pathways as an inhibitor of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). It has been proposed that monomeric GSTP1 functions as a JNK inhibitor. All of the studies to date have been performed using rodent cells, and it is unclear if monomeric GSTP1 exists in human cells. Monomeric GSTP1 was sought in human gastric cancer cells (Kato III) and in normal human erythrocytes using gel filtration, ELISA and Western blots. Monomeric GSTP1 was found in conditioned medium, in cytosol of Kato III cells and in cytosol of erythrocytes. GSTP1 subunits from Kato III cells and erythrocytes were heterogeneous when analysed by MALDI–TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight) MS, suggesting that there were post-translational modifications to GSTP1. One post-translational modification, phosphorylation of a serine residue in the C-terminal portion of GSTP1 where JNK binds, was identified in GSTP1 purified from Kato III cells, but not in GSTP1 purified from human erythrocytes. Therefore normal and malignant human cells contain GSTP1 monomers with post-translational modifications, and it is likely that GSTP1 monomers regulate JNK activity in human cells in the same manner as in rodent cells. PMID:15471539

  2. GalNAc-transferase specificity prediction based on feature selection method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Niu, Bing; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Liang; Lu, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Xue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2009-02-01

    GalNAc-transferase can catalyze the biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides. The specificity of GalNAc-transferase is composed of nine amino acid residues denoted by R4, R3, R2, R1, R0, R1', R2', R3', R4'. To predict whether the reducing monosaccharide will be covalently linked to the central residue R0(Ser or Thr), a new method based on feature selection has been proposed in our work. 277 nonapeptides from reference [Chou KC. A sequence-coupled vector-projection model for predicting the specificity of GalNAc-transferase. Protein Sci 1995;4:1365-83] are chosen for training set. Each nonapeptide is represented by hundreds of amino acid properties collected by Amino Acid Index database (http://www.genome.jp/aaindex) and transformed into a numeric vector with 4554 features. The Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR) method combining with Incremental Feature Selection (IFS) and Feature Forward Selection (FFS) are then applied for feature selection. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm (NNA) is used to build prediction models. The optimal model contains 54 features and its correct rate tested by Jackknife cross-validation test reaches 91.34%. Final feature analysis indicates that amino acid residues at position R3' play the most important role in the recognition of GalNAc-transferase specificity, which were confirmed by the experiments [Elhammer AP, Poorman RA, Brown E, Maggiora LL, Hoogerheide JG, Kezdy FJ. The specificity of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase as inferred from a database of in vivo substrates and from the in vitro glycosylation of proteins and peptides. J Biol Chem 1993;268:10029-38; O'Connell BC, Hagen FK, Tabak LA. The influence of flanking sequence on the O-glycosylation of threonine in vitro. J Biol Chem 1992;267:25010-8; Yoshida A, Suzuki M, Ikenaga H, Takeuchi M. Discovery of the shortest sequence motif for high level mucin-type O-glycosylation. J Biol Chem 1997;272:16884-8]. Our method can be used as a tool for predicting O

  3. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  4. 2′,6′-Dihalostyrylanilines, Pyridines, and Pyrimidines for the Inhibition of the Catalytic Subunit of Methionine S-Adenosyltransferase-2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric methionine S-adenosyl transferase-2 (MAT2A) with fluorinated N,N-dialkylaminostilbenes (FIDAS agents) offers a potential avenue for the treatment of liver and colorectal cancers where upregulation of this enzyme occurs. A study of structure–activity relationships led to the identification of the most active compounds as those with (1) either a 2,6-difluorostyryl or 2-chloro-6-fluorostyryl subunit, (2) either an N-methylamino or N,N-dimethylamino group attached in a para orientation relative to the 2,6-dihalostyryl subunit, and (3) either an N-methylaniline or a 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine ring. These modifications led to FIDAS agents that were active in the low nanomolar range, that formed water-soluble hydrochloride salts, and that possessed the desired property of not inhibiting the human hERG potassium ion channel at concentrations at which the FIDAS agents inhibit MAT2A. The active FIDAS agents may inhibit cancer cells through alterations of methylation reactions essential for cancer cell survival and growth. PMID:24950374

  5. The N-Terminal Region of the Medium Subunit (PduD) Packages Adenosylcobalamin-Dependent Diol Dehydratase (PduCDE) into the Pdu Microcompartment ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chenguang; Bobik, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica produces a proteinaceous microcompartment for B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol utilization (Pdu MCP). The Pdu MCP consists of catabolic enzymes encased within a protein shell, and its function is to sequester propionaldehyde, a toxic intermediate of 1,2-propanediol degradation. We report here that a short N-terminal region of the medium subunit (PduD) is required for packaging the coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase (PduCDE) into the lumen of the Pdu MCP. Analysis of soluble cell extracts and purified MCPs by Western blotting showed that the PduD subunit mediated packaging of itself and other subunits of diol dehydratase (PduC and PduE) into the Pdu MCP. Deletion of 35 amino acids from the N terminus of PduD significantly impaired the packaging of PduCDE with minimal effects on its enzyme activity. Western blotting showed that fusing the 18 N-terminal amino acids of PduD to green fluorescent protein or glutathione S-transferase resulted in the association of these fusion proteins with the MCP. Immunoprecipitation tests indicated that the fusion proteins were encapsulated inside the MCP shell. PMID:21821773

  6. Rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives as inhibitors of fungal protein mannosyl transferase 1 (PMT1).

    PubMed

    Orchard, Michael G; Neuss, Judi C; Galley, Carl M S; Carr, Andrew; Porter, David W; Smith, Phillip; Scopes, David I C; Haydon, David; Vousden, Katherine; Stubberfield, Colin R; Young, Kate; Page, Martin

    2004-08-01

    The first inhibitors of fungal protein: mannosyl transferase 1 (PMT1) are described. They are based upon rhodanine-3-acetic acid and several compounds have been identified, for example, 5-[[3-(1-phenylethoxy)-4-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]methylene]-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-thiazolidineacetic acid (5a), which inhibit Candida albicans PMT1 with IC(50)s in the range 0.2-0.5 microM. Members of the series are effective in inducing changes in morphology of C. albicans in vitro that have previously been associated with loss of the transferase activity. These compounds could serve as useful tools for studying the effects of protein O-mannosylation and its relevance in the search for novel antifungal agents. PMID:15225710

  7. Design, synthesis, and characterization of peptide-based rab geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kui-Thong; Guiu-Rozas, Ester; Bon, Robin S; Guo, Zhong; Delon, Christine; Wetzel, Stefan; Arndt, Sabine; Alexandrov, Kirill; Waldmann, Herbert; Goody, Roger S; Wu, Yao-Wen; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2009-12-24

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RabGGTase) catalyzes the attachment of geranylgeranyl isoprenoids to Rab guanine triphosphatases, which are key regulators in vesicular transport. Because geranylgeranylation is required for proper function and overexpression of Rabs has been observed in various cancers, RabGGTase may be a target for novel therapeutics. The development of selective inhibitors is, however, difficult because two related enzymes involved in other cellular processes exist in eukaryotes and because RabGGTase recognizes protein substrates indirectly, resulting in relaxed specificity. We report the synthesis of a peptidic library based on the farnesyl transferase inhibitor pepticinnamin E. Of 469 compounds investigated, several were identified as selective for RabGGTase with low micromolar IC(50) values. The compounds were not generally cytotoxic and inhibited Rab isoprenylation in COS-7 cells. Crystal structure analysis revealed that selective inhibitors interact with a tunnel unique to RabGGTase, implying that this structural motif is an attractive target for improved RabGGTase inhibitors.

  8. New members of the glutathione transferase family discovered in red and brown algae.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; de Franco, Pierre-Olivier; Groisillier, Agnès; Tonon, Thierry; Boyen, Catherine

    2008-06-15

    The GSTs (glutathione transferases) are involved in the detoxification of a wide variety of hydrophobic substrates. These enzymes have been found in virtually all types of organisms, including plants, animals, nematodes and bacteria. In the present study, we report the molecular and biochemical characterization of algal GSTs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of them were distinct from previously described GST classes, but were most closely related to the Sigma class. Profiling of GST genes from the red alga Chondrus crispus and brown alga Laminaria digitata was undertaken after different chemical treatments and showed that they displayed contrasting patterns of transcription. Recombinant algal GST from both species showed transferase activities against the common substrates aryl halides, but also on the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl 4-hydroxynonenal. Also, they exhibit significant peroxidation towards organic hydroperoxides, including oxygenated derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among a range of compounds tested, Cibacron Blue was the most efficient inhibitor of algal GSTs identified.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of a Bombyx mori Omega-class glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Mamoru; Higashiura, Akifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes that play central roles in the defense against various environmental toxicants as well as oxidative stress. Here we report the crystal structure of an Omega-class glutathione transferase of Bombyx mori, bmGSTO, to gain insight into its catalytic mechanism. The structure of bmGSTO complexed with glutathione determined at a resolution of 2.5Å reveals that it exists as a dimer and is structurally similar to Omega-class GSTs with respect to its secondary and tertiary structures. Analysis of a complex between bmGSTO and glutathione showed that bound glutathione was localized to the glutathione-binding site (G-site). Site-directed mutagenesis of bmGSTO mutants indicated that amino acid residues Leu62, Lys65, Lys77, Val78, Glu91 and Ser92 in the G-site contribute to catalytic activity.

  10. Structural characterization of the catalytic site of a Nilaparvata lugens delta-class glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Higashiura, Akifumi; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-15

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a major class of detoxification enzymes that play a central role in the defense against environmental toxicants and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the crystal structure of a delta-class glutathione transferase from Nilaparvata lugens, nlGSTD, to gain insights into its catalytic mechanism. The structure of nlGSTD in complex with glutathione, determined at a resolution of 1.7Å, revealed that it exists as a dimer and its secondary and tertiary structures are similar to those of other delta-class GSTs. Analysis of a complex between nlGSTD and glutathione showed that the bound glutathione was localized to the glutathione-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of nlGSTD mutants indicated that amino acid residues Ser11, His52, Glu66, and Phe119 contribute to catalytic activity.

  11. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  12. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  13. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  14. Structural insight into the active site of a Bombyx mori unclassified glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are major detoxification enzymes that play central roles in the defense against various environmental toxicants as well as oxidative stress. Here, we identify amino acid residues of an unclassified GST from Bombyx mori, bmGSTu-interacting glutathione (GSH). Site-directed mutagenesis of bmGSTu mutants indicated that amino acid residues Asp103, Ser162, and Ser166 contribute to catalytic activity.

  15. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    PubMed Central

    Tandrup Schmidt, Signe; Foged, Camilla; Smith Korsholm, Karen; Rades, Thomas; Christensen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the specific PRR

  16. The light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Núria; Chillarón, Josep; Bartoccioni, Paola; Fernández, Esperanza; Bendahan, Annie; Zorzano, Antonio; Kanner, Baruch; Palacín, Manuel; Bertran, Joan

    2002-01-01

    The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non-glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. System bo,+ exchanges dibasic for neutral amino acids. It is composed of rBAT and bo,+AT, the latter being the polytopic membrane subunit. Mutations in either of them cause malfunction of the system, leading to cystinuria. bo,+AT-reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the bo,+ substrates inside the liposomes. rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of bo,+AT, but it was not required for reconstituted bo,+AT transport activity. No system bo,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. The reconstituted bo,+AT showed kinetic asymmetry. Expressing the cystinuria-specific mutant A354T of bo,+AT in HeLa cells together with rBAT resulted in defective arginine uptake in whole cells, which was paralleled by the reconstituted bo,+AT activity. Thus, subunit bo,+AT by itself is sufficient to catalyse transmembrane amino acid exchange. The polytopic subunits may also be the catalytic part in other heteromeric transporters. PMID:12234930

  17. Anti-peptidyl transferase leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol-resistance genes.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Harrod, R; Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1994-01-01

    The chloramphenicol (Cm)-inducible cmlA gene of Tn1696 specifies nonenzymatic resistance to Cm and is regulated by attenuation. The first eight codons of the leader specify a peptide that inhibits peptidyl transferase in vitro. Functionally similar, but less inhibitory, peptides are encoded by the leaders of Cm-inducible cat genes. However, the cat and cmlA coding sequences are unrelated and specify proteins of unrelated function. The inhibition of peptidyl transferase by the leader peptides is additive with that of Cm. Erythromycin competes with the inhibitory action of the peptides, and erythromycin and the peptides footprint to overlapping sites at the peptidyl transferase center of 23S rRNA. It is proposed that translation of the cmlA and cat leaders transiently pauses upon synthesis of the inhibitor peptides. The predicted site of pausing is identical to the leader site where long-term occupancy by a ribosome (ribosome stalling) will activate downstream gene expression. We therefore propose the inducer, Cm, converts a peptide-paused ribosome to the stalled state. We discuss the idea that cooperativity between leader peptide and inducer is necessary for ribosome stalling and may link the activation of a specific drug-resistance gene with a particular antibiotic. Images PMID:7515506

  18. Characterization of affinity-purified isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.

  19. Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, E V; Chernov, N N; Novichkova, M D

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade fundamentally new features have been revealed for the participation of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin) in cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein folding, and cell signaling. Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining cellular redox status by participating in thiol-disulfide exchange, which regulates a number of cell functions including gene expression and the activity of individual enzymes and enzyme systems. Maintaining optimum GSH/GSSG ratio is essential to cell viability. Decrease in the ratio can serve as an indicator of damage to the cell redox status and of changes in redox-dependent gene regulation. Disturbance of intracellular GSH balance is observed in a number of pathologies including cancer. Consequences of inappropriate GSH/GSSG ratio include significant changes in the mechanism of cellular redox-dependent signaling controlled both nonenzymatically and enzymatically with the participation of isoforms of glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin. This review summarizes recent data on the role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in the regulation of cellular redox-dependent processes.

  20. Epitopes from two soybean glycinin subunits antigenic in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Glycinin is a seed storage protein in soybean (Glycine max) that is allergenic in pigs. Glycinin is a hexamer composed of subunits consisting of a basic and acidic portion joined by disulfide bridges. There are 5 glycinin subunits designated Gy1-Gy5. Results: Twenty seven out of 30 pi...

  1. The Development and Institutionalization of Subunit Power in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeker, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effects of founding events on the evolution of subunit importance in the semiconductor industry from 1958 to 1985. Distributions of power and subunit importance represent not only influences of current conditions, but also vestiges of earlier events, including the institution's founding. Includes 55 references. (MLH)

  2. Proteopedia Entry: The Large Ribosomal Subunit of "Haloarcula Marismortui"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decatur, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a "Proteopedia" page that shows the refined version of the structure of the "Haloarcula" large ribosomal subunit as solved by the laboratories of Thomas Steitz and Peter Moore. The landmark structure is of great impact as it is the first atomic-resolution structure of the highly conserved ribosomal subunit which harbors…

  3. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  4. A revised model for AMP-activated protein kinase structure: The alpha-subunit binds to both the beta- and gamma-subunits although there is no direct binding between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-11-24

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor for cellular metabolic energy state. It is activated by a high AMP/ATP ratio and leads to metabolic changes that conserve energy and utilize alternative cellular fuel sources. The kinase is composed of a heterotrimeric protein complex containing a catalytic alpha-subunit, an AMP-binding gamma-subunit, and a scaffolding beta-subunit thought to bind directly both the alpha- and gamma-subunits. Here, we use coimmunoprecipitation of proteins in transiently transfected cells to show that the alpha2-subunit binds directly not only to the beta-subunit, confirming previous work, but also to the gamma1-subunit. Deletion analysis of the alpha2-subunit reveals that the C-terminal 386-552 residues are sufficient to bind to the beta-subunit. The gamma1-subunit binds directly to the alpha2-subunit at two interaction sites, one within the catalytic domain consisting of alpha2 amino acids 1-312 and a second within residues 386-552. Binding of the alpha2 and the gamma1-subunits was not affected by 400 mum AMP or ATP. Furthermore, we show that the beta-subunit C terminus is essential for binding to the alpha2-subunit but, in contrast to previous work, the beta-subunit does not bind directly to the gamma1-subunit. Taken together, this study presents a new model for AMPK heterotrimer structure where through its C terminus the beta-subunit binds to the alpha-subunit that, in turn, binds to the gamma-subunit. There is no direct interaction between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

  5. Synaptic GABAA Receptor Clustering without the γ2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Rapid activation of postsynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is crucial in many neuronal functions, including the synchronization of neuronal ensembles and controlling the precise timing of action potentials. Although the γ2 subunit is believed to be essential for the postsynaptic clustering of GABAARs, synaptic currents have been detected in neurons obtained from γ2−/− mice. To determine the role of the γ2 subunit in synaptic GABAAR enrichment, we performed a spatially and temporally controlled γ2 subunit deletion by injecting Cre-expressing viral vectors into the neocortex of GABAARγ277Ilox mice. Whole-cell recordings revealed the presence of miniature IPSCs in Cre+ layer 2/3 pyramidal cells (PCs) with unchanged amplitudes and rise times, but significantly prolonged decays. Such slowly decaying currents could be evoked in PCs by action potentials in presynaptic fast-spiking interneurons. Freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling revealed the presence of the α1 and β3 subunits in perisomatic synapses of cells that lack the γ2 subunit. Miniature IPSCs in Cre+ PCs were insensitive to low concentrations of flurazepam, providing a pharmacological confirmation of the lack of the γ2 subunit. Receptors assembled from only αβ subunits were unlikely because Zn2+ did not block the synaptic currents. Pharmacological experiments indicated that the αβγ3 receptor, rather than the αβδ, αβε, or αβγ1 receptors, was responsible for the slowly decaying IPSCs. Our data demonstrate the presence of IPSCs and the synaptic enrichment of the α1 and β3 subunits and suggest that the γ3 subunit is the most likely candidate for clustering GABAARs at synapses in the absence of the γ2 subunit. PMID:25080584

  6. Modification of K+ channel–drug interactions by ancillary subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Glenna C L; Rasmusson, Randall L

    2008-01-01

    Reconciling ion channel α-subunit expression with native ionic currents and their pharmacological sensitivity in target organs has proved difficult. In native tissue, many K+ channel α-subunits co-assemble with ancillary subunits, which can profoundly affect physiological parameters including gating kinetics and pharmacological interactions. In this review, we examine the link between voltage-gated potassium ion channel pharmacology and the biophysics of ancillary subunits. We propose that ancillary subunits can modify the interaction between pore blockers and ion channels by three distinct mechanisms: changes in (1) binding site accessibility; (2) orientation of pore-lining residues; (3) the ability of the channel to undergo post-binding conformational changes. Each of these subunit-induced changes has implications for gating, drug affinity and use dependence of their respective channel complexes. A single subunit may modulate its associated α-subunit by more than one of these mechanisms. Voltage-gated potassium channels are the site of action of many therapeutic drugs. In addition, potassium channels interact with drugs whose primary target is another channel, e.g. the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, the sodium channel blocker quinidine, etc. Even when K+ channel block is the intended mode of action, block of related channels in non-target organs, e.g. the heart, can result in major and potentially lethal side-effects. Understanding factors that determine specificity, use dependence and other properties of K+ channel drug binding are therefore of vital clinical importance. Ancillary subunits play a key role in determining these properties in native tissue, and so understanding channel–subunit interactions is vital to understanding clinical pharmacology. PMID:18096604

  7. Crystallographic trapping of the glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate of family I CoA transferases

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Iannuzzi, P.; Kernaghan, S.; Fraser, M.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme A transferases are involved in a broad range of biochemical processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exhibit a diverse range of substrate specificities. The YdiF protein from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an acyl-CoA transferase of unknown physiological function, and belongs to a large sequence family of CoA transferases, present in bacteria to humans, which utilize oxoacids as acceptors. In vitro measurements showed that YdiF displays enzymatic activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs. The crystal structures of YdiF and its complex with CoA, the first co-crystal structure for any Family I CoA transferase, have been determined and refined at 1.9 and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. YdiF is organized into tetramers, with each monomer having an open {alpha}/{beta} structure characteristic of Family I CoA transferases. Co-crystallization of YdiF with a variety of CoA thioesters in the absence of acceptor carboxylic acid resulted in trapping a covalent {gamma}-glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate. The CoA binds within a well defined pocket at the N- and C-terminal domain interface, but makes contact only with the C-terminal domain. The structure of the YdiF complex provides a basis for understanding the different catalytic steps in the reaction of Family I CoA transferases.

  8. Probing the leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase active site with tRNA substrate analogues.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Krishnakumar, Kollappillil S; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Strazewski, Peter; Fahlman, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferases post-translationally conjugate an amino acid from an aminoacyl-tRNA onto the N-terminus of a target polypeptide. The eubacterial aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase, L/F transferase, utilizes both leucyl-tRNA(Leu) and phenylalanyl-tRNA(Phe) as substrates. X-ray crystal structures with substrate analogues, the minimal substrate phenylalanyl adenosine (rA-Phe) and inhibitor puromycin, have been used to characterize tRNA recognition by L/F transferase. However analyses of these two X-ray crystal structures reveal significant differences in binding. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and enzymatic activity assays, we rationalize and demonstrate that the substrate analogues bind to L/F transferase with similar binding affinities using a series of different interactions by the various chemical groups of the analogues. Our data also demonstrates that enlarging the hydrophobic pocket of L/F transferase selectively enhances puromycin inhibition and may aid in the development of improved inhibitors for this class of enzymes.

  9. Structural modeling of the catalytic subunit-regulatory subunit dimeric complex of the camp-dependent protein kinase.

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, C-S; Gallagher, S. C.; Walsh, D. A.; Trewhella, J.

    2001-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a multifunctional kinase that serves as a prototype for understanding second messenger signaling and protein phosphorylation. In the absence of a cAMP signal, PKA exists as a dimer of dimers, consisting of two regulatory (R) and two catalystic (C) subunits. Based on experimentally derived data (i.e., crystal structures of the R and C subunits, mutagenesis data identifying points of subunit-subunit contacts), the neutron scattering derived model for the heterodimer (Zhao et al., 1998) and using a set of computational approaches (homology modeling, Monte Carlo simulation), they have developed a high-resolution model of the RII{alpha}-C{alpha} dimer. The nature of the subunit-subunit interface was studied. The model reveals an averaged size dimer interface (2100 Angstrom{sup 2}) that is distant from the pseudo-substrate binding site on the C subunit. The additional contacts made by the pseudosubstrate increases the stability of the dimeric complex. Based on a set of R-C dimer structures derived using a simulated annealing approach, specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between the two subunits and were identified.

  10. Subunit dissociations in natural and recombinant hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Manning, L R; Jenkins, W T; Hess, J R; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Manning, J M

    1996-04-01

    A precise and rapid procedure employing gel filtration on Superose-12 to measure the tetramer-dimer dissociation constants of some natural and recombinant hemoglobins in the oxy conformation is described. Natural sickle hemoglobin was chosen to verify the validity of the results by comparing the values with those reported using an independent method not based on gel filtration. Recombinant sickle hemoglobin, as well as a sickle double mutant with a substitution at the Val-6(beta) receptor site, had approximately the same dissociation constant as natural sickle hemoglobin. Of the two recombinant hemoglobins with amino acid replacements in the alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface, one was found to be extensively dissociated and the other completely dissociated. In addition, the absence of an effect of the allosteric regulators DPG and IHP on the dissociation constant was demonstrated. Thus, a tetramer dissociation constant can now be determined readily and used together with other criteria for characterization of hemoglobins and their interaction with small regulatory molecules. PMID:8845768

  11. α6 integrin subunit regulates cerebellar development

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Giovanni; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Pfister, Véronique; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding several basal lamina components as well as their cellular receptors disrupt normal deposition and remodeling of the cortical basement membrane resulting in a disorganized cerebral and cerebellar cortex. The α6 integrin was the first α subunit associated with cortical lamination defects and formation of neural ectopias. In order to understand the precise role of α6 integrin in the central nervous system (CNS), we have generated mutant mice carrying specific deletion of α6 integrin in neuronal and glia precursors by crossing α6 conditional knockout mice with Nestin-Cre line. Cerebral cortex development occurred properly in the resulting α6fl/fl;nestin-Cre mutant animals. Interestingly, however, cerebellum displayed foliation pattern defects although granule cell (GC) proliferation and migration were not affected. Intriguingly, analysis of Bergmann glial (BG) scaffold revealed abnormalities in fibers morphology associated with reduced processes outgrowth and altered actin cytoskeleton. Overall, these data show that α6 integrin receptors are required in BG cells to provide a proper fissure formation during cerebellum morphogenesis. PMID:23722246

  12. Gel-based chemical cross-linking analysis of 20S proteasome subunit-subunit interactions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Xiong, Hua; Che, Jing; Xi, Qing-Song; Huang, Liu; Xiong, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a pivotal role in breast tumorigenesis by controlling transcription factors, thus promoting cell cycle growth, and degradation of tumor suppressor proteins. However, breast cancer patients have failed to benefit from proteasome inhibitor treatment partially due to proteasome heterogeneity, which is poorly understood in malignant breast neoplasm. Chemical crosslinking is an increasingly important tool for mapping protein three-dimensional structures and proteinprotein interactions. In the present study, two cross-linkers, bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)) and its water-insoluble analog disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), were used to map the subunit-subunit interactions in 20S proteasome core particle (CP) from MDA-MB-231 cells. Different types of gel electrophoresis technologies were used. In combination with chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we applied these gel electrophoresis technologies to the study of the noncovalent interactions among 20S proteasome subunits. Firstly, the CP subunit isoforms were profiled. Subsequently, using native/SDSPAGE, it was observed that 0.5 mmol/L BS(3) was a relatively optimal cross-linking concentration for CP subunit-subunit interaction study. 2-DE analysis of the cross-linked CP revealed that α1 might preinteract with α2, and α3 might pre-interact with α4. Moreover, there were different subtypes of α1α2 and α3α4 due to proteasome heterogeneity. There was no significant difference in cross-linking pattern for CP subunits between BS(3) and DSS. Taken together, the gel-based characterization in combination with chemical cross-linking could serve as a tool for the study of subunit interactions within a multi-subunit protein complex. The heterogeneity of 20S proteasome subunit observed in breast cancer cells may provide some key information for proteasome inhibition strategy. PMID:27465334

  13. Immunolabeling of Gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 in Normal Human Tissues Reveals Expression and Localization Differs from Gamma-glutamyl transferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Marie H.; Gillies, Elizabeth M.; Wickham, Stephanie; Wakeham, Nancy; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT5) was discovered due to its ability to convert leukotriene C4 (LTC4, a glutathione S-conjugate) to LTD4 and may have an important role in the immune system. However, it was not known which cells express the enzyme in humans. We have developed a sensitive and specific antibody that can be used to detect human GGT5 on western blots and in fixed tissue sections. We localized GGT5 expression in normal human tissues. We observed GGT5 expressed by macrophages present in many tissues, including tissue-fixed macrophages such as Kupffer cells in the liver and dust cells in the lung. GGT5 was expressed in some of the same tissues that have been shown to express gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT1), the only other enzymatically active protein in this family. But, the two enzymes were often expressed by different cell types within the tissue. For example, GGT5 was expressed by the interstitial cells of the kidney; whereas, GGT1 is expressed on the apical surface of the renal proximal tubules. Other tissues with GGT5-positive cells included: adrenal gland, salivary gland, pituitary, thymus, spleen, liver, bone marrow, small intestine, stomach, testis, prostate and placenta. GGT5 and GGT1 are cell surface enzymes. The different pattern of expression results in their access to different extracellular fluids and therefore different substrates. GGT5 has access to substrates in blood and intercellular fluids, while GGT1 has access primarily to fluids in ducts and glands throughout the body. These data provide new insights into the different functions of these two related enzymes. PMID:25377544

  14. Molecular Evolution of Multi-subunit RNA Polymerases: Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, William J.; Darst, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription in all cellular organisms is performed by multi-subunit, DNA-dependent RNA polymerases that synthesize RNA from DNA templates. Previous sequence and structural studies have elucidated the importance of shared regions common to all multi-subunit RNA polymerases. In addition RNA polymerases contain multiple lineage-specific domain insertions involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. We have created comprehensive multiple sequence alignments using all available sequence data for the multi-subunit RNA polymerase large subunits, including the bacterial β and β′ subunits and their homologues from archaebacterial RNA polymerases, the eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the nuclear-cytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA Virus RNA polymerases, and plant plastid RNA polymerases. In order to overcome technical difficulties inherent to the large subunit sequences, including large sequence length, small and large lineage-specific insertions, split subunits, and fused proteins, we created an automated and customizable sequence retrieval and processing system. In addition, we used our alignments to create a more expansive set of shared sequence regions and bacterial lineage-specific domain insertions. We also analyzed the intergenic gap between the bacterial β and β′ genes. PMID:19895820

  15. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases have homologous core subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, D; Nonet, M; Young, R A

    1987-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are complex aggregates whose component subunits are functionally ill-defined. The gene that encodes the 140,000-dalton subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II was isolated and studied in detail to obtain clues to the protein's function. This gene, RPB2, exists in a single copy in the haploid genome. Disruption of the gene is lethal to the yeast cell. RPB2 encodes a protein of 138,750 daltons, which contains sequences implicated in binding purine nucleotides and zinc ions and exhibits striking sequence homology with the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These observations suggest that the yeast and the E. coli subunit have similar roles in RNA synthesis, as the beta subunit contains binding sites for nucleotide substrates and a portion of the catalytic site for RNA synthesis. The subunit homologies reported here, and those observed previously with the largest RNA polymerase subunit, indicate that components of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase "core" enzyme have counterparts in eukaryotic RNA polymerases. PMID:3547406

  16. RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Woychik, N; Liao, S M; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by attaching an epitope coding sequence to a well-characterized RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB3) and by immunoprecipitating the product of this gene with its associated polypeptides. The immunopurified enzyme catalyzed alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in vitro. The 10 polypeptides that immunoprecipitated were identical in size and number to those previously described for RNA polymerase II purified by conventional column chromatography. The relative stoichiometry of the subunits was deduced from knowledge of the sequence of the subunits and from the extent of labeling with [35S]methionine. Immunoprecipitation from 32P-labeled cell extracts revealed that three of the subunits, RPB1, RPB2, and RPB6, are phosphorylated in vivo. Phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of RPB1 could be distinguished; approximately half of the RNA polymerase II molecules contained a phosphorylated RPB1 subunit. These results more precisely define the subunit composition and phosphorylation of a eucaryotic RNA polymerase II enzyme. Images PMID:2183013

  17. Specific residues in the connector loop of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase accessory protein UL44 are crucial for interaction with the UL54 catalytic subunit.

    PubMed

    Loregian, Arianna; Appleton, Brent A; Hogle, James M; Coen, Donald M

    2004-09-01

    The human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase includes an accessory protein, UL44, which has been proposed to act as a processivity factor for the catalytic subunit, UL54. How UL44 interacts with UL54 has not yet been elucidated. The crystal structure of UL44 revealed the presence of a connector loop analogous to that of the processivity subunit of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase, UL42, which is crucial for interaction with its cognate catalytic subunit, UL30. To investigate the role of the UL44 connector loop, we replaced each of its amino acids (amino acids 129 to 140) with alanine. We then tested the effect of each substitution on the UL44-UL54 interaction by glutathione S-transferase pulldown and isothermal titration calorimetry assays, on the stimulation of UL54-mediated long-chain DNA synthesis by UL44, and on the binding of UL44 to DNA-cellulose columns. Substitutions that affected residues 133 to 136 of the connector loop measurably impaired the UL44-UL54 interaction without altering the ability of UL44 to bind DNA. One substitution, I135A, completely disrupted the binding of UL44 to UL54 and inhibited the ability of UL44 to stimulate long-chain DNA synthesis by UL54. Thus, similar to the herpes simplex virus UL30-UL42 interaction, a residue of the connector loop of the accessory subunit is crucial for UL54-UL44 interaction. However, while alteration of a polar residue of the UL42 connector loop only partially reduced binding to UL30, substitution of a hydrophobic residue of UL44 completely disrupted the UL54-UL44 interaction. This information may aid the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of the UL44-UL54 interaction.

  18. Light is essential for degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase large subunit during sudden death syndrome development in soybean.

    PubMed

    Ji, J; Scott, M P; Bhattacharyya, M K

    2006-09-01

    FUSARIUM SOLANI f. sp. GLYCINES (Fsg) has been reported to produce at least two phytotoxins. Cell-free FSG culture filtrates containing phytotoxins have been shown to develop foliar sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. We have investigated the changes in protein profiles of diseased leaves caused by cell-free FSG culture filtrates prepared from FSG isolates. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was conducted to investigate the protein profiles of diseased and healthy leaves. An approximately 55 kDa protein was found to be absent in diseased leaves. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses and a database search revealed that the missing protein is the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit, which is involved in carbon assimilation and photorespiration. This result was confirmed by Western blot experiments. We have shown that light is essential for disappearance of the Rubisco large subunit initiated by cell-free FSG culture filtrates. The disappearance of the protein is fairly rapid and occurs within 24 h, presumably due to degradation. Cell-free, FSG culture-induced degradation of the Rubisco large subunit was accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species under light conditions. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labelling experiments suggested that programmed cell death was initiated in leaves of seedlings fed with cell-free FSG culture filtrates. These results suggest that, in the presence of light, FSG culture filtrates containing phytotoxins cause degradation of the Rubisco large subunit and accumulation of free radicals and, thereby, initiate programmed cell death leading to foliar SDS development in soybean. PMID:16821191

  19. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  20. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  1. Purification of glucagon by subunit exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carrea, G; Pasta, P; Antonini, E

    1985-05-01

    Glucagon was immobilized onto Sepharose matrices activated with CNBr or tresyl chloride, as a function of several parameters including pH of coupling, concentration of added polypeptide, and presence or absence of urea. The hormone was linked to the matrix through a single point per molecule, namely, the epsilon -amino group of Lys(12) when the coupling was carried out at alkaline pH, or the imidazole group of His(1) when the coupling was carried out at acidic pH. Glucagon immobilized at alkaline pH interacted specifically with soluble glucogon. The extent of self-association was similar to that of free glucagon, which exists in solution in a monomer-trimer equilibrium whose association constant is highly dependent on the characteristics of the buffer (pH, ionic strength, and nature of anions). The immobilized hormone proved to be suitable for the purification of the free one from a pancreatic extract. After a preliminary treatment with charcoal-dextran, the extract was percolated on a glucagon-Sepharose column under associating conditions (high concentrations of salting out anions and alkaline pH) and then, following a washing to remove extraneous compounds, the specifically bound hormone was eluted under dissociating conditions (low ionic strength). The subunit exchange chromatography of the extract gave a ca. 90% pure product. The overall recovery of the process was ca. 66%. The leakage of immobilized hormone was 40% in the case of CNBr activation of Sepharose and 15% in the case of tresyl chloride activation, after an eight-day treatment under working conditions.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Glycine Receptor β Subunit (GlyRβ)-interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    del Pino, Isabel; Koch, Dennis; Schemm, Rudolf; Qualmann, Britta; Betz, Heinrich; Paarmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in spinal cord and brainstem. They are clustered at inhibitory postsynapses via a tight interaction of their β subunits (GlyRβ) with the scaffolding protein gephyrin. In an attempt to isolate additional proteins interacting with GlyRβ, we performed pulldown experiments with rat brain extracts using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein encompassing amino acids 378–455 of the large intracellular loop of GlyRβ as bait. This identified syndapin I (SdpI) as a novel interaction partner of GlyRβ that coimmunoprecipitates with native GlyRs from brainstem extracts. Both SdpI and SdpII bound efficiently to the intracellular loop of GlyRβ in vitro and colocalized with GlyRβ upon coexpression in COS-7 cells. The SdpI-binding site was mapped to a proline-rich sequence of 22 amino acids within the intracellular loop of GlyRβ. Deletion and point mutation analysis disclosed that SdpI binding to GlyRβ is Src homology 3 domain-dependent. In cultured rat spinal cord neurons, SdpI immunoreactivity was found to partially colocalize with marker proteins of inhibitory and excitatory synapses. When SdpI was acutely knocked down in cultured spinal cord neurons by viral miRNA expression, postsynaptic GlyR clusters were significantly reduced in both size and number. Similar changes in GlyR cluster properties were found in spinal cultures from SdpI-deficient mice. Our results are consistent with a role of SdpI in the trafficking and/or cytoskeletal anchoring of synaptic GlyRs. PMID:24509844

  3. The DinB Superfamily Includes Novel Mycothiol, Bacillithiol and Glutathione S-transferases

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Gerald L.; Leung, Stephan S.; Wakabayashi, Judy I.; Rawat, Mamta; Fahey, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The superfamily of glutathione S-transferases has been the subject of extensive study but Actinobacteria produce mycothiol (MSH) in place of glutathione and no mycothiol S-transferase (MST) has been identified. Using mycothiol and monochlorobimane as substrates a MST activity was detected in extracts of Mycobacterium smegmatis and purified sufficiently to allow identification of MSMEG_0887, a member the DUF664 family of the DinB superfamily, as the MST. The identity of the M. smegmatis and homologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv0443) enzymes was confirmed by cloning and the expressed proteins were found to be active with MSH but not bacillithiol (BSH) or glutathione (GSH). Bacillus subtilis YfiT is another member of the DinB superfamily but this bacterium produces BSH. The YfiT protein was shown to have S-transferase activity with monochlorobimane when assayed with BSH but not with MSH or GSH. Enterococcus faecalis EF_3021 shares some homology with MSMEG_0887 but this organism produces GSH but not MSH or BSH. Cloned and expressed EF_0321 was active with monochlorobimane and GSH but not with MSH or BSH. MDMPI_2 is another member of the DinB superfamily and has been previously shown to have mycothiol-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase activity. Three of the eight families of the DinB superfamily include proteins shown to catalyze thiol-dependent metabolic or detoxification activities. Since more than two-thirds of the sequences assigned to the DinB superfamily are members of these families it seems likely that such activity is dominant in the DinB superfamily. PMID:22059487

  4. Inherited glutathione-S-transferase deficiency is a risk factor for pulmonary asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, C M; Kelsey, K T; Wiencke, J K; Leyden, K; Levin, S; Christiani, D C

    1994-09-01

    Pulmonary diseases attributable to asbestos exposure constitute a significant public health burden, yet few studies have investigated potential genetic determinants of susceptibility to asbestos-related diseases. The glutathione-S-transferases are a family of conjugating enzymes that both catalyze the detoxification of a variety of potentially cytotoxic electrophilic agents and act in the generation of sulfadipeptide leukotriene inflammatory mediators. The gene encoding glutathione-S-transferase class mu (GSTM-1) is polymorphic; approximately 50% of Caucasian individuals have a homozygous deletion of this gene and do not produce functional enzyme. Glutathione-S-transferase mu (GST-mu) deficiency has been previously reported to be associated with smoking-induced lung cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence of the homozygous deletion for the GSTM-1 gene in members of the carpentry trade occupationally exposed to asbestos. Members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America attending their 1991 National Union conference were invited to participate. Each participant was offered a chest X-ray and was asked to complete a comprehensive questionnaire and have their blood drawn. All radiographs were assessed for the presence of pneumoconiosis in a blinded fashion by a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified International Labor Office "B" reader. Individual GSTM-1 status was determined using polymerase chain reaction methods. Six hundred fifty-eight workers were studied. Of these, 80 (12.2%) had X-ray abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure. Individuals genetically deficient in GST-mu were significantly more likely to have radiographic evidence of nonmalignant asbestos-related disease than those who were not deficient (chi 2 = 5.0; P < 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Bisubstrate UDP-peptide conjugates as human O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Borodkin, Vladimir S; Schimpl, Marianne; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Rafie, Karim; Dorfmueller, Helge C; Robinson, David A; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2014-02-01

    Inhibitors of OGT (O-GlcNAc transferase) are valuable tools to study the cell biology of protein O-GlcNAcylation. We report OGT bisubstrate-linked inhibitors (goblins) in which the acceptor serine in the peptide VTPVSTA is covalently linked to UDP, eliminating the GlcNAc pyranoside ring. Goblin1 co-crystallizes with OGT, revealing an ordered C₃ linker and retained substrate-binding modes, and binds the enzyme with micromolar affinity, inhibiting glycosyltransfer on to protein and peptide substrates.

  6. Bisubstrate UDP–peptide conjugates as human O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Borodkin, Vladimir S.; Schimpl, Marianne; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Rafie, Karim; Dorfmueller, Helge C.; Robinson, David A.; vanAalten, Daan M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of OGT (O-GlcNAc transferase) are valuable tools to study the cell biology of protein O-GlcNAcylation. We report OGT bisubstrate-linked inhibitors (goblins) in which the acceptor serine in the peptide VTPVSTA is covalently linked to UDP, eliminating the GlcNAc pyranoside ring. Goblin1 co-crystallizes with OGT, revealing an ordered C3 linker and retained substrate-binding modes, and binds the enzyme with micromolar affinity, inhibiting glycosyltransfer on to protein and peptide substrates. PMID:24256146

  7. Genetic Variations in Human Glutathione Transferase Enzymes: Significance for Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Josephy, P. David

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTs) catalyze reactions in which electrophiles are conjugated to the tripeptide thiol glutathione. While many GST-catalyzed transformations result in the detoxication of xenobiotics, a few substrates, such as dihaloalkanes, undergo bioactivation to reactive intermediates. Many molecular epidemiological studies have tested associations between polymorphisms (especially, deletions) of human GST genes and disease susceptibility or response to therapy. This review presents a discussion of the biochemistry of GSTs, the sources—both genetic and environmental—of interindividual variation in GST activities, and their implications for pharmaco- and toxicogenetics; particular attention is paid to the Theta class GSTs. PMID:20981235

  8. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.

  9. Fucosylation of xyloglucan: localization of the transferase in dictyosomes of pea stem cells. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, A.; Brummell, D.; MacLachlan, G.

    1987-07-01

    Microsomal membranes from elongating regions of etiolated Pisum sativum stems were separated by rate-zonal centrifugation on Renografin gradients. The transfer of labeled fucose and xylose from GDP-(/sup 14/C) fucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)xylose to xyloglucan occurred mainly in dictyosome-enriched fractions. No transferase activity was detected in secretory vesicle fractions. Pulse-chase experiments using pea stem slices incubated with (/sup 3/H)fucose suggest that xyloglucan chains are fucosylated and their structure completed within the dictyosomes, before being transported to the cell wall by secretory vesicles.

  10. Glutathione-binding site of a bombyx mori theta-class glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M D Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents.

  11. The Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases: Catalysis of a Posttranslational Modification Crucial for Life

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Vickery, Christopher R.; Noel, Joseph P.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Although holo-acyl carrier protein synthase, AcpS, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase), was characterized in the 1960s, it was not until the publication of the landmark paper by Lambalot et al. in 1996 that PPTases garnered wide-spread attention being classified as a distinct enzyme superfamily. In the past two decades an increasing number of papers has been published on PPTases ranging from identification, characterization, structure determination, mutagenesis, inhibition, and engineering in synthetic biology. In this review, we comprehensively discuss all current knowledge on this class of enzymes that post-translationally install a 4′-phosphopantetheine arm on various carrier proteins. PMID:24292120

  12. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    PubMed

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  13. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  14. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    A database on large ribosomal subunit RNA is made available. It contains 258 sequences. It provides sequence, alignment and secondary structure information in computer-readable formats. Files can be obtained using ftp. PMID:7524023

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunit Families

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles. PMID:16440056

  16. The Linkage Between Oxygenation and Subunit Dissociation in Human Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Ackers, Gary K.; Halvorson, Herbert R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of subunit dissociation as a means of probing intersubunit contact energy changes which accompany cooperative ligand binding has been studied for the case of human hemoglobin. An analysis is presented delineating the information that can be obtained from the linkage relationships between ligand binding and subunit dissociation of hemoglobin tetramers into dimers. The analysis defines (a) the variation of the saturation function, Ȳ, with total protein concentration, (b) the variation of the subunit dissociation constant xK2 with ligand concentration (X) and (c) the correlations between changes in dimer-dimer contact energy and the sequential ligand binding steps. Sensitivity of the linkage function has been explored by numerical simulation. It is shown that subunit dissociation may appreciably affect oxygenation curves under usual conditions of measurement and that relying solely on either xK2 or Ȳ may lead to incorrect picutres of the energetics, whereas the combination defines the system much more exactly. PMID:4530985

  17. Ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Purification and subunit structure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Susan S.; Rigby, Peter W. J.; Hartley, Brian S.

    1974-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from several strains of Klebsiella aerogenes. One strain yields 3–6g of pure enzyme from 1kg of cells. The enzyme is a tetramer of four subunits, mol.wt. 27000. Preliminary studies of the activity of the enzyme are reported. Peptide `maps' together with the amino acid composition indicate that the subunits are identical. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4618776

  18. Subunit-Specific Trafficking of GABAA Receptors during Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, Howard P.; Joshi, Suchitra; Mtchedlishvili, Zakaria; Brar, Jasmit; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that a reduced surface expression of GABAA receptors (GABARs) contributes to the pathogenesis of status epilepticus (SE), a condition characterized by prolonged seizures. This hypothesis was based on the finding that prolonged epileptiform bursting (repetitive bursts of prolonged depolarizations with superimposed action potentials) in cultures of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons (dissociated cultures) results in the increased intracellular accumulation of GABARs. However, it is not known whether this rapid modification in the surface-expressed GABAR pool results from selective, subunit-dependent or nonselective, subunit-independent internalization of GABARs. In hippocampal slices obtained from animals undergoing prolonged SE (SE-treated slices), we found that the surface expression of the GABARβ2/3 and γ2 subunits was reduced, whereas that of the δ subunit was not. Complementary electrophysiological recordings from dentate granule cells in SE-treated slices demonstrated a reduction in GABAR-mediated synaptic inhibition, but not tonic inhibition. A reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit, but not the δ subunit was also observed in dissociated cultures and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures when incubated in an elevated KCl external medium or an elevated KCl external medium supplemented with NMDA, respectively. Additional studies demonstrated that the reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit was independent of direct ligand binding of the GABAR. These findings demonstrate that the regulation of surface-expressed GABAR pool during SE is subunit-specific and occurs independent of ligand binding. The differential modulation of the surface expression of GABARs during SE has potential implications for the treatment of this neurological emergency. PMID:18322097

  19. Properties of the subunits of wheat germ initiation factor 3.

    PubMed

    Heufler, C; Browning, K S; Ravel, J M

    1988-11-10

    Wheat germ initiation factor 3 (eukaryotic initiation factor 3, eIF-3) contains ten non-identical subunits (p116, p107, p87, p83, p56, p45, p41, p36, p34 and p28). Monoclonal antibodies to all except two of the subunits (p41 and p28) were obtained. None of the monoclonal antibodies react with more than one subunit, and only monoclonal antibodies to p36 inhibit the ability of eIF-3 to support initiation of polypeptide synthesis. Two of the subunits (p116 and p107) are highly basic polypeptides (pI greater than or equal to 8); five (p87, p56, p45, p34 and p28) are acidic polypeptides (pI = 5.4-6.1); and three (p83, p41 and p36) appear to exist in more than one isoelectric form. Eight of the subunits of eIF-3 are iodinated rapidly in vitro; the highest incorporation is into p56 and the lowest incorporation is into p28. No incorporation into p41 or p28 is observed. When eIF-3 is treated with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide, approx. 30 alkyl groups per eIF-3 are incorporated, and the eIF-3 is inactivated. No incorporation into p83 or p28 is observed; incorporation of the alkyl groups into the other eight subunits occurs at different rates. The rate of inactivation of eIF-3 by N-ethylmaleimide is slower than the overall rate of incorporation of alkyl groups. eIF-3 is stable between pH 5.5 and 10. Below pH 5.5, eIF-3 is inactivated and precipitation of protein occurs. Partial dissociation of the subunits and inactivation of eIF-3 is obtained by treatment with 2 M urea. Attempts to reassociate the subunits into an active particle were unsuccessful.

  20. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  1. Effects of Detergents on Ribosomal Precursor Subunits of Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Body, Barbara A.; Brownstein, Bernard H.

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction. PMID:412833

  2. Effects of detergents on ribosomal precursor subunits of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Body, A; Brownstein, B H

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction.

  3. Type IV Pilus Assembly Proficiency and Dynamics Influence Pilin Subunit Phospho-Form Macro- and Microheterogeneity in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Åshild; Haug Anonsen, Jan; Aas, Finn Erik; Hegge, Finn Terje; Roos, Norbert; Koomey, Michael; Aspholm, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The PilE pilin subunit protein of the gonococcal Type IV pilus (Tfp) colonization factor undergoes multisite, covalent modification with the zwitterionic phospho-form modification phosphoethanolamine (PE). In a mutant lacking the pilin-like PilV protein however, PilE is modified with a mixture of PE and phosphocholine (PC). Moreover, intrastrain variation of PilE PC modification levels have been observed in backgrounds that constitutively express PptA (the protein phospho-form transferase A) required for both PE and PC modification. The molecular basis underlying phospho-form microheterogeneity in these instances remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the effects of mutations at numerous loci that disrupt or perturb Tfp assembly and observed that these mutants phenocopy the pilV mutant vis a vis phospho-form modification status. Thus, PC modification appears to be directly or indirectly responsive to the efficacy of pilin subunit interactions. Despite the complexity of contributing factors identified here, the data favor a model in which increased retention in the inner membrane may act as a key signal in altering phospho-form modification. These results also provide an alternative explanation for the variation in PilE PC levels observed previously and that has been assumed to be due to phase variation of pptA. Moreover, mass spectrometry revealed evidence for mono- and di-methylated forms of PE attached to PilE in mutants deficient in pilus assembly, directly implicating a methyltransferase-based pathway for PC synthesis in N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:24797914

  4. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase in Biofilms and Germinating Spores of Mucor hiemalis Strain EH5 from Cold Sulfidic Spring Waters▿

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Enamul; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Fritscher, Johannes; Wolf, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and activation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the GST activities in biofilms in cold sulfidic spring waters were compared to the occurrence and activation of GST and the GST activities of the aquatic fungal strains EH5 and EH7 of Mucor hiemalis isolated for the first time from such waters. Using fluorescently labeled polyclonal anti-GST antibodies and GST activity measurements, we demonstrated that a high level of GST occurred in situ in natural biofilms and pure cultures of strain EH5. Measurement of microsomal and cytosolic soluble GST activities using different xenobiotic substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, 1-iodo-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and fluorodifen, showed that the overall biotransforming abilities of biofilms were at least sixfold greater than that of strain EH5 alone. Increasing the level of sodium thiosulfate (STS) in the medium stimulated the microsomal and cytosolic GST activities with CDNB of strain EH5 about 44- and 94-fold, respectively, compared to the activities in the control. The induction of microsomal GST activity with fluorodifen by STS was strongly linear, but the initial strong linear increase in cytosolic GST activity with fluorodifen showed saturation-like effects at STS concentrations higher than approximately 1 mM. Using laser scanning confocal and conventional fluorescence microscopy, abundant fluorescently labeled GST proteins were identified in germinating sporangiospores of strain EH5 after activation by STS. High-performance size exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least two main GSTs (∼27.8- and ∼25.6-kDa subunits) in the cytosol of EH5, whereas the major 27.8-kDa subunit was the only GST in microsomes. We suggest that differential cellular GST expression takes place in strain EH5 depending on spore and hyphal development. Our results may

  5. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  6. Binding properties of ferrocene-glutathione conjugates as inhibitors and sensors for glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Téllez-Sanz, Ramiro; Mesa-Valle, Concepción; Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; García-Maroto, Federico; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2012-02-01

    The binding properties of two electroactive glutathione-ferrocene conjugates that consist in glutathione attached to one or both of the cyclopentadienyl rings of ferrocene (GSFc and GSFcSG), to Schistosoma japonica glutathione S-transferase (SjGST) were studied by spectroscopy fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Such ferrocene conjugates resulted to be competitive inhibitors of glutathione S-transferase with an increased binding affinity relative to the natural substrate glutathione (GSH). We found that the conjugate having two glutathione units (GSFcSG) exhibits an affinity for SjGST approximately two orders of magnitude higher than GSH. Furthermore, it shows negative cooperativity with the affinity for the second binding site two orders of magnitude lower than that for the first one. We propose that the reason for such negative cooperativity is steric since, i) the obtained thermodynamic parameters do not indicate profound conformational changes upon GSFcSG binding and ii) docking studies have shown that, when bound, part of the first bound ligand invades the second site due to its large size. In addition, voltammetric measurements show a strong decrease of the peak current upon binding of ferrocene-glutathione conjugates to SjGST and provide very similar K values than those obtained by ITC. Moreover, the sensing ability, expressed by the sensitivity parameter shows that GSFcSG is much more sensitive than GSFc, for the detection of SjGST.

  7. Riboswitch control of induction of aminoglycoside resistance acetyl and adenyl-transferases

    PubMed Central

    He, Weizhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jun; Jia, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Wenxia; Jiang, Hengyi; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair IH

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by human pathogens poses a significant threat to public health. The mechanisms that control the proliferation and expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are a historically important class of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. Aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug or enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or through the overexpression of efflux pumps. In our recent paper, we reported that expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes encoding the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (AAD) enzymes was controlled by an aminoglycoside-sensing riboswitch RNA. This riboswitch is embedded in the leader RNA of the aac/aad genes and is associated with the integron cassette system. The leader RNA can sense and bind specific aminoglycosides such that the binding causes a structural transition in the leader RNA, which leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Specific aminoglycosides induce reporter gene expression mediated by the leader RNA. Aminoglycoside RNA binding was measured directly and, aminoglycoside-induced changes in RNA structure monitored by chemical probing. UV cross-linking and mutational analysis identified potential aminoglycoside binding sites on the RNA. PMID:23880830

  8. Structural plasticity of Cid1 provides a basis for its distributive RNA terminal uridylyl transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke A; Durrant, Benjamin P; Fleurdépine, Sophie; Harlos, Karl; Norbury, Chris J; Gilbert, Robert J C

    2015-03-11

    Terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTs) are responsible for the post-transcriptional addition of uridyl residues to RNA 3' ends, leading in some cases to altered stability. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe TUT Cid1 is a model enzyme that has been characterized structurally at moderate resolution and provides insights into the larger and more complex mammalian TUTs, ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11. Here, we report a higher resolution (1.74 Å) crystal structure of Cid1 that provides detailed evidence for uracil selection via the dynamic flipping of a single histidine residue. We also describe a novel closed conformation of the enzyme that may represent an intermediate stage in a proposed product ejection mechanism. The structural insights gained, combined with normal mode analysis and biochemical studies, demonstrate that the plasticity of Cid1, particularly about a hinge region (N164-N165), is essential for catalytic activity, and provide an explanation for its distributive uridylyl transferase activity. We propose a model clarifying observed differences between the in vitro apparently processive activity and in vivo distributive monouridylylation activity of Cid1. We suggest that modulating the flexibility of such enzymes-for example by the binding of protein co-factors-may allow them alternatively to add single or multiple uridyl residues to the 3' termini of RNA molecules. PMID:25712096

  9. Identification of Glutathione S-Transferase Pi as a Protein Involved in Parkinson Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Bradner, Joshua; Bammler, Theo K.; Eaton, David L.; Zhang, JianPeng; Ye, ZuCheng; Wilson, Angela M.; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Catherine; Zhang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) typically affects the cortical regions during the later stages of disease, with neuronal loss, gliosis, and formation of diffuse cortical Lewy bodies in a significant portion of patients with dementia. To identify novel proteins involved in PD progression, we prepared synaptosomal fractions from the frontal cortices of pathologically verified PD patients at different stages along with age-matched controls. Protein expression profiles were compared using a robust quantitative proteomic technique. Approximately 100 proteins displayed significant differences in their relative abundances between PD patients at various stages and controls; three of these proteins were validated using independent techniques. One of the confirmed proteins, glutathione S-transferase Pi, was further investigated in cellular models of PD, demonstrating that its level was intimately associated with several critical cellular processes that are directly related to neurodegeneration in PD. These results have, for the first time, suggested that the levels of glutathione S-transferase Pi may play an important role in modulating the progression of PD. PMID:19498008

  10. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  11. Miners compensated for pneumoconiosis and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anna; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans-Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of quartz-containing dust produces reversible inflammatory changes in lungs resulting in irreversible fibrotic changes termed pneumoconiosis. Due to the inflammatory process in the lungs, highly reactive substances are released that may be detoxified by glutathione S-transferases. Therefore, 90 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis as a recognized occupational disease (in Germany: Berufskrankheit BK 4101) were genotyped for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) according to standard methods. Furthermore, occupational exposure and smoking habits were assessed by questionnaire. Changes in a chest x-ray were classified according to ILO classification 2000. Of the investigated hard coal miners 43% were GSTM1 negative whereas 57% were GSTM1 positive. The arithmetic mean of the age at time of investigation was 74.2 yr (range: 42-87 yr). Seventy-four percent of the hard coal miners reported being ever smokers, while 26% denied smoking. All hard coal miners provided pneumoconiosis-related changes in the chest x-ray. The observed frequency of GSTM1 negative hard coal miners was not different from frequencies reported for general Caucasian populations and in agreement with findings reported for Chinese coal miners. In contrast, in a former study, 16 of 19 German hard coal miners (84%) with urinary bladder cancer displayed a GSTM1 negative genotype. The outcome of this study provides evidence that severely occupationally exposed Caucasian hard coal miners do not present an elevated level of GSTM1 negative individuals. PMID:22686319

  12. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Dobb, Katharine S.; Kaye, Sarah J.; Beckmann, Nicola; Thain, John L.; Stateva, Lubomira; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds. PMID:26606674

  13. Structural and thermodynamic properties of kappa class glutathione transferase from Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Fouad, Dalia; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A; Saeed, Hesham M; Ataya, Farid S

    2016-07-01

    The Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius is naturally adapted to extreme desert climate and has evolved protective mechanisms to limit oxidative stress. The mitochondrial kappa class glutathione transferase enzyme is a member of GST supergene family that represents an important enzyme group in cellular Phase II detoxification machinery and is involved in the protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics. In the present study, C. dromedarius kappa class glutathione transferase (CdGSTK1-1) was cloned, expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and its structural, thermodynamic and unfolding pathway was investigated. The results showed that CdGSTK1-1 has unique trimeric structure, exhibits low thermostability and a complex equilibrium unfolding profile. It unfolds through three folding states with formation of thinly populated intermediate species. The melting points (Tm) of the first unfolding transition was 40.3±0.2°C and Tm of the second unfolding transition was 49.1±0.1°C. The van't Hoff enthalpy of the first and second transition were 298.7±13.2 and 616.5±2.4kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence and near-UV CD studies indicates that substrate binding does not leads to major conformational changes in CdGSTK1-1. PMID:27044344

  14. Structural plasticity of Cid1 provides a basis for its distributive RNA terminal uridylyl transferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Luke A.; Durrant, Benjamin P.; Fleurdépine, Sophie; Harlos, Karl; Norbury, Chris J.; Gilbert, Robert J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTs) are responsible for the post-transcriptional addition of uridyl residues to RNA 3′ ends, leading in some cases to altered stability. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe TUT Cid1 is a model enzyme that has been characterized structurally at moderate resolution and provides insights into the larger and more complex mammalian TUTs, ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11. Here, we report a higher resolution (1.74 Å) crystal structure of Cid1 that provides detailed evidence for uracil selection via the dynamic flipping of a single histidine residue. We also describe a novel closed conformation of the enzyme that may represent an intermediate stage in a proposed product ejection mechanism. The structural insights gained, combined with normal mode analysis and biochemical studies, demonstrate that the plasticity of Cid1, particularly about a hinge region (N164–N165), is essential for catalytic activity, and provide an explanation for its distributive uridylyl transferase activity. We propose a model clarifying observed differences between the in vitro apparently processive activity and in vivo distributive monouridylylation activity of Cid1. We suggest that modulating the flexibility of such enzymes—for example by the binding of protein co-factors—may allow them alternatively to add single or multiple uridyl residues to the 3′ termini of RNA molecules. PMID:25712096

  15. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22164343

  16. Lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc transferases exhibit glycopeptide binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G; Meldal, Morten; Holmér, Andreas P; Blixt, Ola; Cló, Emiliano; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2011-09-16

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection of glycosylation sites by GalNAc-Ts: confined sequence recognition by the catalytic domain alone, and concerted recognition of acceptor sites and adjacent GalNAc-glycosylated sites by the catalytic and lectin domains, respectively. Thus far, only the catalytic domain has been shown to have peptide sequence specificity, whereas the primary function of the lectin domain is to increase affinity to previously glycosylated substrates. Whether the lectin domain also has peptide sequence selectivity has remained unclear. Using a glycopeptide array with a library of synthetic and recombinant glycopeptides based on sequences of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC7 as well as a random glycopeptide bead library, we examined the binding properties of four different lectin domains. The lectin domains of GalNAc-T1, -T2, -T3, and -T4 bound different subsets of small glycopeptides. These results indicate an additional level of complexity in the initiation step of O-glycosylation by GalNAc-Ts.

  17. Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar-Starch Glucosyl Transferase Activity of wx Starch Granules 1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Chourey, Prem S.; Chang, Ming Tu

    1978-01-01

    Starch granule preparations from the endosperm tissue of all waxy maize (Zea mays L.) mutants tested have low and approximately equal capability to incorporate glucose from adenosine diphosphate glucose into starch. As the substrate concentration is reduced, however, the activity of waxy preparations relative to nonmutant increases until, at the lowest substrate concentration utilized (0.1 μM), the activity of the waxy preparations is nearly equal to that of the nonmutant preparation. The apparent Km (adenosine diphosphate glucose) for starch granule preparations from wx-C/wx-C/wx-C endosperms was 7.1 × 10−5 M, which is compared to 3 × 10−3 M for preparations from nonwaxy endosperms. Starch granule preparations from three other waxy mutants of independent mutational origin have levels of enzymic activity approximately equal to wx-C at a given substrate concentration giving rise to similar apparent Km estimates. We conclude that there is in maize endosperm starch granules a second starch granule-bound glycosyl transferase, whose presence is revealed when mutation eliminates activity of the more active glucosyl transferase catalyzing the same reaction. PMID:16660522

  18. Context-specific inhibition of translation by ribosomal antibiotics targeting the peptidyl transferase center

    PubMed Central

    Marks, James; Kannan, Krishna; Roncase, Emily J.; Klepacki, Dorota; Kefi, Amira; Orelle, Cédric; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The first broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol and one of the newest clinically important antibacterials, linezolid, inhibit protein synthesis by targeting the peptidyl transferase center of the bacterial ribosome. Because antibiotic binding should prevent the placement of aminoacyl-tRNA in the catalytic site, it is commonly assumed that these drugs are universal inhibitors of peptidyl transfer and should readily block the formation of every peptide bond. However, our in vitro experiments showed that chloramphenicol and linezolid stall ribosomes at specific mRNA locations. Treatment of bacterial cells with high concentrations of these antibiotics leads to preferential arrest of translation at defined sites, resulting in redistribution of the ribosomes on mRNA. Antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis is most efficient when the nascent peptide in the ribosome carries an alanine residue and, to a lesser extent, serine or threonine in its penultimate position. In contrast, the inhibitory action of the drugs is counteracted by glycine when it is either at the nascent-chain C terminus or at the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA. The context-specific action of chloramphenicol illuminates the operation of the mechanism of inducible resistance that relies on programmed drug-induced translation arrest. In addition, our findings expose the functional interplay between the nascent chain and the peptidyl transferase center. PMID:27791002

  19. High yield production of myristoylated Arf6 small GTPase by recombinant N-myristoyl transferase

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Dominique; Zeghouf, Mahel; Traverso, José A.; Giglione, Carmela; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Arf family (Arf GTPases) interact with multiple cellular partners and with membranes to regulate intracellular traffic and organelle structure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires in vitro biochemical assays to test for regulations and functions. Such assays should use proteins in their cellular form, which carry a myristoyl lipid attached in N-terminus. N-myristoylation of recombinant Arf GTPases can be achieved by co-expression in E. coli with a eukaryotic N-myristoyl transferase. However, purifying myristoylated Arf GTPases is difficult and has a poor overall yield. Here we show that human Arf6 can be N-myristoylated in vitro by recombinant N-myristoyl transferases from different eukaryotic species. The catalytic efficiency depended strongly on the guanine nucleotide state and was highest for Arf6-GTP. Large-scale production of highly pure N-myristoylated Arf6 could be achieved, which was fully functional for liposome-binding and EFA6-stimulated nucleotide exchange assays. This establishes in vitro myristoylation as a novel and simple method that could be used to produce other myristoylated Arf and Arf-like GTPases for biochemical assays. PMID:23319116

  20. Predicted binding of certain antifilarial compounds with glutathione-S-transferase of human Filariids

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Hassan; Bajpai, Preeti; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar; Ahmad, Khurshid; Mustafa, Huma

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase is a major phase-II detoxification enzyme in parasitic helminthes. Previous research highlights the importance of GSTs in the establishment of chronic infections in cytotoxic microenvironments. Filarial nematodes depend on these detoxification enzymes for their survival in the host. GST plays an important role in filariasis and other diseases. GST from W.bancrofti and B.malayi are very much different from human GST. This structural difference makes GST potential chemotherapeutic targets for antifilarial treatment. In this study we have checked the efficacy of some well known antifilarial compounds against GST from B.malayi and W.bancrofti. The structure of BmGST was modeled using modeller9v10 and was submitted to PMDB. Molecular docking study reveals arbindazole to be the most potent compounds against GST from both the filarial parasites. Role of some residues playing important role in the binding of compounds within the active site of GST has also been revealed in the present study. The BmGST and WbGST structural information and docking studies could aid in screening new antifilarials or selective inhibitors for chemotherapy against filariasis. Abbreviations GST - Glutathione-S-transferase, Bm - Brugia malayi, Wb - Wuchereria bancrofti. PMID:23516334

  1. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyl Transferase 2: A Promising Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chunhui; Qi, Jia; Deng, Quanwen; Chen, Rihong; Zhai, Duanyang; Yu, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers all over the world. It is essential to search for more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods for CRC. Abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has been considered as a characteristic of cancer cells. In this study, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) as well as p53-mediated cancer signaling pathways were investigated in patients with colorectal cancer. The CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 95 untreated colorectal cancer patients and were stained for expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) and p53. The survival rate was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted as well. Our data demonstrated that expression of NMNAT2 and p53 was significantly higher in CRC tissues, while NMNAT2 expression is in correlation with the invasive depth of tumors and TNM stage. Significant positive correlation was found between the expression of NMNAT2 and the expression of p53. However, NMNAT2 expression was not a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival. In conclusion, our results indicated that NMNAT2 might participate in tumorigenesis of CRC in a p53-dependent manner and NMNAT2 expression might be a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27218101

  2. Conductimetric assays for the hydrolase and transferase activities of phospholipase D enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mezna, M; Lawrence, A J

    1994-05-01

    Measurement of solution electrical conductance (conductimetry) is a simple direct assay method for the protogenic, hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by all phospholipase enzymes. The technique is especially suitable for assay of phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes where cleavage of zwitterionic substrates reinforces the pH dependent conductance change and allows the method to be used over a much wider pH range than the equivalent titrimetric assay. The ability to detect zwitterion cleavage enables the method to assay reactions in which phospholipase D transfers neutral, or anionic, alcohol species to the zwitterionic substrates phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The method can follow the sequential attack by different phospholipases and provides a simple technique for investigating the effect of substrate structure on susceptibility to various phospholipase enzymes. The results confirm that PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus can attack lysophospholipids, but cannot transfer primary alcohols to the phosphatidyl residue, while the PLD from savoy cabbage is an efficient transferase, but cannot attack lysophospholipids. The data suggest that the bacterial PLD fails to act as a transferase because it hydrolyzes the transphosphatidylation products. Some phosphatidyl alcohols are more highly susceptible to PLA2 attack than the parent phosphatidyl choline derivatives.

  3. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bilgihan, K.; Bilgihan, A.; Turkozkan, N.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions.
METHODS—In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours.
RESULTS—The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p>0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) and GST activities increased (p<0.05) in group III.
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

 Keywords: excimer laser keratectomy; aldehyde dehydrogenase; glutathione S-transferase PMID:9602629

  4. Catalytic and structural diversity of the fluazifop-inducible glutathione transferases from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Asimakopoulou, Basiliki; Platis, Dimitrios; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2012-06-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of inducible enzymes that play important roles in stress tolerance and herbicide detoxification. Treatment of Phaseolus vulgaris leaves with the aryloxyphenoxypropionic herbicide fluazifop-p-butyl resulted in induction of GST activities. Three inducible GST isoenzymes were identified and separated by affinity chromatography. Their full-length cDNAs with complete open reading frame were isolated using RACE-RT and information from N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analysis of the cDNA clones showed that the deduced amino acid sequences share high homology with GSTs that belong to phi and tau classes. The three isoenzymes were expressed in E. coli and their substrate specificity was determined towards 20 different substrates. The results showed that the fluazifop-inducible glutathione transferases from P. vulgaris (PvGSTs) catalyze a broad range of reactions and exhibit quite varied substrate specificity. Molecular modeling and structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. These results provide new insights into catalytic and structural diversity of GSTs and the detoxifying mechanism used by P. vulgaris.

  5. Substrate profiling of glutathione S-transferase with engineered enzymes and matched glutathione analogues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan; Zhang, Lei; Adilijiang, Gulishana; Liu, Jieyuan; Luo, Minkui; Deng, Haiteng

    2014-07-01

    The identification of specific substrates of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is important for understanding drug metabolism. A method termed bioorthogonal identification of GST substrates (BIGS) was developed, in which a reduced glutathione (GSH) analogue was developed for recognition by a rationally engineered GST to label the substrates of the corresponding native GST. A K44G-W40A-R41A mutant (GST-KWR) of the mu-class glutathione S-transferases GSTM1 was shown to be active with a clickable GSH analogue (GSH-R1) as the cosubstrate. The GSH-R1 conjugation products can react with an azido-based biotin probe for ready enrichment and MS identification. Proof-of-principle studies were carried to detect the products of GSH-R1 conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and dopamine quinone. The BIGS technology was then used to identify GSTM1 substrates in the Chinese herbal medicine Ganmaocongji.

  6. Evolutionary divergence of Ure2pA glutathione transferases in wood degrading fungi.

    PubMed

    Roret, Thomas; Thuillier, Anne; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular systems of detoxification are crucial for the survival of wood degrading fungi. Within these systems, glutathione transferases could play a major role since this family of enzymes is specifically extended in lignolytic fungi. In particular the Ure2p class represents one third of the total GST number in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. These proteins have been phylogenetically split into two subclasses called Ure2pA and Ure2pB. Ure2pB can be classified as Nu GSTs because of shared structural and functional features with previously characterized bacterial isoforms. Ure2pA can rather be qualified as Nu-like GSTs since they exhibit a number of differences. Ure2pA possess a classical transferase activity, a more divergent catalytic site and a higher structural flexibility for some of them, compared to Nu GSTs. The characterization of four members of this Ure2pA subclass (PcUre2pA4, PcUre2pA5, PcUre2pA6 and PcUre2pA8) revealed specific functional and structural features, suggesting that these enzymes have rapidly evolved and differentiated, probably to adapt to the complex chemical environment associated with wood decomposition.

  7. Selective inhibitors of glutathione transferase P1 with trioxane structure as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Maria; Teusch, Nicole; Schenk, Tobias; Sheikh, Miriam; Aricioglu, Rocky Z; Borowski, Swantje H; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Griesbeck, Axel G; Pietsch, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response to chemotherapy in cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance. Although chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, many studies have demonstrated that altered drug metabolism through the expression of phase II conjugating enzymes, including glutathione transferases (GSTs), in tumor cells can be directly correlated with resistance against a wide range of marketed anticancer drugs. In particular, overexpression of glutathione transferase P1 (GSTP1) appears to be a factor for poor prognosis during cancer therapy. Former and ongoing clinical trials have confirmed GSTP1 inhibition as a principle for antitumor therapy. A new series of 1,2,4-trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors were designed via a type II photooxygenation route of allylic alcohols followed by acid-catalyzed peroxyacetalization with aldehydes. A set of novel inhibitors exhibit low micromolar to high nanomolar inhibition of GSTP1, revealing preliminary SAR for further lead optimization. Importantly, high selectivity over another two human GST classes (GSTA1 and GSTM2) has been achieved. The trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors may therefore serve as a basis for the development of novel drug candidates in overcoming chemoresistance.

  8. Structural plasticity of Cid1 provides a basis for its distributive RNA terminal uridylyl transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke A; Durrant, Benjamin P; Fleurdépine, Sophie; Harlos, Karl; Norbury, Chris J; Gilbert, Robert J C

    2015-03-11

    Terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTs) are responsible for the post-transcriptional addition of uridyl residues to RNA 3' ends, leading in some cases to altered stability. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe TUT Cid1 is a model enzyme that has been characterized structurally at moderate resolution and provides insights into the larger and more complex mammalian TUTs, ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11. Here, we report a higher resolution (1.74 Å) crystal structure of Cid1 that provides detailed evidence for uracil selection via the dynamic flipping of a single histidine residue. We also describe a novel closed conformation of the enzyme that may represent an intermediate stage in a proposed product ejection mechanism. The structural insights gained, combined with normal mode analysis and biochemical studies, demonstrate that the plasticity of Cid1, particularly about a hinge region (N164-N165), is essential for catalytic activity, and provide an explanation for its distributive uridylyl transferase activity. We propose a model clarifying observed differences between the in vitro apparently processive activity and in vivo distributive monouridylylation activity of Cid1. We suggest that modulating the flexibility of such enzymes-for example by the binding of protein co-factors-may allow them alternatively to add single or multiple uridyl residues to the 3' termini of RNA molecules.

  9. Structure of Human O-GlcNAc Transferase and its Complex with a Peptide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    M Lazarus; Y Nam; J Jiang; P Sliz; S Walker

    2011-12-31

    The essential mammalian enzyme O-linked {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, here OGT) couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. OGT catalyses the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to serines and threonines of cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins, including numerous transcription factors, tumour suppressors, kinases, phosphatases and histone-modifying proteins. Aberrant glycosylation by OGT has been linked to insulin resistance, diabetic complications, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Despite the importance of OGT, the details of how it recognizes and glycosylates its protein substrates are largely unknown. We report here two crystal structures of human OGT, as a binary complex with UDP (2.8 {angstrom} resolution) and as a ternary complex with UDP and a peptide substrate (1.95 {angstrom}). The structures provide clues to the enzyme mechanism, show how OGT recognizes target peptide sequences, and reveal the fold of the unique domain between the two halves of the catalytic region. This information will accelerate the rational design of biological experiments to investigate OGT's functions; it will also help the design of inhibitors for use as cellular probes and help to assess its potential as a therapeutic target.

  10. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  11. Miners compensated for pneumoconiosis and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anna; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans-Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of quartz-containing dust produces reversible inflammatory changes in lungs resulting in irreversible fibrotic changes termed pneumoconiosis. Due to the inflammatory process in the lungs, highly reactive substances are released that may be detoxified by glutathione S-transferases. Therefore, 90 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis as a recognized occupational disease (in Germany: Berufskrankheit BK 4101) were genotyped for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) according to standard methods. Furthermore, occupational exposure and smoking habits were assessed by questionnaire. Changes in a chest x-ray were classified according to ILO classification 2000. Of the investigated hard coal miners 43% were GSTM1 negative whereas 57% were GSTM1 positive. The arithmetic mean of the age at time of investigation was 74.2 yr (range: 42-87 yr). Seventy-four percent of the hard coal miners reported being ever smokers, while 26% denied smoking. All hard coal miners provided pneumoconiosis-related changes in the chest x-ray. The observed frequency of GSTM1 negative hard coal miners was not different from frequencies reported for general Caucasian populations and in agreement with findings reported for Chinese coal miners. In contrast, in a former study, 16 of 19 German hard coal miners (84%) with urinary bladder cancer displayed a GSTM1 negative genotype. The outcome of this study provides evidence that severely occupationally exposed Caucasian hard coal miners do not present an elevated level of GSTM1 negative individuals.

  12. Indication for joint replacement and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Torsten; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In most patients with osteoarthritis (OA), therapy-resistant pain is the indication for hip or knee replacement. Glutathione S-transferases, particularly glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), are involved in metabolism of highly reactive metabolites that may be generated by inflammatory processes. In total, 148 patients with indication for hip or knee replacement and 129 patients of the same hospital without indication for joint replacement were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTT1 and interviewed by a newly developed questionnaire for occupational and nonoccupational risk factors of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. Mean age was 70.9 yr in OA cases and 67.4 yr in controls. The frequency of GSTM1 negative in the OA case group was (45%) in the lower range compared to values in Caucasian general population (approximately 50%), whereas the frequency in the controls was normal (51%). The frequency of GSTT1 negative genotype in OA cases and controls was normal. The normal distribution of the GSTM1 negative genotype in patients with indication for hip or knee replacement indicates that the role GSTM1 in these patients is different from that in other aseptic inflammatory diseases such as ozone-related inflammatory reactions of the respiratory tract.

  13. Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity in SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2, Classified as a Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase*

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Rebecca L.; Wang, Kun; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Benning, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) is classified as a family I glycosyl hydrolase but has recently been shown to have galactosyltransferase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Natural occurrences of apparent glycosyl hydrolases acting as transferases are interesting from a biocatalysis standpoint, and knowledge about the interconversion can assist in engineering SFR2 in crop plants to resist freezing. To understand how SFR2 evolved into a transferase, the relationship between its structure and function are investigated by activity assay, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis. SFR2 has no detectable hydrolase activity, although its catalytic site is highly conserved with that of family 1 glycosyl hydrolases. Three regions disparate from glycosyl hydrolases are identified as required for transferase activity as follows: a loop insertion, the C-terminal peptide, and a hydrophobic patch adjacent to the catalytic site. Rationales for the effects of these regions on the SFR2 mechanism are discussed. PMID:25100720

  14. Mice Deficient in Glutathione Transferase Zeta/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Exhibit a Range of Pathological Changes and Elevated Expression of Alpha, Mu, and Pi Class Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cindy E.L.; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Blackburn, Anneke C.; Davis, Richard P.; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Koina, Mark E.; Anders, M.W.; Board, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Glutathione transferase zeta (GSTZ1-1) is the major enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of α-halo acids such as dichloroacetic acid, a carcinogenic contaminant of chlorinated water. GSTZ1-1 is identical with maleylacetoacetate isomerase, which catalyzes the penultimate step in the catabolic pathways for phenylalanine and tyrosine. In this study we have deleted the Gstz1 gene in BALB/c mice and characterized their phenotype. Gstz1−/− mice do not have demonstrable activity with maleylacetone and α-halo acid substrates, and other GSTs do not compensate for the loss of this enzyme. When fed a standard diet, the GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed enlarged liver and kidneys as well as splenic atrophy. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed multifocal hepatitis and ultrastructural changes in the kidney. The addition of 3% (w/v) phenylalanine to the drinking water was lethal for young mice (<28 days old) and caused liver necrosis, macrovesicular steatosis, splenic atrophy, and a significant loss of circulating leukocytes in older surviving mice. GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed constitutive induction of alpha, mu, and pi class GSTs as well as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1. The overall response is consistent with the chronic accumulation of a toxic metabolite(s). We detected the accumulation of succinylacetone in the serum of deficient mice but cannot exclude the possibility that maleylacetoacetate and maleylacetone may also accumulate. PMID:15277241

  15. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs. PMID:25500741

  16. Externalization and recognition by macrophages of large subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 in apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Yuji; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Manaka, Junko; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Takio, Koji; Zhang Jianting; Suganuma, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu . E-mail: nakanaka@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-09-10

    We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages [C. Fujii, A. Shiratsuchi, J. Manaka, S. Yonehara, Y. Nakanishi. Cell Death Differ. 8 (2001) 1113-1122]. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a was expressed in a culture cell line as a protein fused to green fluorescence protein, the fusion protein was detected at the cell surface only after the induction of apoptosis. The same phenomenon was seen when the localization of endogenous eIF3a was determined using anti-eIF3a antibody, and eIF3a seemed to be partially degraded during apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterially expressed N-terminal half of eIF3a fused to glutathione S-transferase bound to the surface of macrophages and inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages when it was added to phagocytosis reactions. These results collectively suggest that eIF3a translocates to the cell surface upon apoptosis, probably after partial degradation, and bridges apoptotic cells and macrophages to enhance phagocytosis.

  17. Phosphorylation of ATPase subunits of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Mason, G G; Murray, R Z; Pappin, D; Rivett, A J

    1998-07-01

    The 26S proteasome complex plays a major role in the non-lysosomal degradation of intracellular proteins. Purified 26S proteasomes give a pattern of more than 40 spots on 2D-PAGE gels. The positions of subunits have been identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides and by immunoblotting with subunit-specific antipeptide antibodies. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from [32P]phosphate-labelled human embryo lung L-132 cells revealed the presence of at least three major phosphorylated polypeptides among the regulatory subunits as well as the C8 and C9 components of the core 20S proteasome. Comparison with the positions of the regulatory polypeptides revealed a minor phosphorylated form to be S7 (MSS1). Antibodies against S4, S6 (TBP7) and S12 (MOV34) all cross-reacted at the position of major phosphorylated polypeptides suggesting that several of the ATPase subunits may be phosphorylated. The phosphorylation of S4 was confirmed by double immunoprecipitation experiments in which 26S proteasomes were immunoprecipitated as above and dissociated and then S4 was immunoprecipitated with subunit-specific antibodies. Antibodies against the non-ATPase subunit S10, which has been suggested by others to be phosphorylated, did not coincide with the position of a phosphorylated polypeptide. Some differences were observed in the 2D-PAGE pattern of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from cultured cells compared to purified rat liver 26S proteasomes suggesting possible differences in subunit compositions of 26S proteasomes.

  18. Cytochrome c oxidase: Evolution of control via nuclear subunit addition☆

    PubMed Central

    Pierron, Denis; Wildman, Derek E.; Hüttemann, Maik; Markondapatnaikuni, Gopi Chand; Aras, Siddhesh; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2014-01-01

    According to theory, present eukaryotic cells originated from a beneficial association between two free-living cells. Due to this endosymbiotic event the pre-eukaryotic cell gained access to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which produces more than 15 times as much ATP as glycolysis. Because cellular ATP needs fluctuate and OXPHOS both requires and produces entities that can be toxic for eukaryotic cells such as ROS or NADH, we propose that the success of endosymbiosis has largely depended on the regulation of endosymbiont OXPHOS. Several studies have presented cytochrome c oxidase as a key regulator of OXPHOS; for example, COX is the only complex of mammalian OXPHOS with known tissue-specific isoforms of nuclear encoded subunits. We here discuss current knowledge about the origin of nuclear encoded subunits and the appearance of different isozymes promoted by tissue and cellular environments such as hypoxia. We also review evidence for recent selective pressure acting on COX among vertebrates, particularly in primate lineages, and discuss the unique pattern of co-evolution between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Finally, even though the addition of nuclear encoded subunits was a major event in eukaryotic COX evolution, this does not lead to emergence of a more efficient COX, as might be expected from an anthropocentric point of view, for the “higher” organism possessing large brains and muscles. The main function of these subunits appears to be “only” to control the activity of the mitochondrial subunits. We propose that this control function is an as yet underappreciated key point of evolution. Moreover, the importance of regulating energy supply may have caused the addition of subunits encoded by the nucleus in a process comparable to a “domestication scenario” such that the host tends to control more and more tightly the ancestral activity of COX performed by the mtDNA encoded subunits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  19. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  20. Synaptic localization of NMDA receptor subunits in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E L; Hack, I; Brandstätter, J H; Wässle, H

    2000-04-24

    The distribution and synaptic clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were studied in the rat retina by using subunit specific antisera. A punctate immunofluorescence was observed in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) for all subunits tested, and electron microscopy confirmed that the immunoreactive puncta represent labeling of receptors clustered at postsynaptic sites. Double labeling of sections revealed that NMDA receptor clusters within the IPL are composed of different subunit combinations: NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, and in a small number of synapses NR1/NR2A/NR2B. The majority of NMDA receptor clusters were colocalized with the postsynaptic density proteins PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP 102. Double labeling of the NMDA receptor subunit specific antisera with protein kinase C (PKC), a marker of rod bipolar cells, revealed very little colocalization at the rod bipolar cell axon terminal. This suggests that NMDA receptors are important in mediating neurotransmission within the cone bipolar cell pathways of the IPL. The postsynaptic neurons are a subset of amacrine cells and most ganglion cells. Usually only one of the two postsynaptic processes at the bipolar cell ribbon synapses expressed NMDA receptors. In the outer plexiform layer (OPL), punctate immunofluoresence was observed for the NR1C2; subunit, which was shown by electron microscopy to be localized presynaptically within both rod and cone photoreceptor terminals.

  1. A distinct holoenzyme organization for two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Philip H.; Jo, Jeanyoung; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Min-Han; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Tong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) has important roles in metabolism and is crucial for virulence for some pathogenic bacteria. PC contains biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. It is a single-chain enzyme in eukaryotes and most bacteria, and functions as a 500 kD homo-tetramer. In contrast, PC is a two-subunit enzyme in a collection of Gram-negative bacteria, with the α subunit containing the BC and the β subunit the CT and BCCP domains, and it is believed that the holoenzyme has α4β4 stoichiometry. We report here the crystal structures of a two-subunit PC from Methylobacillus flagellatus. Surprisingly, our structures reveal an α2β4 stoichiometry, and the overall architecture of the holoenzyme is strikingly different from that of the homo-tetrameric PCs. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies confirm the stoichiometry and other structural observations. Our functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa show that its two-subunit PC is important for colony morphogenesis. PMID:27708276

  2. GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ratra, G S; Casida, J E

    2001-07-01

    Three observations on the 4-[(3)H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([(3)H]EBOB) binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor indicate the specific target for insecticide action in human brain and a possible mechanism for selectivity. First, from published data, alpha-endosulfan, lindane and fipronil compete for the [(3)H]EBOB binding site with affinities of 0.3--7 nM in both human recombinant homooligomeric beta 3 receptors and housefly head membranes. Second, from structure-activity studies, including new data, GABAergic insecticide binding potency on the pentameric receptor formed from the beta 3 subunit correlates well with that on the housefly receptor (r=0.88, n=20). This conserved inhibitor specificity is consistent with known sequence homologies in the housefly GABA receptor and the human GABA(A) receptor beta 3 subunit. Third, as mostly new findings, various combinations of alpha 1, alpha 6, and gamma 2 subunits coexpressed with a beta 1 or beta 3 subunit confer differential insecticide binding sensitivity, particularly to fipronil, indicating that subunit composition is a major factor in insecticide selectivity.

  3. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit.

  4. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Keegan J.; Royal, Joshua M.; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction. PMID:25802972

  5. Chromosomal localization of human RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, J.; Wintzerith, M.; Vigneron, M.; Kedinger, C. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N.; Depetris, D. )

    1994-04-01

    The eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (or B) is composed of 10 to 14 polypeptides ranging from 220 to 10 kDa. To gain further insight into the molecular structure and function of these subunits, the authors have undertaken the molecular cloning of nucleotide sequences corresponding to the human enzyme. The cDNAs of five subunits (hRPB220, hRPB140, hRPB33, hRPB25, and hRPB14.5) have been isolated. Using in situ hybridization, they show that the genes of these subunits have distinct chromosomal locations (17p13, 4q12, 16q13-q21, 19p13.3, and 19q12, respectively). Thus, if assembly of active polymerase molecules requires coordinated expression from these independent genes, mechanisms that ensure tight coregulation of the corresponding promoters must exist. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines.

  7. KAP, the accessory subunit of kinesin-2, binds the predicted coiled-coil stalk of the motor subunits.

    PubMed

    Doodhi, Harinath; Ghosal, Debnath; Krishnamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Jana, Swadhin C; Shamala, Divya; Bhaduri, Anirban; Sowdhamini, R; Ray, Krishanu

    2009-03-17

    Kinesin-2 is an anterograde motor involved in intraflagellar transport and certain other intracellular transport processes. It consists of two different motor subunits and an accessory protein KAP (kinesin accessory protein). The motor subunits were shown to bind each other through the coiled-coil stalk domains, while KAP was proposed to bind the tail domains of the motor subunits. Although several genetic studies established that KAP plays an important role in kinesin-2 functions, its exact role remains unclear. Here, we report the results of a systematic analysis of the KAP binding sites by using recombinant Drosophila kinesin-2 subunits as well as the endogenous proteins. These show that at least one of the coiled-coil stalks is sufficient to bind the N-terminal region of DmKAP. The soluble complex involving the recombinant kinesin-2 fragments is reconstituted in vitro at high salt concentrations, suggesting that the interaction is primarily nonionic. Furthermore, independent distant homology modeling indicated that DmKAP may bind along the coiled-coil stalks through a combination of predominantly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. These observations led us to propose that KAP would stabilize the motor subunit heterodimer and help assemble a greater kinesin-2 complex in vivo. PMID:19161286

  8. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  9. Sequence of a functional invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit which can form a chimeric receptor with a vertebrate alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R J; Vreugdenhil, E; Zaman, S H; Bhandal, N S; Usherwood, P N; Barnard, E A; Darlison, M G

    1991-01-01

    The sequence of an invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit is described. This was deduced from a cDNA which was isolated from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis and which corresponds to a transcript of extremely low abundance. The cDNA was isolated using short exonic sequences from part of the corresponding gene in combination with a variant of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) known as RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The mature polypeptide has a predicted molecular weight of 54,569 Daltons and exhibits approximately 50% identity to vertebrate GABAA receptor beta subunits. The six intron-exon boundaries determined to date in the molluscan gene occur at the same relative positions as those found in vertebrate GABAA receptor genes. Functional expression, in Xenopus oocytes, of the molluscan cDNA alone results in the formation of GABA-activated chloride ion channels that have a finite open probability even in the absence of agonist. These GABA-evoked currents can be reversibly blocked by the vertebrate GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Surprisingly, the molluscan beta subunit is capable of replacing vertebrate beta subunits in co-expression experiments with the bovine GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit. These findings suggest that invertebrate GABAA receptors exist in vivo as hetero-oligomeric complexes. PMID:1655414

  10. G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Strathmann, M P; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) are central to the signaling processes of multicellular organisms. We have explored the diversity of the G protein subunits in mammals and found evidence for a large family of genes that encode the alpha subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons show that the different alpha subunits fall into at least three classes. These classes have been conserved in animals separated by considerable evolutionary distances; they are present in mammals, Drosophila, and nematodes. We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha 12 and G alpha 13, that define a fourth class. The translation products are predicted to have molecular masses of 44 kDa and to be insensitive to ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They share 67% amino acid sequence identity with each other and less than 45% identity with other alpha subunits. Their transcripts can be detected in every tissue examined, although the relative levels of the G alpha 13 message appear somewhat variable. Images PMID:1905812

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of glutathione transferases from cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Susanne C.; Tang, Julian; Hansen, Guido; Gorman, Michael A.; Wiktelius, Eric; Stenberg, Gun; Parker, Michael W.

    2009-05-08

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of multifunctional enzymes that are found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Their primary function is to remove toxins derived from exogenous sources or the products of metabolism from the cell. Mammalian GSTs have been extensively studied, in contrast to bacterial GSTs which have received relatively scant attention. A new class of GSTs called Chi has recently been identified in cyanobacteria. Chi GSTs exhibit a high glutathionylation activity towards isothiocyanates, compounds that are normally found in plants. Here, the crystallization of two GSTs are presented: TeGST produced by Thermosynechococcus elongates BP-1 and SeGST from Synechococcus elongates PCC 6301. Both enzymes formed crystals that diffracted to high resolution and appeared to be suitable for further X-ray diffraction studies. The structures of these GSTs may shed further light on the evolution of GST catalytic activity and in particular why these enzymes possess catalytic activity towards plant antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  13. Review: Human guanidinoacetate n-methyl transferase (GAMT) deficiency: A treatable inborn error of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-11-01

    The creatine biosynthetic pathway is essential for cellular phosphate associated energy production and storage, particularly in tissues having higher metabolic demands. Guanidinoacetate N-Methyl transferase (GAMT) is an important enzyme in creatine endogenous biosynthetic pathway, with highest expression in liver and kidney. GAMT deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive trait that was the first among creatine deficiency syndrome to be reported in 1994 having characteristic features of no comprehensible speech development, severe mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, involuntary movements and seizures that partly cannot be treated with anti-epileptic drugs. Due to problematic endogenous creatine biosynthesis, systemic depletion of creatine/phosphocreatine and accumulation of guanidinoacetate takes place that are the diagnostic features of this disease. Dietary creatine supplementation alone or along with arginine restriction has been reported to be beneficial for all treated patients, although to various extent. However, none of the GAMT deficient patient has been reported to return to complete normal developmental level. PMID:26639513

  14. O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors: current tools and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Rafie, Karim; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2016-02-01

    The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is the dynamic and reversible attachment of N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic target proteins. It is abundant in metazoa, involving hundreds of proteins linked to a plethora of biological functions with implications in human diseases. The process is catalysed by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that add and remove sugar moieties respectively. OGT knockout is embryonic lethal in a range of animal models, hampering the study of the biological role of O-GlcNAc and the dissection of catalytic compared with non-catalytic roles of OGT. Therefore, selective and potent chemical tools are necessary to inhibit OGT activity in the context of biological systems. The present review focuses on the available OGT inhibitors and summarizes advantages, limitations and future challenges.

  15. Diversification of Fungal Specific Class A Glutathione Transferases in Saprotrophic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Frédérique; Harvengt, Luc; Didierjean, Claude; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry. PMID:24278272

  16. Molybdenum and tungsten oxygen transferases--and functional diversity within a common active site motif.

    PubMed

    Pushie, M Jake; Cotelesage, Julien J; George, Graham N

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are the only second and third-row transition elements with a known function in living organisms. The molybdenum and tungsten enzymes show common structural features, with the metal being bound by a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor called molybdopterin. They catalyze a variety of oxygen transferase reactions coupled with two-electron redox chemistry in which the metal cycles between the +6 and +4 oxidation states usually with water, either product or substrate, providing the oxygen. The functional roles filled by the molybdenum and tungsten enzymes are diverse; for example, they play essential roles in microbial respiration, in the uptake of nitrogen in green plants, and in human health. Together, the enzymes form a superfamily which is among the most prevalent known, being found in all kingdoms of life. This review discusses what is known of the active site structures and the mechanisms, together with some recent insights into the evolution of these important enzyme systems.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: a role for glutathione-S-transferase?

    PubMed

    Stocco, Gabriele; Pelin, Marco; Franca, Raffaella; De Iudicibus, Sara; Cuzzoni, Eva; Favretto, Diego; Martelossi, Stefano; Ventura, Alessandro; Decorti, Giuliana

    2014-04-01

    Azathioprine is a purine antimetabolite drug commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In vivo it is active after reaction with reduced glutathione (GSH) and conversion to mercaptopurine. Although this reaction may occur spontaneously, the presence of isoforms M and A of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) may increase its speed. Indeed, in pediatric patients with IBD, deletion of GST-M1, which determines reduced enzymatic activity, was recently associated with reduced sensitivity to azathioprine and reduced production of azathioprine active metabolites. In addition to increase the activation of azathioprine to mercaptopurine, GSTs may contribute to azathioprine effects even by modulating GSH consumption, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms in genes for GSTs may be useful to predict response to azathioprine even if more in vitro and clinical validation studies are needed.

  18. Atypical features of a Ure2p glutathione transferase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Thuillier, Anne; Roret, Thomas; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2013-07-11

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are known to transfer glutathione onto small hydrophobic molecules in detoxification reactions. The GST Ure2pB1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium exhibits atypical features, i.e. the presence of two glutathione binding sites and a high affinity towards oxidized glutathione. Moreover, PcUre2pB1 is able to efficiently deglutathionylate GS-phenacylacetophenone. Catalysis is not mediated by the cysteines of the protein but rather by the one of glutathione and an asparagine residue plays a key role in glutathione stabilization. Interestingly PcUre2pB1 interacts in vitro with a GST of the omega class. These properties are discussed in the physiological context of wood degrading fungi.

  19. Structures of aminoarabinose transferase ArnT suggest a molecular basis for lipid A glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Vasileios I; Herrera, Carmen M; Schultz, Kathryn M; Clarke, Oliver B; Vendome, Jérémie; Tomasek, David; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Belcher Dufrisne, Meagan; Kloss, Brian; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Klug, Candice S; Trent, M Stephen; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mancia, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    Polymyxins are antibiotics used in the last line of defense to combat multidrug-resistant infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin resistance arises through charge modification of the bacterial outer membrane with the attachment of the cationic sugar 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose to lipid A, a reaction catalyzed by the integral membrane lipid-to-lipid glycosyltransferase 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose transferase (ArnT). Here, we report crystal structures of ArnT from Cupriavidus metallidurans, alone and in complex with the lipid carrier undecaprenyl phosphate, at 2.8 and 3.2 angstrom resolution, respectively. The structures show cavities for both lipidic substrates, which converge at the active site. A structural rearrangement occurs on undecaprenyl phosphate binding, which stabilizes the active site and likely allows lipid A binding. Functional mutagenesis experiments based on these structures suggest a mechanistic model for ArnT family enzymes.

  20. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs.

  1. Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

  2. Detection and quantification of flavivirus NS5 methyl-transferase activities.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Bodenreider, Christophe; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Flavivirus NS5 is the most conserved protein amongst the flavivirus proteins and is an essential enzyme for viral mRNA capping and replication. It encodes a methyl-transferase (MTase) domain at its N-terminal region which carries out sequential N7 and 2'-O methylation, resulting in the formation of the cap1 structure on its viral RNA genome. Two key methods have been established to measure these activities in vitro: thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and scintillation proximity assays (SPA). TLC offers the advantage of direct visualization of the amounts and types of cap structures formed whilst the SPA assay is more sensitive and quantitative. It is also amenable to high-throughput compound screening. The drawback of both assays is the need for radioisotope usage. We further describe the adaptation of a nonradioactive immune-competitive fluorescence polarization assay for detection of dengue virus MTase activity. PMID:23821274

  3. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  4. Crystal structures of Acetobacter aceti succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase reveal specificity determinants and illustrate the mechanism used by class I CoA-transferases.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Elwood A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2012-10-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze transthioesterification reactions involving acyl-CoA substrates, using an active-site carboxylate to form covalent acyl anhydride and CoA thioester adducts. Mechanistic studies of class I CoA-transferases suggested that acyl-CoA binding energy is used to accelerate rate-limiting acyl transfers by compressing the substrate thioester tightly against the catalytic glutamate [White, H., and Jencks, W. P. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 1688-1699]. The class I CoA-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase is an acetic acid resistance factor (AarC) with a role in a variant citric acid cycle in Acetobacter aceti. In an effort to identify residues involved in substrate recognition, X-ray crystal structures of a C-terminally His(6)-tagged form (AarCH6) were determined for several wild-type and mutant complexes, including freeze-trapped acetylglutamyl anhydride and glutamyl-CoA thioester adducts. The latter shows the acetate product bound to an auxiliary site that is required for efficient carboxylate substrate recognition. A mutant in which the catalytic glutamate was changed to an alanine crystallized in a closed complex containing dethiaacetyl-CoA, which adopts an unusual curled conformation. A model of the acetyl-CoA Michaelis complex demonstrates the compression anticipated four decades ago by Jencks and reveals that the nucleophilic glutamate is held at a near-ideal angle for attack as the thioester oxygen is forced into an oxyanion hole composed of Gly388 NH and CoA N2″. CoA is nearly immobile along its entire length during all stages of the enzyme reaction. Spatial and sequence conservation of key residues indicates that this mechanism is general among class I CoA-transferases.

  5. RMF inactivates ribosomes by covering the peptidyl transferase centre and entrance of peptide exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Uchiumi, Toshio; Wada, Akira

    2004-04-01

    In gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, protein synthesis is suppressed by the formation of 100S ribosomes under stress conditions. The 100S ribosome, a dimer of 70S ribosomes, is formed by ribosome modulation factor (RMF) binding to the 70S ribosomes. During the stationary phase, most of the 70S ribosomes turn to 100S ribosomes, which have lost translational activity. This 100S formation is called the hibernation process in the ribosome cycle of the stationary phase. If stationary phase cells are transferred to fresh medium, the 100S ribosomes immediately go back to active 70S ribosomes, showing that inactive 100S <--> active 70S interconversion is a major system regulating translation activity in stationary phase cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of translational inactivation, the binding sites of RMF on 23S rRNA in 100S ribosome of E. coli were examined by a chemical probing method using dimethyl sulphate (DMS). As the results, the nine bases in 23S rRNA were protected from DMS modifications and the modification of one base was enhanced. Interestingly A2451 is included among the protected bases, which is thought to be directly involved in peptidyl transferase activity. We conclude that RMF inactivates ribosomes by covering the peptidyl transferase (PTase) centre and the entrance of peptide exit tunnel. It is surprising that the cell itself produces a protein that seems to inhibit protein synthesis in a similar manner to antibiotics and that it can reversibly bind to and release from the ribosome in response to environmental conditions.

  6. pH-dependent conformational flexibility within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.

    PubMed Central

    Muth, G W; Chen, L; Kosek, A B; Strobel, S A

    2001-01-01

    A universally conserved adenosine, A2451, within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center has been proposed to act as a general acid-base catalyst during peptide bond formation. Evidence in support of this proposal came from pH-dependent dimethylsulfate (DMS) modification within Escherichia coli ribosomes. A2451 displayed reactivity consistent with an apparent acidity constant (pKa) near neutrality, though pH-dependent structural flexibility could not be rigorously excluded as an explanation for the enhanced reactivity at high pH. Here we present three independent lines of evidence in support of the alternative interpretation. First, A2451 in ribosomes from the archaebacteria Haloarcula marismortui displays an inverted pH profile that is inconsistent with proton-mediated base protection. Second, in ribosomes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C2452 rather than A2451 is modified in a pH-dependent manner. Third, within E. coli ribosomes, the position of A2451 modification (N1 or N3 imino group) was analyzed by testing for a Dimroth rearrangement of the N1-methylated base. The data are more consistent with DMS modification of the A2451 N1, a functional group that, according to the 50S ribosomal crystal structure, is solvent inaccessible without structural rearrangement. It therefore appears that pH-dependent DMS modification of A2451 does not provide evidence either for or against a general acid-base mechanism of protein synthesis. Instead the data suggest that there is pH-dependent conformational flexibility within the peptidyl transferase center, the exact nature and physiological relevance of which is not known. PMID:11680845

  7. Glutathione-S-transferase GST M1 "null" genotype and the risk of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, V T; Pjarinen, J; Perola, M; Penttilä, A; Karhunen, P J

    1996-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate possible association between the occurrence of glutathione-S-transferase GST M1 "null" genotype and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The"null" genotype indicating absent activity of class mu glutathione transferase was assessed in 33 abstainers, 43 moderate alcohol consumers, and 313 heavy alcohol consumers by polymerase chain reaction. The genotypes were compared with occurrence of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic liver fibrosis. The "null" genotype was found among 44.7% of patients in the series, with no significant differences between different consumption groups: controls, 36.4%; moderate consumers, 39.5%; and heavy consumers, 46.3%. Occurrence of GST M1 "null" genotype was not associated with occurrence ALD among moderate alcohol consumers. Frequency of the "null" genotype was, however, statistically nearly significantly [p = 0.07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.75] lower among heavy consumers with normal liver histology than in alcoholics with ALD. Furthermore, when compared with heavy consumers without ALD, the "null" genotype was nearly significantly more frequent among heavy consumers with at least slight liver fibrosis (p = 0.05, OR = 1.8) and statistically significantly more frequent among among alcoholics with advanced liver fibrosis (p < 0.025, OR = 2.3). Results of the present Finnish association study suggest that homozygous deletion of the GST M1 gene may indicate increased susceptibility to develop irreversible liver damage in response to the toxic effects of ethanol. Significant association was found between the occurrence of the "null" genotype and the occurrence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

  8. A glutathione transferase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens reveals a novel class of bacterial GST superfamily.

    PubMed

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we report a novel class of glutathione transferases (GSTs) originated from the pathogenic soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, with structural and catalytic properties not observed previously in prokaryotic and eukaryotic GST isoenzymes. A GST-like sequence from A. tumefaciens C58 (Atu3701) with low similarity to other characterized GST family of enzymes was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to a distinct GST class not previously described and restricted only in soil bacteria, called the Eta class (H). This enzyme (designated as AtuGSTH1-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and its structural and catalytic properties were investigated. Functional analysis showed that AtuGSTH1-1 exhibits significant transferase activity against the common substrates aryl halides, as well as very high peroxidase activity towards organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of AtuGSTH1-1 was determined at 1.4 Å resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione (Nb-GSH). Although AtuGSTH1-1 adopts the canonical GST fold, sequence and structural characteristics distinct from previously characterized GSTs were identified. The absence of the classic catalytic essential residues (Tyr, Ser, Cys) distinguishes AtuGSTH1-1 from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure and function. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, an Arg residue (Arg34), an electron-sharing network, and a bridge of a network of water molecules may form the basis of the catalytic mechanism. Comparative sequence analysis, structural information, and site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetic analysis showed that Phe22, Ser25, and Arg187 are additional important residues for the enzyme's catalytic efficiency and specificity.

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of latent alkylating agents activated by glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Satyam, A; Hocker, M D; Kane-Maguire, K A; Morgan, A S; Villar, H O; Lyttle, M H

    1996-04-12

    In search of compounds with improved specificity for targeting the important cancer-associated P1-1 glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozyme, new analogs 4 and 5 of the previously reported glutathione S-transferase (GST)-activated latent alkylating agent gamma-glutamyl-alpha-amino-beta-[[[2-[[bis[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]ph osp horyl]oxy]ethyl]sulfonyl]propionyl]-(R)-(-)-phenylglycine (3) have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated. One of the diastereomers of 4 exhibited good selectivity for GST P1-1. The tetrabromo analog 5 of the tetrachloro compound 3 maintained its specificity and was found to be more readily activated by GSTs than 3. The GST activation concept was further broadened through design, synthesis, and evaluation of a novel latent urethane mustard 8 and its diethyl ester 9. Interestingly, 8 showed very good specificity for P1-1 GST. Cell culture studies were carried out on 4, 5, 8, and 9 using cell lines engineered to have varying levels of GST P1-1 isozyme. New analogs 4 and 5 exhibited increased toxicity to cell lines with overexpressed GST P1-1 isozyme. The urethane mustard 8 and its diethyl ester 9 were found to be not as toxic. However, they too exhibited more toxicity to a cell line engineered to have elevated P1-1 levels, which was in agreement with the observed in vitro specificity of 8 for P1-1 GST isozyme. Mechanistic studies on alkaline as well as enzyme-catalyzed decomposition of latent mustard 3 provided experimental proof for the hypothesis that 3 breaks down into an active phosphoramidate mustard and a reactive vinyl sulfone. The alkylating nature of the decomposition products was further demonstrated by trapping those transient species as relatively stable diethyldithiocarbamic acid adducts. These results substantially extend previous efforts to develop drugs targeting GST and provide a paradigm for development of other latent drugs. PMID:8648613

  10. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  11. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines.

  12. Micelle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Trimaille, Thomas; Verrier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the development of subunit vaccines with purified or recombinant antigens for cancer and infectious diseases, the design of improved and safe adjuvants able to efficiently target the antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, represents a crucial challenge. Nanoparticle-based antigen delivery systems have been identified as an innovative strategy to improve the efficacy of subunit vaccines. Among them, self-assembled micellar nanoparticles from amphiphilic (macro)molecules have recently emerged as promising candidates. In this short review, we report on the recent research findings highlighting the versatility and potential of such systems in vaccine delivery. PMID:26426060

  13. Dimethyl adenosine transferase (KsgA) deficiency in Salmonella Enteritidis confers susceptibility to high osmolarity and virulence attenuation in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Dimethyladenosine transferase (KsgA) performs diverse roles in bacteria including ribosomal maturation, DNA mismatch repair, and synthesis of KsgA is responsive to antibiotics and cold temperature. We previously showed that ksgA mutation in Salmonella Enteritidis results in impaired invasiveness i...

  14. Polymerase θ is a robust terminal transferase that oscillates between three different mechanisms during end-joining

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Tatiana; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Sfeir, Agnel; Pomerantz, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) promotes insertion mutations during alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we discover that mammalian Polθ transfers nucleotides to the 3’ terminus of DNA during alt-EJ in vitro and in vivo by oscillating between three different modes of terminal transferase activity: non-templated extension, templated extension in cis, and templated extension in trans. This switching mechanism requires manganese as a co-factor for Polθ template-independent activity and allows for random combinations of templated and non-templated nucleotide insertions. We further find that Polθ terminal transferase activity is most efficient on DNA containing 3’ overhangs, is facilitated by an insertion loop and conserved residues that hold the 3’ primer terminus, and is surprisingly more proficient than terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In summary, this report identifies an unprecedented switching mechanism used by Polθ to generate genetic diversity during alt-EJ and characterizes Polθ as among the most proficient terminal transferases known. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13740.001 PMID:27311885

  15. COMPARATIVE EXPRESSION OF TWO ALPHA CLASS GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES IN HUMAN ADULT AND PRENATAL LIVER TISSUES. (R827441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The ability of the fetus to detoxify transplacental drugs and chemicals can be a critical determinant of teratogenesis and developmental toxicity. Developmentally regulated expression of alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is of particular int...

  16. Function and phylogeny of bacterial butyryl-CoA:acetate transferases and their diversity in the proximal colon of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studying the host-associated butyrate-producing bacterial community is important because butyrate is essential for colonic homeostasis and gut health. Previous research has identified the butyryl-coA:acetate transferase (2.3.8.3) as a the main gene for butyrate production in intestinal ecosystems; h...

  17. CT-GalNAc transferase overexpression in adult mice is associated with extrasynaptic utrophin in skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Durko, Margaret; Allen, Carol; Nalbantoglu, Josephine; Karpati, George

    2010-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic muscle disease characterized by the absence of sub-sarcolemmal dystrophin that results in muscle fibre necrosis, progressive muscle wasting and is fatal. Numerous experimental studies with dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, an animal model for the disease, have demonstrated that extrasynaptic upregulation of utrophin, an analogue of dystrophin, can prevent muscle fibre deterioration and reduce or negate the dystrophic phenotype. A different approach for ectopic expression of utrophin relies on augmentation of CT-GalNAc transferase in muscle fibre. We investigated whether CT-GalNAc transferase overexpression in adult mice influence appearance of utrophin in the extrasynaptic sarcolemma. After electrotransfer of plasmid DNA carrying an expression cassette of CT-GalNAc transferase into tibialis anterior muscle of wild type and dystrophic mice, muscle sections were examined by immunofluorescence. CT-GalNAc transgene expression augmented sarcolemmal carbohydrate glycosylation and was accompanied by extrasynaptic utrophin. A 6-week time course study showed that the highest efficiency of utrophin overexpression in a plasmid harboured muscle fibres was 32.2% in CD-1 and 52% in mdx mice, 2 and 4 weeks after CT-GalNAc gene transfer, respectively. The study provides evidence that postnatal CT-GalNAc transferase overexpression stimulates utrophin upregulation that is inherently beneficial for muscle structure and strength restoration. Thus CT-GalNAc may provide an important therapeutic molecule for treatment of dystrophin deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  18. BIOTRANSFORMATION AND GENOTOXICITY OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: DNA BINDING MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) was
    previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium that overexpress rat glutathione
    transferase theta 1-1 (GSTT1-1). Several experimental approaches were undertaken in this study
    to inve...

  19. The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. Howev...

  20. Characterization of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site of the bacterial beta class glutathione transferase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Federici, Luca; Masulli, Michele; Di Ilio, Carmine; Allocati, Nerino

    2010-09-01

    Since their discovery, bacterial glutathione (GSH)transferases have been characterized in terms of their ability to catalyse a variety of different reactions on a large set of toxic molecules of xenobiotic or endobiotic origin. Furthermore the contribution of different residues in the GSH-binding site to GSH activation has been extensively investigated. Little is known, however, about the contribution to catalysis and overall stability of single residues shaping the hydrophobic co-substrate binding site (H-site). Here we tackle this problem by site-directed mutagenesis of residues facing the H-site in the bacterial beta class GSH transferase from Proteus mirabilis. We investigate the behaviour of these mutants under a variety of conditions and analyse their activity against several co-substrates, representative of the different reactions catalyzed by bacterial GSH transferases. Our work shows that mutations at the H-site can be used to modulate activity at the level of the different catalytic mechanisms operating on the chosen substrates, each mutation showing a different fingerprint. This work paves the way for future studies aimed at improving the catalytic properties of beta class GSH transferases against selected substrates for bioremediation purposes.

  1. LIGNIFICATION IN TRANSGENICS DEFICIENT IN P-COUMARATE 3-HYDROXYLASE (C3H) AND THE ASSOCIATED HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASE (HCT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects on lignification of downregulating most of the genes for enzymes on the monolignol biosynthetic pathway have been reasonably well studied in angiosperms. The exception to this is the crucial hydroxylase, cinnamate 3-hydroxylase (C3H), and its associated hydroxycinnamyl transferase (HCT),...

  2. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  3. Efficient reconstitution of functional Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits from a complete set of recombinant small subunit ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Culver, G M; Noller, H F

    1999-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the 30S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli can be reconstituted in vitro from individually purified ribosomal proteins and 16S ribosomal RNA, which were isolated from natural 30S subunits. We have developed a 30S subunit reconstitution system that uses only recombinant ribosomal protein components. The genes encoding E. coli ribosomal proteins S2-S21 were cloned, and all twenty of the individual proteins were overexpressed and purified. Reconstitution, following standard procedures, using the complete set of recombinant proteins and purified 16S ribosomal RNA is highly inefficient. Efficient reconstitution of 30S subunits using these components requires sequential addition of proteins, following either the 30S subunit assembly map (Mizushima & Nomura, 1970, Nature 226:1214-1218; Held et al., 1974, J Biol Chem 249:3103-3111) or following the order of protein assembly predicted from in vitro assembly kinetics (Powers et al., 1993, J MoI Biol 232:362-374). In the first procedure, the proteins were divided into three groups, Group I (S4, S7, S8, S15, S17, and S20), Group II (S5, S6, S9, Sll, S12, S13, S16, S18, and S19), and Group III (S2, S3, S10, S14, and S21), which were sequentially added to 16S rRNA with a 20 min incubation at 42 degrees C following the addition of each group. In the second procedure, the proteins were divided into Group I (S4, S6, S11, S15, S16, S17, S18, and S20), Group II (S7, S8, S9, S13, and S19), Group II' (S5 and S12) and Group III (S2, S3, S10, S14, and S21). Similarly efficient reconstitution is observed whether the proteins are grouped according to the assembly map or according to the results of in vitro 30S subunit assembly kinetics. Although reconstitution of 30S subunits using the recombinant proteins is slightly less efficient than reconstitution using a mixture of total proteins isolated from 30S subunits, it is much more efficient than reconstitution using proteins that were individually isolated

  4. An alternative mechanism for the catalysis of peptide bond formation by L/F transferase: substrate binding and orientation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela W; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Abeysundara, Heshani; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Fahlman, Richard P

    2011-06-17

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase (L/F transferase) catalyzes the transfer of a leucine or a phenylalanine from an aminoacyl-tRNA to the N-terminus of a protein substrate. This N-terminal addition of an amino acid is analogous to that of peptide synthesis by ribosomes. A previously proposed catalytic mechanism for Escherichia coli L/F transferase identified the conserved aspartate 186 (D186) and glutamine 188 (Q188) as key catalytic residues. We have reassessed the role of D186 and Q188 by investigating the enzymatic reactions and kinetics of enzymes possessing mutations to these active-site residues. Additionally three other amino acids proposed to be involved in aminoacyl-tRNA substrate binding are investigated for comparison. By quantitatively measuring product formation using a quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based assay, our results clearly demonstrate that, despite significant reduction in enzymatic activity as a result of different point mutations introduced into the active site of L/F transferase, the formation of product is still observed upon extended incubations. Our kinetic data and existing X-ray crystal structures result in a proposal that the critical roles of D186 and Q188, like the other amino acids in the active site, are for substrate binding and orientation and do not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Overall, we propose that L/F transferase does not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation but catalyzes the reaction by binding and orientating the substrates for reaction in an analogous mechanism that has been described for ribosomes.

  5. Biosynthesis of membrane-derived oligosaccharides: characterization of mdoB mutants defective in phosphoglycerol transferase I activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, B J; Bohin, J P; Kennedy, E P

    1984-01-01

    Phosphoglycerol transferase I, an enzyme of the inner, cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, catalyzes the in vitro transfer of phosphoglycerol residues from phosphatidylglycerol to membrane-derived oligosaccharides or to the model substrate arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-beta-D-glucoside). The products are a phosphoglycerol diester derivative of membrane-derived oligosaccharides or arbutin, respectively, and sn-1,2-diglyceride (B. J. Jackson and E. P. Kennedy, J. Biol. Chem. 258:2394-2398, 1983). Because this enzyme has its active site on the outer aspect of the inner membrane, it also catalyzes the transfer of phosphoglycerol residues to arbutin added to the medium (J.-P. Bohin and E. P. Kennedy, J. Biol. Chem. 259:8388-8393, 1984). When strains bearing the dgk mutation, which are defective in the enzyme diglyceride kinase, are grown in medium containing arbutin, they accumulate large amounts of sn-1,2-diglyceride, a product of the phosphoglycerol transferase I reaction. Growth is inhibited under these conditions. A further mutation in such a dgk strain, leading to the loss of phosphoglycerol transferase I activity, should result in the phenotype of arbutin resistance. We have exploited this fact to obtain strains with such mutations, designated mdoB, that map near min 99. Such mutants lack detectable phosphoglycerol transferase I activity, cannot transfer phosphoglycerol residues to arbutin in vivo, and synthesize membrane-derived oligosaccharides devoid of phosphoglycerol residues. These findings offer strong genetic support for the function of phosphoglycerol transferase I in membrane-derived oligosaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:6094515

  6. GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate stress resilience.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Olivia F; Felice, Daniela; Galimberti, Stefano; Savignac, Hélène M; Bravo, Javier A; Crowley, Tadhg; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2014-10-21

    Stressful life events increase the susceptibility to developing psychiatric disorders such as depression; however, many individuals are resilient to such negative effects of stress. Determining the neurobiology underlying this resilience is instrumental to the development of novel and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. GABAB receptors are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression. These receptors are predominantly expressed as heterodimers of a GABAB(2) subunit with either a GABAB(1a) or a GABAB(1b) subunit. Here we show that mice lacking the GABAB(1b) receptor isoform are more resilient to both early-life stress and chronic psychosocial stress in adulthood, whereas mice lacking GABAB(1a) receptors are more susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia and social avoidance compared with wild-type mice. In addition, increased hippocampal expression of the GABAB(1b) receptor subunit is associated with a depression-like phenotype in the helpless H/Rouen genetic mouse model of depression. Stress resilience in GABAB(1b)(-/-) mice is coupled with increased proliferation and survival of newly born cells in the adult ventral hippocampus and increased stress-induced c-Fos activation in the hippocampus following early-life stress. Taken together, the data suggest that GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate the deleterious effects of stress and, thus, may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  7. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host.

  8. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-01

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior. PMID:27551100

  9. Insecticidal Pilin Subunit from the Insect Pathogen Xenorhabdus nematophila

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Choudhury, Devapriya; Birah, Ajanta; Reddy, M. K.; Gupta, Gorakh Prasad; Banerjee, Nirupama

    2004-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila is an insect pathogen and produces protein toxins which kill the larval host. Previously, we characterized an orally toxic, large, outer membrane-associated protein complex from the culture medium of X. nematophila. Here, we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of a 17-kDa pilin subunit of X. nematophila isolated from that protein complex. The gene was amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was refolded in vitro in the absence of its cognate chaperone by using a urea gradient. The protein oligomerized during in vitro refolding, forming multimers. Point mutations in the conserved N-terminal residues of the pilin protein greatly destabilized its oligomeric organization, demonstrating the importance of the N terminus in refolding and oligomerization of the pilin subunit by donor strand complementation. The recombinant protein was cytotoxic to cultured Helicoverpa armigera larval hemocytes, causing agglutination and subsequent release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The agglutination of larval cells by the 17-kDa protein was inhibited by several sugar derivatives. The biological activity of the purified recombinant protein indicated that it has a conformation similar to that of the native protein. The 17-kDa pilin subunit was found to be orally toxic to fourth- or fifth-instar larvae of an important crop pest, H. armigera, causing extensive damage to the midgut epithelial membrane. To our knowledge, this is first report describing an insecticidal pilin subunit of a bacterium. PMID:15375127

  10. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    PubMed

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  11. CMF70 is a subunit of the dynein regulatory complex.

    PubMed

    Kabututu, Zakayi P; Thayer, Michelle; Melehani, Jason H; Hill, Kent L

    2010-10-15

    Flagellar motility drives propulsion of several important pathogens and is essential for human development and physiology. Motility of the eukaryotic flagellum requires coordinate regulation of thousands of dynein motors arrayed along the axoneme, but the proteins underlying dynein regulation are largely unknown. The dynein regulatory complex, DRC, is recognized as a focal point of axonemal dynein regulation, but only a single DRC subunit, trypanin/PF2, is currently known. The component of motile flagella 70 protein, CMF70, is broadly and uniquely conserved among organisms with motile flagella, suggesting a role in axonemal motility. Here we demonstrate that CMF70 is part of the DRC from Trypanosoma brucei. CMF70 is located along the flagellum, co-sediments with trypanin in sucrose gradients and co-immunoprecipitates with trypanin. RNAi knockdown of CMF70 causes motility defects in a wild-type background and suppresses flagellar paralysis in cells with central pair defects, thus meeting the functional definition of a DRC subunit. Trypanin and CMF70 are mutually conserved in at least five of six extant eukaryotic clades, indicating that the DRC was probably present in the last common eukaryotic ancestor. We have identified only the second known subunit of this ubiquitous dynein regulatory system, highlighting the utility of combined genomic and functional analyses for identifying novel subunits of axonemal sub-complexes. PMID:20876659

  12. Production of Heteromeric Transmembrane Receptors with Defined Subunit Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Tomas; Furukawa, Hiro

    2016-05-01

    Signal transduction across cell membranes often requires assembly of heteromeric receptors with defined stoichiometry. In this issue of Structure, Morales-Perez et al. (2016) present elegant methods for the expression of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with a defined α4β2 stoichiometry involving controlled baculovirus-mediated transduction and subunit counting by measurement of two fluorescent signals.

  13. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  14. GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Olivia F.; Felice, Daniela; Galimberti, Stefano; Savignac, Hélène M.; Bravo, Javier A.; Crowley, Tadhg; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events increase the susceptibility to developing psychiatric disorders such as depression; however, many individuals are resilient to such negative effects of stress. Determining the neurobiology underlying this resilience is instrumental to the development of novel and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. GABAB receptors are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression. These receptors are predominantly expressed as heterodimers of a GABAB(2) subunit with either a GABAB(1a) or a GABAB(1b) subunit. Here we show that mice lacking the GABAB(1b) receptor isoform are more resilient to both early-life stress and chronic psychosocial stress in adulthood, whereas mice lacking GABAB(1a) receptors are more susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia and social avoidance compared with wild-type mice. In addition, increased hippocampal expression of the GABAB(1b) receptor subunit is associated with a depression-like phenotype in the helpless H/Rouen genetic mouse model of depression. Stress resilience in GABAB(1b)−/− mice is coupled with increased proliferation and survival of newly born cells in the adult ventral hippocampus and increased stress-induced c-Fos activation in the hippocampus following early-life stress. Taken together, the data suggest that GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate the deleterious effects of stress and, thus, may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:25288769

  15. Chemical crosslinking of the subunits of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Debyser, Z.; De Clercq, E.

    1996-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is composed of two subunits of 66 and 51 kDa in a 1 to 1 ratio. Because dimerization is a prerequisite for enzymatic activity, interference with the dimerization process could constitute an alternative antiviral strategy for RT inhibition. Here we describe an in vitro assay for the study of the dimerization state of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase based on chemical crosslinking of the subunits with dimethylsuberimidate. Crosslinking results in the formation of covalent bonds between the subunits, so that the crosslinked species can be resolved by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked RT species with molecular weight greater than that of the dimeric form accumulate during a 1-15-min time course. Initial evidence suggests that those high molecular weight species represent trimers and tetramers and may be the result of intramolecular crosslinking of the subunits of a higher-order RT oligomer. A peptide that corresponds to part of the tryptophan repeat motif in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT inhibits crosslink formation as well as enzymatic activity. The crosslinking assay thus allows the investigation of the effect of inhibitors on the dimerization of HIV-1 RT. PMID:8745406

  16. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  17. The Biochemistry, Ultrastructure, and Subunit Assembly Mechanism of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that play crucial roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Our knowledge about the ultrastructure and subunit assembly mechanisms of intact AMPA-Rs was very limited. However, the new studies using single particle EM and X-ray crystallography are revealing important insights. For example, the tetrameric crystal structure of the GluA2cryst construct provided the atomic view of the intact receptor. In addition, the single particle EM structures of the subunit assembly intermediates revealed the conformational requirement for the dimer-to-tetramer transition during the maturation of AMPA-Rs. These new data in the field provide new models and interpretations. In the brain, the native AMPA-R complexes contain auxiliary subunits that influence subunit assembly, gating, and trafficking of the AMPA-Rs. Understanding the mechanisms of the auxiliary subunits will become increasingly important to precisely describe the function of AMPA-Rs in the brain. The AMPA-R proteomics studies continuously reveal a previously unexpected degree of molecular heterogeneity of the complex. Because the AMPA-Rs are important drug targets for treating various neurological and psychiatric diseases, it is likely that these new native complexes will require detailed mechanistic analysis in the future. The current ultrastructural data on the receptors and the receptor-expressing stable cell lines that were developed during the course of these studies are useful resources for high throughput drug screening and further drug designing. Moreover, we are getting closer to understanding the precise mechanisms of AMPA-R-mediated synaptic plasticity. PMID:21080238

  18. Regulation of Na,K-ATPase Subunit Abundance by Translational Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Rebecca J.; Kaplan, Jack H.

    2009-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is an αβ heterodimer responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in mammalian cells. We engineered Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing α1FLAG, β1FLAG, or β2MYC subunits via a tetracycline-regulated promoter and a line expressing both stable β1MYC and tetracycline-regulated β1FLAG to examine regulatory mechanisms of sodium pump subunit expression. When overexpression of exogenous β1FLAG increased total β subunit levels by >200% without changes in α subunit abundance, endogenous β1 subunit (β1E) abundance decreased. β1E down-regulation did not occur during β2MYC overexpression, indicating isoform specificity of the repression mechanism. Measurements of RNA stability and content indicated that decreased β subunit expression was not accompanied by any change in mRNA levels. In addition, the degradation rate of β subunits was not altered by β1FLAG overexpression. Cells stably expressing β1MYC, when induced to express β1FLAG subunits, showed reduced β1MYC and β1E subunit abundance, indicating that these effects occur via the coding sequences of the down-regulated polypeptides. In a similar way, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells overexpressing exogenous α1FLAG subunits exhibited a reduction of endogenous α1 subunits (α1E) with no change in α mRNA levels or β subunits. The reduction in α1E compensated for α1FLAG subunit expression, resulting in unchanged total α subunit abundance. Thus, regulation of α subunit expression maintained its native level, whereas β subunit was not as tightly regulated and its abundance could increase substantially over native levels. These effects also occurred in human embryonic kidney cells. These data are the first indication that cellular sodium pump subunit abundance is modulated by translational repression. This mechanism represents a novel, potentially important mechanism for regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. PMID:19553675

  19. Leader peptides of inducible chloramphenicol resistance genes from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria bind to yeast and Archaea large subunit rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, R; Lovett, P S

    1997-01-01

    catA86 is the second gene in a constitutively transcribed, two-gene operon cloned from Bacillus pumilus . The region that intervenes between the upstream gene, termed the leader, and the catA86 coding sequence contains a pair of inverted repeat sequences which cause sequestration of the catA86 ribosome binding site in mRNA secondary structure. As a consequence, the catA86 coding sequence is untranslatable in the absence of inducer. Translation of the catA86 coding sequence is induced by chloramphenicol in Gram-positives and induction requires a function of the leader coding sequence. The leader-encoded peptide has been proposed to instruct its translating ribosome to pause at leader codon 6, enabling chloramphenicol to stall the ribosome at that site. Ribosome stalling causes destabilization of the RNA secondary structure, exposing the catA86 ribosome binding site, allowing activation of its translation. A comparable mechanism of induction by chloramphenicol has been proposed for the regulated cmlA gene from Gram-negative bacteria. The catA86 and cmlA leader-encoded peptides are in vitro inhibitors of peptidyl transferase, which is thought to be the basis for selection of the site of ribosome stalling. Both leader-encoded peptides have been shown to alter the secondary structure of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA in vitro. All peptide-induced changes in rRNA conformation are within domains IV and V, which contains the peptidyl transferase center. Here we demonstrate that the leader peptides alter the conformation of domains IV and V of large subunit rRNA from yeast and a representative of the Archaea. The rRNA target for binding the leader peptides is therefore conserved across kingdoms. PMID:9108153

  20. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structures of Y. pestis RipA mutants were determined to provide insights into the CoA transferase reaction pathway. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenylalanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully

  1. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-02-15

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1.

  2. Activation and inhibition of rubber transferases by metal cofactors and pyrophosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Deborah J; da Costa, Bernardo M T; Espy, Stephanie C; Keasling, Jay D; Cornish, Katrina

    2003-09-01

    Metal cofactors are necessary for the activity of alkylation by prenyl transfer in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Rubber transferase (RuT, a cis-prenyl transferase) associated with purified rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Ficus elastica can use magnesium and manganese interchangably to achieve maximum velocity. We define the concentration of activator required for maximum velocity as [A](max). The [A](max)(Mg2+) in F. elastica (100 mM) is 10 times the [A](max)(Mg2+) for either H. brasiliensis (10 mM) or P. argentatum (8 mM). The [A](max)(Mn2+) in F. elastica (11 mM), H. brasiliensis (3.8 mM) and P. argentatum (6.8 mM) and the [A](max)(Mg2+) in H. brasiliensis (10 mM) and P. argentatum (8 mM) are similar. The differences in [A](max)(Mg2+) correlate with the actual endogenous Mg(2+) concentrations in the latex of living plants. Extremely low Mn(2+) levels in vivo indicate that Mg(2+) is the RuT cofactor in living H. brasiliensis and F. elastica trees. Kinetic analyses demonstrate that FPP-Mg(2+) and FPP-Mn(2+) are active substrates for rubber molecule initiation, although free FPP and metal cations, Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), can interact independently at the active site with the following relative dissociation constants K(d)(FPP)

  3. Heterologous expression and functional characterization of avian mu-class glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Brett R; Kim, Ji Eun; Croasdell, Amanda; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Reed, Kent M; Coulombe, Roger A

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs: EC2.5.1.1.8) catalyze the detoxification of reactive electrophilic compounds, many of which are toxic and carcinogenic intermediates, via conjugation with the endogenous tripeptide glutathione (GSH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification is a critical determinant of species susceptibility to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which in resistant animals efficiently detoxifies the toxic intermediate produced by hepatic cytochrome P450 bioactivation, the exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1, a condition associated with a deficiency of hepatic GST-mediated detoxification of AFBO. We have recently shown that unlike their domestic counterparts, wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris), which are relatively resistant, express hepatic GST-mediated detoxification activity toward AFBO. Because of the importance of GSTs in species susceptibility, and to explore possible GST classes involved in AFB1 detoxification, we amplified, cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the hepatic mu-class GSTs tGSTM3 (GenBank accession no. JF340152), tGSTM4 (JF340153) from domestic turkeys, and a GSTM4 variant (ewGSTM4, JF340154) from Eastern wild turkeys. Predicted molecular masses of tGSTM3 and two tGSTM4 variants were 25.6 and 25.8kDa, respectively. Multiple sequence comparisons revealed four GSTM motifs and the mu-loop in both proteins. tGSTM4 has 89% amino acid sequence identity to chicken GSTM2, while tGSTM3 has 73% sequence identity to human GSTM3 (hGSTM3). Specific activities of Escherichia coli-expressed tGSTM3 toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide were five-fold greater than tGSTM4 while tGSTM4 possessed more than three-fold greater activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB). The two enzymes displayed equal activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA

  4. Inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and

  5. Catalytic Subunit 1 of Protein Phosphatase 2A Is a Subunit of the STRIPAK Complex and Governs Fungal Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anna; Krisp, Christoph; Wolters, Dirk A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The generation of complex three-dimensional structures is a key developmental step for most eukaryotic organisms. The details of the molecular machinery controlling this step remain to be determined. An excellent model system to study this general process is the generation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies in filamentous fungi like Sordaria macrospora. Fruiting body development is controlled by subunits of the highly conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which has been described in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans. The highly conserved heterotrimeric protein phosphatase PP2A is a subunit of STRIPAK. Here, catalytic subunit 1 of PP2A was functionally characterized. The Δpp2Ac1 strain is sterile, unable to undergo hyphal fusion, and devoid of ascogonial septation. Further, PP2Ac1, together with STRIPAK subunit PRO22, governs vegetative and stress-related growth. We revealed in vitro catalytic activity of wild-type PP2Ac1, and our in vivo analysis showed that inactive PP2Ac1 blocks the complementation of the sterile deletion strain. Tandem affinity purification, followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis, verified that PP2Ac1 is a subunit of STRIPAK. Further, these data indicate links between the STRIPAK complex and other developmental signaling pathways, implying the presence of a large interconnected signaling network that controls eukaryotic developmental processes. The insights gained in our study can be transferred to higher eukaryotes and will be important for understanding eukaryotic cellular development in general. PMID:27329756

  6. GABAA receptor beta subunit heterogeneity: functional expression of cloned cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ymer, S; Schofield, P R; Draguhn, A; Werner, P; Köhler, M; Seeburg, P H

    1989-01-01

    Cloned cDNAs encoding two new beta subunits of the rat and bovine GABAA receptor have been isolated using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on a highly conserved peptide sequence in the second transmembrane domain of GABAA receptor subunits. The beta 2 and beta 3 subunits share approximately 72% sequence identity with the previously characterized beta 1 polypeptide. Northern analysis showed that both beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs are more abundant in the brain than beta 1 mRNA. All three beta subunit encoding cDNAs were also identified in a library constructed from adrenal medulla RNA. Each beta subunit, when co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with an alpha subunit, forms functional GABAA receptors. These results, together with the known alpha subunit heterogeneity, suggest that a variety of related but functionally distinct GABAA receptor subtypes are generated by different subunit combinations. Images PMID:2548852

  7. Structure, subunit composition, and molecular weight of RD-114 RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kung, H J; Bailey, J M; Davidson, N; Nicolson, M O; McAllister, R M

    1975-01-01

    The properties and subunit composition of the RNA extracted from RD-114 virions have been studied. The RNA extracted from the virion has a sedimentation coefficient of 52S in a nondenaturing aqueous electrolyte. The estimated molecular weight by sedimentation in nondenaturing and weakly denaturing media is in the range 5.7 X 10(6) to 7.0 X 10(6). By electron microscopy, under moderately denaturing conditions, the 52S molecule is seen to be an extended single strand with a contour length of about 4.0 mum corresponding to a molecular weight of 5.74 X 10(6). It contains two characteristic secondary structure features: (i) a central Y- or T-shaped structure (the rabbit ears) with a molecular weight of 0.3 X 10(6), (ii) two symmetreically disposed loops on each side of and at equal distance from the center. The 52S molecule consists of two half-size molecules, with molecular weight 2.8 X 10(6), joined together within the central rabbit ears feature. Melting of the rabbit ears with concomitant dissociation of the 52S molecule into subunits, has been caused by either one of two strongly denaturing treatments: incubation in a mixture of CH3HgOH and glyoxal at room temperature, or thermal dissociation in a urea-formamide solvent. When half-size molecules are quenched from denaturing temperatures, a new off-center secondary structure feature termed the branch-like structure is seen. The dissociation behavior of the 52S complex and the molecular weight of the subunits have been confirmed by gel electrophoresis studies. The loop structures melt at fairly low temperatures; the dissociation of the 52S molecule into its two subunits occurs at a higher temperature corresponding to a base composition of about 63% guanosine plus cytosine. Polyadenylic acid mapping by electron microscopy shows that the 52S molecule contains two polyadenylic acid segments, one at each end. It thus appears that 52S RD-114 RNA consists of two 2.8 X 10(6) dalton subunits, each with a characteristic

  8. Arrangement of Kv1 alpha subunits dictates sensitivity to tetraethylammonium.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Ahmed; Shamotienko, Oleg; Dhochartaigh, Sorcha Ni; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Le Berre, Marie; Shaban, Hamdy; Wang, Jiafu; Sack, Jon T; Dolly, J Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Shaker-related Kv1 channels contain four channel-forming alpha subunits. Subfamily member Kv1.1 often occurs oligomerized with Kv1.2 alpha subunits in synaptic membranes, and so information was sought on the influence of their positions within tetramers on the channels' properties. Kv1.1 and 1.2 alpha genes were tandem linked in various arrangements, followed by expression as single-chain proteins in mammalian cells. As some concatenations reported previously seemed not to reliably position Kv1 subunits in their assemblies, the identity of expressed channels was methodically evaluated. Surface protein, isolated by biotinylation of intact transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, gave Kv1.1/1.2 reactivity on immunoblots with electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to full-length concatenated tetramers. There was no evidence of protein degradation, indicating that concatemers were delivered intact to the plasmalemma. Constructs with like genes adjacent (Kv1.1-1.1-1.2-1.2 or Kv1.2-1.2-1.1-1.1) yielded delayed-rectifying, voltage-dependent K(+) currents with activation parameters and inactivation kinetics slightly different from the diagonally positioned genes (Kv1.1-1.2-1.1-1.2 or 1.2-1.1-1.2-1.1). Pore-blocking petidergic toxins, alpha dendrotoxin, agitoxin-1, tityustoxin-Kalpha, and kaliotoxin, were unable to distinguish between the adjacent and diagonal concatamers. Unprecedentedly, external application of the pore-blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) differentially inhibited the adjacent versus diagonal subunit arrangements, with diagonal constructs having enhanced susceptibility. Concatenation did not directly alter the sensitivities of homomeric Kv1.1 or 1.2 channels to TEA or the toxins. TEA inhibition of currents generated by channels made up from dimers (Kv1.1-1.2 and/or Kv1.2-1.1) was similar to the adjacently arranged constructs. These collective findings indicate that assembly of alpha subunits can be directed by this optimized concatenation, and that subunit

  9. The mitochondrial F1ATPase alpha-subunit is necessary for efficient import of mitochondrial precursors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H; Douglas, M G

    1992-07-25

    The mitochondrial import and assembly of the F1ATPase subunits requires, respectively, the participation of the molecular chaperones hsp70SSA1 and hsp70SSC1 and other components operating on opposite sides of the mitochondrial membrane. In previous studies, both the homology and the assembly properties of the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (ATP1p) compared to the groEL homologue, hsp60, have led to the proposal that this subunit could exhibit chaperone-like activity. In this report the extent to which this subunit participates in protein transport has been determined by comparing import into mitochondria that lack the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (delta ATP1) versus mitochondria that lack the other major catalytic subunit, the F1ATPase beta-subunit (delta ATP2). Yeast mutants lacking the alpha-subunit but not the beta-subunit grow much more slowly than expected on fermentable carbon sources and exhibit delayed kinetics of protein import for several mitochondrial precursors such as the F1 beta subunit, hsp60MIF4 and subunits 4 and 5 of the cytochrome oxidase. In vitro and in vivo the F1 beta-subunit precursor accumulates as a translocation intermediate in absence of the F1 alpha-subunit. In the absence of both the ATPase subunits yeast grows at the same rate as a strain lacking only the beta-subunit, and import of mitochondrial precursors is restored to that of wild type. These data indicate that the F1 alpha-subunit likely functions as an "assembly partner" to influence protein import rather than functioning directly as a chaperone. These data are discussed in light of the relationship between the import and assembly of proteins in mitochondria.

  10. Regulation of expression of a soybean storage protein subunit gene. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Madison, J.T.

    1984-04-23

    We have found that the methionine repression of the ..beta..-subunit gene expression is not due to degradation of the ..beta..-subunit but is due to an effect on synthesis of the ..beta..-subunit. The effect of methionine on the synthesis of the ..beta..-is due to an inhibition of ..beta..-subunit mRNA synthesis. 3 references, 1 figure.

  11. Development of pyrethroid-like fluorescent substrates for glutathione S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huazhang; Yao, Hongwei; Liu, Jun-Yan; Samra, Aman I.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive substrates is critical for the development of precise and rapid assays for detecting changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity that are associated with GST-mediated metabolism of insecticides. In this study, six pyrethroid-like compounds were synthesized and characterized as substrates for insect and mammalian GSTs. All of the substrates were esters composed of the same alcohol moiety, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and acid moieties that structurally mimic some commonly used pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. CpGSTD1, a recombinant Delta class GST from the mosquito Culex pipiens, metabolized our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric (i.e., the cis-isomers were metabolized at 2- to 5-fold higher rates than the corresponding trans-isomers) preference. A GST preparation from mouse liver also metabolized most of our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric preference but at 10- to 170-fold lower rates. CpGSTD1 and mouse GSTs metabolized CDNB, a general GST substrate, at more than 200-fold higher rates than our novel pyrethroid-like substrates. There was a 10-fold difference in the specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) of CpGSTD1 for CDNB and those of CpGSTD1 for cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC suggesting that cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC may be useful for the detection of GST-based metabolism of pyrethroids in mosquitoes. PMID:23000005

  12. Joint effect of glutathione S-transferase genotypes and cigarette smoking on idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, S L; Kokhtenko, E V; Churnosov, M I; Solodilova, M A; Polonikov, A V

    2015-11-01

    Inconsistent results of association studies investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase genes in idiopathic male infertility may be explained by ethnical differences in gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In this study, we investigated a joint contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking to the risk of idiopathic infertility in Russian men. DNA samples from 203 infertile and 227 fertile men were genotyped by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (GSTP1 I105V) methods. The GSTP1 genotype 105IV was associated with increased risk of male infertility (OR = 1.50 95% CI 1.02-2.20 P = 0.04). Genotype combinations GSTP1 105II/GSTT1 del (G1), GSTM1 del/GSTT1 del (G2) and GSTM1 + /GSTT1 del (G3) were associated with decreased risk of male infertility (P ≤ 0.003), whereas a genotype combination GSTP1 105IV/GSTT1 + (G4) was associated with increased disease risk (P = 0.001). The genotype combinations G3 and G4 showed a significant association with infertility in smokers; however, nonsmokers carriers did show the disease risk. In conclusion, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes are collectively involved in the development of idiopathic male infertility and their phenotypic effects on the disease risk are potentiated by cigarette smoking.

  13. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  14. Allyl isothiocyanate depletes glutathione and upregulates expression of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Anders; Stokland, Ragni A.; Åsberg, Signe E.; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Bones, Atle M.

    2015-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical associated with plant defense in plants from the Brassicaceae family. AITC has long been recognized as a countermeasure against external threats, but recent reports suggest that AITC is also involved in the onset of defense-related mechanisms such as the regulation of stomatal aperture. However, the underlying cellular modes of action in plants remain scarcely investigated. Here we report evidence of an AITC-induced depletion of glutathione (GSH) and the effect on gene expression of the detoxification enzyme family glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment of A. thaliana wild-type with AITC resulted in a time- and dose-dependent depletion of cellular GSH. AITC-exposure of mutant lines vtc1 and pad2-1 with elevated and reduced GSH-levels, displayed enhanced and decreased AITC-tolerance, respectively. AITC-exposure also led to increased ROS-levels in the roots and loss of chlorophyll which are symptoms of oxidative stress. Following exposure to AITC, we found that GSH rapidly recovered to the same level as in the control plant, suggesting an effective route for replenishment of GSH or a rapid detoxification of AITC. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding GSTs showed an upregulation in response to AITC. These findings demonstrate cellular effects by AITC involving a reversible depletion of the GSH-pool, induced oxidative stress, and elevated expression of GST-encoding genes. PMID:25954298

  15. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    PubMed

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress. PMID:27064879

  16. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, JZ; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans. PMID:27551520

  17. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in freshwater invertebrates as biomarkers to assess pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Inês; Agra, Ana Raquel; Monaghan, Kieran; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating the use of biomarkers in pesticide risk assessment have greatly increased in recent years; however, issues concerning the ecological meaning of enzymatic responses have proved controversial. Ideally a good biomarker response should be modulated by the environmental contaminants alone and demonstrate a predictable behavior towards certain types of toxins. As these premises are rarely observed, the present study aims to outline research that has contributed to an understanding of the behavior of two widely used biomarkers, cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase, describing environmental and biotic factors that affect their response in freshwater invertebrates. Studies were performed in the main classes of aquatic invertebrates with these biomarkers and conclusions were reached concerning their behavior towards the main classes of pesticides. Links between biomarker responses and conventional endpoints were evaluated so that ecological relevance could be attributed to enzymatic responses. Toxicity of mixtures was investigated, and cases of synergism and antagonism were pointed out as factors changing the expected toxicity of aquatic systems and leading to misinterpretations of biomarker responses. Finally, the use of biomarkers as a tool for biomonitoring and in situ assays was investigated, with discussion of advantages and disadvantages of their use.

  18. Recognition and Detoxification of the Insecticide DDT by Drosophila melanogaster Glutathione S-Transferase D1

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Wai Yee; Feil, Susanne C.; Ng, Hooi Ling; Gorman, Michael A.; Morton, Craig J.; Pyke, James; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bieri, Michael; Mok, Yee-Foong; Robin, Charles; Gooley, Paul R.; Parker, Michael W.; Batterham, Philip

    2010-06-14

    GSTD1 is one of several insect glutathione S-transferases capable of metabolizing the insecticide DDT. Here we use crystallography and NMR to elucidate the binding of DDT and glutathione to GSTD1. The crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster GSTD1 has been determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution, which reveals that the enzyme adopts the canonical GST fold but with a partially occluded active site caused by the packing of a C-terminal helix against one wall of the binding site for substrates. This helix would need to unwind or be displaced to enable catalysis. When the C-terminal helix is removed from the model of the crystal structure, DDT can be computationally docked into the active site in an orientation favoring catalysis. Two-dimensional {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence NMR experiments of GSTD1 indicate that conformational changes occur upon glutathione and DDT binding and the residues that broaden upon DDT binding support the predicted binding site. We also show that the ancestral GSTD1 is likely to have possessed DDT dehydrochlorinase activity because both GSTD1 from D. melanogaster and its sibling species, Drosophila simulans, have this activity.

  19. Dual functionality of O-GlcNAc transferase is required for Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Mariappa, Daniel; Zheng, Xiaowei; Schimpl, Marianne; Raimi, Olawale; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Müller, H-Arno J; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) catalysed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has been linked to regulation of diverse cellular functions. OGT possesses a C-terminal glycosyltransferase catalytic domain and N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats that are implicated in protein-protein interactions. Drosophila OGT (DmOGT) is encoded by super sex combs (sxc), mutants of which are pupal lethal. However, it is not clear if this phenotype is caused by reduction of O-GlcNAcylation. Here we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that post-pupal Drosophila development can proceed with negligible OGT catalysis, while early embryonic development is OGT activity-dependent. Structural and enzymatic comparison between human OGT (hOGT) and DmOGT informed the rational design of DmOGT point mutants with a range of reduced catalytic activities. Strikingly, a severely hypomorphic OGT mutant complements sxc pupal lethality. However, the hypomorphic OGT mutant-rescued progeny do not produce F2 adults, because a set of Hox genes is de-repressed in F2 embryos, resulting in homeotic phenotypes. Thus, OGT catalytic activity is required up to late pupal stages, while further development proceeds with severely reduced OGT activity.

  20. Inhibition of insect glutathione S-transferase (GST) by conifer extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Arnason, John T; Liu, Rui; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Waye, Andrew; Liu, Suqi; Saleem, Ammar; Cáceres, Luis A; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Insecticide synergists biochemically inhibit insect metabolic enzyme activity and are used both to increase the effectiveness of insecticides and as a diagnostic tool for resistance mechanisms. Considerable attention has been focused on identifying new synergists from phytochemicals with recognized biological activities, specifically enzyme inhibition. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), and tamarack larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch) have been used by native Canadians as traditional medicine, specifically for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties based on enzyme inhibitory activity. To identify the potential allelochemicals with synergistic activity, ethanol crude extracts and methanol/water fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic column and tested for in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition activity using insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) midgut and fat-body homogenate. The fractions showing similar activity were combined and analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A lignan, (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate, was identified from P. mariana cone extracts, and L. laricina and A. balsamea bark extracts. A flavonoid, taxifolin, was identified from P. mariana and P. banksiana cone extracts and L. laricina bark extracts. Both compounds inhibit GST activity with taxifolin showing greater activity compared to (+)-lariciresinol 9'-p-coumarate and the standard GST inhibitor, diethyl maleate. The results suggested that these compounds can be considered as potential new insecticide synergists. PMID:25270601

  1. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in varicocele patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Yin, L; Zhang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family represents a major group of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Studies have shown that high oxidative stress levels are associated with varicocele. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and varicocele using a study group of 497 varicocele patients and 476 control subjects. A systematic literature search (for articles published up to September 2014) utilizing Google Scholar and PubMed was conducted. The chi-square-based Q test and I(2) index were used to evaluate data from retrieved studies. The possible publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and the Egger test. No statistically significant association was found between GSTM1 or GSTT1 null genotypes and varicocele in the overall data analysis. In a subgroup analysis, only the null GSTM1 genotype was observed at a significantly higher frequency in Caucasian varicocele patients. In the Chinese subgroup, no association was established between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and this condition. More attention should be drawn to oxidative stress-related pathological manifestations for Caucasian varicocele patients. PMID:26782535

  2. Optical biosensor consisting of glutathione-S-transferase for detection of captan.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, In-ho; Lee, Won-Hong

    2003-10-15

    The optical biosensor consisting of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the decrease of yellow product, s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione, produced from substrates, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), due to the inhibition of GST reaction by captan. Absorbance of the product as the output of enzyme reaction was detected and the light was guided through the optical fibers. The enzyme reactor of the sensor system was fabricated by the gel entrapment technique for the immobilized GST film. The immobilized GST had the maximum activity at pH 6.5. The optimal concentrations of substrates were determined with 1 mM for both of CDNB and GSH. The optimum concentration of enzyme was also determined with 100 microg/ml. The activity of immobilized enzyme was fairly sustained during 30 days. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan up to 2 ppm and the response time to steady signal was about 15 min.

  3. Field evaluation of a recombinant glutathione S-transferase-based pyrethroid quantification assay.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Lengeler, Christian; Erlanger, Tobias; Hemingway, Janet

    2005-05-01

    A recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-based pyrethroid quantification assay was field-tested in Ifakara, Tanzania. Initial laboratory tests suggested that all reagents used in the assay should be sufficiently stable for field use, provided that domestic refrigeration facilities were available. Insecticide-impregnated bednets were collected from a region where a social marketing programme was in progress. A total of 100 bednets were collected and the assay plus standard HPLC analysis was performed on the residues extracted from four replicate areas of each net. Insecticide residue estimations for assays performed on white and pale green bednet samples were accurate when compared with residue analysis by HPLC. However, for dark green or blue bednets, there was no correlation between the GST-based assay and HPLC pyrethroid quantification results. The assay failure with the dark coloured nets was caused by the extraction of the dyes along with the insecticide, which subsequently interfered with the GST assay. When the same samples were analysed by HPLC, the dyes were separated from the insecticide by reverse phase column chromatography and hence did not affect the results. PMID:15780344

  4. Chlortetracycline detoxification in maize via induction of glutathione S-transferases after antibiotic exposure.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Michael H; Berry, James O; Aga, Diana S

    2007-02-15

    Soil contamination with nonmetabolized antibiotics is an emerging environmental concern, especially on agricultural croplands that receive animal manure as fertilizer. In this study, phytotoxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) antibiotics on pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) was investigated under controlled conditions. When grown in CTC-treated soil, a significant increase in the activities of the plant stress proteins glutathione S-transferases (GST) and peroxidases (POX) were observed in maize plants, but not in pinto beans. In vitro conjugation reactions demonstrated that the induced GST in maize catalyzed the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with CTC, producing stable conjugates that were structurally characterized using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The antibiotic-induced GST produced CTC-glutathione conjugate at relative concentrations 2-fold higher than that produced by constitutively expressed GST extracted from untreated maize. On the other hand, GST extracted from pinto beans (both treated and untreated) did not efficiently catalyze glutathione conjugation with CTC. These results suggest that maize is able to detoxify chlortetracycline via the glutathione pathway, whereas pinto beans cannot. This may explain the observed stunted growth of pinto beans after antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates the importance of plant uptake in determining the fate of antibiotics in soil and their potential phytotoxicity to susceptible plants. PMID:17593756

  5. Characterization and Evolutionary Implications of the Triad Asp-Xxx-Glu in Group II Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Li, Yu-Dong; Liu, Jian-Bo; Ran, Xin-Xin; Guo, Yuan-Yang; Ren, Ni-Ni; Chen, Xin; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases), which play an essential role in both primary and secondary metabolism, are magnesium binding enzymes. In this study, we characterized the magnesium binding residues of all known group II PPTases by biochemical and evolutionary analysis. Our results suggested that group II PPTases could be classified into two subgroups, two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu and three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Glu-Glu. Mutations of two three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases and one two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTase indicate that the first and the third residues in the triads are essential to activities; the second residues in the triads are non-essential. Although variations of the second residues in the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu exist throughout the whole phylogenetic tree, the second residues are conserved in animals, plants, algae, and most prokaryotes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that: the animal group II PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may derive from horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes. PMID:25036863

  6. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dominic C; Jervis, Adrian J; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  7. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dominic C.; Jervis, Adrian J.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E.; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB . The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesised by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  8. Synthesis of isotopically labeled P-site substrates for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Minghong

    2010-01-01

    Isotopomers of the ribosomal P-site substrate, the trinucleotide peptide conjugate CCA-pcb,1 have been designed and synthesized in 26–350020steps. These include individual isotopic substitution at the α-proton, carbonyl carbon, and carbonyl oxygen of the amino acid, the O2' and O3' of the adenosine, and a remote label in the N3 and N4 of both cytidines. These isotopomers were synthesized by coupling cytidylyl-(3'5')-cytidine phosphoramidite isotopomers, as the common synthetic intermediates, with isotopically substituted A-Phe-cap-biotin (A-pcb). The isotopic enrichment is higher than 99% for 1-13C (Phe), 2-2H (Phe), and 3,4-15N2 (cytidine), 93% for 2'/3'- 18O (adenosine), and 64% for 1-18O (Phe). A new synthesis of highly enriched [1-18O2] phenylalanine has been developed. The synthesis of [3'-18O] adenosine was improved by Lewis acid aided regioselective ring opening of the epoxide and by an economical SN2-SN2 method with high isotopic enrichment (93%). Such substrates are valuable for studies of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by complete kinetic isotope effect analysis and of other biological processes catalyzed by nucleic acid related enzymes, including polymerases, reverse transcriptases, ligases, nucleases, and ribozymes. PMID:18081346

  9. Isolation and characterization of two mouse Pi-class glutathione S-transferase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bammler, T K; Smith, C A; Wolf, C R

    1994-01-01

    Pi-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of chemical toxins and mutagens and are implicated in neoplastic development and drug resistance. In all species characterized to date, only one functional Pi-class GST gene has been described. In this report we have identified two actively transcribed murine Pi-class GST genes, Gst p-1 and Gst p-2. The coding regions of Gst p-1 and the mouse Pi-class GST cDNA (GST-II) reported by Hatayama, Satoh and Satoh (1990) (Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 4606) are identical, whereas Gst p-2 encodes a protein that has not been described previously. The two genes are approximately 3 kb long and contain seven exons interrupted by six introns. In addition to a TATA box and a sequence motif matching the phorbol-ester-responsive element, the promoters of Gst p-1 and Gst p-2 exhibit one and two G+C boxes (GGGCGG) respectively. The cDNAs of the two genes were isolated from total liver RNA using reverse PCR. The peptide sequence deduced from the cDNAs share 97% identity and differ in six amino acids. Both genes are transcribed at significantly higher levels in male mouse liver than in female, and Gst p-1 mRNA is more abundant in both sexes than Gst p-2. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8135745

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  11. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  12. Effect of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase [corrected] on dough rheology and bread quality from rice flour.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Guardiola, Ignacio; Carbonell, José Vicente; Rosell, Cristina M

    2003-06-18

    Gluten-free breads are usually characterized by deficient quality characteristics as compared to wheat breads. Problems related to volume and crumb texture are associated with gluten-free breads even when rice flour is used, which seems to be the best raw material for this type of bread. The potential use of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase) as a rice bread improver is presented. The effect of CGTase addition to rice flour on dough rheology and bread quality was investigated. In addition, an experimental design was developed to optimize the levels of CGTase, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and oil. The addition of CGTase produced a reduction in the dough consistency and also in the elastic modulus. With regard to the rice bread quality, better specific volume, shape index, and crumb texture were obtained. The amount of cyclodextrins in the bread crumb was quantified to explain the action of this enzyme. The data indicate that the improving effect of the CGTase results from a combination of its hydrolyzing and cyclizing activities, the latter being responsible for the release of cyclodextrins, which have the ability to form complexes with lipids and proteins.

  13. Role of Carnitine Acetyl Transferase in Regulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Sun, Xutong; Agarwal, Saurabh; Rafikov, Ruslan; Dasarathy, Sridevi; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) result in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction that is dependent, at least in part, on decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Utilizing a lamb model with left-to-right shunting of blood and increased PBF that mimics the human disease, we have recently shown that a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, due to a decreased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) activity, correlates with decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that the CrAT enzyme plays a major role in regulating NO signaling through its effect on mitochondrial function. We utilized the siRNA gene knockdown approach to mimic the effect of decreased CrAT activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC). Our data indicate that silencing the CrAT gene disrupted cellular carnitine homeostasis, reduced the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-and resulted in an increase in oxidative stress within the mitochondrion. CrAT gene silencing also disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics resulting in reduced ATP generation and decreased NO signaling secondary to a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions. Thus, this study links the disruption of carnitine homeostasis to the loss of NO signaling observed in children with CHD. Preserving carnitine homeostasis may have important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23344032

  14. Activity-regulated trafficking of the palmitoyl-acyl transferase DHHC5.

    PubMed

    Brigidi, G Stefano; Santyr, Brendan; Shimell, Jordan; Jovellar, Blair; Bamji, Shernaz X

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is mediated by the dynamic localization of proteins to and from synapses. This is controlled, in part, through activity-induced palmitoylation of synaptic proteins. Here we report that the ability of the palmitoyl-acyl transferase, DHHC5, to palmitoylate substrates in an activity-dependent manner is dependent on changes in its subcellular localization. Under basal conditions, DHHC5 is bound to PSD-95 and Fyn kinase, and is stabilized at the synaptic membrane through Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue within the endocytic motif of DHHC5. In contrast, DHHC5's substrate, δ-catenin, is highly localized to dendritic shafts, resulting in the segregation of the enzyme/substrate pair. Neuronal activity disrupts DHHC5/PSD-95/Fyn kinase complexes, enhancing DHHC5 endocytosis, its translocation to dendritic shafts and its association with δ-catenin. Following DHHC5-mediated palmitoylation of δ-catenin, DHHC5 and δ-catenin are trafficked together back into spines where δ-catenin increases cadherin stabilization and recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synaptic membrane. PMID:26334723

  15. Protein–Polymer Conjugation via Ligand Affinity and Photoactivation of Glutathione S-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A photoactivated, site-selective conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the glutathione (GSH) binding pocket of glutathione S-transferase (GST) is described. To achieve this, a GSH analogue (GSH-BP) was designed and chemically synthesized with three functionalities: (1) the binding affinity of GSH to GST, (2) a free thiol for polymer functionalization, and (3) a photoreactive benzophenone (BP) component. Different molecular weights (2 kDa, 5 kDa, and 20 kDa) of GSH-BP modified PEGs (GSBP-PEGs) were synthesized and showed conjugation efficiencies between 52% and 76% to GST. Diazirine (DA) PEG were also prepared but gave conjugation yields lower than for GSBP-PEGs. PEGs with different end-groups were also synthesized to validate the importance of each component in the end-group design. End-groups included glutathione (GS-PEG) and benzophenone (BP-PEG). Results showed that both GSH and BP were crucial for successful conjugation to GST. In addition, conjugations of 5 kDa GSBP-PEG to different proteins were investigated, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lyz), ubiquitin (Ubq), and GST-fused ubiquitin (GST-Ubq) to ensure specific binding to GST. By combining noncovalent and covalent interactions, we have developed a new phototriggered protein–polymer conjugation method that is generally applicable to GST-fusion proteins. PMID:25315970

  16. Solution Structural Studies of GTP:Adenosylcobinamide-Phosphateguanylyl Transferase (CobY) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    PubMed Central

    Singarapu, Kiran K.; Otte, Michele M.; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Markley, John L.

    2015-01-01

    GTP:adenosylcobinamide-phosphate (AdoCbi-P) guanylyl transferase (CobY) is an enzyme that transfers the GMP moiety of GTP to AdoCbi yielding AdoCbi-GDP in the late steps of the assembly of Ado-cobamides in archaea. The failure of repeated attempts to crystallize ligand-free (apo) CobY prompted us to explore its 3D structure by solution NMR spectroscopy. As reported here, the solution structure has a mixed α/β fold consisting of seven β-strands and five α-helices, which is very similar to a Rossmann fold. Titration of apo-CobY with GTP resulted in large changes in amide proton chemical shifts that indicated major structural perturbations upon complex formation. However, the CobY:GTP complex as followed by 1H-15N HSQC spectra was found to be unstable over time: GTP hydrolyzed and the protein converted slowly to a species with an NMR spectrum similar to that of apo-CobY. The variant CobYG153D, whose GTP complex was studied by X-ray crystallography, yielded NMR spectra similar to those of wild-type CobY in both its apo- state and in complex with GTP. The CobYG153D:GTP complex was also found to be unstable over time. PMID:26513744

  17. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts.

  18. A study of gender, strain and age differences in mouse liver glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Egaas, E; Falls, J G; Dauterman, W C

    1995-01-01

    The hepatic cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in four strains of the mouse and one strain of the rat was studied with the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethachrynic acid (ETHA), cumene hydroperoxide (CU) and atrazine as the in vitro substrates. In the mouse, significant gender, strain and age-related differences in the GST activity towards CDNB and atrazine were found between adolescent and sexually mature males and females of the CD-1, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and Swiss-Webster strains, and the differences were larger with atrazine as the substrate. With DCNB and CU a similar tendency was observed, however not significant for all strains. The GST activity towards ETHA was also gender and strain specific, but revealed no age-related differences. The herbicide atrazine seems to be a useful substrate in the study of strain and age-related differences in the mouse GST class Pi.

  19. Anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (TrpD) generates phosphoribosylamine for thiamine synthesis from enamines and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Jennifer A; Downs, Diana M

    2013-01-18

    Anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (TrpD) has been well characterized for its role in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. Here, we characterized a new reaction catalyzed by TrpD that resulted in the formation of the purine/thiamine intermediate metabolite phosphoribosylamine (PRA). The data showed that 4- and 5-carbon enamines served as substrates for TrpD, and the reaction product was predicted to be a phosphoribosyl-enamine adduct. Isotopic labeling data indicated that the TrpD reaction product was hydrolyzed to PRA. Variants of TrpD that were proficient for tryptophan synthesis were unable to support PRA formation in vivo in Salmonella enterica. These protein variants had substitutions at residues that contributed to binding substrates anthranilate or phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP). Taken together the data herein identified a new reaction catalyzed by a well-characterized biosynthetic enzyme, and both illustrated the robustness of the metabolic network and identified a role for an enamine that accumulates in the absence of reactive intermediate deaminase RidA.

  20. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, J Z; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans. PMID:27551520

  1. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, J Z; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans.

  2. Increased cytogenetic damage in smokers deficient in glutathione S-transferase isozyme mu.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, G; de Vogel, N; van Balderen, P J; Kok, F J

    1992-02-01

    Reduced expression of the mu-isozyme of glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk. We studied the association between GST-mu expression and DNA damage as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in healthy male smokers. SCE levels were higher in the 71 GST-mu-deficient smokers compared to the 83 non-deficient smokers (5.24 versus 4.97 SCE/lymphocyte; P = 0.09). In smokers having high plasma cotinine levels (greater than median of 315 ng/ml), this mu-related difference was more pronounced (5.50 versus 4.97; P = 0.01), whereas it was absent in smokers having low cotinine levels (4.95 versus 4.97; P = 0.92). Increased cytogenetic damage in GST-mu-deficient heavy smokers may thus explain the association between GST-mu expression and lung cancer. PMID:1740022

  3. Transcriptomic Responses of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to Oak Acetonic Extracts: Focus on a New Glutathione Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Belli, Gemma; Herrero, Enrique; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Kohler, Annegret; Deroy, Aurélie; Dhalleine, Tiphaine; Bchini, Raphael; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with the toxicity of these molecules, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in the presence of oak acetonic extracts. It reveals that in complement to the extracellular machinery of degradation, intracellular antioxidant and detoxification systems contribute to the lignolytic capabilities of fungi, presumably by preventing cellular damages and maintaining fungal health. Focusing on these systems, a glutathione transferase (P. chrysosporium GTT2.1 [PcGTT2.1]) has been selected for functional characterization. This enzyme, not characterized so far in basidiomycetes, has been classified first as a GTT2 compared to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoform. However, a deeper analysis shows that the GTT2.1 isoform has evolved functionally to reduce lipid peroxidation by recognizing high-molecular-weight peroxides as substrates. Moreover, the GTT2.1 gene has been lost in some non-wood-decay fungi. This example suggests that the intracellular detoxification system evolved concomitantly with the extracellular ligninolytic machinery in relation to the capacity of fungi to degrade wood. PMID:25107961

  4. Thiopurine methyl transferase activity: new extraction conditions for high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Ganiere-Monteil, C; Pineau, A; Kergueris, M F; Azoulay, C; Bourin, M

    1999-04-30

    A new liquid-liquid extraction is described for thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT, EC 2.1.1.67) activity determination: the use of a pH 9.5 NH4Cl buffer solution, before adding the solvent mixture, allows more rapid extraction, avoiding a centrifugation step, and reduces the global cost of analysis. After the extraction step, 6-methylmercaptopurine, synthesised during the enzymatic reaction, is determined by a liquid chromatographic assay. Analytical performance of the assay was tested on spiked erythrocyte lysates. The linear concentration range was 5-250 ng ml(-1) (r> or =0.997, slope=1.497, intercept=-0.367). The recoveries were 82.8, 89.9 and 82.2% for 75, 125 and 225 ng ml(-1), respectively. The coefficients of variation were < or =6.1% for within-day assay (n=6) and < or =9.5% for between-day assay precision (n=6; 14 days). TPMT activity was determined in a French adult Caucasian population (7 =70). The results ranged from 7.8 to 27.8 nmol h(-1) ml(-1) packed red blood cells and the frequency distribution histogram is similar to that previously published.

  5. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase as a specific indicator of bile duct lesions in the rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, T. B.; Neptun, D. A.; Popp, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of hepatic injury used extensively in humans, has been used rarely in rats because its specificity has not been previously defined. Studies were designed for investigation of the specificity of serum GGT activity with the use of cell type specific hepatotoxicants in Fischer 344 rats. Single necrogenic doses of CCl4, allyl alcohol (AA), and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were used to produce cell specific injury in centrilobular hepatocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and bile duct cells, respectively. Administration of CCl4 markedly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and serum bile acid concentrations within 24 hours but had no effect on serum GGT activity. ANIT treatment increased serum GGT and AP activities and bile acid concentration 24 hours following administration. Allyl alcohol administration increased serum ALT activity but had no effect on GGT activity. Administration of ANIT in the diet at 0.01%, 0.022%, 0.047%, and 0.1% for 2, 4, and 6 weeks produced dose- and time-dependent increases in serum GGT activity which strongly correlated with quantitative increases in hepatic bile duct volume, which was determined morphometrically. These observations support the use of serum GGT activity in the rat as diagnostic of bile duct cell necrosis when increases are detected shortly after the insult and as an indicator of possible bile duct hyperplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:6147091

  6. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase as a specific indicator of bile duct lesions in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Leonard, T B; Neptun, D A; Popp, J A

    1984-08-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of hepatic injury used extensively in humans, has been used rarely in rats because its specificity has not been previously defined. Studies were designed for investigation of the specificity of serum GGT activity with the use of cell type specific hepatotoxicants in Fischer 344 rats. Single necrogenic doses of CCl4, allyl alcohol (AA), and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were used to produce cell specific injury in centrilobular hepatocytes, periportal hepatocytes, and bile duct cells, respectively. Administration of CCl4 markedly increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and serum bile acid concentrations within 24 hours but had no effect on serum GGT activity. ANIT treatment increased serum GGT and AP activities and bile acid concentration 24 hours following administration. Allyl alcohol administration increased serum ALT activity but had no effect on GGT activity. Administration of ANIT in the diet at 0.01%, 0.022%, 0.047%, and 0.1% for 2, 4, and 6 weeks produced dose- and time-dependent increases in serum GGT activity which strongly correlated with quantitative increases in hepatic bile duct volume, which was determined morphometrically. These observations support the use of serum GGT activity in the rat as diagnostic of bile duct cell necrosis when increases are detected shortly after the insult and as an indicator of possible bile duct hyperplasia. PMID:6147091

  7. Mechanistic evaluation and transcriptional signature of a glutathione S-transferase omega 1 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Kavya; Samanta, Soma; Kyani, Anahita; Yang, Suhui; Tamura, Shuzo; Ziemke, Elizabeth; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Li, Si; Chinnaswamy, Krishnapriya; Otake, Hiroyuki; Debnath, Bikash; Yarovenko, Vladimir; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.; Ljungman, Mats; Neamati, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) is an atypical GST isoform that is overexpressed in several cancers and has been implicated in drug resistance. Currently, no small-molecule drug targeting GSTO1 is under clinical development. Here we show that silencing of GSTO1 with siRNA significantly impairs cancer cell viability, validating GSTO1 as a potential new target in oncology. We report on the development and characterization of a series of chloroacetamide-containing potent GSTO1 inhibitors. Co-crystal structures of GSTO1 with our inhibitors demonstrate covalent binding to the active site cysteine. These potent GSTO1 inhibitors suppress cancer cell growth, enhance the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and inhibit tumour growth in colon cancer models as single agent. Bru-seq-based transcription profiling unravelled novel roles for GSTO1 in cholesterol metabolism, oxidative and endoplasmic stress responses, cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our findings demonstrate the therapeutic utility of GSTO1 inhibitors as anticancer agents and identify the novel cellular pathways under GSTO1 regulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:27703239

  8. Human Polymorphisms in the Glutathione Transferase Zeta 1/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Gene Influence the Toxicokinetics of Dichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Shroads, Albert L.; Langaee, Taimour; Coats, Bonnie S.; Kurtz, Tracie L.; Bullock, John R.; Weithorn, David; Gong, Yan; Wagner, David A.; Ostrov, David A.; Johnson, Julie A.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), a chemical relevant to environmental science and allopathic medicine, is dehalogenated by the bifunctional enzyme glutathione transferase zeta (GSTz1) maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in the phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolic pathway. The authors postulated that polymorphisms in GSTz1/MAAI modify the toxicokinetics of DCA. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype significantly affected the kinetics and biotransformation of 1,2-13C-DCA when it was administered at either environmentally (μg/kg/d) or clinically (mg/kg/d) relevant doses. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype also influenced the urinary accumulation of potentially toxic tyrosine metabolites. Atomic modeling revealed that GSTz1/MAAI variants associated with the slowest rates of DCA metabolism induced structural changes in the enzyme homodimer, predicting protein instability or abnormal protein-protein interactions. Knowledge of the GSTz1/MAAI haplotype can be used prospectively to identify individuals at potential risk of DCA’s adverse side effects from environmental or clinical exposure or who may exhibit aberrant amino acid metabolism in response to dietary protein. PMID:21642471

  9. Isothiocyanate exposure, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk1234

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Hong-Lan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Dyba, Marcin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chung, Fung-Lung; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background: Isothiocyanates, compounds found primarily in cruciferous vegetables, have been shown in laboratory studies to possess anticarcinogenic activity. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates; thus, genetic variations in these enzymes may affect in vivo bioavailability and the activity of isothiocyanates. Objective: The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between urinary isothiocyanate concentrations and colorectal cancer risk as well as the potential modifying effect of GST genotypes on the association. Design: A nested case-control study of 322 cases and 1251 controls identified from the Shanghai Women's Health Study was conducted. Results: Urinary isothiocyanate concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk; the inverse association was statistically significant or nearly significant in the GSTM1-null (P for trend = 0.04) and the GSTT1-null (P for trend = 0.07) genotype groups. The strongest inverse association was found among individuals with both the GSTM1-null and the GSTT1-null genotypes, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.95), in a comparison of the highest with the lowest tertile of urinary isothiocyanates. No apparent associations between isothiocyanate concentration and colorectal cancer risk were found among individuals who carried either the GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene (P for interaction < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that isothiocyanate exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, and this protective effect may be modified by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. PMID:20042523

  10. Tomato Rab1A homologs as molecular tools for studying Rab geranylgeranyl transferase in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Loraine, A E; Yalovsky, S; Fabry, S; Gruissem, W

    1996-04-01

    Rab proteins attach to membranes along the secretory pathway where they contribute to distinct steps in vesicle-mediated transport. To bind membranes, Rab proteins in fungal and animal cells must be isoprenylated by the enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGTase). We have isolated three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, M.) cDNAs (LeRab 1A, B, and C) encoding Rab-like proteins and show here that all three are substrates for a Rab GGTase-like activity in plant cells. The plant enzyme is similar to mammalian Rab GGTase in that the plant activity (a) is enhanced by detergent and (b) is inhibited by mutant Rab lacking a prenylation consensus sequence. LeRab1B contains a rare prenylation target motif and was the best substrate for the plant, but not the yeast, Rab GGTase. LeRab1A, B, and C are functional homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rab protein encoded by YPT1 and are differentially expressed in tomato. LeRab1A mRNA, but not that of LeRab1B or C, is induced by ethylene in tomato seedlings and is also upregulated in ripening fruit. The increase in LeRab1A mRNA expression in ripe fruit may be linked to increased synthesis and export of enzymes like polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and other enzymes important in fruit softening.

  11. O-GlcNAc transferase enables AgRP neurons to suppress browning of white fat

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hai-Bin; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Zimmer, Marcelo R.; Li, Min-Dian; Singh, Jay Prakash; Zhang, Kaisi; Yin, Ruonan; Wu, Jing; Horvath, Tamas L.; Yang, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Induction of beige cells causes the browning of white fat and improves energy metabolism. However, the central mechanism that controls adipose tissue browning and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that fasting and chemical-genetic activation of orexigenic AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus suppress the browning of white fat. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates fundamental cellular processes. The levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc modification are enriched in AgRP neurons and are elevated by fasting. Genetic ablation of OGT in AgRP neurons inhibits neuronal excitability through the voltage-dependent potassium channel, promotes white adipose tissue browning, and protects mice against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These data reveal adipose tissue browning as a highly dynamic physiological process under central control, in which O-GlcNAc signaling in AgRP neurons is essential for suppressing thermogenesis to conserve energy in response to fasting. PMID:25303527

  12. Polyprenyl lipid synthesis in mammalian cells expressing human cis-prenyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jullian; Viswanathan, Karthik; Krag, Sharon S; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    The level of cis-prenyl transferase activity has been implicated in controlling the level of biosynthesis of dolichol and dolichol intermediates. In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding a human CPT (GenBank Accession No. ), which had substantial homology to other CPT isolated from human brain, bacteria, Arabidopsis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of this cDNA in two different insect cell lines confirmed the functionality of the protein in an in vitro assay. Western blot analysis revealed an expressed protein of approximately 38 kDa in HEK293 cells. Overexpression of the protein in HEK293 cells resulted in an increase in the level of total prenol in vivo. Furthermore, product characterization by thin layer chromatography (TLC) confirmed that the major product was a long-chain prenol with a chain length of 95 carbons. These results suggest a regulatory relationship between CPT activity and dolichol biosynthesis, and may implicate CPT in the levels of dolichol-oligosaccharide intermediate biosynthesis.

  13. O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase: achieving target substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Alexis K.

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyze the dynamic cycling of intracellular, post-translational O-GlcNAc modification on thousands of Ser/Thr residues of cytosolic, nuclear, and mitochondrial signaling proteins. The identification of O-GlcNAc modified substrates has revealed a functionally diverse set of proteins, and the extent of O-GlcNAcylation fluctuates in response to nutrients and cellular stress. As a result, OGT and OGA are implicated in widespread, nutrient-responsive regulation of numerous signaling pathways and transcriptional programs. These enzymes are required for normal embryonic development and are dysregulated in metabolic and age-related disease states. While a recent surge of interest in the field has contributed to understanding the functional impacts of protein O-GlcNAcylation, little is known about the upstream mechanisms which modulate OGT and OGA substrate targeting. This review focuses on elements of enzyme structure among splice variants, post-translational modification, localization, and regulatory protein interactions which drive the specificity of OGT and OGA toward different subsets of the cellular proteome. Ongoing efforts in this rapidly advancing field are aimed at revealing mechanisms of OGT and OGA regulation to harness the potential therapeutic benefit of manipulating these enzymes’ activities. PMID:25173736

  14. Limonin Methoxylation Influences Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase and Quinone Reductase

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, JOSE LUIS; JAYAPRAKASHA, G. K.; VALDIVIA, VIOLETA; MUNOZ, DIANA; DANDEKAR, DEEPAK V.; AHMAD, HASSAN; PATIL, BHIMANAGOUDA S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the chemoprevention potential of citrus limonoids due to the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, three citrus limonoids were purified and identified from sour orange seeds as limonin, limonin glucoside (LG), deacetylnomilinic acid glucoside (DNAG). In addition, limonin was modified to defuran limonin and limonin 7-methoxime. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by NMR studies. These five compounds were used to investigate the influence of Phase II enzymes in female A/J mice. Our results indicated that the highest induction of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity against 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) by DNAG (67%) in lung homogenates followed by limonin-7-methoxime (32%) in treated liver homogenates. Interestingly, the limonin-7-methoxime showed the highest GST activity (270%) in liver against 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), while the same compound in stomach induced GST by 51% compared to the control. DNAG treated group induced 55% in stomach homogenates. Another Phase II enzyme, quinone reductase (QR), was significantly induced by limonin-7-methoxime by 65 and 32% in liver and lung homogenates, respectively. Defuran limonin, induced QR in lung homogenates by 45%. Our results indicated that modification of the limonin have differential induction of phase II enzymes. These findings are indicative of a possible mechanism for the prevention of cancer by aiding in detoxification of xenobiotics. PMID:19480426

  15. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  16. Characterization of Discrete Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases in Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19 Unveils a Complicate Phosphopantetheinylation Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Dou; Ren, Ni-Ni; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS. Our results here indicate that the functions of these PPTases complement each other for ACPs/PCPs substrates, suggesting a complicate phosphopantetheinylation network in S. tsukubaensis L19. Engineering of these PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 resulted in a mutant strain that can improve FK506 production. PMID:27052100

  17. Characterization and evolutionary implications of the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu in group II phosphopantetheinyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Li, Yu-Dong; Liu, Jian-Bo; Ran, Xin-Xin; Guo, Yuan-Yang; Ren, Ni-Ni; Chen, Xin; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases), which play an essential role in both primary and secondary metabolism, are magnesium binding enzymes. In this study, we characterized the magnesium binding residues of all known group II PPTases by biochemical and evolutionary analysis. Our results suggested that group II PPTases could be classified into two subgroups, two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu and three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Glu-Glu. Mutations of two three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases and one two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTase indicate that the first and the third residues in the triads are essential to activities; the second residues in the triads are non-essential. Although variations of the second residues in the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu exist throughout the whole phylogenetic tree, the second residues are conserved in animals, plants, algae, and most prokaryotes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that: the animal group II PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may derive from horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes.

  18. Molecular characterization of an anthocyanin-related glutathione S-transferase gene in cyclamen.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Satoshi; Akita, Yusuke; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2012-04-15

    Anthocyanins are a subclass of flavonoids and are a major contributor to flower colors ranging from red to blue and purple. Previous studies in model and ornamental plants indicate a member of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family is involved in vacuolar accumulation of anthocyanins. In order to identify the anthocyanin-related GST in cyclamen, degenerate PCR was performed using total RNA from immature young petals. Four candidates of GSTs (CkmGST1 to CkmGST4) were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CkmGST3 was closely related to PhAN9, an anthocyanin-related GST of petunia, and this clade was clustered with other known anthocyanin-related GSTs. Expression analysis at different developmental stages of petals revealed that CkmGST3 was strongly expressed in paler pigmented petals than in fully pigmented petals, in contrast to the constitutive expression of the other three candidates during petal development. This expression pattern of CkmGST3 was correlated with those of other anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as CkmF3'5'H and CkmDFR2. Molecular complementation of Arabidopsis tt19, a knockout mutant of an anthocyanin-related GST gene, demonstrated that CkmGST3 could complement the anthocyanin-less phenotype of tt19. Transgenic plants that expressed the other three CkmGSTs did not show anthocyanin accumulation. These results indicate CkmGST3 functions in anthocyanin accumulation in cyclamen.

  19. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 metabolic polymorphism and lung cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Reszka, E; Wasowicz, W; Rydzynski, K; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    2003-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to different environmental agents is expected to be associated with alterations in metabolism of xenobiotics. Thus, genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase (GST) can be recognized as a potential risk modifier in lung cancer development. The distribution of GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes was studied in a group of 138 diagnosed lung cancer patients and in 165 controls living in central Poland and RFLP-PCR technique was applied. The frequency of GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 Val single and duplicated alleles was similar among patients and controls. GSTM1 homozygous deletion was most prevalent in small-cell carcinoma groups (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-5.52). In patients and controls, GSTM1A genotype was most frequent (34.1% vs. 37.0%). The estimated lung cancer risk for GSTM1 null, GSTP1 Ile/Val and GSTP1 Val/Val combined genotype was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.73-2.83), suggesting the absence of modifying effect of defective GSTM1 and GSTP1 alleles on lung cancer predisposition. PMID:14628089

  20. Computational evidence for the detoxifying mechanism of epsilon class glutathione transferase toward the insecticide DDT.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-05-01

    A combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computation of the detoxifying mechanism of an epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) toward organochlorine insecticide DDT, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, has been carried out. The exponential average barrier of the proton transfer mechanism is 15.2 kcal/mol, which is 27.6 kcal/mol lower than that of the GS-DDT conjugant mechanism. It suggests that the detoxifying reaction proceeds via a proton transfer mechanism where GSH acts as a cofactor rather than a conjugate. The study reveals that the protein environment has a strong effect on the reaction barrier. The experimentally proposed residues Arg112, Glu116 and Phe120 were found to have a strong influence on the detoxifying reaction. The influence of residues Pro13, Cys15, His53, Ile55, Glu67, Ser68, Phe115, and Leu119 was detected as well. It is worth noticing that Ile55 facilitates the detoxifying reaction most. On the basis of the structure of DDT, structure 2, (BrC6H4)2CHCCl3, is the best candidate among all the tested structures in resisting the detoxification of enzyme agGSTe2.

  1. Structural insights into the dehydroascorbate reductase activity of human omega-class glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huina; Brock, Joseph; Liu, Dan; Board, Philip G; Oakley, Aaron J

    2012-07-13

    The reduction of dehydroascorbate (DHA) to ascorbic acid (AA) is a vital cellular function. The omega-class glutathione transferases (GSTs) catalyze several reductive reactions in cellular biochemistry, including DHA reduction. In humans, two isozymes (GSTO1-1 and GSTO2-2) with significant DHA reductase (DHAR) activity are found, sharing 64% sequence identity. While the activity of GSTO2-2 is higher, it is significantly more unstable in vitro. We report the first crystal structures of human GSTO2-2, stabilized through site-directed mutagenesis and determined at 1.9 Å resolution in the presence and absence of glutathione (GSH). The structure of a human GSTO1-1 has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution in complex with the reaction product AA, which unexpectedly binds in the G-site, where the glutamyl moiety of GSH binds. The structure suggests a similar mode of ascorbate binding in GSTO2-2. This is the first time that a non-GSH-based reaction product has been observed in the G-site of any GST. AA stacks against a conserved aromatic residue, F34 (equivalent to Y34 in GSTO2-2). Mutation of Y34 to alanine in GSTO2-2 eliminates DHAR activity. From these structures and other biochemical data, we propose a mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis of DHAR activity.

  2. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of glutathione S-transferase from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Motohiko; Harada, Shigeharu; Satow, Yoshinori; Inoue, Hideshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    1996-10-01

    Crystals of glutathione S-transferase from Escherichia coli have been obtained by use of polyethylene glycol 6000 as a precipitant. The crystallization was performed in the presence of a glutathione sulfonate inhibitor under the acidic condition, with combination of the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion and the macro-seeding procedures. The crystals are of a thin-plate shape with typical sizes of 1.0 × 0.5 × 0.1 mm, and are stable against X-ray irradiation. They belong to the space group P2 12 12 1 with cell parameters of a = 90.47 Å, b = 93.87 Å and c = 51.10 Å, and diffract X-rays at least up to 2.3 Å resolution. The solvent content is 48% in volume, when a homodimeric molecule of the enzyme is assumed to occupy an asymmetric unit of the crystal. The crystals are suitable for three-dimensional structural studies. Diffraction data of the native crystal have been collected.

  3. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  4. Trypanosomatidae produce acetate via a mitochondrial acetate:succinate CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Hellemond, J J; Opperdoes, F R; Tielens, A G

    1998-03-17

    Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because they also are known to produce acetate. The mechanism of acetate production in these organisms, however, has remained unknown. Four different members of the trypanosomatid family: promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. infantum and Phytomonas sp., and procyclics of Trypanosoma brucei were analyzed as well as the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica. They all use a mitochondrial ASCT for the production of acetate from acetyl CoA. The succinyl CoA that is produced during acetate formation by ASCT is recycled presumably to succinate by a mitochondrial succinyl CoA synthetase, concomitantly producing ATP from ADP. The ASCT of L. mexicana mexicana promastigotes was further characterized after partial purification of the enzyme. It has a high affinity for acetyl CoA (Km 0.26 mM) and a low affinity for succinate (Km 6.9 mM), which shows that significant acetate production can occur only when high mitochondrial succinate concentrations prevail. This study identifies a metabolic pathway common to mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, which strongly supports a common origin for these two organelles.

  5. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  6. Glutathione s-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms in Iranian patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Fatemeh Kazemi; Shahsavari, Gholamreza; Abyaneh, Reza Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness and it is related to oxidative stress based on numerous studies. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of multigenic family, which have important role in cells as an antioxidant. In the present study, we examined the polymorphism of GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) in 100 Glaucoma patients (41with primary open angle glaucoma (PCAG), and 59 with primary closed angle glaucoma (POAG)) compared to 100 healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: GSTM1and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: GSTM1 and GSTT1 null deletions genotypes were determined in 22 (53.7%) and 7 (17.1%) patients with PCAG and 34 (34%) and 15 (15%) in healthy subjects. Comparison between patients and healthy subjects regarding GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes revealed increase of GSTM1 null deletions genotypes in patients with PCAG (P=0.03). Conclusion: It was concluded that the increased frequencies of GSTM1 null in patients with PCAG could be a risk factor for incidence of PCAG in the Iranian population. PMID:24967061

  7. A phosphopantetheinyl transferase that is essential for mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Abramson, Alex; Man, Huimin; Wu, Jinxia; Yu, Oliver; Nikolau, Basil J

    2015-11-01

    In this study we report the molecular genetic characterization of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial phosphopantetheinyl transferase (mtPPT), which catalyzes the phosphopantetheinylation and thus activation of mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (mtACP) of mitochondrial fatty acid synthase (mtFAS). This catalytic capability of the purified mtPPT protein (encoded by AT3G11470) was directly demonstrated in an in vitro assay that phosphopantetheinylated mature Arabidopsis apo-mtACP isoforms. The mitochondrial localization of the AT3G11470-encoded proteins was validated by the ability of their N-terminal 80-residue leader sequence to guide a chimeric GFP protein to this organelle. A T-DNA-tagged null mutant mtppt-1 allele shows an embryo-lethal phenotype, illustrating a crucial role of mtPPT for embryogenesis. Arabidopsis RNAi transgenic lines with reduced mtPPT expression display typical phenotypes associated with a deficiency in the mtFAS system, namely miniaturized plant morphology, slow growth, reduced lipoylation of mitochondrial proteins, and the hyperaccumulation of photorespiratory intermediates, glycine and glycolate. These morphological and metabolic alterations are reversed when these plants are grown in a non-photorespiratory condition (i.e. 1% CO2 atmosphere), demonstrating that they are a consequence of a deficiency in photorespiration due to the reduced lipoylation of the photorespiratory glycine decarboxylase. PMID:26402847

  8. Antenna-specific glutathione S-transferase in male silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Zhong, Xiao-Wu; Chen, Quan-Mei; Xia, Qing-You; Zhao, Ping

    2014-04-29

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are widely distributed in different species. GSTs detoxify exogenous and endogenous substances by conjugation to reduced glutathione. We characterized BmGSTD4, an antenna-specific GST, in male silkmoths. The full-length mRNA of Bmgstd4 was cloned by RACE-PCR and contained an open reading frame of 738 bp encoding a 245 amino acid protein. The antenna specificity of BmGSTD4 was validated at the mRNA and protein levels and BmGSTD4 was shown to localize in the sensillum of male silkmoth antennae. Homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that BmGSTD4 was a typical GST belonging to the δ class and had a canonical GST fold with a conserved N-terminus, including a glutathione-binding site and a C-terminal domain harboring a hydrophobic substrate-binding site. Restricted expression of BmGSTD4 in silkmoth antennae combined with GST activity suggested that BmGSTD4 was involved in the detoxification of harmful chemicals.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus formyl-methionyl transferase mutants demonstrate reduced virulence factor production and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; Demarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection.

  10. Fluorometric microplate assay to measure glutathione S-transferase activity in insects and mites using monochlorobimane.

    PubMed

    Nauen, Ralf; Stumpf, Natascha

    2002-04-15

    Elevated levels of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides and acaricides in resistant pest insects and mites, respectively. Such compounds are either detoxicated directly via phase I metabolism or detoxicated by phase II metabolism of metabolites as formed by microsomal monooxygenases. Here we used monochlorobimane (MCB) as an artificial substrate and glutathione to determine total GST activity in equivalents of single pest insects and spider mites in a sensitive 96-well plate-based assay system by measuring the enzymatic conversion of MCB to its fluorescent bimane-glutathione adduct. The differentiation by their GST activity between several strains of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), with different degrees of resistance to numerous acaricides was more sensitive with MCB compared to the commonly used substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Compared to an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, one field population of T. urticae showed a more than 10-fold higher GST activity measured with MCB, in contrast to a less than 2-fold higher activity when CDNB was used. Furthermore, we showed that GST activity can be sensitively assessed with MCB in homogenates of pest insects such as Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). PMID:11950219

  11. Inhibitory mechanism of novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bong-Suk; Han, Seong-Gu; Lee, Won-Kyu; Ryoo, Sung Weon; Lee, Sang Jae; Suh, Se-Won; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) catalyzes the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolphyruvate (PEP) to uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG), which is the first step of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We identified thimerosal, thiram, and ebselen as effective inhibitors of Heamophilus influenzae MurA by screening a chemical library that consisted of a wide range of bioactive compounds. When MurA was preincubated with these inhibitors, their 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were found to range from 0.1 to 0.7 microM. In particular, thimerosal suppressed the growth of several different Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium at a concentration range of 1-2 microg/ml. These inhibitors covalently modified the cysteine residue near the active site of MurA. This modification changed the open conformation of MurA to a more closed configuration, which may have prevented the necessary conformational change from occurring during the enzyme reaction.

  12. Transcriptomic responses of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to oak acetonic extracts: focus on a new glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Belli, Gemma; Herrero, Enrique; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Kohler, Annegret; Deroy, Aurélie; Dhalleine, Tiphaine; Bchini, Raphael; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2014-10-01

    The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with the toxicity of these molecules, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in the presence of oak acetonic extracts. It reveals that in complement to the extracellular machinery of degradation, intracellular antioxidant and detoxification systems contribute to the lignolytic capabilities of fungi, presumably by preventing cellular damages and maintaining fungal health. Focusing on these systems, a glutathione transferase (P. chrysosporium GTT2.1 [PcGTT2.1]) has been selected for functional characterization. This enzyme, not characterized so far in basidiomycetes, has been classified first as a GTT2 compared to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoform. However, a deeper analysis shows that the GTT2.1 isoform has evolved functionally to reduce lipid peroxidation by recognizing high-molecular-weight peroxides as substrates. Moreover, the GTT2.1 gene has been lost in some non-wood-decay fungi. This example suggests that the intracellular detoxification system evolved concomitantly with the extracellular ligninolytic machinery in relation to the capacity of fungi to degrade wood.

  13. Inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase activity reprograms prostate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Itkonen, Harri M.; Gorad, Saurabh S.; Duveau, Damien Y.; Martin, Sara E.S.; Barkovskaya, Anna; Bathen, Tone F.; Moestue, Siver A.; Mills, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic networks are highly connected and complex, but a single enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) can sense the availability of metabolites and also modify target proteins. We show that inhibition of OGT activity inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, leads to sustained loss of c-MYC and suppresses the expression of CDK1, elevated expression of which predicts prostate cancer recurrence (p=0.00179). Metabolic profiling revealed decreased glucose consumption and lactate production after OGT inhibition. This decreased glycolytic activity specifically sensitized prostate cancer cells, but not cells representing normal prostate epithelium, to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation (rotenone and metformin). Intra-cellular alanine was depleted upon OGT inhibitor treatment. OGT inhibitor increased the expression and activity of alanine aminotransferase (GPT2), an enzyme that can be targeted with a clinically approved drug, cycloserine. Simultaneous inhibition of OGT and GPT2 inhibited cell viability and growth rate, and additionally activated a cell death response. These combinatorial effects were predominantly seen in prostate cancer cells, but not in a cell-line derived from normal prostate epithelium. Combinatorial treatments were confirmed with two inhibitors against both OGT and GPT2. Taken together, here we report the reprogramming of energy metabolism upon inhibition of OGT activity, and identify synergistically lethal combinations that are prostate cancer cell specific. PMID:26824323

  14. Transcriptional Responses of Glutathione Transferase Genes in Ruditapes philippinarum Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Bruno; Carneiro, Mariana; Machado, João; Azevedo, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione Transferases (GSTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes known to be involved in the molecular response against microcystins (MCs) induced toxicity. However, the individual role of the several GST isoforms in the MC detoxification process is still unknown. In this study, the time-dependent changes on gene expression of several GST isoforms (pi, mu, sigma 1, sigma 2) in parallel with enzymatic activity of total GST were investigated in gills and hepatopancreas of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to pure MC-LR (10 and 100 µg/L). No significant changes in GST enzyme activities were found on both organs. In contrast, MC-LR affected the transcriptional activities of these detoxification enzymes both in gills and hepatopancreas. GST transcriptional changes in gills promoted by MC-LR were characterized by an early (12 h) induction of mu and sigma 1 transcripts. On the other hand, the GST transcriptional changes in hepatopancreas were characterized by a later induction (48 h) of mu transcript, but also by an early inhibition (6 h) of the four transcripts. The different transcription patterns obtained for the tested GST isoforms in this study highlight the potential divergent physiological roles played by these isoenzymes during the detoxification of MC-LR. PMID:25884330

  15. Identification of Small-Molecule Frequent Hitters of Glutathione S-Transferase-Glutathione Interaction.

    PubMed

    Brenke, Jara K; Salmina, Elena S; Ringelstetter, Larissa; Dornauer, Scarlett; Kuzikov, Maria; Rothenaigner, Ina; Schorpp, Kenji; Giehler, Fabian; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Kieser, Arnd; Gul, Sheraz; Tetko, Igor V; Hadian, Kamyar

    2016-07-01

    In high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns, the binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) to glutathione (GSH) is used for detection of GST-tagged proteins in protein-protein interactions or enzyme assays. However, many false-positives, so-called frequent hitters (FH), arise that either prevent GST/GSH interaction or interfere with assay signal generation or detection. To identify GST-FH compounds, we analyzed the data of five independent AlphaScreen-based screening campaigns to classify compounds that inhibit the GST/GSH interaction. We identified 53 compounds affecting GST/GSH binding but not influencing His-tag/Ni(2+)-NTA interaction and general AlphaScreen signals. The structures of these 53 experimentally identified GST-FHs were analyzed in chemoinformatic studies to categorize substructural features that promote interference with GST/GSH binding. Here, we confirmed several existing chemoinformatic filters and more importantly extended them as well as added novel filters that specify compounds with anti-GST/GSH activity. Selected compounds were also tested using different antibody-based GST detection technologies and exhibited no interference clearly demonstrating specificity toward their GST/GSH interaction. Thus, these newly described GST-FH will further contribute to the identification of FH compounds containing promiscuous substructures. The developed filters were uploaded to the OCHEM website (http://ochem.eu) and are publicly accessible for analysis of future HTS results. PMID:27044684

  16. Ataxin-10 interacts with O-GlcNAc transferase OGT in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andrali, Sreenath S.; Maerz, Pia; Oezcan, Sabire . E-mail: sozcan@uky.edu

    2005-11-11

    Several nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in metazoans are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This modification is dynamic and reversible similar to phosphorylation and is catalyzed by the O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase O-GlcNAc levels in pancreatic {beta} cells, which appears to interfere with {beta}-cell function. To obtain a better understanding of the role of O-linked GlcNAc modification in {beta} cells, we have isolated OGT interacting proteins from a cDNA library made from the mouse insulinoma MIN6 cell line. We describe here the identification of Ataxin-10, encoded by the SCA10 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 10) gene as an OGT interacting protein. Mutations in the SCA10 gene cause progressive cerebellar ataxias and seizures. We demonstrate that SCA10 interacts with OGT in vivo and is modified by O-linked glycosylation in MIN6 cells, suggesting a novel role for the Ataxin-10 protein in pancreatic {beta} cells.

  17. Characterization of GDP-Fucose: Polysaccharide Fucosyl Transferase in Corn Roots (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    James, D W; Jones, R L

    1979-12-01

    The peripheral root cap cells of corn (cv. SX-17A) secrete a fucose-rich, high molecular weight, polysaccharide slime via the dictyosome pathway. To study the synthesis of this polysaccharide, a technique for isolating and assaying GDP-fucose:polysaccharide fucosyl transferase activity was developed. Corn roots were excised from germinated seeds, incubated 12 hours at 10 C in water, and ground in 100 millimolar Tris or Pipes buffer (pH 7.0) with or without 0.5 molar sucrose. The membrane-bound enzyme was solubilized by sonication in the presence of 2 molar urea and 1.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 and assayed by monitoring the incorporation of GDP-[(14)C]fucose into endogenous acceptors. Optimum enzyme activity is expressed at pH 7.0 and 30 C in the presence of 0.8% (v/v) Triton X-100. The enzyme does not require divalent cations for activation and is inhibited by concentrations of MnCl(2) or MgCl(2) greater than 1 millimolar. Corn root cap slime will serve as an exogenous acceptor for the enzyme if it is first hydrolyzed in 5 millimolar trifluoroacetic acid for 60 minutes at 18 pounds per square inch, 121 C. This procedure prepares the acceptor by removing terminal fucose residues from the slime molecule. Kinetics of fucose release during hydrolysis of native slime and in vitro synthesized product suggests that the two polymers possess similar linkages to fucose.

  18. Location and cloning of the ketal pyruvate transferase gene of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed Central

    Marzocca, M P; Harding, N E; Petroni, E A; Cleary, J M; Ielpi, L

    1991-01-01

    Genes required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps) are clustered in a DNA region of 13.5 kb in the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris. Plasmid pCHC3 containing a 12.4-kb insert of xps genes has been suggested to include a gene involved in the pyruvylation of xanthan gum (N.E. Harding, J.M. Cleary, D.K. Cabañas, I. G. Rosen, and K. S. Kang, J. Bacteriol. 169:2854-2861, 1987). An essential step toward understanding the biosynthesis of xanthan gum and to enable genetic manipulation of xanthan structure is the determination of the biochemical function encoded by the xps genes. On the basis of biochemical characterization of an X. campestris mutant which produces pyruvate-free xanthan gum, complementation studies, and heterologous expression, we have identified the gene coding for the ketal pyruvate transferase (kpt) enzyme. This gene was located on a 1.4-kb BamHI fragment of pCHC3 and cloned in the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK404. An X. campestris kpt mutant was constructed by mini-Mu(Tetr) mutagenesis of the cloned gene and then by recombination of the mutation into the chromosome of the wild-type strain. PMID:1657892

  19. Location and cloning of the ketal pyruvate transferase gene of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Marzocca, M P; Harding, N E; Petroni, E A; Cleary, J M; Ielpi, L

    1991-12-01

    Genes required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps) are clustered in a DNA region of 13.5 kb in the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris. Plasmid pCHC3 containing a 12.4-kb insert of xps genes has been suggested to include a gene involved in the pyruvylation of xanthan gum (N.E. Harding, J.M. Cleary, D.K. Cabañas, I. G. Rosen, and K. S. Kang, J. Bacteriol. 169:2854-2861, 1987). An essential step toward understanding the biosynthesis of xanthan gum and to enable genetic manipulation of xanthan structure is the determination of the biochemical function encoded by the xps genes. On the basis of biochemical characterization of an X. campestris mutant which produces pyruvate-free xanthan gum, complementation studies, and heterologous expression, we have identified the gene coding for the ketal pyruvate transferase (kpt) enzyme. This gene was located on a 1.4-kb BamHI fragment of pCHC3 and cloned in the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK404. An X. campestris kpt mutant was constructed by mini-Mu(Tetr) mutagenesis of the cloned gene and then by recombination of the mutation into the chromosome of the wild-type strain. PMID:1657892

  20. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  1. Response to adjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer: no correlation with expression of glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. H.; Roelofs, H. M.; van Putten, W. L.; Jansen, J. B.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Of 139 node-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, the pre-treatment levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) classes alpha, mu and pi, were determined by immuno-quantification on Western blots in cytosols of the primary tumours. Their expression was studied with respect to cytosolic oestrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and cathepsin D levels, and to the length of disease-free survival. GST class pi was negatively correlated with oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and positively correlated with cathepsin D. There was no correlation between GST isoenzymes and the length of disease-free survival. These data suggest that glutathione S-transferases are not useful as markers to predict the response to adjuvant chemotherapy in human breast cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8318426

  2. Action of glycosyl transferases upon "Bombay" (Oh) erythrocytes. Conversion to cells showing blood-group H and A specificities.

    PubMed

    Schenkel-Brunner, H; Prohaska, R; Tuppy, H

    1975-08-15

    Individuals of the rare "Bombay" (Oh) blood-group phenotype lacking, due to a genetic defect, the alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase, which is responsible for converting blood-group H precursor substances to H-specific structures. Treatment with GDP-fucose and alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase prepared from gastric mucosa of O individuals to transform native or ficin-treated "Bombay" erythrocytes into cells phenotypically resembling O cells. The transformation was achieved, however, after prior incubation of the "Bombay" erythrocytes with neuraminidase, indicating that blood-group H precursor molecules on the surface of these cells are masked by sialyl residues. Blood-group A specificity was conferred upon neuraminidase-treated "Bombay" cells by enzymatic transfer of alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in addition to alpha-fucose residues.

  3. Frequencies of glutathione s-transferase (GSTM1, GSTM3 AND GSTT1) polymorphisms in a Malaysian population

    PubMed Central

    Alshagga, Mustafa A.; Mohamed, Norazlina; Nazrun Suhid, Ahmad; Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Syed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (XME), which may modify susceptibility in certain ethnic groups, showing ethnic dependent polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in a Malaysian population in Kuala Lumpur. Material and methods Blood or buccal swab samples were collected from 137 Form II students from three schools in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Glutathione-S-transferase GSTM3 gene frequencies were 89% for AA, 10% for AB and 1% for BB. The gene frequencies for deleted GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 66% and 18% respectively. Conclusions This study suggested that the Malay population is at risk for environmental diseases and provides the basis for gene-environment association studies to be carried out. PMID:22291790

  4. Effects of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 deletions on epilepsy risk among a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Chbili, Chahra; B'chir, Fatma; Ben Fredj, Maha; Saguem, Bochra-Nourhène; Ben Amor, Sana; Ben Ammou, Sofiene; Saguem, Saad

    2014-09-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases enzymes are involved in the detoxification of several endogenous and exogenous substances. In this present study, we evaluated the effects of two glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms, (GSTM1 and GSTT1) on epilepsy risk susceptibility in a Tunisian population. These polymorphisms were analyzed in 229 healthy subjects and 98 patients with epilepsy, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Odds ratio (ORs) was used for analyzing results. The study results demonstrated that individuals with the GSTM1 null genotype were at an increased risk of developing epilepsy [OR=3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) (2.15-4.78)], whereas no significant effects were observed between individuals with GSTT1 null genotype and epilepsy risk [OR=1.15, 95% CI (0.62-2.12)]. These genotyping finding revealed that the absence of GSTM1 activity could be contributor factor for the development of epilepsy disease.

  5. The alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase are homologous: cDNA cloning and primary structure of the beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kilimann, M W; Zander, N F; Kuhn, C C; Crabb, J W; Meyer, H E; Heilmeyer, L M

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned cDNA molecules encoding the beta subunit of phosphorylase kinase (ATP:phosphorylase-b phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.38) from rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle and have determined the complete primary structure of the polypeptide by a combination of peptide and DNA sequencing. In the mature beta subunit, the initial methionine is replaced by an acetyl group. The subunit is composed of 1092 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 125,205 Da. Alignment of its sequence with the alpha subunit of phosphorylase kinase reveals extensive regions of homology, but each molecule also possesses unique sequences. Two of the three phosphorylation sites known for the beta subunit and all seven phosphorylation sites known for the alpha subunit are located in these unique domains. Images PMID:3200826

  6. Identification and subcellular localization of TcHIP, a putative Golgi zDHHC palmitoyl transferase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Batista, Cassiano Martin; Kalb, Ligia Cristina; Moreira, Claudia Maria do Nascimento; Batista, Guilherme Tadashi Hono; Eger, Iriane; Soares, Maurilio José

    2013-05-01

    Protein palmitoylation is a post-translational modification that contributes to determining protein localization and function. Palmitoylation has been described in trypanosomatid protozoa, but no zDHHC palmitoyl transferase has been identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In this study we identify and show the subcellular localization of TcHIP (Tc00.1047053508199.50), a putative T. cruzi zDHHC palmitoyl transferase. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence indicates that it contains ankyrin repeats (Ank and Ank2) and the zDHHC conserved domain, typical of zDHHC palmitoyl transferases. A TcHIP polyclonal antiserum obtained from mice immunized with the purified recombinant protein was used to study the presence and subcellular localization of the native enzyme. In western blots this antiserum recognized a protein of about 95 kDa, consistent with the predicted molecular mass of TcHIP (95.4 kDa), in whole extracts of T. cruzi epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Immunolocalization by confocal microscopy showed TcHIP labeling at the Golgi complex, co-localizing with the T. cruzi Golgi marker TcRab7-GFP. Transfectant T. cruzi epimastigotes containing a construct encoding TcHIP fused to proteins A and C (TcHIP/AC) were obtained. In western blotting experiments, the TcHIP polyclonal antiserum recognized both native and TcHIP/AC proteins in extracts of the transfectants. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of native TcHIP with TcHIP/AC. These findings demonstrate the presence of a putative zDHHC palmitoyl transferase (TcHIP) containing ankyrin and zDHHC domains in different developmental forms of T. cruzi, and its association with the Golgi complex. PMID:23428831

  7. 23S rRNA nucleotides in the peptidyl transferase center are essential for tryptophanase operon induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-06-01

    Distinct features of the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel are known to be essential for recognition of specific amino acids of a nascent peptidyl-tRNA. Thus, a tryptophan residue at position 12 of the peptidyl-tRNA TnaC-tRNA(Pro) leads to the creation of a free tryptophan binding site within the ribosome at which bound tryptophan inhibits normal ribosome functions. The ribosomal processes that are inhibited are hydrolysis of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) by release factor 2 and peptidyl transfer of TnaC of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) to puromycin. These events are normally performed in the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. In the present study, changes of 23S rRNA nucleotides in the 2585 region of the peptidyl transferase center, G2583A and U2584C, were observed to reduce maximum induction of tna operon expression by tryptophan in vivo without affecting the concentration of tryptophan necessary to obtain 50% induction. The growth rate of strains with ribosomes with either of these changes was not altered appreciably. In vitro analyses with mutant ribosomes with these changes showed that tryptophan was not as efficient in protecting TnaC-tRNA(Pro) from puromycin action as wild-type ribosomes. However, added tryptophan did prevent sparsomycin action as it normally does with wild-type ribosomes. These findings suggest that these two mutational changes act by reducing the ability of ribosome-bound tryptophan to inhibit peptidyl transferase activity rather than by reducing the ability of the ribosome to bind tryptophan. Thus, the present study identifies specific nucleotides within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center that appear to be essential for effective tryptophan induction of tna operon expression. PMID:19329641

  8. A fluorescent assay amenable to measuring production of beta-D-glucuronides produced from recombinant UDP-glycosyl transferase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, O V; Shaw, P M

    1999-05-01

    Beta-glucuronidase cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide generates the highly fluorescent compound, 4-methylumbelliferone. We show that other beta-D-glucuronide compounds act as competitors in this assay. The 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronide cleavage assay can easily be adapted to high throughput formats to detect the presence of beta-D glucuronides generated using recombinant glycosyl transferase preparations.

  9. Single subunit type of ferritin from visceral mass of Saccostrea cucullata: cloning, expression and cisplatin-subunit analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Lin, Qing; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2011-09-01

    Ferritin, the iron storage protein, plays a key role in iron metabolism. Here, we have cloned an inducible ferritin cDNA with 516 bp within the open reading frame fragment from the visceral mass of Saccostrea cucullata. The subunit sequence of the ferritin was predicted to be a polypeptide of 171 amino acids with a molecular weight (MW) of 19.9182 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.24. The cDNA sequence of S. cucullata ferritin was constructed into a pET-32a expression system for expressing its relative protein efficiently in the Escherichia coli BL21 strain under isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. The recombinant ferritin, which was further purified on a Ni-NTA resin column and digested with enterokinase, was detected as a single subunit of approximately MW 20 kDa using both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. S. cucullata ferritin (ScFer) showed 98% identity with Crassostrea gigas ferritin at the amino acid level. The secondary structure and phosphorylation sites of deduced amino acids were predicted with ExPASy proteomics tools and the NetPhos 2.0 server, respectively, and the subunit space structure of recombinant S. cucullata ferritin (rScFer) was built using the molecular operating environmental software system. The results of both in-gel digestion and identification using MALDI-TOF MS/MS showed that the recombinant protein was ScFer. ICP-MS indicated that rScFer subunit can directly bind to cisplatin[cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum(CDDP)], giving approximately 22.9 CDDP/ferritin subunit for forming a novel complex of CDDP-subunit, which suggests that it constructs a nanometer CDDP core-ferritin for developing a new drug of anti-cancer. The results of both the real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression of ScFer mRNA was up-regulated in the oyster under the stress of Cd(2+). In addition, the expression increment of ScFer mRNA under bacterial challenge indicated that ferritin participated in the immune response of S. cucullata. The

  10. Methodology to probe subunit interactions in ribonucleotide reductases†

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A Quamrul; Wang, Yongting; Plate, Lars; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides, providing the monomeric precursors required for DNA replication and repair. E. coli RNR is a 1:1 complex of two homodimeric subunits: α2 and β2. The interactions between α2 and β2 are thought to be largely associated with the C-terminal 20 amino acids (residues 356-375) of β2. To study subunit interactions, a single reactive cysteine has been introduced into each of fifteen positions along the C-terminal tail of β2. Each cysteine has been modified with the photo cross-linker benzophenone (BP) and the environmentally sensitive fluorophore, dimethylaminonaphthalene (DAN). Each construct has been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS PAGE and ESI-MS. Each BP-β2 has been incubated with 1 equivalent of α2, photolyzed, and the results analyzed quantitatively by SDS-PAGE. Each DAN-β2 was incubated with 50-fold excess of α2 and the emission maximum and intensity measured. A comparison of the results from the two sets of probes reveals that sites with most extensive cross-linking are also associated with the greatest changes in fluorescence. Titration of four different DAN-β2 variants (351, 356, 365 and 367) with α2 gave a Kd of ∼0.4 μM for subunit interaction. Disruption of the interaction of α2DAN-β2 complex is accompanied by a decrease in fluorescence intensity and can serve as a high throughput screen for inhibitors of subunit interactions. PMID:19012414

  11. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Caers, A; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ now provides a database of 496 large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. All these sequences are aligned, incorporate secondary structure information, and can be obtained in a number of formats. Other information about the sequences, such as literature references, accession numbers and taxonomic information is also available and searchable. If necessary, the data on the server can also be obtained by anonymous ftp. PMID:9399830

  12. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Our database on large ribosomal subunit RNA contained 334 sequences in July, 1995. All sequences in the database are aligned, taking into account secondary structure. The aligned sequences are provided, together with incorporated secondary structure information, in several computer-readable formats. These data can easily be obtained through the World Wide Web. The files in the database are also available via anonymous ftp. PMID:8594610

  13. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  14. An Alternate Pathway of Arsenate Resistance in E. coli Mediated by the Glutathione S-Transferase GstB

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial arsenate resistance is known to be conferred by specialized oxidoreductase enzymes termed arsenate reductases. We carried out a genetic selection on media supplemented with sodium arsenate for multicopy genes that can confer growth to E. coli mutant cells lacking the gene for arsenate reductase (E. coli ΔarsC). We found that overexpression of glutathione S-transferase B (GstB) complemented the ΔarsC allele and conferred growth on media containing up to 5 mM sodium arsenate. Interestingly, unlike wild type E. coli arsenate reductase, arsenate resistance via GstB was not dependent on reducing equivalents provided by glutaredoxins or a catalytic cysteine residue. Instead, two arginine residues, which presumably coordinate the arsenate substrate within the electrophilic binding site of GstB, were found to be critical for transferase activity. We provide biochemical evidence that GstB acts to directly reduce arsenate to arsenite with reduced glutathione (GSH) as the electron donor. Our results reveal a pathway for the detoxification of arsenate in bacteria that hinges on a previously undescribed function of a bacterial glutathione S-transferase. PMID:25517993

  15. An alternate pathway of arsenate resistance in E. coli mediated by the glutathione S-transferase GstB.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Constantine; Quandt, Erik M; Marshall, Nicholas M; Stone, Everett; Georgiou, George

    2015-03-20

    Microbial arsenate resistance is known to be conferred by specialized oxidoreductase enzymes termed arsenate reductases. We carried out a genetic selection on media supplemented with sodium arsenate for multicopy genes that can confer growth to E. coli mutant cells lacking the gene for arsenate reductase (E. coli ΔarsC). We found that overexpression of glutathione S-transferase B (GstB) complemented the ΔarsC allele and conferred growth on media containing up to 5 mM sodium arsenate. Interestingly, unlike wild type E. coli arsenate reductase, arsenate resistance via GstB was not dependent on reducing equivalents provided by glutaredoxins or a catalytic cysteine residue. Instead, two arginine residues, which presumably coordinate the arsenate substrate within the electrophilic binding site of GstB, were found to be critical for transferase activity. We provide biochemical evidence that GstB acts to directly reduce arsenate to arsenite with reduced glutathione (GSH) as the electron donor. Our results reveal a pathway for the detoxification of arsenate in bacteria that hinges on a previously undescribed function of a bacterial glutathione S-transferase.

  16. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children: Associations with Gender, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)Pi Polymorphisms (SNP) and Heavy Metals

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Hassan El-Fawal Abstract Details PRESENTATION TYPE: Platform or Poster CURRENT CATEGORY: Neurodegenerative Disease | Biomarkers | Neurotoxicity, Metals KEYWORDS: Autoantibodies, Glutathione-S-Transferase, DATE/TIME LAST MODIFIED: DATE/TIME SUBMITTED: Abs...

  17. Yeast telomerase RNA: a flexible scaffold for protein subunits.

    PubMed

    Zappulla, David C; Cech, Thomas R

    2004-07-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, distinct regions of the 1.2-kb telomerase RNA (TLC1) bind to the catalytic subunit Est2p and to accessory proteins. In particular, a bulged stem structure binds the essential regulatory subunit Est1p. We now show that the Est1p-binding domain of the RNA can be moved to three distant locations with retention of telomerase function in vivo. We present the Est1p relocation experiment in the context of a working model for the secondary structure of the entire TLC1 RNA, based on thermodynamic considerations and comparative analysis of sequences from four species. The model for TLC1 has three long quasihelical arms that bind the Ku, Est1p, and Sm proteins. These arms emanate from a central catalytic core that contains the template and Est2p-binding region. Deletion mutagenesis provides evidence that the Sm arm exists in vivo and can be shortened by 42 predicted base pairs with retention of function; therefore, precise positioning of Sm proteins, like Est1p, is not required within telomerase. In the best-studied ribonucleoprotein enzyme, the ribosome, the RNAs have specific three-dimensional structures that orient the functional elements. In the case of yeast telomerase, we propose that the RNA serves a very different function, providing a flexible tether for the protein subunits. PMID:15226497

  18. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  19. Purification and subunit heterogeneity of pili of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S W; Way, A W; Osen, E G

    1986-01-01

    Pili were isolated and purified from Bordetella bronchiseptica. Electron microscopic observations revealed that pili are ubiquitous in this species. The occurrence of pili and flagella appeared to correlate with growth phase and colonial morphology. Pili were about 3 to 4 nm in diameter and morphologically similar to pili isolated from other gram-negative bacteria. Internal core structure was not evident. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified pili showed that up to three different pilus subunit variants could be observed on a single strain, depending on the colonial phase and culture condition. Enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot, however, showed that these subunit variants are serologically related. Mice vaccinated with purified pili were protected against a virulent intraperitoneal challenge of B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica pili were also found to be similar to Bordetella pertussis pili in morphology and in the molecular size and antigenic structure of pilus subunits. The intact pili of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis, however, appeared to have weak serological cross-reactivity. Images PMID:2867974

  20. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  1. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-15

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  2. Physicochemical properties of β and α'α subunits isolated from soybean β-conglycinin.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaoqun; Wang, Donghai; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2011-02-23

    Soy protein has shown great potential for use in biobased adhesives. β-Conglycinin is a major component of soy protein; it accounts for 30% of the total storage protein in soybean seeds. β-Conglycinin was isolated and purified, and its subunits' (β, α'α) physicochemical and adhesive properties were characterized. Crude β-conglycinin was isolated from soy flour and then purified by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The α'α and β subunits were isolated from the purified β-conglycinin by anion exchange chromatography. Yields of α'α subunits and β subunits from 140 g of soy flour were 1.86 g (1.3%) and 0.95 g (0.67%), respectively. The minimum solubility for α'α subunits, β subunits, and β-conglycinin occurred in pH ranges of 4.1-5.4, 3.5-7.0, and 4.8-5.3, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the β subunits existed as spherical hydrophobic clusters, whereas α'α subunits existed as uniformly discrete particles at pH 5.0. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that β subunits had higher thermal stability than α'α subunits. The pH had a lesser effect on adhesion strength of the β subunits than on that of the α'α subunits. The adhesives made from β subunits also showed greater water resistance than those from α'α subunits and β-conglycinin. Soy protein rich in β subunits is likely a good candidate for developing water-resistant adhesives.

  3. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenyl­alanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully understand the function of the acyl-group binding pocket in substrate specificity. PMID:24699651

  4. Two-subunit DNA escort mechanism and inactive subunit bypass in an ultra-fast ring ATPase

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ninning; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-10-09

    SpoIIIE is a homo-hexameric dsDNA translocase responsible for completing chromosome segregation in Bacillus subtilis . Here, we use a single-molecule approach to monitor SpoIIIE translocation when challenged with neutral-backbone DNA and non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs. We show that SpoIIIE makes multiple essential contacts with phosphates on the 5'→3' strand in the direction of translocation. Using DNA constructs with two neutral-backbone segments separated by a single charged base pair, we deduce that SpoIIIE’s step size is 2 bp. Finally, experiments with non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs suggest that SpoIIIE can operate with non-consecutive inactive subunits. We propose a two-subunit escort translocation mechanism thatmore » is strict enough to enable SpoIIIE to track one DNA strand, yet sufficiently compliant to permit the motor to bypass inactive subunits without arrest. We speculate that such a flexible mechanism arose for motors that, like SpoIIIE, constitute functional bottlenecks where the inactivation of even a single motor can be lethal for the cell.« less

  5. Glutathione S-transferase P protects against cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Baba, Shahid; Merchant, Michael L.; Prough, Russell A.; Williams, Jessica D.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-06-01

    High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100–300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein–acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1–5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10–20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity. - Graphical abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment results in P450-mediated metabolic formation of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein (3-propenal). Acrolein is either metabolized and

  6. Developmental and Regulatory Functions of Na(+) Channel Non-pore-forming β Subunits.

    PubMed

    Winters, J J; Isom, L L

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) isolated from mammalian neurons are heterotrimeric complexes containing one pore-forming α subunit and two non-pore-forming β subunits. In excitable cells, VGSCs are responsible for the initiation of action potentials. VGSC β subunits are type I topology glycoproteins, containing an extracellular amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) domain with homology to many neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), a single transmembrane segment, and an intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain. VGSC β subunits are encoded by a gene family that is distinct from the α subunits. While α subunits are expressed in prokaryotes, β subunit orthologs did not arise until after the emergence of vertebrates. β subunits regulate the cell surface expression, subcellular localization, and gating properties of their associated α subunits. In addition, like many other Ig-CAMs, β subunits are involved in cell migration, neurite outgrowth, and axon pathfinding and may function in these roles in the absence of associated α subunits. In sum, these multifunctional proteins are critical for both channel regulation and central nervous system development. PMID:27586289

  7. Structure of subcomplex Iβ of mammalian respiratory complex I leads to new supernumerary subunit assignments

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiapeng; King, Martin S.; Yu, Minmin; Klipcan, Liron; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Hirst, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential respiratory enzyme. Mammalian complex I contains 45 subunits: 14 conserved “core” subunits and 31 “supernumerary” subunits. The structure of Bos taurus complex I, determined to 5-Å resolution by electron cryomicroscopy, described the structure of the mammalian core enzyme and allowed the assignment of 14 supernumerary subunits. Here, we describe the 6.8-Å resolution X-ray crystallography structure of subcomplex Iβ, a large portion of the membrane domain of B. taurus complex I that contains two core subunits and a cohort of supernumerary subunits. By comparing the structures and composition of subcomplex Iβ and complex I, supported by comparisons with Yarrowia lipolytica complex I, we propose assignments for eight further supernumerary subunits in the structure. Our new assignments include two CHCH-domain containing subunits that contain disulfide bridges between CX9C motifs; they are processed by the Mia40 oxidative-folding pathway in the intermembrane space and probably stabilize the membrane domain. We also assign subunit B22, an LYR protein, to the matrix face of the membrane domain. We reveal that subunit B22 anchors an acyl carrier protein (ACP) to the complex, replicating the LYR protein–ACP structural module that was identified previously in the hydrophilic domain. Thus, we significantly extend knowledge of how the mammalian supernumerary subunits are arranged around the core enzyme, and provide insights into their roles in biogenesis and regulation. PMID:26371297

  8. Effects of regulatory subunits on the kinetics of protein phosphatase 2A.

    PubMed

    Price, N E; Mumby, M C

    2000-09-19

    Both the scaffold (A) and the regulatory (R) subunits of protein phosphatase 2A regulate enzyme activity and specificity. Heterotrimeric enzymes containing different R-subunits differ in their specific activities for substrates. Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of a phosphopeptide by different oligomeric forms of PP2A were determined to begin to elucidate the molecular basis of regulatory subunit effects on phosphatase activity. Using steady state kinetics and the pH dependence of kinetic parameters, we have explored the effect of the A- and R-subunits on the kinetic and chemical mechanism of PP2A. The regulatory subunits affected a broad range of kinetic parameters. The C-subunit and AC dimer were qualitatively similar with respect to the product inhibition patterns and the pH dependence of kinetic parameters. However, a 22-fold decrease in rate and a 4.7-fold decrease in K(m) can be attributed to the presence of the A-subunit. The presence of the R2alpha (Balpha or PR55alpha) subunit caused an additional decrease in K(m) and changed the kinetic mechanism of peptide dephosphorylation. The R2alpha-subunit also caused significant changes in the pH dependence of kinetic parameters as compared to the free C subunit or AC heterodimer. The data support an important role for the regulatory subunits in determining both the affinity of PP2A heterotrimers for peptide substrates and the mechanism by which they are dephosphorylated.

  9. Reconstitution of thermostable ATPase capable of energy coupling from its purified subunits.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Okamoto, H; Sone, N; Hirata, H; Kagawa, Y

    1977-03-01

    Purified dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase (TF0-F1) from thermophilic bacterium PS3 is composed of a water soluble part with ATP hydrolytic activity (TF1) and a water insoluble moiety (TF0). All of the five subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) of TF1 were isolated. TF1 was reconstituted from the five subunits, which catalyzed an ATP-32Pi exchange and an ATP-driven enhancement of fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate, when adsorbed on proteoliposome inlaid with TF0 (TF3-vesicles). Subunit epsilon and/or delta became firmly bound to TF0-vesicles and there was no preferential sequence in the binding. Both subunits were required for binding of the remaining subunits of TF1 to TF0-vesicles, but they did not modify the high H+ -permeability of TF0-vesicles. The addition of gamma but they did not modify the high H+-permeability of TFO-vesicles. The addition of gamma subunit together with epsilon and delta subunits caused a marked decrease of H+ -permeability of TF0-vesicles, similar to that induced by TF1. We conclude tentatively that the epsilon and delta subunits connect TF0 and the other subunits forming a part of a proton pathway, gamma is a gate of proton flow coupled to ATP hydrolysis (or synthesis), and alpha and beta subunits contain the active site for energy transformation. A possible model of subunit structure of TF1 is proposed. PMID:139610

  10. Individual IKs channels at the surface of mammalian cells contain two KCNE1 accessory subunits

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Leigh D.; Xiong, Dazhi; Dai, Hui; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2014-01-01

    KCNE1 (E1) β-subunits assemble with KCNQ1 (Q1) voltage-gated K+ channel α-subunits to form IKslow (IKs) channels in the heart and ear. The number of E1 subunits in IKs channels has been an issue of ongoing debate. Here, we use single-molecule spectroscopy to demonstrate that surface IKs channels with human subunits contain two E1 and four Q1 subunits. This stoichiometry does not vary. Thus, IKs channels in cells with elevated levels of E1 carry no more than two E1 subunits. Cells with low levels of E1 produce IKs channels with two E1 subunits and Q1 channels with no E1 subunits—channels with one E1 do not appear to form or are restricted from surface expression. The plethora of models of cardiac function, transgenic animals, and drug screens based on variable E1 stoichiometry do not reflect physiology. PMID:24591645

  11. Individual subunits of bacterial luciferase are molten globules and interact with molecular chaperones.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, G C; Beckers, C J; Baase, W A; Dahlquist, F W

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the assembly of a large heterodimeric protein, bacterial luciferase, by mixing purified subunits expressed separately in bacteria. The individual subunits alpha and beta contain much (66% and 50%, respectively) of the alpha-helix content of the native heterodimer as measured by circular dichroism, yet the alpha subunit lacks observable tertiary structure as measured by NMR. These results are consistent with the alpha subunit existing in a molten globule or collapsed form prior to assembly. The molecular chaperone GroEL binds reversibly to both subunits prior to assembly. Since these observations were obtained under physiological conditions, we propose that the molten globule exists as a stable form during folding or assembly in the cell. Either the molten globule form of the subunits is an authentic folding intermediate or it is in rapid equilibrium with one. GroEL may function by facilitating assembly through stabilization of these incompletely folded subunits. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7902573

  12. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  13. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  14. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

  15. The ribosome can discriminate the chirality of amino acids within its peptidyl-transferase center

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Michael T.; Avins, Joshua L.; Fleisher, Rachel C.; Liu, Bo; Effraim, Philip R.; Wang, Jiangning; Schulten, Klaus; Leyh, Thomas S.; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular translational machinery (TM) synthesizes proteins using exclusively L- or achiral aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs), despite the presence of D-amino acids in nature and their ability to be aminoacylated onto tRNAs by aa-tRNA synthetases. The ubiquity of L-amino acids in proteins has led to the hypothesis that D-amino acids are not substrates for the TM. Supporting this view, protein engineering efforts to incorporate D-amino acids into proteins using the TM have thus far been unsuccessful. Nonetheless, a mechanistic understanding of why D-aa-tRNAs are poor substrates for the TM is lacking. To address this deficiency, we have systematically tested the translation activity of D-aa-tRNAs using a series of biochemical assays. We find that the TM can effectively, albeit slowly, accept D-aa-tRNAs into the ribosomal aa-tRNA binding (A) site, use the A-site D-aa-tRNA as a peptidyl-transfer acceptor, and translocate the resulting peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA into the ribosomal peptidyl-tRNA binding (P) site. During the next round of continuous translation, however, we find that ribosomes carrying a P-site peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA partition into subpopulations that are either translationally arrested or that can continue translating. Consistent with its ability to arrest translation, chemical protection experiments and molecular dynamics simulations show that P site-bound peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA can trap the ribosomal peptidyl-transferase center in a conformation in which peptidyl transfer is impaired. Our results reveal a novel mechanism through which D-aa-tRNAs interfere with translation, provide insight into how the TM might be engineered to use D-aa-tRNAs, and increase our understanding of the physiological role of a widely distributed enzyme that clears D-aa-tRNAs from cells. PMID:25918365

  16. Interchangeable Domains in the Kdo Transferases of Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hak Suk; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Kdo2-lipid A, a conserved substructure of lipopolysaccharide, plays critical roles in Gram-negative bacterial survival and interaction with host organisms. Inhibition of Kdo biosynthesis in Escherichia coli results in cell death and accumulation of the tetra-acylated precursor lipid IVA. E. coli KdtA (EcKdtA) is a bi-functional enzyme that transfers two Kdo units from two CMP-Kdo molecules to lipid IVA. In contrast, H. influenzae KdtA (HiKdtA) transfers only one Kdo unit. E. coli CMR300, which lacks Kdo-transferase because of a deletion in kdtA, can be rescued to grow in broth at 37 °C if multiple copies of msbA are provided in trans. MsbA, the inner membrane transporter for nascent lipopolysaccharide, prefers hexa-acylated to tetra-acylated lipid A, but with the excess MsbA present in CMR300, lipid IVA is efficiently exported to the outer membrane. CMR300 is hypersensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics and bile salts, and does not grow at 42 °C. Expressing HiKdtA in CMR300 results in the accumulation of Kdo-lipid IVA in place of lipid IVA without suppression of its growth phenotypes at 30 °C. EcKdtA restores intact lipopolysaccharide, together with normal antibiotic resistance, detergent resistance and growth at 42 °C. To determine which residues are important for the mono- or bi-functional character of KdtA, protein chimeras were constructed using EcKdtA and HiKdtA. These chimeras, which are catalytically active, were characterized by in vitro assays and in vivo complementation. The N-terminal half of KdtA, especially the first 30 amino acid residues, specifies whether one or two Kdo units are transferred to lipid IVA. PMID:20394418

  17. Genetic Contribution of Polymorphisms in Glutathione S-Transferases to Brain Tumor Risk.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peiliang; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Ning; Ou, Juanjuan; Xie, Ganfeng; Sa, Rina; Liu, Chen; Xiang, Lisha; Li, Hongtao; Liang, Houjie

    2016-04-01

    Existing data have shown a major effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) single-nucleotide polymorphisms on activities of detoxification-related enzymes, and it is the functional importance that leads to extensive research on the association of GST polymorphisms with the risk of developing brain tumor. Previously reported associations, nevertheless, remain inconsistent. This study aimed to reevaluate the association with new information from recent research articles. We weekly searched multiple databases, aiming to cover all studies looking at the associations being examined in this work. Eligibility of studies was evaluated based on predesigned inclusion criteria. To assess the association of GST polymorphisms with brain tumor risk, we calculated genotypic ORs by comparing the number of genotypes between cases and controls. We also detected interstudy heterogeneity, publication bias, and single studies' influence. A total of 13 research articles were identified through databases and hand search. We found significantly elevated risk of brain tumor associated with GSTT1 null status in individuals of European ethnicity (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.92). In the analysis of GSTP1 I105V, we observed that Val/Val genotype compared to the Ile/Ile genotype was more prone to a reduced brain tumor risk (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.93). Such major effects were similarly seen for GSTP1 A114V (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29 for Val/Val + Ala/Val vs. Ala/Ala). When data were limited to glioma, we found a significant elevation associated with the combination of Val/Val and Ala/Val genotypes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.37). However, no clear association was detected between other polymorphisms investigated and glioma. These statistical data suggest that some of the polymorphisms at GST loci are possibly associated with the genetic risk of brain tumor. PMID:25735248

  18. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of rat class theta glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed Central

    Jemth, P; Stenberg, G; Chaga, G; Mannervik, B

    1996-01-01

    Rat glutathione transferase (GST) T2-2 of class Theta (rGST T2-2), previously known as GST 12-12 and GST Yrs-Yrs, has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli XLI-Blue. The corresponding cDNA was isolated from a rat hepatoma cDNA library, ligated into and expressed from the plasmid pKK-D. The sequence is the same as that of the previously reported cDNA of GST Yrs-Yrs. The enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized ferric ions, and the yield was approx. 200 mg from a 1 litre bacterial culture. The availability of a stable recombinant rGST T2-2 has paved the way for a more accurate characterization of the enzyme. The functional properties of the recombinant rGST T2-2 differ significantly from those reported earlier for the enzyme isolated from rat tissues. These differences probably reflect the difficulties in obtaining fully active enzyme from sources where it occurs in relatively low concentrations, which has been the case in previous studies. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate often used with GSTs of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi, is a substrate also for rGST T2-2, but the specific activity is relatively low. The Km value for glutathione was determined with four different electrophiles and was found to be in the range 0.3 mM-0.8 mM. The Km values for some electrophilic substrates were found to be in the micromolar range, which is low compared with those determined for GSTs of other classes. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with menaphthyl sulphate, which gave a Kcat/Km value of 2.3 x 10(6) s-1.M-1 and a rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction of 3 x 10(10). PMID:8645195

  19. The still mysterious roles of cysteine-containing glutathione transferases in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lallement, Pierre-Alexandre; Brouwer, Bastiaan; Keech, Olivier; Hecker, Arnaud; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent a widespread multigenic enzyme family able to modify a broad range of molecules. These notably include secondary metabolites and exogenous substrates often referred to as xenobiotics, usually for their detoxification, subsequent transport or export. To achieve this, these enzymes can bind non-substrate ligands (ligandin function) and/or catalyze the conjugation of glutathione onto the targeted molecules, the latter activity being exhibited by GSTs having a serine or a tyrosine as catalytic residues. Besides, other GST members possess a catalytic cysteine residue, a substitution that radically changes enzyme properties. Instead of promoting GSH-conjugation reactions, cysteine-containing GSTs (Cys-GSTs) are able to perform deglutathionylation reactions similarly to glutaredoxins but the targets are usually different since glutaredoxin substrates are mostly oxidized proteins and Cys-GST substrates are metabolites. The Cys-GSTs are found in most organisms and form several classes. While Beta and Omega GSTs and chloride intracellular channel proteins (CLICs) are not found in plants, these organisms possess microsomal ProstaGlandin E-Synthase type 2, glutathionyl hydroquinone reductases, Lambda, Iota and Hemerythrin GSTs and dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs); the four last classes being restricted to the green lineage. In plants, whereas the role of DHARs is clearly associated to the reduction of dehydroascorbate to ascorbate, the physiological roles of other Cys-GSTs remain largely unknown. In this context, a genomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cys-GSTs in photosynthetic organisms provides an updated classification that is discussed in the light of the recent literature about the functional and structural properties of Cys-GSTs. Considering the antioxidant potencies of phenolic compounds and more generally of secondary metabolites, the connection of GSTs with secondary metabolism may be interesting from a pharmacological

  20. Serum Glutathione S-Transferase P1 1 in Prediction of Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Andrukhova, Olena; Salama, Mohamed; Rosenhek, Raphael; Gmeiner, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Steindl, Johannes; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferase P1 1 (GSTP1) belongs to the multigene isozyme family involved in cellular response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our initial retrospective proteomic analysis suggested that GSTP1 is associated with heart failure (HF). Although pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) serves currently as a surrogate diagnostic and prognostic parameter in HF patients, its specificity remains uncertain. We hypothesized that GSTP1 might be a useful serum marker in the monitoring of HF patients. Methods and Results Serum GSTP1 and proBNP were prospectively measured in 193 patients subdivided based on their ejection fraction (EF) either in equal-sized quintiles or predefined EF groups >52%, 43%–52%, 33%–42%, 23%–32% and ≤22%. At a cutoff of ≥231 ng/mL, GSTP1 identified HF patients with EF ≤22% with 81% sensitivity and 83% specificity, and at a cutoff of ≥655 pg/mL, proBNP identified the same patient group with 84% sensitivity and 22% specificity. GSTP1 at a ≥126 ng/mL cutoff identified EF ≤42% with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity, or proBNP at a ≥396 pg/mL cutoff had 97% sensitivity and 20% specificity. In regression analyses, GSTP1, but not proBNP, discriminated between EF ≤42% and EF >42% in HF patients. Conclusions These results suggest that GSTP1 is strongly associated with HF and could serve as a sensitive and specific marker to predict the ventricular function in HF patients. PMID:22385947

  1. Glutathione S-transferase activity in follicular fluid from women undergoing ovarian stimulation: role in maturation.

    PubMed

    Meijide, Susana; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ferrando, Marcos; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    Female infertility involves an emotional impact for the woman, often leading to a state of anxiety and low self-esteem. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are used to overcome the problem of infertility. In a first step of the in vitro fertilization therapy women are subjected to an ovarian stimulation protocol to obtain mature oocytes, which will result in competent oocytes necessary for fertilization to occur. Ovarian stimulation, however, subjects the women to a high physical and psychological stress, thus being essential to improve ART and to find biomarkers of dysfunction and fertility. GSH is an important antioxidant, and is also used in detoxification reactions, catalysed by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present work, we have investigated the involvement of GST in follicular maturation. Patients with fertility problems and oocyte donors were recruited for the study. From each woman follicles at two stages of maturation were extracted at the preovulatory stage. Follicular fluid was separated from the oocyte by centrifugation and used as the enzyme source. GST activity was determined based on its conjugation with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and the assay was adapted to a 96-well microplate reader. The absorbance was represented against the incubation time and the curves were adjusted to linearity (R(2)>0.990). Results showed that in both donors and patients GST activity was significantly lower in mature oocytes compared to small ones. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the follicle maturation by detoxifying xenobiotics, thus contributing to the normal development of the oocyte. Supported by FIS/FEDER (PI11/02559), Gobierno Vasco (Dep. Educación, Universiades e Investigación, IT687-13), and UPV/EHU (CLUMBER UFI11/20 and PES13/58). The work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (CEISH/96/2011/RUIZLARREA), and performed according to the UPV/EHU and IVI-Bilbao agreement (Ref. 2012/01).

  2. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. PMID:26858288

  3. Association of γ-glutamyl transferase with premature coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    GHATGE, MADANKUMAR; SHARMA, ANKIT; VANGALA, RAJANI KANTH

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that higher γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in the blood are associated with the incident of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, and have prognostic importance. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of the GGT level with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in an Asian Indian population has not been evaluated. In the present study, 240 (120 unaffected and 120 CAD affected) young subjects (males, ≤45 years and females, ≤50 years) were selected. The markers assayed were GGT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipids, secretory phospholipase A2, neopterin, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-6, cystatin-C, tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis and lipoprotein (a). The plasma GGT levels in these subjects showed a positive correlation with quantitative variables, such as waist circumference, triglycerides, neopterin levels and cross-sectional correlation with qualitative variable smoking. The findings suggest that the subjects in the highest tertile of GGT had a 2.1-fold [odds ratio (OR), 2.104; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.063–4.165; P=0.033] higher risk of developing premature CAD in comparison with the reference tertile. Furthermore, a 1 U/l increase of GGT (on a log scale) increased the OR by 5.2-fold (OR, 5.208; 95% CI, 1.018–24.624; P=0.048) and 7.4-fold (OR, 7.492; 95% CI, 1.221–45.979; P=0.030) on addition of associated risk factors. In conclusion, the elevated plasma GGT levels potentially indicate increased oxidative stress and the risk of developing premature CAD. Therefore, these findings could be potentially used in the risk stratification of premature CAD following further evaluation. PMID:26998267

  4. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  5. Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ian; Wortley, David J; Sabbadin, Federico; He, Zhesi; Coxon, Christopher R; Straker, Hannah E; Sellars, Jonathan D; Knight, Kathryn; Edwards, Lesley; Hughes, David; Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management.

  6. Variability of glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme patterns in matched normal and cancer human breast tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, M K; Engqvist-Goldstein, A; Montali, J A; Wheatley, J B; Schmidt, D E; Kauvar, L M

    1994-01-01

    The determination of GST levels in blood has been proposed to a marker of tumour burden in general, whereas level of the P1 isoenzyme has been identified as a prognostic factor for breast-cancer patients receiving no adjuvant chemotherapy. Particular glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes differ in their substrate specificity, however, and their presence or absence might therefore account for the resistance of tumours to particular chemotherapeutic drugs, as already established for cultured cell lines. Determination of the GST isoenzyme profile of a cancer tissue could have prognostic value in the selection of treatment if the levels of expression/activity show a degree of variation comparable with that exhibited by actual patient responses. Using reversed-phase h.p.l.c. to quantify affinity-isolated GSTs, we have analysed full isoenzyme profiles in the first large sample of matched normal and cancer human tissues (18 breast-cancer patients). In no patients did the tumour tissues express any isoenzymes that were not found in normal breast tissue. In addition to the GSTs, another enzyme, identified as enoyl-CoA isomerase, was regularly found in breast tissue cytosol following elution from a hexyl-glutathione affinity column. In most cases, the average level of GST was substantially elevated in the cancer tissues above the levels in normal breast tissue from the same patient. Furthermore, the relative levels of the isoenzymes were substantially more variable in the cancer samples than in the normal breast tissue, providing a plausible mechanism for the well established variable response to treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7818489

  7. Overexpression of GalNAc-transferase GalNAc-T3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, K; Cerny, R L; Tanouchi, A; Kohno, K; Kotani, N; Honke, K; Saibara, T; Hollingsworth, M A

    2011-12-01

    O-linked glycans of secreted and membrane-bound proteins have an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer by modulating immune responses, inflammation and tumorigenesis. A critical aspect of O-glycosylation, the position at which proteins are glycosylated with N-acetyl-galactosamine on serine and threonine residues, is regulated by the substrate specificity of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts). Thus, GalNAc-Ts regulate the first committed step in O-glycosylated protein biosynthesis, determine sites of O-glycosylation on proteins and are important for understanding normal and carcinoma-associated O-glycosylation. We have found that one of these enzymes, GalNAc-T3, is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and suppression of GalNAc-T3 significantly attenuates the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, suppression of GalNAc-T3 induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results indicate that GalNAc-T3 is likely involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Modification of cellular glycosylation occurs in nearly all types of cancer as a result of alterations in the expression levels of glycosyltransferases. We report guanine the nucleotide-binding protein, α-transducing activity polypeptide-1 (GNAT1) as a possible substrate protein of GalNAc-T3. GalNAc-T3 is associated with O-glycosylation of GNAT1 and affects the subcellular distribution of GNAT1. Knocking down endogenous GNAT1 significantly suppresses the growth/survival of PDAC cells. Our results imply that GalNAc-T3 contributes to the function of O-glycosylated proteins and thereby affects the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, substrate proteins of GalNAc-T3 should serve as important therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancers.

  8. The Stereochemical Course of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal Metabolism by Glutathione S-Transferases*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Larissa M.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Shireman, Laura M.; Greene, Robert J.; Atkins, William M.

    2008-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a toxic aldehyde generated during lipid peroxidation and has been implicated in a variety of pathological states associated with oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A4-4 is recognized as one of the predominant enzymes responsible for the metabolism of HNE. However, substrate and product stereoselectivity remain to be fully explored. The results from a product formation assay indicate that hGSTA4-4 exhibits a modest preference for the biotransformation of S-HNE in the presence of both enantiomers. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses using the racemic and enantioisomeric HNE substrates explicitly demonstrate that hGSTA4-4 conjugates glutathione to both HNE enantiomers in a completely stereoselective manner that is not maintained in the spontaneous reaction. Compared with other hGST isoforms, hGSTA4-4 shows the highest degree of stereoselectivity. NMR experiments in combination with simulated annealing structure determinations enabled the determination of stereochemical configurations for the GSHNE diastereomers and are consistent with an hGSTA4-4-catalyzed nucleophilic attack that produces only the S-configuration at the site of conjugation, regardless of substrate chirality. In total these results indicate that hGSTA4-4 exhibits an intriguing combination of low substrate stereoselectivity with strict product stereoselectivity. This behavior allows for the detoxification of both HNE enantiomers while generating only a select set of GSHNE diastereomers with potential stereochemical implications concerning their effects and fates in biological tissues. PMID:18424441

  9. The ribosome can discriminate the chirality of amino acids within its peptidyl-transferase center.

    PubMed

    Englander, Michael T; Avins, Joshua L; Fleisher, Rachel C; Liu, Bo; Effraim, Philip R; Wang, Jiangning; Schulten, Klaus; Leyh, Thomas S; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cornish, Virginia W

    2015-05-12

    The cellular translational machinery (TM) synthesizes proteins using exclusively L- or achiral aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs), despite the presence of D-amino acids in nature and their ability to be aminoacylated onto tRNAs by aa-tRNA synthetases. The ubiquity of L-amino acids in proteins has led to the hypothesis that D-amino acids are not substrates for the TM. Supporting this view, protein engineering efforts to incorporate D-amino acids into proteins using the TM have thus far been unsuccessful. Nonetheless, a mechanistic understanding of why D-aa-tRNAs are poor substrates for the TM is lacking. To address this deficiency, we have systematically tested the translation activity of D-aa-tRNAs using a series of biochemical assays. We find that the TM can effectively, albeit slowly, accept D-aa-tRNAs into the ribosomal aa-tRNA binding (A) site, use the A-site D-aa-tRNA as a peptidyl-transfer acceptor, and translocate the resulting peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA into the ribosomal peptidyl-tRNA binding (P) site. During the next round of continuous translation, however, we find that ribosomes carrying a P-site peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA partition into subpopulations that are either translationally arrested or that can continue translating. Consistent with its ability to arrest translation, chemical protection experiments and molecular dynamics simulations show that P site-bound peptidyl-D-aa-tRNA can trap the ribosomal peptidyl-transferase center in a conformation in which peptidyl transfer is impaired. Our results reveal a novel mechanism through which D-aa-tRNAs interfere with translation, provide insight into how the TM might be engineered to use D-aa-tRNAs, and increase our understanding of the physiological role of a widely distributed enzyme that clears D-aa-tRNAs from cells.

  10. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  11. Effects of Local Heart Irradiation in a Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4-Null Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Singh, Preeti; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti; Sharma, Sunil; Singh, Sharda P

    2015-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4-4) is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an electrophilic product of lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes during oxidative stress. 4-HNE is a direct activator of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor with many target genes encoding antioxidant and anti-electrophile enzymes. We have previously shown that Gsta4-null mice on a 129/Sv background exhibited increased activity of Nrf2 in the heart. Here we examined the sensitivity of this Gsta4-null mouse model towards cardiac function and structure loss due to local heart irradiation. Male Gsta4-null and wild-type mice were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 18 Gy to the heart. Six months after irradiation, immunohistochemical staining for respiratory complexes 2 and 5 indicated that radiation exposure had caused most pronounced alterations in mitochondrial morphology in Gsta4-null mice. On the other hand, wild-type mice showed a decline in cardiac function and an increase in plasma levels of troponin-I, while no such changes were observed in Gsta4-null mice. Radiation-induced Nrf2-target gene expression only in Gsta4-null mice. In conclusion, although loss of GSTA4-4 led to enhanced susceptibility of cardiac mitochondria to radiation-induced loss of morphology, cardiac function was preserved in Gsta4-null mice. We propose that this protection against cardiac function loss may occur, at least in part, by upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  12. Glutathione-S-transferase P protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Prough, Russell A.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke impairs endothelium-dependent arterial dilation. Reactive constituents of cigarette smoke are metabolized and detoxified by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Although polymorphisms in GST genes are associated with the risk of cancer in smokers, the role of these enzymes in regulating the cardiovascular effects of smoking has not been studied. The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, was expressed in high abundance in the mouse lung and aorta. Exposure to tobacco smoke for 3 days (5 h/day) decreased total plasma protein. These changes were exaggerated in GSTP−/− mice. Aortic rings isolated from tobacco smoke-exposed GSTP−/− mice showed greater attenuation of ACh-evoked relaxation than those from GSTP+/+ mice. The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. Relative to GSTP+/+ mice, modification of some proteins by acrolein was increased in the aorta of GSTP−/− mice. Aortic rings prepared from GSTP−/− mice that inhaled acrolein (1 ppm, 5 h/day for 3 days) or those exposed to acrolein in an organ bath showed diminished ACh-induced arterial relaxation more strongly than GSTP+/+ mice. Acrolein-induced endothelial dysfunction was prevented by pretreatment of the aorta with N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that GSTP protects against the endothelial dysfunction induced by tobacco smoke exposure and that this protection may be related to the detoxification of acrolein or other related cigarette smoke constituents. PMID:19270193

  13. Effect of protein-calorie malnutrition on cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Parentau, H; Greenly, R L; Metz, C A; Aggarwal, S; Wainer, I W; Tracy, T S

    1999-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) can develop both from inadequate food intake and as a consequence of diseases such as cancer and AIDS. Several studies have shown that PCM can alter drug clearance but little information is available on the effect of PCM on individual cytochrome P450 isoforms and phase II conjugation enzymes. The aim of the present study was to begin a systematic evaluation of the effect of PCM on the activity of individual drug metabolizing enzymes in a rat model of PCM. Control and PCM rats received isocaloric diets which contained either 21% or 5% (deficient) protein. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and microsomal and cytosolic fractions prepared. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, dextromethorphan N- and O-demethylation and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation were used as measures of CYP1A, CYP2E1, CYP3A2, CYP2D1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, respectively. Additionally, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was measured in the liver microsomes. PCM significantly reduced the maximum velocity (Vmax) of all model reactions studied. However, differential effects were observed with respect to K(m) values of the reactions. The K(m) values for EROD and dextromethorphan N-demethylation were significantly increased in PCM animals, whereas the K(m) values for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation were decreased. In contrast, the K(m) value for CDNB conjugation was unchanged. When NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was compared, a 29% reduction in reductase activity was noted in PCM animals as compared to controls. Thus, it appears that PCM decreases the overall activity of certain phase I and phase II metabolism enzymes in rat liver while exhibiting differential effects on K(m). Furthermore, this reduction in activity may be due in part to diminished activity of cytochrome P450 reductase.

  14. Localization of epidermal sphingolipid synthesis and serine palmitoyl transferase activity: alterations imposed by permeability barrier requirements.

    PubMed

    Holleran, W M; Gao, W N; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    1995-01-01

    Sphingolipids, the predominant lipid species in mammalian stratum corneum play, a central role in permeability barrier homeostatis. Prior studies have shown that the epidermis synthesizes abundant sphingolipids, a process regulated by barrier requirements, and that inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis interferes with barrier homeostasis. To investigate further the relationship between epidermal sphingolipid metabolism and barrier function, we localized sphingolipid synthetic activity in murine epidermis under basal conditions, and following acute (acetone treatment) or chronic (essential fatty acid deficiency, EFAD) barrier perturbation, using dithiothreitol and/or the staphylococcal epidermolytic toxin to isolate the lower from the outer epidermis. Under basal conditions, both the activity of serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of sphingolipid synthesis, and the rates of 3H-H2O incorporation into sphingolipids were nearly equivalent in the lower and the outer epidermis. Following acute barrier perturbation, SPT activity increased significantly in both the lower (35%; P < 0.05) and the outer epidermal layers (60%; P < 0.01). The rates of 3H-H2O incorporation into each major sphingolipid family, including ceramides, glucosylceramides and sphingomyelin, increased significantly in both the lower and the outer epidermis of treated flanks after acute barrier disruption. Finally, SPT activity was modestly elevated (20%; P < 0.01) in the lower but not in the outer epidermis of EFAD animals. These studies demonstrate the ability of both lower and outer epidermal cells to generate sphingolipids, and that permeability barrier homeostatic mechanisms appear to differentially regulate SPT activity and sphingolipid synthesis in the lower and the outer epidermis in response to acute and chronic barrier perturbation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7598529

  15. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Four Glutathione S-Transferases from the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu2+ and Cd2+). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. PMID:23505503

  16. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    PubMed Central

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  17. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-01-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit 3H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. PMID:24434817

  18. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. PMID:26858288

  19. Glutathione-supported arsenate reduction coupled to arsenolysis catalyzed by ornithine carbamoyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeti, Balazs; Gregus, Zoltan

    2009-09-01

    Three cytosolic phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes, (purine nucleoside phosphorylase [PNP], glycogen phosphorylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been shown to mediate reduction of arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) in a thiol-dependent manner. With unknown mechanism, hepatic mitochondria also reduce AsV. Mitochondria possess ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT), which catalyzes phosphorolytic or arsenolytic citrulline cleavage; therefore, we examined if mitochondrial OCT facilitated AsV reduction in presence of glutathione. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with AsV, and AsIII formed was quantified. Glutathione-supplemented permeabilized or solubilized mitochondria reduced AsV. Citrulline (substrate for OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis) increased AsV reduction. The citrulline-stimulated AsV reduction was abolished by ornithine (OCT substrate inhibiting citrulline cleavage), phosphate (OCT substrate competing with AsV), and the OCT inhibitor norvaline or PALO, indicating that AsV reduction is coupled to OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis of citrulline. Corroborating this conclusion, purified bacterial OCT mediated AsV reduction in presence of citrulline and glutathione with similar responsiveness to these agents. In contrast, AsIII formation by intact mitochondria was unaffected by PALO and slightly stimulated by citrulline, ornithine, and norvaline, suggesting minimal role for OCT in AsV reduction in intact mitochondria. In addition to OCT, mitochondrial PNP can also mediate AsIII formation; however, its role in AsV reduction appears severely limited by purine nucleoside supply. Collectively, mitochondrial and bacterial OCT promote glutathione-dependent AsV reduction with coupled arsenolysis of citrulline, supporting the hypothesis that AsV reduction is mediated by phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes. Nevertheless, because citrulline cleavage is disfavored physiologically, OCT may have little role in AsV reduction in vivo.

  20. Glutathione S-Transferase Regulation in Calanus finmarchicus Feeding on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Jungbluth, Michelle J.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense, on relative expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) transcripts was examined in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Adult females were fed for 5-days on one of three experimental diets: control (100% Rhodomonas spp.), low dose of A. fundyense (25% by volume, 75% Rhodomonas spp.), and high dose (100% A. fundyense). Relative expression of three GST genes was measured using RT-qPCR on days 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 in two independent experiments. Differential regulation was found for the Delta and the Sigma GSTs between 0.5 to 2 days, but not on day 5 in both experiments. The third GST, a microsomal, was not differentially expressed in either treatment or day. RT-qPCR results from the two experiments were similar, even though experimental females were collected from the Gulf of Maine on different dates and their reproductive output differed. In the second experiment, expression of 39 GSTs was determined on days 2 and 5 using RNA-Seq. Global gene expression analyses agreed with the RT-qPCR results. Furthermore, the RNA-Seq measurements indicated that only four GSTs were differentially expressed under the experimental conditions, and the response was small in amplitude. In summary, the A. fundyense diet led to a rapid and transient response in C. finmarchicus in three cytosolic GSTs, while a fourth GST (Omega I) was significantly up-regulated on day 5. Although there was some regulation of GSTs in response the toxic dinoflagellate, the tolerance to A. fundyense by C. finmarchicus is not dependent on the long-term up-regulation of specific GSTs. PMID:27427938