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Sample records for nucleotidyl transferase subunits

  1. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-09-30

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3'-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3'-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation.

  2. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3′-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3′-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation. PMID:26013812

  3. Synergistic and independent actions of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shuxin; Dou, Yongchao; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Bin; Ren, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an) enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1. Here, we report that UTP: RNA uridylyltransferase (URT1) is a functional paralog of HESO1. URT1 interacts with AGO1 and plays a predominant role in miRNA uridylation when HESO1 is absent. Uridylation of miRNA is globally abolished in a hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant, accompanied by an extensive increase of 3'-to-5' trimming. In contrast, disruption of URT1 appears not to affect the heterochromatic siRNA uridylation. This indicates the involvement of additional nucleotidyl transferases in the siRNA pathway. Analysis of miRNA tailings in the hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant also reveals the existence of previously unknown enzymatic activities that can add non-uridine nucleotides. Importantly, we show HESO1 may also act redundantly with URT1 in miRNA uridylation when HEN1 is fully competent. Taken together, our data not only reveal a synergistic action of HESO1 and URT1 in the 3' uridylation of miRNAs, but also independent activities of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs and an antagonistic relationship between uridylation and trimming. Our results may provide further insight into the mechanisms of small RNA 3' end modification and stability control.

  4. A novel strategy for the functional cloning of enzymes using filamentous phage display: the case of nucleotidyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Erika; Chauvin, Camille; Choumet, Valérie; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    In vitro selections for catalytic activity have been designed for the isolation of genes encoding enzymes from libraries of proteins displayed on filamentous phages. The proteins are generally expressed as C-terminal fusions with the N-terminus of the minor coat protein p3 for display on phages. As full-length cDNAs generally contain several stop codons near their 3′ end, this approach cannot be used for their expression on the surface of phages. Here we show that in vitro selection for catalytic activity is compatible with a system for expression of proteins as N-terminal fusions on the surface of bacteriophages. It is highlighted for the Stoffel fragment of Taq DNA polymerase I and makes use of (p3–Jun/Fos–Stoffel fragment) fusions. The efficiency of the selection is measured by an enrichment factor found to be about 55 for a phage polymerase versus a phage not expressing a polymerase. This approach could provide a method for the functional cloning of nucleotidyl transferases from cDNA libraries using filamentous phage display. PMID:11972355

  5. Crystal structures identify an atypical two-metal-ion mechanism for uridyltransfer in GlmU: its significance to sugar nucleotidyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Pravin Kumar Ankush; Verma, Sunil Kumar; Vithani, Neha; Bais, Vaibhav Singh; Prakash, Balaji

    2013-05-27

    N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU), exclusive to prokaryotes, is a bifunctional enzyme that synthesizes UDP-GlcNAc-an important component of the cell wall of many microorganisms. Uridyltransfer, one of the reactions it catalyzes, involves binding GlcNAc-1-P, UTP and Mg(2+) ions; however, whether one or two ions catalyze this reaction remains ambiguous. Here, we resolve this using biochemical and crystallographic studies on GlmU from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (GlmU(Mtb)) and identify a two-metal-ion mechanism (mechanism-B). In contrast to well-established two-metal mechanism (mechanism-A) for enzymes acting on nucleic acids, mechanism-B is distinct in the way the two Mg(2+) ions (Mg(2+)A and Mg(2+)B) are positioned and stabilized. Further, attempts to delineate the roles of the metal ions in substrate stabilization, nucleophile activation and transition-state stabilization are presented. Interestingly, a detailed analysis of the available structures of sugar nucleotidyl transferases (SNTs) suggests that they too would utilize mechanism-B rather than mechanism-A. Based on this, SNTs could be classified into Group-I, which employs the two-metal mechanism-B as in GlmU, and Group-II that employs a variant one-metal mechanism-B, wherein the role of Mg(2+)A is substituted by a conserved lysine. Strikingly, eukaryotic SNTs appear confined to Group-II. Recognizing these differences may be important in the design of selective inhibitors against microbial nucleotidyl transferases.

  6. The 3' addition of CCA to mitochondrial tRNASer(AGY) is specifically impaired in patients with mutations in the tRNA nucleotidyl transferase TRNT1.

    PubMed

    Sasarman, Florin; Thiffault, Isabelle; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Salomon, Steven; Maftei, Catalina; Gauthier, Julie; Ellazam, Benjamin; Webb, Neil; Antonicka, Hana; Janer, Alexandre; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Elpeleg, Orly; Mitchell, Grant; Shoubridge, Eric A

    2015-05-15

    Addition of the trinucleotide cytosine/cytosine/adenine (CCA) to the 3' end of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) is essential for translation and is catalyzed by the enzyme TRNT1 (tRNA nucleotidyl transferase), which functions in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Exome sequencing revealed TRNT1 mutations in two unrelated subjects with different clinical features. The first presented with acute lactic acidosis at 3 weeks of age and developed severe developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, seizures, progressive cortical atrophy, neurosensorial deafness, sideroblastic anemia and renal Fanconi syndrome, dying at 21 months. The second presented at 3.5 years with gait ataxia, dysarthria, gross motor regression, hypotonia, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia and had abnormal signals in brainstem and dentate nucleus. In subject 1, muscle biopsy showed combined oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects, but there was no OXPHOS deficiency in fibroblasts from either subject, despite a 10-fold-reduction in TRNT1 protein levels in fibroblasts of the first subject. Furthermore, in normal controls, TRNT1 protein levels are 10-fold lower in muscle than in fibroblasts. High resolution northern blots of subject fibroblast RNA suggested incomplete CCA addition to the non-canonical mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)), but no obvious qualitative differences in other mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tRNAs. Complete knockdown of TRNT1 in patient fibroblasts rendered mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)) undetectable, and markedly reduced mitochondrial translation, except polypeptides lacking Ser(AGY) codons. These data suggest that the clinical phenotypes associated with TRNT1 mutations are largely due to impaired mitochondrial translation, resulting from defective CCA addition to mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)), and that the severity of this biochemical phenotype determines the severity and tissue distribution of clinical features.

  7. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  8. X-ray Crystal Structures Elucidate the Nucleotidyl Transfer Reaction of Transcript Initiation Using Two Nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    M Gleghorn; E Davydova; R Basu; L Rothman-Denes; K Murakami

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the pre- and postcatalytic forms of the initiation complex of bacteriophage N4 RNA polymerase that provide the complete set of atomic images depicting the process of transcript initiation by a single-subunit RNA polymerase. As observed during T7 RNA polymerase transcript elongation, substrate loading for the initiation process also drives a conformational change of the O helix, but only the correct base pairing between the +2 substrate and DNA base is able to complete the O-helix conformational transition. Substrate binding also facilitates catalytic metal binding that leads to alignment of the reactive groups of substrates for the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. Although all nucleic acid polymerases use two divalent metals for catalysis, they differ in the requirements and the timing of binding of each metal. In the case of bacteriophage RNA polymerase, we propose that catalytic metal binding is the last step before the nucleotidyl transfer reaction.

  9. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase β subunit is essential for male fertility and tip growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Marta; Nowakowska, Julita; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Stronkowski, Michal M; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins, key players in vesicular transport in all eukaryotic cells, are post-translationally modified by lipid moieties. Two geranylgeranyl groups are attached to the Rab protein by the heterodimeric enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGT) αβ. Partial impairment in this enzyme activity in Arabidopsis, by disruption of the AtRGTB1 gene, is known to influence plant stature and disturb gravitropic and light responses. Here it is shown that mutations in each of the RGTB genes cause a tip growth defect, visible as root hair and pollen tube deformations. Moreover, FM 1-43 styryl dye endocytosis and recycling are affected in the mutant root hairs. Finally, it is demonstrated that the double mutant, with both AtRGTB genes disrupted, is non-viable due to absolute male sterility. Doubly mutated pollen is shrunken, has an abnormal exine structure, and shows strong disorganization of internal membranes, particularly of the endoplasmic reticulum system.

  10. Solution Structure of Alg13: The Sugar Donor Subunit of a Yeast N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Weldeghorghis, Thomas; Zhang, Guofeng; Imperiali, Barbara; Prestegard, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The solution structure of Alg13, the glycosyl-donor binding domain of an important bipartite glycosyltransferase in the yeast S. cerevisiae, is presented. This glycosyl transferase is unusual in that it is only active in the presence of a binding partner, Alg14. Alg13 is found to adopt a unique topology amongst glycosyltransferases. Rather than the conventional Rossmann fold found in all GT-B type enzymes, the N-terminal half of the protein is a Rossmann-like fold with a mixed parallel and anti-parallel β sheet. The Rossmann fold of the C-terminal half of Alg13 is conserved. However, while conventional GT-B type enzymes usually possess three helices at the C-terminus, only two helices are present in Alg13. Titration of Alg13 with both UDP-GlcNAc, the native glycosyl donor, and a paramagnetic mimic, UDP-TEMPO, shows that the interaction of Alg13 with the sugar donor is primarily through the residues in the C-terminal half of the protein. PMID:18547528

  11. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site

    PubMed Central

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. PMID:26487708

  12. Subunit diversity and tissue distribution of human glutathione S-transferases: interpretations based on electrospray ionization-MS and peptide sequence-specific antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, J D; Nieves, E; Listowsky, I

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainties about the composition and identities of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in human tissue have impeded studies on their biological functions. A rigorous protocol has therefore been developed to characterize the human proteins. Cytosolic GST subunits were resolved by reverse-phase HPLC methods, individual components were assigned to Alpha, Mu and Pi classes on the basis of their immunoreactivities, and peptide-sequence-specific antisera were used to distinguish among five different Mu-class subunits (GSTM1-GSTM5). Each subunit type was characterized and identified unambiguously by electrospray ionization-MS. Acetylation of N-terminal residues in the GSTA1, GSTA2, GSTM3 and GSTM4 subunits were the only natural post-translational modifications detected. The unique structure of GSTM3, with N- and C-terminal peptide extensions predicted from cDNA sequences, was confirmed. Only testis and brain were rich sources of GSTM3 subunits. Subunit profiles were distinct and characteristic of the particular tissue type, and this tissue specificity in GST expression was evident even in organs from different individuals. For instance, livers had relatively simple GST compositions, consisting of a preponderance of Alpha-class subunits and GSTM1 (when present). By contrast, representation of most subunit types was a characteristic feature of testis, which had the highest levels of GSTs. GSTM4 and GSTM5 subunits, here identified for the first time in human tissue extracts, were minor components, with GSTM5 found only in brain, lung and testis. Specimens devoid of GSTM1 subunits, particularly those from null-genotype individuals, were readily discerned at the protein level. Liver was the only rich source of the GSTM1 subunit (although it also constituted a major fraction of adrenal GSTs), and so the functional consequences of the GSTM1 gene deletion are likely to vary in extrahepatic tissues. PMID:9230131

  13. Regulation of glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene expression: Identification of a unique xenobiotic-responsive element controlling inducible expression by planar aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rushmore, T.H.; King, R.G.; Pickett, C.B. ); Paulson, K.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors have identified a region in the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene that contains a unique xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). The regulatory region spans nucleotides {minus}722 to {minus}682 of the 5{prime} flanking sequence and is responsible for part of the basal level as well as inducible expression of the Ya subunit gene by planar aromatic compounds such as {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF) and 3-methylcholanthrene. The DNA sequence of this region ({beta}-NF-responsive element) is distinct from the DNA sequence of the XRE found in the cytochrome P-450 IA1 gene. In addition to the region containing the {beta}-NF-responsive element, two other regulatory regions of the Ya subunit gene have been identified. The data suggest that regulation of gene expression by planar aromatic compounds can be mediated by a DNA sequence this is distinct from the XRE sequence.

  14. Xenobiotic-inducible expression of murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene is controlled by an electrophile-responsive element

    SciTech Connect

    Friling, R.S.; Bensimon, A.; Tichauer, Y.; Daniel, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) Ya subunit gene expression is induced in mammalian tissues by two types of chemical agents: (i) planar aromatic compounds (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and (ii) electrophiles (e.g., trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one and dimethyl fumarate) or compounds easily oxidized to electrophiles (e.g., tert-butylhydroquinone). To study the mechanism of this induction, the authors have introduced deletions in the 5{prime} flanking region of a mouse GST Ya subunit gene, fused it to the coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, and transfected the Ya-CAT genes for expression into hepatoma cells. They show that a single cis-regulatory element, between nucleotides {minus}754 and {minus}713 from the start of transcription, is responsible for the induction by both planar aromatic and electrophilic compounds. Using murine hepatoma cell mutants defective in either the Ah-encoded aryl hydrocarbon receptor (BP{sup r}c1 mutant) or in cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 gene (c1 mutant), they show that induction by planar aromatic but not by electrophilic inducers requires a functional Ah receptor and cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 activity. From this it is concluded that Ya gene activation by planar aromatic compounds involves metabolism of these inducers by the phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 system into electrophilic compounds. Therefore, the regulatory sequence of the Ya gene should be considered an electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) activated exclusively by inducers containing an electrophilic center.

  15. Discovery of an essential nucleotidylating activity associated with a newly delineated conserved domain in the RNA polymerase-containing protein of all nidoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Kathleen C.; Gulyaeva, Anastasia; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Janssen, George M. C.; Ruben, Mark; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; van Veelen, Peter A.; Samborskiy, Dmitry V.; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Leontovich, Andrey M.; Sidorov, Igor A.; Snijder, Eric J.; Posthuma, Clara C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that catalyzes the synthesis of their RNA(s). In the case of positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the order Nidovirales, the RdRp resides in a replicase subunit that is unusually large. Bioinformatics analysis of this non-structural protein has now revealed a nidoviral signature domain (genetic marker) that is N-terminally adjacent to the RdRp and has no apparent homologs elsewhere. Based on its conservation profile, this domain is proposed to have nucleotidylation activity. We used recombinant non-structural protein 9 of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV) and different biochemical assays, including irreversible labeling with a GTP analog followed by a proteomics analysis, to demonstrate the manganese-dependent covalent binding of guanosine and uridine phosphates to a lysine/histidine residue. Most likely this was the invariant lysine of the newly identified domain, named nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN), whose substitution with alanine severely diminished the described binding. Furthermore, this mutation crippled EAV and prevented the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in cell culture, indicating that NiRAN is essential for nidoviruses. Potential functions supported by NiRAN may include nucleic acid ligation, mRNA capping and protein-primed RNA synthesis, possibilities that remain to be explored in future studies. PMID:26304538

  16. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  17. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  18. cNMP-AMs mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Ulrike; Grundmann, Manuel; Wolter, Sabine; Schwede, Frank; Rehmann, Holger; Kaever, Volkhard; Kostenis, Evi; Seifert, Roland

    2014-09-05

    In addition to the well-known second messengers cAMP and cGMP, mammalian cells contain the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoY massively increases cGMP and cUMP in cells, whereas the Bordetella pertussis toxin CyaA increases cAMP and, to a lesser extent, cCMP. To mimic and dissect toxin effects, we synthesized cNMP-acetoxymethylesters as prodrugs. cNMP-AMs rapidly and effectively released the corresponding cNMP in cells. The combination of cGMP-AM plus cUMP-AM mimicked cytotoxicity of ExoY. cUMP-AM and cGMP-AM differentially activated gene expression. Certain cCMP and cUMP effects were independent of the known cNMP effectors protein kinases A and G and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. In conclusion, cNMP-AMs are useful tools to mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects.

  19. Mechanisms of Nucleotidyl Transfer Catalyzed by the Yeast RNA Polymerase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rui; Salahub, Dennis R.

    2007-11-01

    It has been proposed that all classes of nucleic acid polymerases use the same two-metal-ion mechanism for nucleotide incorporation. The main chemical kinetic scheme is that the oxygen atom of the 3'-OH group of the transcript primer, acting as a nucleophile, forms a phosphodiester bond with the first phosphate of the (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphate and the other two phosphates form a pyrophosphate leaving group. While some molecular modeling studies on DNA polymerases have been performed to investigate the detailed chemical steps involved in the kinetic scheme, few theoretical studies on RNA polymerases are available in the literature. Here, we report a molecular dynamics study of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by the yeast RNA polymerase II, which is based on the most recently published crystal structures. We particularly focus on the creation of the nucleophile, i.e., deprotonation of the 3'-OH group. Two pathways are examined: (i) proton transfer to the conserved Asp485 residue of the active site in association with nucleophilic attack and (ii) proton transfer to a nearby water molecule before nucleophilic attack. All the molecular dynamics simulations are carried out by a recently developed reactive force field, ReaxFF, whose parameters are derived directly from quantum chemical calculations. The rate-limiting step of the reaction in both cases is the dissociation of the pyrophosphate leaving group, which needs about 23 kcal/mol of activation energy. The nucleophilic attack needs about 19 kcal/mol of activation energy for pathway (i) and 17 kcal/mol of activation energy for pathway (ii). The water-assisting deprotonation just needs about 7 kcal/mol of activation energy. These data indicate that pathway (i) is comparable to pathway (ii). If water misses the deprotonation of the 3'-OH group before nucleophilic attack in the latter pathway, the general base (Asp485) of the polymerase active site can readily perform the deprotonation in the attack through the

  20. Actin activates Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY nucleotidyl cyclase toxin and ExoY-like effector domains from MARTX toxins

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Saveanu, Cosmin; Namane, Abdelkader; Ogryzko, Vasily; Worpenberg, Lina; David, Violaine; Henriot, Veronique; Fellous, Souad; Merrifield, Christien; Assayag, Elodie; Ladant, Daniel; Renault, Louis; Mechold, Undine

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotidyl cyclase toxin ExoY is one of the virulence factors injected by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system into host cells. Inside cells, it is activated by an unknown eukaryotic cofactor to synthesize various cyclic nucleotide monophosphates. ExoY-like adenylate cyclases are also found in Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-ToXin (MARTX) toxins produced by various Gram-negative pathogens. Here we demonstrate that filamentous actin (F-actin) is the hitherto unknown cofactor of ExoY. Association with F-actin stimulates ExoY activity more than 10,000 fold in vitro and results in stabilization of actin filaments. ExoY is recruited to actin filaments in transfected cells and alters F-actin turnover. Actin also activates an ExoY-like adenylate cyclase MARTX effector domain from Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Finally, using a yeast genetic screen, we identify actin mutants that no longer activate ExoY. Our results thus reveal a new sub-group within the class II adenylyl cyclase family, namely actin-activated nucleotidyl cyclase (AA-NC) toxins. PMID:27917880

  1. Enzymatic Glycosylation by Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blixt, Ola; Razi, Nahid

    Glycosyltransferases are important biological catalysts in cellular systems generating complex cell surface glycans involved in adhesion and signaling processes. Recent advances in glycoscience have increased the demands to access significant amount of glycans representing the glycome. Glycosyltransferases are now playing a key role for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides and the bacterial genome are increasingly utilized for cloning and over expression of active transferases in glycosylation reactions. This chapter highlights the recent progress towards preparative synthesis of oligosaccharides representing terminal sequences of glycoproteins and glycolipids using recombinant transferases. Transferases are also being explored in the context of solid-phase synthesis, immobilized on resins and over expression in vivo by engineered bacteria.

  2. Structure of the RNA 30-Phosphate Cyclase-Adenylate Intermediate Illuminates Nucleotide Specificity and Covalent Nucleotidyl Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Smith, P; Shuman, S

    2010-01-01

    RNA 3-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) synthesizes RNA 2,3 cyclic phosphate ends via three steps: reaction with ATP to form a covalent RtcA-AMP intermediate; transfer of adenylate to an RNA 3-phosphate to form RNA(3)pp(5)A; and attack of the vicinal O2 on the 3-phosphorus to form a 2,3 cyclic phosphate. Here we report the 1.7 {angstrom} crystal structure of the RtcA-AMP intermediate, which reveals the mechanism of nucleotidyl transfer. Adenylate is linked via a phosphoamide bond to the His309 N{var_epsilon} atom. A network of hydrogen bonds to the ribose O2 and O3 accounts for the stringent ribonucleotide preference. Adenine is sandwiched in a hydrophobic pocket between Tyr284 and Pro131 and the preference for adenine is enforced by Phe135, which packs against the purine C2 edge. Two sulfates bound near the adenylate plausibly mimic the 3-terminal and penultimate phosphates of RNA. The structure illuminates how the four {alpha}2/{beta}4 domains contribute to substrate binding and catalysis.

  3. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  4. Plant glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Lapthorn, Adrian; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 48 GST genes, with the tau and phi classes being the most numerous. The GST proteins have evolved by gene duplication to perform a range of functional roles using the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate or coenzyme. GSTs are predominantly expressed in the cytosol, where their GSH-dependent catalytic functions include the conjugation and resulting detoxification of herbicides, the reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress and the isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate, a key step in the catabolism of tyrosine. GSTs also have non-catalytic roles, binding flavonoid natural products in the cytosol prior to their deposition in the vacuole. Recent studies have also implicated GSTs as components of ultraviolet-inducible cell signaling pathways and as potential regulators of apoptosis. Although sequence diversification has produced GSTs with multiple functions, the structure of these proteins has been highly conserved. The GSTs thus represent an excellent example of how protein families can diversify to fulfill multiple functions while conserving form and structure. PMID:11897031

  5. Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-08

    ACCESSION NO.D,. 03261102F 2312 A~5 11. TITLE (include Securqt Classification) 0 Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 12. PERSONAL...I’:- AFOSR.Tlt. 8 7 - 0 9 8,2 0IL * pi AFOSR- 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 5." Period of...Pharmacology and the Cardiovascular Research Institute September 8, 1987 .’, 5.’- "’S ". -f, AFOSR - 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of

  6. Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Buratowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Nascent mRNA chains are capped at the 5' end by the addition of a guanylyl residue to form a G(5')ppp(5')N ... structure. During the capping reaction, the guanylyltransferase (GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.50) is reversibly and covalently guanylylated. In this enzyme-GMP (E-GMP) intermediate, GMP is linked to the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue via a phosphoamide bond. Lys-70 was identified as the GMP attachment site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanylyltransferase (encoded by the CEG1 gene) by guanylylpeptide sequencing. CEG1 genes with substitutions at Lys-70 were unable to support viability in yeast and produced proteins that were not guanylylated in vitro. The CEG1 active site exhibits sequence similarity to the active sites of viral guanylyltransferases and polynucleotide ligases, suggesting similarity in the mechanisms of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by these enzymes. Images PMID:8022828

  7. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed

    Acker, J; de Graaff, M; Cheynel, I; Khazak, V; Kedinger, C; Vigneron, M

    1997-07-04

    As an initial approach to characterizing the molecular structure of the human RNA polymerase II (hRPB), we systematically investigated the protein-protein contacts that the subunits of this enzyme may establish with each other. To this end, we applied a glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay to extracts from Sf9 insect cells, which were coinfected with all possible combinations of recombinant baculoviruses expressing hRPB subunits, either as untagged polypeptides or as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. This is the first comprehensive study of interactions between eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunits; among the 116 combinations of hRPB subunits tested, 56 showed significant to strong interactions, whereas 60 were negative. Within the intricate network of interactions, subunits hRPB3 and hRPB5 play a central role in polymerase organization. These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits.

  9. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  10. [A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Shi, C; Li, P; Ma, Q

    1997-01-01

    A promoter sequence, which promotes the transcription of cholera toxin B subunit gene, was found in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. The transcription starts at the adenine Located at +833, that is 456bp upstream to the A of the initiation codon ATG of cholera toxin B gene. Under the control of the promoter, cholera toxin B subunit was over-expressed as high as 200 mg/L at an optimized culture condition. The chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene and beta-galactosidase could also be efficiently expressed under the direction of the promoter. This promoter may be responsible for the 6 fold and 7 fold higher expression level of cholera toxin B subunit than cholera toxin A subunit in V. cholerae and Escheria coli respectively. The over-expression of CTB may be useful in preparing vaccine against cholera and facilitating the construction of peptide-bearing immunogenic hybrid proteins.

  11. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  12. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  13. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-06

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  14. Cloning and expression of clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N. ); Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase (acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase (butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase) (EC 2.8.3.9)) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is an important enzyme in the metabolic shift between the acid-producing and solvent-forming states of this organism. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme have been cloned and subsequent subcloning experiments established the position of the structural genes for CoA-transferase. Complementation of Escherichia coli ato mutants with the recombinant plasmid pCoAT4 (pUC19 carrying a 1.8-kilobase insert of C. acetobutylicum DNA encoding CoA-transferase activity) enabled the transformants to grow on butyrate as a sole carbon source. Despite the ability of CoA-transferase to complement the ato defect in E. coli mutants, Southern blot and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses showed showed that neither the C. acetobutylicum genes encoding CoA-transferase nor the enzyme itself shared any apparent homology with its E. coli counterpart. Polypeptides of M{sub r} of the purified CoA-transferase subunits were observed by Western blot and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E.coli harboring pCoAT4. The proximity and orientation of the genes suggest that the genes encoding the two subunits of CoA-transferase may form an operon similar to that found in E. coli. In the plasmid, however, transcription appears to be primarily from the lac promoter of the vector.

  15. Studies of the relationship between the catalytic activity and binding of non-substrate ligands by the glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, T D; Vessey, D A; Holcomb, C; Saley, N

    1984-01-01

    The dimeric enzyme glutathione S-transferase B is composed of two dissimilar subunits, referred to as Ya and Yc. Transferase B (YaYc) and two other transferases that are homodimers of the individual Ya and Yc subunits were purified from rat liver. Inhibition of these three enzymes by Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and several bile acids was investigated at different values of pH (range 6.0-8.0). Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and chenodeoxycholate were found to be effective inhibitors of transferases YaYc and YcYc at low (pH 6.0) but not high (pH 8.0) values of pH. Between these extremes of pH intermediate degrees of inhibition were observed. Cholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, however, were ineffective inhibitors of transferase YcYc at all values of pH. The observed differences in bile acids appeared to be due, in part, to differences in their state of ionization. In contrast with the above results, transferase YaYa was inhibited by at least 80% by the non-substrate ligands at all values of pH. These effects of pH on the three transferases could not be accounted for by pH-induced changes in the enzyme's affinity for the inhibitor. Thus those glutathione S-transferases that contain the Yc subunit are able to act simultaneously as both enzymes and binding proteins. In addition to enzyme structure, the state of ionization of the non-substrate ligands may also influence whether the transferases can perform both functions simultaneously. PMID:6696720

  16. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbamyl transferase (OCT) in serum. Ornithine carbamyl transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation...

  17. Ribosome Subunit Stapling for Orthogonal Translation in E.  coli.

    PubMed

    Fried, Stephen D; Schmied, Wolfgang H; Uttamapinant, Chayasith; Chin, Jason W

    2015-10-19

    The creation of orthogonal large and small ribosomal subunits, which interact with each other but not with endogenous ribosomal subunits, would extend our capacity to create new functions in the ribosome by making the large subunit evolvable. To this end, we rationally designed a ribosomal RNA that covalently links the ribosome subunits via an RNA staple. The stapled ribosome is directed to an orthogonal mRNA, allowing the introduction of mutations into the large subunit that reduce orthogonal translation, but have minimal effects on cell growth. Our approach provides a promising route towards orthogonal subunit association, which may enable the evolution of key functional centers in the large subunit, including the peptidyl-transferase center, for unnatural polymer synthesis in cells.

  18. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  19. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  20. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Haluska, P; Dy, G K; Adjei, A A

    2002-09-01

    Protein farnesylation catalysed by the enzyme farnesyl protein transferase involves the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl group to conserved amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus of certain proteins. Protein substrates of farnesyl transferase include several G-proteins, which are critical intermediates of cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation such as Ras, Rho, PxF and lamins A and B. Activated Ras proteins trigger a cascade of phosphorylation events through sequential activation of the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, which is critical for cell survival, and the Raf/Mek/Erk kinase pathway that has been implicated in cell proliferation. Ras mutations which encode for constitutively activated proteins are found in 30% of human cancers. Because farnesylation of Ras is required for its transforming and proliferative activity, the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors were designed as anticancer agents to abrogate Ras function. However, current evidence suggests that the anticancer activity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitors may not be simply due to Ras inhibition. This review will discuss available clinical data on three of these agents that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  1. Irreversible Inhibition of Glutathione S-Transferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC), a Dietary Cancer Chemopreventive Phytochemical

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Vandana; Dyba, Marzena A.; Holland, Ryan J.; Liang, Yu-He; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates abundant as glucosinolate precursors in many edible cruciferous vegetables are effective for prevention of cancer in chemically-induced and transgenic rodent models. Some of these agents, including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), have already advanced to clinical investigations. The primary route of isothiocyanate metabolism is its conjugation with glutathione (GSH), a reaction catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST). The pi class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTP1) is much more effective than the alpha class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTA1) in catalyzing the conjugation. Here, we report the crystal structures of hGSTP1 and hGSTA1 each in complex with the GSH adduct of PEITC. We find that PEITC also covalently modifies the cysteine side chains of GST, which irreversibly inhibits enzymatic activity. PMID:27684484

  2. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  3. Rubber transferase in guayule plants. [Parthenium argentatum

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, C.L.; Foster, M.A.; Benedict, C.R.

    1986-04-01

    Rubber transferase catalyzes the transfer of cis-1,4-polyprenyl-PP to isopentenyl-PP (IPP) with the elimination of PP/sub i/. Rubber transferase activity in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) stems was localized in the lipid fraction of the homogenate following centrifugation in buffer and 0.4M Mannitol. Washed rubber particles were obtained by the chromatography of the lipid fraction on Ultrogel columns with an exclusion limit of 750,000 daltons by the procedure of B.G. Audley (private communication). The rubber particles catalyzed the incorporation of /sup 14/C-IPP into cis-polyisoprene. The radioactive cis-polyisoprene was identified by ozonolysis and chromatography of the resulting /sup 14/C-levulinic acid. The synthesis of cis-polyisoprene in the rubber particles required Mg/sup 2 +/ and IPP and was stimulated 2-fold with the addition of DMAPP. Rubber synthesis in guayule plants growing in the Permian Basin of West Texas does not occur during summer months but is induced by the cold night temperatures of the fall and winter. From August to December individual plants (which were transplanted in May) accumulated from 66mg to 11,800mg or rubber. During this period there was a 4-fold increase in rubber transferase activity in stem homogenates induced by the low temperatures.

  4. Human glutathione S-transferases. Characterization of the anionic forms from lung and placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Partridge, C A; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Anionic glutathione S-transferases were purified from human lung and placenta. Chemical and immunochemical characterization, including polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, gave strong evidence that the anionic lung and placental enzymes are chemically similar, if not identical, proteins. The electrophoretic mobilities of both proteins were identical in conventional alkaline gels as well as in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Gel filtration of the intact active enzyme established an Mr value of 45000; however, with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under dissociating conditions a subunit Mr of 22500 was obtained. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the placental enzyme revealed a single polypeptide sequence identical with that of lung. Results obtained from immunoelectrophoresis, immunotitration, double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis also indicated the anionic lung and placental enzymes to be closely similar. The chemical similarity of these two proteins was further supported by protein compositional analysis and fragment analysis after chemical hydrolysis. Immunochemical comparison of the anionic lung and placental enzymes with human liver glutathione S-transferases revealed cross-reactivity with the anionic omega enzyme, but no cross-reactivity was detectable with the cationic enzymes. Comparison of the N-terminal region of the human anionic enzyme with reported sequences of rat liver glutathione S-transferases gave strong evidence of chemical similarity, indicating that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. However, computer analysis of the 30-residue N-terminal sequence did not show any significant chemical similarity to any other reported protein sequence, pointing to the fact that the glutathione S-transferases represent a unique class of proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6466318

  5. Characterization of the safener-induced glutathione S-transferase isoform II from maize.

    PubMed

    Holt, D C; Lay, V J; Clarke, E D; Dinsmore, A; Jepson, I; Bright, S W; Greenland, A J

    1995-01-01

    The safener-induced maize (Zea mays L.) glutathione S-transferase, GST II (EC 2.5.1.18) and another predominant isoform, GST I, were purified from extracts of maize roots treated with the safeners R-25788 (N,N-diallyl-2-dichloroacetamide) or R-29148 (3-dichloroacetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-oxazolidone). The isoforms GST I and GST II are respectively a homodimer of 29-kDa (GST-29) subunits and a heterodimer of 29- and 27-kDa (GST-27) subunits, while GST I is twice as active with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as GST II, GST II is about seven times more active against the herbicide, alachlor. Western blotting using antisera raised against GST-29 and GST-27 showed that GST-29 is present throughout the maize plant prior to safener treatment. In contrast, GST-27 is only present in roots of untreated plants but is induced in all the major aerial organs of maize after root-drenching with safener. The amino-acid sequences of proteolytic fragments of GST-27 show that it is related to GST-29 and identical to the 27-kDa subunit of GST IV.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes from Sorghum1

    PubMed Central

    Gronwald, John W.; Plaisance, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Two glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, A1/A1 and B1/B2, were purified from etiolated, O-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methyl-2,2,2,-trifluoro-4′-chloroacetophenone-oxime-treated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shoots. GST A1/A1, a constitutively expressed homodimer, had a subunit molecular mass of 26 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.9. GST A1/A1 exhibited high activity with 1-chloro-2, 4,dinitrobenzene (CDNB) but low activity with the chloroacetanilide herbicide metolachlor. For GST A1/A1, the random, rapid-equilibrium bireactant kinetic model provided a good description of the kinetic data for the substrates CDNB and glutathione (GSH). GST B1/B2 was a heterodimer with subunit molecular masses of 26 kD (designated the B1 subunit) and 28 kD (designated the B2 subunit) and a native isoelectric point of 4.8. GST B1/B2 exhibited low activity with CDNB and high activity with metolachlor as the substrate. The kinetics of GST B1/B2 activity with GSH and metolachlor fit a model describing a multisite enzyme having two binding sites with different affinities for these substrates. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 exhibited GSH-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and GSH peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide, 9-hydroperoxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 are glycoproteins, as indicated by their binding of concanavalin A. Polyclonal antibodies raised against GST A1/A1 exhibited cross-reactivity with the B1 subunit of GST B1/B2. Comparisons of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the GST A1, B1, and B2 subunits with other type I θ-GSTs indicated a high degree of homology with the maize GST I subunit and a sugarcane GST. PMID:9662530

  7. Structural basis for the interaction of antibiotics with peptidyl transferase center in eubacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Harms, Jörg; Bashan, Anat; Tocilj, Ante; Albrecht, Renate; Yonath, Ada; Franceschi, Francois

    2009-10-07

    Ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis, are a major target for natural and synthetic antibiotics. Detailed knowledge of antibiotic binding sites is central to understanding the mechanisms of drug action. Conversely, drugs are excellent tools for studying the ribosome function. To elucidate the structural basis of ribosome-antibiotic interactions, we determined the high-resolution X-ray structures of the 50S ribosomal subunit of the eubacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, complexed with the clinically relevant antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin and the three macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin. We found that antibiotic binding sites are composed exclusively of segments of 23S ribosomal RNA at the peptidyl transferase cavity and do not involve any interaction of the drugs with ribosomal proteins. Here we report the details of antibiotic interactions with the components of their binding sites. Our results also show the importance of putative Mg{sup +2} ions for the binding of some drugs. This structural analysis should facilitate rational drug design.

  8. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum.

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, U; Buckel, W

    1991-01-01

    A new coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase from the anaerobe Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzing the formation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from 4-hydroxybutyrate and acetyl-CoA is described. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by standard techniques, including fast protein liquid chromatography under aerobic conditions. Its molecular mass was determined to be 110 kDa, and that of the only subunit was determined to be 54 kDa, indicating a homodimeric structure. Besides acetate and acetyl-CoA, the following substrates were detected (in order of decreasing kcat/Km): 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, butyryl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, vinyl-acetyl-CoA (3-butenoyl-CoA), and 5-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA. In an indirect assay the corresponding acids were also found to be substrates; however, DL-lactate, DL-2-hydroxybutyrate, DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, and various dicarboxylates were not. PMID:1768145

  9. Glucose-induced expression of MIP-1 genes requires O-GlcNAc transferase in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Hashiba, Waka; Sekine, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2010-04-16

    O-glycosylation has emerged as an important modification of nuclear proteins, and it appears to be involved in gene regulation. Recently, we have shown that one of the histone methyl transferases (MLL5) is activated through O-glycosylation by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Addition of this monosaccharide is essential for forming a functional complex. However, in spite of the abundance of OGT in the nucleus, the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation by OGT remains largely unclear. To address this issue, the present study was undertaken to test the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation in a monocytic cell line, THP-1. Using a cytokine array, MIP-1{alpha} and -1{beta} genes were found to be regulated by nuclear O-glycosylation. Biochemical purification of the OGT interactants from THP-1 revealed that OGT is an associating partner for distinct co-regulatory complexes. OGT recruitment and protein O-glycosylation were observed at the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter; however, the known OGT partner (HCF-1) was absent when the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter was not activated. From these findings, we suggest that OGT could be a co-regulatory subunit shared by functionally distinct complexes supporting epigenetic regulation.

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  11. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:l-Malate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Steindorf, Astrid; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle has been proposed to operate as the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. In this pathway, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and two bicarbonate molecules are converted to malate. Acetyl-CoA is regenerated from malyl-CoA by l-malyl-CoA lyase. The enzyme forming malyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA:l-malate coenzyme A transferase, was purified. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its two subunits, the corresponding genes were identified on a gene cluster which also contains the gene for l-malyl-CoA lyase, the subsequent enzyme in the pathway. Both enzymes were severalfold up-regulated under autotrophic conditions, which is in line with their proposed function in CO2 fixation. The two CoA transferase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and studied. Succinyl-CoA:l-malate CoA transferase forms a large (αβ)n complex consisting of 46- and 44-kDa subunits and catalyzes the reversible reaction succinyl-CoA + l-malate → succinate + l-malyl-CoA. It is specific for succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor but accepts l-citramalate instead of l-malate as the CoA acceptor; the corresponding d-stereoisomers are not accepted. The enzyme is a member of the class III of the CoA transferase family. The demonstration of the missing CoA transferase closes the last gap in the proposed 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. PMID:16547052

  12. High resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from a Mesophilic Eubacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Joerg; Schluenzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Bashan, Anat; Gat, Sharon; Agmon, Ilana; Bartels, Heike; Franceschi, Francois; Yonath, Ada

    2009-10-07

    We describe the high resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans (D50S), a gram-positive mesophile suitable for binding of antibiotics and functionally relevant ligands. The over-all structure of D50S is similar to that from the archae bacterium Haloarcula marismortui (H50S); however, a detailed comparison revealed significant differences, for example, in the orientation of nucleotides in peptidyl transferase center and in the structures of many ribosomal proteins. Analysis of ribosomal features involved in dynamic aspects of protein biosynthesis that are partially or fully disordered in H50S revealed the conformations of intersubunit bridges in unbound subunits, suggesting how they may change upon subunit association and how movements of the L1-stalk may facilitate the exit of tRNA.

  13. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  14. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The evidence is weaker for an association between elevated GGT activity and acute ischemic events and myocardial infarction. The risk for CVD or CVD-related mortality mediated by GGT may be explained by the close correlation of GGT with conventional CVD risk factors and various comorbidities, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol consumption, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. The finding of GGT activity in atherosclerotic plaques and correlation of intra-plaque GGT activity with histological indexes of plaque instability may suggest a participation of GGT in the pathophysiology of CVD, particularly atherosclerosis. However, whether GGT has a direct role in the pathophysiology of CVD or it is an epiphenomenon of coexisting CVD risk factors or comorbidities remains unknown and Hill’s criteria of causality relationship between GGT and CVD are not fulfilled. The exploration whether GGT provides prognostic information on top of the information provided by known cardiovascular risk factors regarding the CVD or CVD-related outcome and exploration of molecular mechanisms of GGT involvement in the pathophysiology of CVD and eventual use of interventions to reduce circulating GGT activity remain a duty of

  15. Alterations at the peptidyl transferase centre of the ribosome induced by the synergistic action of the streptogramins dalfopristin and quinupristin

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jörg M; Schlünzen, Frank; Fucini, Paola; Bartels, Heike; Yonath, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Background The bacterial ribosome is a primary target of several classes of antibiotics. Investigation of the structure of the ribosomal subunits in complex with different antibiotics can reveal the mode of inhibition of ribosomal protein synthesis. Analysis of the interactions between antibiotics and the ribosome permits investigation of the specific effect of modifications leading to antimicrobial resistances. Streptogramins are unique among the ribosome-targeting antibiotics because they consist of two components, streptogramins A and B, which act synergistically. Each compound alone exhibits a weak bacteriostatic activity, whereas the combination can act bactericidal. The streptogramins A display a prolonged activity that even persists after removal of the drug. However, the mode of activity of the streptogramins has not yet been fully elucidated, despite a plethora of biochemical and structural data. Results The investigation of the crystal structure of the 50S ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans in complex with the clinically relevant streptogramins quinupristin and dalfopristin reveals their unique inhibitory mechanism. Quinupristin, a streptogramin B compound, binds in the ribosomal exit tunnel in a similar manner and position as the macrolides, suggesting a similar inhibitory mechanism, namely blockage of the ribosomal tunnel. Dalfopristin, the corresponding streptogramin A compound, binds close to quinupristin directly within the peptidyl transferase centre affecting both A- and P-site occupation by tRNA molecules. Conclusions The crystal structure indicates that the synergistic effect derives from direct interaction between both compounds and shared contacts with a single nucleotide, A2062. Upon binding of the streptogramins, the peptidyl transferase centre undergoes a significant conformational transition, which leads to a stable, non-productive orientation of the universally conserved U2585. Mutations of this rRNA base are known to yield

  16. Family of glycosyl transferases needed for the synthesis of succinoglycan by Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Glucksmann, M A; Reuber, T L; Walker, G C

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium meliloti produces an acidic exopolysaccharide, termed succinoglycan or EPS I, that is important for invasion of the nodules that it elicits on its host, Medicago sativa. Succinoglycan is a high-molecular-weight polymer composed of repeating octasaccharide subunits. These subunits are synthesized on membrane-bound isoprenoid lipid carriers, beginning with a galactose residue followed by seven glucose residues, and modified by the addition of acetate, succinate, and pyruvate. Biochemical characterizations of lipid-linked succinoglycan biosynthetic intermediates from previously identified exo mutant strains have been carried out in our laboratory (T. L. Reuber and G. C. Walker, Cell 74:269-280, 1993) to determine where each mutation blocks the biosynthetic pathway. We have carried out a fine structure genetic analysis of a portion of the cluster of exo genes present on the second symbiotic megaplasmid of R. meliloti and have identified several new genes. In addition, the DNA sequence of 16 kb of the exo cluster was determined and the genetic map was correlated with the DNA sequence. In this paper we present the sequence of a family of glycosyl transferases required for the synthesis of succinoglycan and discuss their functions. PMID:8226645

  17. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:d-Citramalate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation. This cycle starts with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and produces glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is an unconventional cell carbon precursor that needs special enzymes for assimilation. Glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA to β-methylmalyl-CoA, which is converted to citramalate. Cell extracts catalyzed the succinyl-CoA-dependent conversion of citramalate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, the central cell carbon precursor. This reaction is due to the combined action of enzymes that were upregulated during autotrophic growth, a coenzyme A transferase with the use of succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor and a lyase cleaving citramalyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. Genomic analysis identified a gene coding for a putative coenzyme A transferase. The gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to code for succinyl-CoA:d-citramalate coenzyme A transferase. This enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction d-citramalate + succinyl-CoA → d-citramalyl-CoA + succinate, was purified and studied. It belongs to class III of the coenzyme A transferase enzyme family, with an aspartate residue in the active site. The homodimeric enzyme composed of 44-kDa subunits was specific for succinyl-CoA as a CoA donor but also accepted d-malate and itaconate instead of d-citramalate. The CoA transferase gene is part of a cluster of genes which are cotranscribed, including the gene for d-citramalyl-CoA lyase. It is proposed that the CoA transferase and the lyase catalyze the last two steps in the glyoxylate assimilation route. PMID:16952935

  18. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  19. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex.

    PubMed

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2014-11-11

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes.

  20. Degradation of aromatics and chloroaromatics by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13: purification and characterization of 3-oxoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) transferase and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase.

    PubMed

    Kaschabek, Stefan R; Kuhn, Bernd; Müller, Dagmar; Schmidt, Eberhard; Reineke, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of 3-oxoadipate in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 was investigated and was shown to proceed through 3-oxoadipyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to give acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. 3-Oxoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase of strain B13 was purified by heat treatment and chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and Superose 6 gels. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave a value of 115,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 12 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions resulted in two distinct bands of equal intensities. The subunit A and B values were 32,900 and 27,000 Da. Therefore it can be assumed that the enzyme is a heterotetramer of the type A2B2 with a molecular mass of 120,000 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both subunits are as follows: subunit A, AELLTLREAVERFVNDGTVALEGFTHLIPT; subunit B, SAYSTNEMMTVAAARRLKNGAVVFV. The pH optimum was 8.4. Km values were 0.4 and 0.2 mM for 3-oxoadipate and succinyl-CoA, respectively. Reversibility of the reaction with succinate was shown. The transferase of strain B13 failed to convert 2-chloro- and 2-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Some activity was observed with 4-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Even 2-oxoadipate and 3-oxoglutarate were shown to function as poor substrates of the transferase. 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, blue 3GA, and reactive brown-agarose. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave 162,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 6 column. The molecular mass of the subunit of the denatured protein, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 42 kDa. On the basis of these results, 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase should be a tetramer of the type A4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was determined to be SREVYI-DAVRTPIGRFG. The pH optimum was 7.8. Km values were 0.15 and 0.01 mM for 3-oxoadipyl-CoA and CoA, respectively. Sequence analysis of the thiolase terminus revealed high percentages of identity

  1. A Novel Method of Production and Biophysical Characterization of the Catalytic Domain of Yeast Oligosaccharyl Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Mohanty, Smita; Banerjee, Monimoy

    2010-01-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase (OT) is a multi-subunit enzyme that catalyzes N-linked glycosylation of nascent polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OT is composed of nine integral membrane protein subunits. Defects in N-linked glycosylation cause a series of disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). The C-terminal domain of Stt3p subunit has been reported to contain the acceptor protein recognition site and/or catalytic site. We report here the subcloning, overexpression, a robust but novel method of production of pure C-terminal domain of Stt3p at 60∼70 mg/L in E. coli. CD spectra indicate that the C-terminal Stt3p is highly helical and has a stable tertiary structure in SDS micelles. The well dispersed 2D {1H-15N}-HSQC spectrum in SDS micelles indicates that it is feasible to determine the atomic structure by NMR. The effect of the conserved D518E mutation on the conformation of the C-terminal Stt3p is particularly interesting. The comparative analysis of the fluorescence and NMR data of the mutant and the wild-type C-terminal domain of Stt3p revealed that the replacement of the key residue Asp518, which is located within the WWDYG signature motif (residues 516-520), led to a distinct tertiary structure, even though both proteins have similar overall secondary structures. This observation strongly suggests that Asp518, which was previously proposed to primarily function as a catalytic residue, also plays a critical structural role. Moreover, the activity of the protein was confirmed by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) and NMR titration studies. PMID:20047336

  2. Identification of a glutathione S-transferase associated with microsomes of tumor cells resistant to nitrogen mustards.

    PubMed

    Clapper, M L; Tew, K D

    1989-06-15

    Walker 256 rat mammary carcinoma cells resistant to chlorambucil (WR) exhibited an approximate 4-fold increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as compared to the sensitive parent cell line (WS). WR cells maintained without biannual exposure to chlorambucil (WRr) reverted to the sensitive phenotype and possessed GST levels equivalent to WS. Mitochondria, microsomes and cytosol were isolated from WS, WR and WRr cell lines and analyzed for their GST composition. GST activity in each subcellular compartment of resistant cells was increased over the sensitive cells. Antibodies raised against total rat liver cytosolic GST crossreacted in resistant cells with two microsomal proteins (25.7 kD and 29 kD). The 29 kD protein was not detected in microsomal fractions from either WS or WRr and this protein was found to be dissimilar from cytosolic GST subunits in its isoelectric point (pI 6.7) and migration on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. In addition, the 29 kD microsome-associated GST from WR cells was immunologically distinct from a 14 kD GST subunit previously identified in rat liver microsomes. These data implicate the induction of a specific microsomal GST subunit in WR cells following drug selection and suggest its potential involvement in the establishment of cellular resistance to chlorambucil.

  3. Late onset ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency in males.

    PubMed Central

    Drogari, E; Leonard, J V

    1988-01-01

    Six boys with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency presenting in infancy or later childhood are described. There was wide variation in both the time of presentation and the symptoms, which may initially suggest a neurological, behavioural, or gastroenterological problem. Two patients died, as did two male siblings who were probably affected, but with early recognition of the hyperammonaemia the outlook is good. PMID:3202644

  4. Histamine N-methyl transferase: inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, G M; Donatelli, P; Giuliani, L

    1992-01-01

    1. Histamine N-methyl transferase activity was measured in samples of human liver, brain, kidney, lung and intestinal mucosa. The mean (+/- s.d.) rate (nmol min-1 mg-1 protein) of histamine N-methylation was 1.78 +/- 0.59 (liver, n = 60), 1.15 +/- 0.38 (renal cortex, n = 8), 0.79 +/- 0.14 (renal medulla, n = 8), 0.35 +/- 0.08 (lung, n = 20), 0.47 +/- 0.18 (human intestine, n = 30) and 0.29 +/- 0.14 (brain, n = 13). 2. Inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase by 15 drugs was investigated in human liver. The IC50 for the various drugs ranged over three orders of magnitude; chloroquine was the most potent inhibitor. 3. The average IC50 values for chloroquine were 12.6, 22.0, 19.0, 21.6 microM in liver, renal cortex, brain and colon, respectively. These values are lower than the Michaelis-Menten constant for histamine N-methyltransferase in liver (43.8 microM) and kidney (45.5 microM). Chloroquine carried a mixed non-competitive inhibition of hepatic histamine N-methyl transferase. Some side-effects of chloroquine may be explained by inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase. PMID:1457266

  5. Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.

    2010-08-17

    A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

  6. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  7. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  8. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  9. A comparative study on liver ornithine carbamoyl transferase from a marine mammal Stenella and an elasmobranch Sphyrna zygaena.

    PubMed

    De Gregorio, A; Valentini, G; Bellocco, E; Desideri, A; Cuzzocrea, G

    1993-01-01

    1. Ornithine carbamoyl transferases from liver of the dolphin Stenella and the shark Sphyrna zygaena were purified to homogenity and compared for some kinetic and structural properties. 2. The two enzymes showed a specific activity of 211 and 115 respectively. 3. With respect to molecular weight, trimeric subunit structure and Km values, they were alike and similar to enzymes from other species. 4. Both enzymes were thermolable, but they were protected from thermal inactivation in a different way by ornithine and phosphate. 5. The two enzymes focused, respectively, at pH 8.6 and between pH 6.4 and 8.0, the former value being appreciably higher than those of enzymes from other species.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the...

  11. An indigenous posttranscriptional modification in the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center confers resistance to an array of protein synthesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Seok-Ming; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    A number of nucleotide residues in ribosomal RNA undergo specific posttranscriptional modification. The roles of most modifications are unclear, but their clustering in the functionally-important regions of rRNA suggest that they might either directly affect the activity or assembly of the ribosome or modulate its interactions with ligands. Of the 25 modified nucleotides in E. coli 23S rRNA, 14 are located in the peptidyl transferase center, the main antibiotic target in the large ribosomal subunit. Since nucleotide modifications have been closely associated with both antibiotic sensitivity and antibiotic resistance, the loss of some of these posttranscriptional modifications may affect the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. We investigated the antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli cells in which the genes of eight rRNA modifying enzymes targeting the PTC were individually inactivated. The lack of pseudouridine at position 2504 of 23S rRNA was found to significantly increase the susceptibility of bacteria to peptidyl transferase inhibitors. Therefore, this indigenous posttranscriptional modification may have evolved as an intrinsic resistance mechanism protecting bacteria against natural antibiotics. PMID:18554609

  12. Rotating proton pumping ATPases: subunit/subunit interactions and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Sekiya, Mizuki; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we discuss single molecule observation of rotational catalysis by E. coli ATP synthase (F-ATPase) using small gold beads. Studies involving a low viscous drag probe showed the stochastic properties of the enzyme in alternating catalytically active and inhibited states. The importance of subunit interaction between the rotor and the stator, and thermodynamics of the catalysis are also discussed. "Single Molecule Enzymology" is a new trend for understanding enzyme mechanisms in biochemistry and physiology.

  13. Purification and kinetic mechanism of the major glutathione S-transferase from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Young, P R; Briedis, A V

    1989-01-01

    The major glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme from bovine brain was isolated and purified approx. 500-fold. The enzyme has a pI of 7.39 +/- 0.02 and consists of two non-identical subunits having apparent Mr values of 22,000 and 24,000. The enzyme is uniformly distributed in brain, and kinetic data at pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate suggest a random rapid-equilibrium mechanism. The kinetics of inhibition by product, by GSH analogues and by NADH are consistent with the suggested mechanism and require inhibitor binding to several different enzyme forms. Long-chain fatty acids are excellent inhibitors of the enzyme, and values of 1nKi for hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid and lauric acid form a linear series when plotted as a function of alkyl chain length. A free-energy change of -1900 J/mol (-455 cal/mol) per CH2 unit is calculated for the contribution of hydrophobic binding energy to the inhibition constants. The turnover number of the purified enzyme dimer is approx. 3400/min. When compared with the second-order rate constant for the reaction between CDNB and GSH, the enzyme is providing a rate acceleration of about 1000-fold. The role of entropic contributions to this small rate acceleration is discussed. PMID:2930465

  14. Interaction of antimicrobial peptide with mycolyl transferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Devjani I; Gohil, Tejas P

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that about 40% of the Indian population are infected with tuberculosis (TB) and that ∼3,000,000 people die as a result of TB annually. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2011, the World Health Organization declared India as having the highest TB burden worldwide. An important criteria for pathogenicity is the presence of mycolic acid linked to the protective outer membrane of bacteria. Mycolyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of mycolic acid and promotes cell wall synthesis. This is also considered as a novel target for drug-mediated intervention strategies. Here, we have attempted to understand the interaction between the antimicrobial peptide (AMP), dermcidin, and mycolyl transferase in M. tuberculosis using a computational approach. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the capability of AMPs to treat this bacteria, which is less sensitive to available antibiotics, and to design a novel method for new therapies.

  15. Magnesium deficiency upregulates serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT 1 and SPT 2) in cardiovascular tissues: relationship to serum ionized Mg and cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T

    2010-09-01

    The present work tested the hypothesis that a short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would result in the upregulation of the two major subunits of serine palmitoyl-CoA-transferase, serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT 1) and SPT 2 (the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of ceramides) in left ventricular, right ventricular, and atrial heart muscle and abdominal aortic smooth muscle, as well as induce a reduction in serum sphingomyelin concomitant with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyto c) in these tissues. Our data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (MgD) resulted in an upregulation of SPT 1 and SPT 2, concomitant with a very significant release of Cyto c in left ventricular, right ventricular, atrial, and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. Short-term MgD also produced a lowering of serum sphingomyelin and ionized Mg. The greater the reduction in serum ionized Mg, the greater the upregulation of SPT 1 and 2 and the more the increase in free Cyto c. The data suggest that MgD, most likely, causes a biosynthesis of ceramides via two pathways in cardiovascular tissues, viz., via the activation of serine palmitoyl-CoA-transferase and sphingomyelinase, which lead to apoptotic events via intrinsic (present study) and extrinsic pathways (previous studies). Low levels of drinking water Mg were cardio- and vasculoprotective.

  16. Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 Activity Is Sufficient to Suppress Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiyoung; Kim, Song-Hee; Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Heuijong; Yim, Jeongbin

    2012-01-01

    A loss-of-function mutation in the gene parkin causes a common neurodegenerative disease that may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) is involved in cell defense mechanisms, but little is known about the role of GSTO in the progression of Parkinson disease. Here, we report that restoration of Drosophila GSTO1 (DmGSTO1), which is down-regulated in parkin mutants, alleviates some of the parkin pathogenic phenotypes and that the loss of DmGSTO1 function enhances parkin mutant phenotypes. We further identified the ATP synthase β subunit as a novel in vivo target of DmGSTO1. We found that glutathionylation of the ATP synthase β subunit is rescued by DmGSTO1 and that the expression of DmGSTO1 partially restores the activity and assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase in parkin mutants. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the protective role of DmGSTO1 in parkin mutants, through the regulation of ATP synthase activity, and provide insight into potential therapies for Parkinson disease neurodegeneration. PMID:22219196

  17. Molecular recognition at the dimer interface of a class mu glutathione transferase: role of a hydrophobic interaction motif in dimer stability and protein function.

    PubMed

    Hornby, Judith A T; Codreanu, Simona G; Armstrong, Richard N; Dirr, Heini W

    2002-12-03

    Cytosolic glutathione (GSH) transferases (GSTs) exist as stable homo- and heterodimers. Interactions at the subunit interface serve an important role in stabilizing the subunit tertiary structures of all GSH transferases. In addition, the dimer is required to maintain functional conformations at the active site on each subunit and the nonsubstrate ligand binding site at the dimer interface [Dirr, H. W. (2001) Chem.-Biol. Interact. 133, 19-23]. In this study, we report on the contribution of a specific intersubunit hydrophobic motif in rGSTM1-1 to dimer stability and protein function. The motif consists of the side chain of F56 from one subunit intercalated between helices 4 and 5 of the second subunit. Replacement of F56 with the hydrophilic side chains of serine, arginine, and glutamate results in a change in the structure of the active site, a marked diminution in catalytic efficiency, and alterations in the ability to bind nonsubstrate ligands. The mutations also affect the ability of the enzyme to bind GSH and the substrate analogue glutathione sulfonate. The functionality of rGSTM1-1 was disrupted to the greatest extent for the F56E mutant. Though mutations at this position do not alter the three-state equilibrium folding process for rGSTM1-1 (i.e., N(2) <--> 2I <--> 2U), destabilizing mutations at position 56 shift the equilibrium between the folded dimer (N(2)) and the monomeric intermediate (I) toward the latter conformational state. The transition to the unfolded state (U) is not significantly affected. The folded monomeric intermediate is also observed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The amount of the intermediate is dependent on protein concentration and the residue at position 56. Mutations at position 56 have little impact on the secondary structure and stability of the monomeric folding intermediate. The dimerization process is proposed to induce a conformational change in the loop containing F56, resulting in improved stability and

  18. Site-specific Arylation of Rat Glutathione S-Transferase A1 and A2 by Bromobenzene Metabolites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Yakov M.; Yue, Weimin; Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Williams, Todd D.; Hanzlik, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of bromobenzene (BB) derives from its reactive metabolites (epoxides and quinones) which arylate cellular proteins. Application of proteomic methods to liver proteins from rats treated with an hepatotoxic dose of [14C]-BB has identified more than 40 target proteins, but no adducted peptides have yet been observed. Because such proteins are known to contain bromophenyl- and bromodihydroxyphenyl derivatives of cysteine, histidine and lysine, the failure to observe modified peptides has been attributed to the low level of total covalent binding and to the “dilution” effect of multiple metabolites reacting at multiple sites on multiple proteins. In this work glutathione transferase, a well known and abundant BB-target protein, was isolated from liver cytosol of rats treated with 14C-BB using a GSH-agarose affinity column and further resolved by reverse phase HPLC into subunits M1, M2, A1, A2 and A3. The subunits were identified by a combination of SDS-PAGE, whole-molecule mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping and found to contain radioactivity corresponding to 0.01 - 0.05 adduct per molecule of protein. Examination of tryptic digests of these subunits by MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS again failed to reveal any apparent adducted peptides despite observed sequence coverages up to 87%. However, using HPLC-LTQ-FTMS to search for predicted modified tryptic peptides revealed peaks corresponding, with a high degree of mass accuracy, to a bromobenzoquinone adduct of peptide 89-119 in both GSTA1 and A2. The identity of these adducts and their location at Cys-111 was confirmed by MS-MS. No evidence for the presence of any putative BB-adducts in GST M1, M2 or A3 was obtained. This work highlights the challenges involved in the unambiguous identification of reactive metabolite adducts formed in vivo. PMID:17112229

  19. The Subunit Structure of Benzylsuccinate Synthase†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Patterson, Dustin P.; Fox, Christel C.; Lin, Brian; Coschigano, Peter W.; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2010-01-01

    Benzylsuccinate synthase is a member of the glycyl radical family of enzymes. It catalyzes the addition of toluene to fumarate to form benzylsuccinate as the first step in the anaerobic pathway of toluene fermentation. The enzyme comprises three subunits α, β and γ that in Thauera Aromatica T1 strain are encoded by the tutD, tutG and tutF genes respectively. The large α-subunit contains the essential glycine and cysteine residues that are conserved in all glycyl radical enzymes. However, the function of the small β- and γ-subunits has remained unclear. We have over-expressed all three subunits of benzylsuccinate synthase in E. coli, both individually and in combination. Co-expression of the γ-subunit (but not the β-subunit) is essential for efficient expression of the α-subunit. The benzylsuccinate synthase complex lacking the glycyl radical could be purified as an α2β2γ2 hexamer by nickel-affinity chromatography through a ‘His6’ affinity tag engineered onto the C-terminus of the α-subunit. Unexpectedly, BSS was found to contain two iron-sulfur clusters, one associated with the β-subunit and the other with the γ-subunit that appear to be necessary for the structural integrity of the complex. The spectroscopic properties of these clusters suggest that they are most likely [4Fe-4S] clusters. Removal of iron with chelating agents results in dissociation of the complex; similarly a mutant γ-subunit lacking the [4Fe-4S] cluster is unable to stabilize the α-subunit when the proteins are co-expressed. PMID:19159265

  20. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  4. Induction of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis by herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    DeRidder, Ben P; Dixon, David P; Beussman, Douglas J; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B

    2002-11-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds.

  5. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferases in Arabidopsis by Herbicide Safeners1

    PubMed Central

    DeRidder, Ben P.; Dixon, David P.; Beussman, Douglas J.; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds. PMID:12428014

  6. Biochemical Warfare on the Reef: The Role of Glutathione Transferases in Consumer Tolerance of Dietary Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Kristen E.; Lane, Amy L.; Kubanek, Julia; Hahn, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the profound variation among marine consumers in tolerance for allelochemically-rich foods, few studies have examined the biochemical adaptations underlying diet choice. Here we examine the role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in the detoxification of dietary allelochemicals in the digestive gland of the predatory gastropod Cyphoma gibbosum, a generalist consumer of gorgonian corals. Controlled laboratory feeding experiments were used to investigate the influence of gorgonian diet on Cyphoma GST activity and isoform expression. Gorgonian extracts and semi-purified fractions were also screened to identify inhibitors and possible substrates of Cyphoma GSTs. In addition, we investigated the inhibitory properties of prostaglandins (PGs) structurally similar to antipredatory PGs found in high concentrations in the Caribbean gorgonian Plexaura homomalla. Principal Findings Cyphoma GST subunit composition was invariant and activity was constitutively high regardless of gorgonian diet. Bioassay-guided fractionation of gorgonian extracts revealed that moderately hydrophobic fractions from all eight gorgonian species examined contained putative GST substrates/inhibitors. LC-MS and NMR spectral analysis of the most inhibitory fraction from P. homomalla subsequently identified prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) as the dominant component. A similar screening of commercially available prostaglandins in series A, E, and F revealed that those prostaglandins most abundant in gorgonian tissues (e.g., PGA2) were also the most potent inhibitors. In vivo estimates of PGA2 concentration in digestive gland tissues calculated from snail grazing rates revealed that Cyphoma GSTs would be saturated with respect to PGA2 and operating at or near physiological capacity. Significance The high, constitutive activity of Cyphoma GSTs is likely necessitated by the ubiquitous presence of GST substrates and/or inhibitors in this consumer's gorgonian diet. This generalist's GSTs may

  7. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  8. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nutricati, Eliana; Miceli, Antonio; Blando, Federica; De Bellis, Luigi

    2006-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family, divided on the basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The phi and tau classes are present only in plants. GSTs appear to be ubiquitous in plants and are involved in herbicide detoxification and stress response, but little is known about the precise role of GSTs in normal plant physiology and during biotic and abiotic stress response. Two cDNAs representing the two plant classes tau and phi, AtGSTF9 and AtGSTU26, were expressed in vitro and the corresponding proteins were analysed. Both GSTs were able to catalyse a glutathione conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but they were inactive as transferases towards p-nitrobenzylchloride (pNBC). AtGSTF9 showed activity towards benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and an activity as glutathione peroxidase with cumene hydroperoxide (CumHPO). AtGSTU26 was not active as glutathione peroxidase and towards BITC. RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of the two genes in response to treatment with herbicides and safeners, chemicals, low and high temperature. Our results reveal that AtGSTU26 is induced by the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor and the safener benoxacor, and after exposure to low temperatures. In contrast, AtGSTF9 seems not to be influenced by the treatments employed.

  9. Distinct contributions of MSL complex subunits to the transcriptional enhancement responsible for dosage compensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, David; Yokoyama, Ruth; Ling, Huiping; Sun, He-Ying; McGill, Kerry; Cugusi, Simona; Lucchesi, John C

    2012-12-01

    The regulatory mechanism of dosage compensation is the paramount example of epigenetic regulation at the chromosomal level. In Drosophila, this mechanism, designed to compensate for the difference in the dosage of X-linked genes between the sexes, depends on the MSL complex that enhances the transcription of the single dose of these genes in males. We have investigated the function of various subunits of the complex in mediating dosage compensation. Our results confirm that the highly enriched specific acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 of compensated genes by the histone acetyl transferase subunit MOF induces a more disorganized state of their chromatin. We have determined that the association of the MSL complex reduces the level of negative supercoiling of the deoxyribonucleic acid of compensated genes, and we have defined the role that the other subunits of the complex play in this topological modification. Lastly, we have analyzed the potential contribution of ISWI-containing remodeling complexes to the architecture of compensated chromatin, and we suggest a role for this remodeling factor in dosage compensation.

  10. Cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the spinach chloroplast ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofayel; Yin, Zhan; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. Deletions and insertions occur throughout the rRNA sequence of the chloro-ribosome (except for the conserved peptidyl transferase center region) but the overall length of the rRNAs do not change significantly, compared to the E. coli. Although, recent advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided detailed high-resolution structures of ribosomes from many different sources, a high-resolution structure of the chloro-ribosome is still lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the large subunit of the chloro-ribosome from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) at an average resolution of 3.5 Å. High-resolution map enabled us to localize and model chloro-ribosome proteins, chloroplast-specific protein extensions, two PSRPs (PSRP5 and 6) and three rRNA molecules present in the chloro-ribosome. Although comparable to E. coli, the polypeptide tunnel and the tunnel exit site show chloroplast-specific features. PMID:27762343

  11. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  12. Modelling and bioinformatics studies of the human Kappa-class glutathione transferase predict a novel third glutathione transferase family with similarity to prokaryotic 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylate isomerases.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anna; Huttley, Gavin A; Booth, Hilary S; Board, Philip G

    2004-01-01

    The Kappa class of GSTs (glutathione transferases) comprises soluble enzymes originally isolated from the mitochondrial matrix of rats. We have characterized a Kappa class cDNA from human breast. The cDNA is derived from a single gene comprising eight exons and seven introns located on chromosome 7q34-35. Recombinant hGSTK1-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a homodimer (subunit molecular mass approximately 25.5 kDa). Significant glutathione-conjugating activity was found only with the model substrate CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-ditnitrobenzene). Hyperbolic kinetics were obtained for GSH (parameters: K(m)app, 3.3+/-0.95 mM; V(max)app, 21.4+/-1.8 micromol/min per mg of enzyme), while sigmoidal kinetics were obtained for CDNB (parameters: S0.5app, 1.5+/-1.0 mM; V(max)app, 40.3+/-0.3 micromol/min per mg of enzyme; Hill coefficient, 1.3), reflecting low affinities for both substrates. Sequence analyses, homology modelling and secondary structure predictions show that hGSTK1 has (a) most similarity to bacterial HCCA (2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylate) isomerases and (b) a predicted C-terminal domain structure that is almost identical to that of bacterial disulphide-bond-forming DsbA oxidoreductase (root mean square deviation 0.5-0.6 A). The structures of hGSTK1 and HCCA isomerase are predicted to possess a thioredoxin fold with a polyhelical domain (alpha(x)) embedded between the beta-strands (betaalphabetaalpha(x)betabetaalpha, where the underlined elements represent the N and C motifs of the thioredoxin fold), as occurs in the bacterial disulphide-bond-forming oxidoreductases. This is in contrast with the cytosolic GSTs, where the helical domain occurs exclusively at the C-terminus (betaalphabetaalphabetabetaalphaalpha(x)). Although hGSTK1-1 catalyses some typical GST reactions, we propose that it is structurally distinct from other classes of cytosolic GSTs. The present study suggests that the Kappa class may have arisen in prokaryotes well before the divergence of the

  13. Caffeine junkie: an unprecedented glutathione S-transferase-dependent oxygenase required for caffeine degradation by Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Summers, Ryan M; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Quandt, Erik M; Yu, Chi Li; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Subramanian, Mani V

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine and other N-methylated xanthines are natural products found in many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it is not surprising that bacteria have evolved to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The caffeine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida CBB5 utilizes an unprecedented glutathione-S-transferase-dependent Rieske oxygenase for demethylation of 7-methylxanthine to xanthine, the final step in caffeine N-demethylation. The gene coding this function is unusual, in that the iron-sulfur and non-heme iron domains that compose the normally functional Rieske oxygenase (RO) are encoded by separate proteins. The non-heme iron domain is located in the monooxygenase, ndmC, while the Rieske [2Fe-2S] domain is fused to the RO reductase gene, ndmD. This fusion, however, does not interfere with the interaction of the reductase with N1- and N3-demethylase RO oxygenases, which are involved in the initial reactions of caffeine degradation. We demonstrate that the N7-demethylation reaction absolutely requires a unique, tightly bound protein complex composed of NdmC, NdmD, and NdmE, a novel glutathione-S-transferase (GST). NdmE is proposed to function as a noncatalytic subunit that serves a structural role in the complexation of the oxygenase (NdmC) and Rieske domains (NdmD). Genome analyses found this gene organization of a split RO and GST gene cluster to occur more broadly, implying a larger function for RO-GST protein partners.

  14. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  15. Succinyl-CoA:3-Sulfinopropionate CoA-Transferase from Variovorax paradoxus Strain TBEA6, a Novel Member of the Class III Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Family

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Marc; Hirsch, Beatrice; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Stöveken, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The act gene of Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 encodes a succinyl-CoA:3-sulfinopropionate coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase, ActTBEA6 (2.8.3.x), which catalyzes the activation of 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), an intermediate during 3,3′-thiodipropionate (TDP) degradation. In a previous study, accumulation of 3SP was observed in a Tn5::mob-induced mutant defective in growth on TDP. In contrast to the wild type and all other obtained mutants, this mutant showed no growth when 3SP was applied as the sole source of carbon and energy. The transposon Tn5::mob was inserted in a gene showing high homology to class III CoA-transferases. In the present study, analyses of the translation product clearly allocated ActTBEA6 to this protein family. The predicted secondary structure indicates the lack of a C-terminal α-helix. ActTBEA6 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Lemo21(DE3) and was then purified by Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity chromatography. Analytical size exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric structure with a molecular mass of 96 ± 3 kDa. Enzyme assays identified succinyl-CoA, itaconyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA as potential CoA donors and unequivocally verified the conversion of 3SP to 3SP-CoA. Kinetic studies revealed an apparent Vmax of 44.6 μmol min−1 mg−1 for succinyl-CoA, which corresponds to a turnover number of 36.0 s−1 per subunit of ActTBEA6. For 3SP, the apparent Vmax was determined as 46.8 μmol min−1 mg−1, which corresponds to a turnover number of 37.7 s−1 per subunit of ActTBEA6. The apparent Km values were 0.08 mM for succinyl-CoA and 5.9 mM for 3SP. Nonetheless, the V. paradoxus Δact mutant did not reproduce the phenotype of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant. This defined deletion mutant was able to utilize TDP or 3SP as the sole carbon source, like the wild type. Complementation of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant with pBBR1MCS5::acdDPN7 partially restored growth on 3SP, which indicated a polar effect of the Tn5::mob transposon

  16. Succinyl-CoA:3-sulfinopropionate CoA-transferase from Variovorax paradoxus strain TBEA6, a novel member of the class III coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase family.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Marc; Hirsch, Beatrice; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Stöveken, Nadine; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The act gene of Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 encodes a succinyl-CoA:3-sulfinopropionate coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase, Act(TBEA6) (2.8.3.x), which catalyzes the activation of 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), an intermediate during 3,3'-thiodipropionate (TDP) degradation. In a previous study, accumulation of 3SP was observed in a Tn5::mob-induced mutant defective in growth on TDP. In contrast to the wild type and all other obtained mutants, this mutant showed no growth when 3SP was applied as the sole source of carbon and energy. The transposon Tn5::mob was inserted in a gene showing high homology to class III CoA-transferases. In the present study, analyses of the translation product clearly allocated Act(TBEA6) to this protein family. The predicted secondary structure indicates the lack of a C-terminal α-helix. Act(TBEA6) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Lemo21(DE3) and was then purified by Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity chromatography. Analytical size exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric structure with a molecular mass of 96 ± 3 kDa. Enzyme assays identified succinyl-CoA, itaconyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA as potential CoA donors and unequivocally verified the conversion of 3SP to 3SP-CoA. Kinetic studies revealed an apparent V(max) of 44.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) for succinyl-CoA, which corresponds to a turnover number of 36.0 s(-1) per subunit of Act(TBEA6). For 3SP, the apparent V(max) was determined as 46.8 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), which corresponds to a turnover number of 37.7 s(-1) per subunit of Act(TBEA6). The apparent K(m) values were 0.08 mM for succinyl-CoA and 5.9 mM for 3SP. Nonetheless, the V. paradoxus Δact mutant did not reproduce the phenotype of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant. This defined deletion mutant was able to utilize TDP or 3SP as the sole carbon source, like the wild type. Complementation of the Tn5::mob-induced mutant with pBBR1MCS5::acdDPN7 partially restored growth on 3SP, which indicated a polar effect of the Tn5

  17. 1-3-A Resolution Structure of Human Glutathione S-Transferase With S-Hexyl Glutathione Bound Reveals Possible Extended Ligandin Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Trong, I.Le; Stenkamp, R.E.; Ibarra, C.; Atkins, W.M.; Adman, E.T.

    2005-08-22

    Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in xenobiotic binding and metabolism, as well as in modulation of oxidative stress. Here, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of homodimeric human GSTA1-1 in the apo form and in complex with S-hexyl glutathione (two data sets) are reported at 1.8, 1.5, and 1.3A respectively. At this level of resolution, distinct conformations of the alkyl chain of S-hexyl glutathione are observed, reflecting the nonspecific nature of the hydrophobic substrate binding site (H-site). Also, an extensive network of ordered water, including 75 discrete solvent molecules, traverses the open subunit-subunit interface and connects the glutathione binding sites in each subunit. In the highest-resolution structure, three glycerol moieties lie within this network and directly connect the amino termini of the glutathione molecules. A search for ligand binding sites with the docking program Molecular Operating Environment identified the ordered water network binding site, lined mainly with hydrophobic residues, suggesting an extended ligand binding surface for nonsubstrate ligands, the so-called ligandin site. Finally, detailed comparison of the structures reported here with previously published X-ray structures reveal a possible reaction coordinate for ligand-dependent conformational changes in the active site and the C-terminus.

  18. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. MOF Acetyl Transferase Regulates Transcription and Respiration in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aindrila; Seyfferth, Janine; Lucci, Jacopo; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Böttinger, Lena; Mårtensson, Christoph U; Panhale, Amol; Stehle, Thomas; Kretz, Oliver; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Avilov, Sergiy; Eimer, Stefan; Hein, Lutz; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-10-20

    A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF. Mof conditional knockout has catastrophic consequences for tissues with high-energy consumption, triggering hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure in murine hearts; cardiomyocytes show severe mitochondrial degeneration and deregulation of mitochondrial nutrient metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Thus, MOF is a dual-transcriptional regulator of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes connecting epigenetics and metabolism.

  20. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Part 2. Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-07-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the transferase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 285 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  1. Differential induction of the expression of GST subunits by geniposide in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong; Young, Shun-Chieh; Sun, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Yi-Jun; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2004-01-01

    Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and anticarcinogenesis. In this study, the mechanism of geniposide affecting the GST (glutathione S-transferase) system was investigated. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with geniposide and examined for total GST activity and expression of GST subunits. The results showed that the geniposide-induced GST activity was dose and time dependent. Western blotting data demonstrated that geniposide induced increased protein levels of GSTM1 and GSTM2 (approximately 1.7- and 1.8-fold of control, respectively), but did not increase those of GSTA1. The corresponding transcripts levels were confirmed by RT-PCR. Using PD98059, the effect of geniposide was verified to be via the MEK pathway. The results suggest that geniposide possesses a potential for detoxication by inducing GST activity via increasing the transcription of GSTM1 and GSTM2.

  2. Protein degradation corrects for imbalanced subunit stoichiometry in OST complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Susanne; Wahlander, Asa; Selevsek, Nathalie; Otto, Claudia; Ngwa, Elsy Mankah; Poljak, Kristina; Frey, Alexander D; Aebi, Markus; Gauss, Robert

    2015-07-15

    Protein degradation is essential for cellular homeostasis. We developed a sensitive approach to examining protein degradation rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by coupling a SILAC approach to selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Combined with genetic tools, this analysis made it possible to study the assembly of the oligosaccharyl transferase complex. The ER-associated degradation machinery compensated for disturbed homeostasis of complex components by degradation of subunits in excess. On a larger scale, protein degradation in the ER was found to be a minor factor in the regulation of protein homeostasis in exponentially growing cells, but ERAD became relevant when the gene dosage was affected, as demonstrated in heterozygous diploid cells. Hence the alleviation of fitness defects due to abnormal gene copy numbers might be an important function of protein degradation.

  3. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J.; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methionine oxidation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Oxidation can reduce the in-vivo half-life, efficacy and stability of the product. Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor the levels of oxidation, but this is a relatively time-consuming method. A high-throughput, automated subunit mass analysis method was developed to monitor antibody methionine oxidation. In this method, samples were treated with IdeS, EndoS and dithiothreitol to generate three individual IgG subunits (light chain, Fd’ and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit were quantitated based on the deconvoluted mass spectra using the UNIFI software. The oxidation results obtained by subunit mass analysis correlated well with the results obtained by peptide mapping. Method qualification demonstrated that this subunit method had excellent repeatability and intermediate precision. In addition, UNIFI software used in this application allows automated data acquisition and processing, which makes this method suitable for high-throughput process monitoring and product characterization. Finally, subunit mass analysis revealed the different patterns of Fc methionine oxidation induced by chemical and photo stress, which makes it attractive for investigating the root cause of oxidation. PMID:28106519

  4. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Methionine oxidation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Oxidation can reduce the in-vivo half-life, efficacy and stability of the product. Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor the levels of oxidation, but this is a relatively time-consuming method. A high-throughput, automated subunit mass analysis method was developed to monitor antibody methionine oxidation. In this method, samples were treated with IdeS, EndoS and dithiothreitol to generate three individual IgG subunits (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit were quantitated based on the deconvoluted mass spectra using the UNIFI software. The oxidation results obtained by subunit mass analysis correlated well with the results obtained by peptide mapping. Method qualification demonstrated that this subunit method had excellent repeatability and intermediate precision. In addition, UNIFI software used in this application allows automated data acquisition and processing, which makes this method suitable for high-throughput process monitoring and product characterization. Finally, subunit mass analysis revealed the different patterns of Fc methionine oxidation induced by chemical and photo stress, which makes it attractive for investigating the root cause of oxidation.

  5. Enhanced glutathione S-transferase expression in 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-resistant IEC-18 cells.

    PubMed

    Teubner, W; Fuchs, J I; Steinberg, P

    2007-05-01

    In the present study we show that repeated exposure of the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-18 to 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), from a toxicological point of view the most relevant phase-1 metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, the main heterocyclic aromatic amine present in processed meat), led to the selection of N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. This phenomenon was accompanied by a fivefold increase in total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, measured with the broad-spectrum substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. Furthermore, a Western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of GST subunits A1, A3, A4, M1 and P1 was enhanced in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells.

  6. Messenger RNA encoding a glutathione-S-transferase responsible for herbicide tolerance in maize is induced in response to safener treatment.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, R C; Shah, D M; Mozer, T J; Harding, E I; Diaz-Collier, J; Saunders, C; Jaworski, E G; Tiemeier, D C

    1986-07-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST's) in maize represent a family of enzymes which conjugate glutathione to several major classes of pre-emergent, selective herbicides. Chemicals termed safeners have been demonstrated to increase the tolerance of maize toward such herbicides when the maize seed has been previously treated with safeners. It has subsequently been shown that corresponding increases in glutathione-S-transferase species occur. To determine whether these compounds act at a transcriptional level we have used synthetic oligonucleotide probes to isolate cDNA clones encoding the major GST polypeptide subunit, designated GST A. The identity of the clones has been confirmed by hybrid-selected mRNA translation and immunoprecipitation using antibodies made against this GST species as well as by production of active GST in yeast cells transformed with an expression vector containing the cloned DNA. GST A has been found to be encoded in a mRNA of 1.1 kb. Sequencing of cDNA products obtained by primer extension of maize mRNA using our oligonucleotide probes is consistent with this mRNA corresponding to the isolated cDNA clone. Using the clone as a probe for Northern analysis we have found a three to four-fold increase in the steady state level of this mRNA in maize tissue grown from safener-treated seeds. The level of safener which gives this induction is comparable to that required to obtain herbicide tolerance in the field.

  7. Gene targeting of CK2 catalytic subunits

    PubMed Central

    Lou, David Y.; Toselli, Paul; Landesman-Bollag, Esther; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a highly conserved and ubiquitous serine–threonine kinase. It is a tetrameric enzyme that is made up of two regulatory CK2β subunits and two catalytic subunits, either CK2α/CK2α, CK2α/ CK2α′, or CK2α′/CK2α′. Although the two catalytic subunits diverge in their C termini, their enzymatic activities are similar. To identify the specific function of the two catalytic subunits in development, we have deleted them individually from the mouse genome by homologous recombination. We have previously reported that CK2α′is essential for male germ cell development, and we now demonstrate that CK2α has an essential role in embryogenesis, as mice lacking CK2α die in mid-embryogenesis, with cardiac and neural tube defects. PMID:18594950

  8. Anthranilate synthase subunit organization in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Carminatti, C A; Oliveira, I L; Recouvreux, D O S; Antônio, R V; Porto, L M

    2008-09-16

    Tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid used for protein synthesis and cellular growth. Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 uses two tryptophan molecules to synthesize violacein, a secondary metabolite of pharmacological interest. The genome analysis of this bacterium revealed that the genes trpA-F and pabA-B encode the enzymes of the tryptophan pathway in which the first reaction is the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase (AS), an enzyme complex. In the present study, the organization and structure of AS protein subunits from C. violaceum were analyzed using bioinformatics tools available on the Web. We showed by calculating molecular masses that AS in C. violaceum is composed of alpha (TrpE) and beta (PabA) subunits. This is in agreement with values determined experimentally. Catalytic and regulatory sites of the AS subunits were identified. The TrpE and PabA subunits contribute to the catalytic site while the TrpE subunit is involved in the allosteric site. Protein models for the TrpE and PabA subunits were built by restraint-based homology modeling using AS enzyme, chains A and B, from Salmonella typhimurium (PDB ID 1I1Q).

  9. Crystal structure of E. coli lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guotao; Zhao, Yan; Kang, Xusheng; Li, Zhijie; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Fei; Sankaran, Krishnan; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoprotein biogenesis is essential for bacterial survival. Phosphatidylglycerol:prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the three-step post-translational lipid modification. Deletion of the lgt gene is lethal to most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the crystal structures of Escherichia coli Lgt in complex with phosphatidylglycerol and the inhibitor palmitic acid at 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the presence of two binding sites and support the previously reported structure-function relationships of Lgt. Complementation results of lgt-knockout cells with different mutant Lgt variants revealed critical residues, including Arg143 and Arg239, that are essential for diacylglyceryl transfer. Using a GFP-based in vitro assay, we correlated the activities of Lgt with structural observations. Together, the structural and biochemical data support a mechanism whereby substrate and product, lipid-modified lipobox-containing peptide, enter and leave the enzyme laterally relative to the lipid bilayer.

  10. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Marimo, Patience; Hayeshi, Rose; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1) was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA) was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs. PMID:26925266

  11. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Céspedes, Walkiria; Xamena, Noel; Surrallés, Jordi; Creus, Amadeu; Galofré, Pere; Marcos, Ricardo

    2003-02-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and mutagens, also acting as important free-radical scavengers. The existence of different genetic polymorphisms in human populations has proven to be a susceptibility factor for different tumours. Nevertheless, as far as we know, for thyroid cancer no study has been conducted until now linking its incidence to genetic susceptibility biomarkers. The present investigation has been conducted to detect the possible association between polymorphism at the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes and thyroid cancer incidence. Thus, 134 thyroid cancer patients and 116 controls, all from the urban district of Barcelona (Spain), have been included in this study. The results indicate that, according to the calculated odds ratio, the frequencies of the different genotypes found in the group of cancer patients do not significantly differ from those values obtained in the controls. This is true for the overall data as well as for the tumour characterization as follicular and papillar types. In addition, none of the possible combinations of mutant genotypes were shown to be risk factors. Finally, when the sex of the patients, the age of tumour onset, and life-style habits were also taken into account, no influence was observed related to the different genotypes. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study clearly suggest that those susceptibility factors related to the different GST polymorphic enzymes are not a predisposing factor in thyroid cancer disease.

  12. Cloning and characterization of GST fusion tag stabilized large subunit of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Ji-Yu; Gao, Wen-Yun

    2016-01-01

    There are three acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) isozymes (I, II, and III) in the enterobacteria Escherichia coli among which AHAS I is the most active. Its large subunit (LSU) possesses full catalytic machinery, but is unstable in the absence of the small subunit (SSU). To get applicable LSU of AHAS I, we prepared and characterized in this study the polypeptide as a His-tagged (His-LSU) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged (GST-LSU) fusion protein, respectively. The results showed that the His-LSU is unstable, whereas the GST-LSU displays excellent stability. This phenomenon suggests that the GST polypeptide fusion tag could stabilize the target protein when compared with histidine tag. It is the first time that the stabilizing effect of the GST tag was observed. Further characterization of the GST-LSU protein indicated that it possesses the basic functions of AHAS I with a specific activity of 20.8 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and a Km value for pyruvate of 0.95 mM. These observations imply that introduction of the GST fusion tag to LSU of AHAS I does not affect the function of the protein. The possible reasons that the GST fusion tag could make the LSU stable are initially discussed.

  13. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  14. Drosophila laminin: sequence of B2 subunit and expression of all three subunits during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study, we described the cloning of the genes encoding the three subunits of Drosophila laminin, a substrate adhesion molecule, and the cDNA sequence of the B1 subunit (Montell and Goodman, 1988). This analysis revealed the similarity of Drosophila laminin with the mouse and human complexes in subunit composition, domain structure, and amino acid sequence. In this paper, we report the deduced amino acid sequence of the B2 subunit. We then describe the expression and tissue distribution of the three subunits of laminin during Drosophila embryogenesis using both in situ hybridization and immunolocalization techniques, with particular emphasis on its expression in and around the developing nervous system. PMID:2808533

  15. Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Toh, Yukimatsu; Suto, Kyoko; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi; Tomita, Kozo

    2007-10-18

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase (LF-transferase) catalyses peptide-bond formation by using Leu-tRNA(Leu) (or Phe-tRNA(Phe)) and an amino-terminal Arg (or Lys) of a protein, as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. However, the catalytic mechanism of peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase remained obscure. Here we determine the structures of complexes of LF-transferase and phenylalanyl adenosine, with and without a short peptide bearing an N-terminal Arg. Combining the two separate structures into one structure as well as mutation studies reveal the mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase. The electron relay from Asp 186 to Gln 188 helps Gln 188 to attract a proton from the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Arg of the acceptor peptide. This generates the attacking nucleophile for the carbonyl carbon of the aminoacyl bond of the aminoacyl-tRNA, thus facilitating peptide-bond formation. The protein-based mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase is similar to the reverse reaction of the acylation step observed in the peptide hydrolysis reaction by serine proteases.

  16. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3′ aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNALeu (anticodon 5′-CAG-3′) isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNALeu (CAG)—a G3:C70 base pair and a set of 4 nt (C72, A4:U69, C68)—that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed. PMID:24935875

  17. Molecular characterization of a glutathione transferase from Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. To date, studies on GSTs in higher plants have focused largely on agricultural plants. In contrast, there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of GSTs in gymnosperms. The present study reports for the first time the cloning, expression and characteristics of a GST gene (PtGSTU1) from a pine, Pinus tabulaeformis, which is widely distributed from northern to central China covering cold temperate and drought regions. The PtGSTU1 gene encodes a protein of 228 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 26.37 kDa. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that PtGSTU1 was expressed in different tissues, both above and below ground, of P. tabulaeformis. The over-expressed recombinant PtGSTU1 showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate revealed a Km of 0.47 mM and Vmax of 169.1 micromol/min per mg of protein. The recombinant PtGSTU1 retained more than 60% of its maximum enzymatic activity from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C with a broad optimum Tm range of 25 degrees C - 35 degrees C. The enzyme had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5 - 9.0. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Ser13 in the N-terminal domain is a critical catalytic residue, responsible for stabilisation of the thiolate anion of enzyme-bound glutathione. Based on comparative analyses of its amino acid sequence, phylogeny and predicted three-dimensional structure, the PtGSTU1 should be classified as a tau class GST.

  18. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  19. Thermodynamics of the ligandin function of human class Alpha glutathione transferase A1-1: energetics of organic anion ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Yasien; Hornby, Judith A T; Lopez, Marimar; Dirr, Heini

    2002-01-01

    In addition to their catalytic functions, cytosolic glutathioneS-transferases (GSTs) are a major reserve of high-capacity binding proteins for a large variety of physiological and exogenous non-substrate compounds. This ligandin function has implicated GSTs in numerous ligand-uptake, -transport and -storage processes. The binding of non-substrate ligands to GSTs can inhibit catalysis. In the present study, the energetics of the binding of the non-substrate ligand 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonate (ANS) to wild-type human class Alpha GST with two type-1 subunits (hGSTA1-1) and its DeltaPhe-222 deletion mutant were studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. The stoichiometry of binding to both proteins is one ANS molecule per GST subunit with a greater affinity for the wild-type (K(d)=65 microM) than for the DeltaPhe-222 mutant (K(d)=105 microM). ANS binding to the wild-type protein is enthalpically driven and it is characterized by a large negative heat-capacity change, DeltaC(p). The negative DeltaC(p) value for ANS binding indicates a specific interface with a significant hydrophobic component in the protein-ligand complex. The negatively charged sulphonate group of the anionic ligand is apparently not a major determinant of its binding. Phe-222 contributes to the binding affinity for ANS and the hydrophobicity of the binding site. PMID:11931663

  20. Random mutagenesis of yeast 25S rRNA identify bases critical for 60S subunit structural integrity and function

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Naoki; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Chowdhury, Wasimul; Kitabatake, Makoto; Shin, Byung-shik; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Wang, Suzhi; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Brown, Susan J.; Ohno, Mutsuhito; Asano, Katsura

    2013-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 25S rRNA makes up the major mass and shape of the 60S ribosomal subunit. During translation initiation, the 60S subunit joins the 40S initiation complex, producing the 80S initiation complex. During elongation, the 60S subunit binds the CCA-ends of aminoacyl- and peptidyl-tRNAs at the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, transferring the peptide onto the α-amino group of the aminoacyl-tRNA. To study the role of 25S rRNA in translation in vivo, we randomly mutated 25S rRNA and isolated and characterized seven point mutations that affected yeast cell growth and polysome profiles. Four of these mutations, G651A, A1435U, A1446G and A1587G, change a base involved in base triples crucial for structural integrity. Three other mutations change bases near the ribosomal surface: C2879U and U2408C alter the A-loop and P-loop, respectively, and G1735A maps near a Eukarya-specific bridge to the 40S subunit. By polysome profiling in mmslΔ mutants defective in nonfunctional 25S rRNA decay, we show that some of these mutations are defective in both the initiation and elongation phases of translation. Of the mutants characterized, C2879U displays the strongest defect in translation initiation. The ribosome transit-time assay directly shows that this mutation is also defective in peptide elongation/termination. Thus, our genetic analysis not only identifies bases critical for structural integrity of the 60S subunit, but also suggests a role for bases near the peptidyl transferase center in translation initiation. PMID:26824023

  1. Diversity of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew K; Sattelle, David B

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets of a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. They consist of five subunits arranged around a central ion channeL Since the subunit composition determines the functional and pharmacological properties of the receptor the presence of nAChR families comprising several subunit-encodinggenes provides a molecular basis for broad functional diversity. Analyses of genome sequences have shown that nAChR gene families remain compact in diverse insect species, when compared to their nematode andvertebrate counterparts. Thus, the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), honey bee (Apis mellifera), silk worm (Bombyx mon) and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) possess 10-12 nAChR genes while human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have 16 and 29 respectively. Although insect nAChRgene families are amongst the smallest known, receptor diversity can be considerably increased by the posttranscriptional processes alternative splicing and mRNA A-to-I editingwhich can potentially generate protein products which far outnumber the nAChR genes. These two processes can also generate species-specific subunit isoforms. In addition, each insect possesses at least one highly divergent nAChR subunit which may perform species-specific functions. Species-specific subunit diversification may offer promising targets for future rational design of insecticides that target specific pest insects while sparing beneficial species.

  2. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  3. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  4. Subunit Recombinant Vaccine Protects Against Monkeypox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-27

    Subunit Recombinant Vaccine Protects against Monkeypox1 Jean-Michel Heraud,* Yvette Edghill-Smith,*† Victor Ayala,‡ Irene Kalisz,‡ Janie Parrino ...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Heraud, JM Edghill-Smith, Y Ayala, V Kalisz, I Parrino , J Kalyanaraman, VS Manischewitz, J King

  5. Subunit-selective proteasome activity profiling uncovers uncoupled proteasome subunit activities during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Grosse-Holz, Friederike; Bach-Pages, Marcel; Kovács, Judit; Kaschani, Farnusch; Schilasky, Sören; Emon, Asif Emran Khan; Ruben, Mark; Kaiser, Markus; Overkleeft, Hermen S; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-24

    The proteasome is a nuclear - cytoplasmic proteolytic complex involved in nearly all regulatory pathways in plant cells. The three different catalytic activities of the proteasome can have different functions but tools to monitor and control these subunits selectively are not yet available in plant science. Here, we introduce subunit-selective inhibitors and dual-color fluorescent activity-based probes for studying two of the three active catalytic subunits of the plant proteasome. We validate these tools in two model plants and use this to study the proteasome during plant-microbe interactions. Our data reveals that Nicotiana benthamiana incorporates two different paralogs of each catalytic subunit into active proteasomes. Interestingly, both β1 and β5 activities are significantly increased upon infection with pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 lacking hopQ1-1 (PtoDC3000(ΔhQ)) whilst the activity profile of the β1 subunit changes. Infection with wild-type PtoDC3000 causes proteasome activities that range from strongly induced β1 and β5 activities to strongly suppressed β5 activities, revealing that β1 and β5 activities can be uncoupled during bacterial infection. These selective probes and inhibitors are now available to the plant science community and can be widely and easily applied to study the activity and role of the different catalytic subunits of the proteasome in different plant species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Egner, Patricia A.; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  7. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Benedict, C R

    1984-08-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [(14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [(14)C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant.The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg(2+) for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia.

  8. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) 1

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, S.; Benedict, Chauncey R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [14C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant. The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg2+ for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

  9. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  10. The Making of a Sweet Modification: Structure and Function of O-GlcNAc Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Janetzko, John; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase is an essential mammalian enzyme responsible for transferring a single GlcNAc moiety from UDP-GlcNAc to specific serine/threonine residues of hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. This modification is dynamic and has been implicated in numerous signaling pathways. An unexpected second function for O-GlcNAc transferase as a protease involved in cleaving the epigenetic regulator HCF-1 has also been reported. Recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insight into the mechanism of glycosylation and HCF-1 cleavage will be described, with outstanding questions highlighted. PMID:25336649

  11. Mapping of amino acid substitutions conferring herbicide resistance in wheat glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Mannervik, Bengt; Silverman, Joshua A; Wright, Kathy; Regitsky, Drew; Hegazy, Usama; Purcell, Thomas J; Welch, Mark; Minshull, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Claes

    2015-03-20

    We have used design of experiments (DOE) and systematic variance to efficiently explore glutathione transferase substrate specificities caused by amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions selected using phylogenetic analysis were synthetically combined using a DOE design to create an information-rich set of gene variants, termed infologs. We used machine learning to identify and quantify protein sequence-function relationships against 14 different substrates. The resulting models were quantitative and predictive, serving as a guide for engineering of glutathione transferase activity toward a diverse set of herbicides. Predictive quantitative models like those presented here have broad applicability for bioengineering.

  12. Subunit organization in cytoplasmic dynein subcomplexes

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen J.; Bonilla, Myriam; Rodgers, Michael E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    2002-01-01

    Because cytoplasmic dynein plays numerous critical roles in eukaryotic cells, determining the subunit composition and the organization and functions of the subunits within dynein are important goals. This has been difficult partly because of accessory polypeptide heterogeneity of dynein populations. The motor domain containing heavy chains of cytoplasmic dynein are associated with multiple intermediate, light intermediate, and light chain accessory polypeptides. We examined the organization of these subunits within cytoplasmic dynein by separating the molecule into two distinct subcomplexes. These subcomplexes were competent to reassemble into a molecule with dynein-like properties. One subcomplex was composed of the dynein heavy and light intermediate chains whereas the other subcomplex was composed of the intermediate and light chains. The intermediate and light chain subcomplex could be further separated into two pools, only one of which contained dynein light chains. The two pools had distinct intermediate chain compositions, suggesting that intermediate chain isoforms have different light chain–binding properties. When the two intermediate chain pools were characterized by analytical velocity sedimentation, at least four molecular components were seen: intermediate chain monomers, intermediate chain dimers, intermediate chain monomers with bound light chains, and a mixture of intermediate chain dimers with assorted bound light chains. These data provide new insights into the compositional heterogeneity and assembly of the cytoplasmic dynein complex and suggest that individual dynein molecules have distinct molecular compositions in vivo. PMID:11967380

  13. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes for producing the A and B subunits of cholera toxin and preparations containing so-obtained subunit or subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Harford, N.; De Wilde, M.

    1987-05-19

    A recombinant DNA molecule is described comprising at least a portion coding for subunits A and B of cholera toxin, or a fragment or derivative of the portion wherein the fragment or derivative codes for a polypeptide have an activity which can induce an immune response to subunit A; can induce an immune response to subunit A and cause epithelial cell penetration and the enzymatic effect leading to net loss of fluid into the gut lumen; can bind to the membrane receptor for the B subunit of cholera toxin; can induce an immune response to subunit B; can induce an immune response to subunit B and bind to the membrane receptor; or has a combination of the activities.

  14. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  15. Differential accumulation of ribonucleotide reductase subunits in clam oocytes: the large subunit is stored as a polypeptide, the small subunit as untranslated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Within minutes of fertilization of clam oocytes, translation of a set of maternal mRNAs is activated. One of the most abundant of these stored mRNAs encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (Standart, N. M., S. J. Bray, E. L. George, T. Hunt, and J. V. Ruderman, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1968-1976). Unfertilized oocytes do not contain any ribonucleotide reductase activity; such activity begins to appear shortly after fertilization. In virtually all organisms, this enzyme is composed of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of approximately 44 and 88 kD, both of which are required for activity. This paper reports the identification of the large subunit of clam ribonucleotide reductase isolated by dATP-Sepharose chromatography as a relatively abundant 86-kD polypeptide which is already present in oocytes, and whose level remains constant during early development. The enzyme activity of this large subunit was established in reconstitution assays using the small subunit isolated from embryos by virtue of its binding to the anti-tubulin antibody YL 1/2. Thus the two components of clam ribonucleotide reductase are differentially stored in the oocyte: the small subunit in the form of untranslated mRNA and the large subunit as protein. When fertilization triggers the activation of translation of the maternal mRNA, the newly synthesized small subunit combines with the preformed large subunit to generate active ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:3536960

  16. Prefoldin Subunits Are Protected from Ubiquitin-Proteasome System-mediated Degradation by Forming Complex with Other Constituent Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Makoto; Tashiro, Erika; Kitaura, Hirotake; Maita, Hiroshi; Suto, Hiroo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The molecular chaperone prefoldin (PFD) is a complex comprised of six different subunits, PFD1-PFD6, and delivers newly synthesized unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT to facilitate the folding of proteins. PFD subunits also have functions different from the function of the PFD complex. We previously identified MM-1α/PFD5 as a novel c-Myc-binding protein and found that MM-1α suppresses transformation activity of c-Myc. However, it remains unclear how cells regulate protein levels of individual subunits and what mechanisms alter the ratio of their activities between subunits and their complex. In this study, we found that knockdown of one subunit decreased protein levels of other subunits and that transfection of five subunits other than MM-1α into cells increased the level of endogenous MM-1α. We also found that treatment of cells with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, increased the level of transfected/overexpressed MM-1α but not that of endogenous MM-1α, indicating that overexpressed MM-1α, but not endogenous MM-1α, was degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Experiments using other PFD subunits showed that the UPS degraded a monomer of PFD subunits, though extents of degradation varied among subunits. Furthermore, the level of one subunit was increased after co-transfection with the respective subunit, indicating that there are specific combinations between subunits to be stabilized. These results suggest mutual regulation of protein levels among PFD subunits and show how individual subunits form the PFD complex without degradation. PMID:21478150

  17. Prefoldin subunits are protected from ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation by forming complex with other constituent subunits.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Makoto; Tashiro, Erika; Kitaura, Hirotake; Maita, Hiroshi; Suto, Hiroo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2011-06-03

    The molecular chaperone prefoldin (PFD) is a complex comprised of six different subunits, PFD1-PFD6, and delivers newly synthesized unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT to facilitate the folding of proteins. PFD subunits also have functions different from the function of the PFD complex. We previously identified MM-1α/PFD5 as a novel c-Myc-binding protein and found that MM-1α suppresses transformation activity of c-Myc. However, it remains unclear how cells regulate protein levels of individual subunits and what mechanisms alter the ratio of their activities between subunits and their complex. In this study, we found that knockdown of one subunit decreased protein levels of other subunits and that transfection of five subunits other than MM-1α into cells increased the level of endogenous MM-1α. We also found that treatment of cells with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, increased the level of transfected/overexpressed MM-1α but not that of endogenous MM-1α, indicating that overexpressed MM-1α, but not endogenous MM-1α, was degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Experiments using other PFD subunits showed that the UPS degraded a monomer of PFD subunits, though extents of degradation varied among subunits. Furthermore, the level of one subunit was increased after co-transfection with the respective subunit, indicating that there are specific combinations between subunits to be stabilized. These results suggest mutual regulation of protein levels among PFD subunits and show how individual subunits form the PFD complex without degradation.

  18. Association study of polymorphisms in the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and catechol-o-methyl transferase genes with sensory gating in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Hong, Xiaohong; Chan, Raymond C K; Kong, Fanzhi; Peng, Zhizhen; Wan, Xiaona; Wang, Changqing; Cheng, Lu

    2013-10-30

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the association of auditory P50 sensory gating (P50) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of schizophrenia with polymorphisms in the CHRNA7 and COMT genes. One hundred and fourty patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. They were administered the tests P50 and PPI. Moreover, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2337980, rs1909884 and rs883473) in CHRNA7 and three SNPs (rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599) in COMT were selected to be genotyped by polyacrylamide gel microarray techniques. P50 index showed significant reduction in S2 amplitude between wild-type and mutation groups in the COMT rs4680. S1 amplitude of mutation group in the COMT rs737865 was also lower compared to wild-type group. PPI index revealed a shorter pulse latency of mutation group in the rs4680. The suppression ratio of mutation group was lower in COMT rs165599. Negative findings were shown between comparisons in all the CHRNA7 SNPs. We find that P50 and PPI may be influenced by COMT rs4680 polymorphisms in schizophrenia; more excitingly, we find that P50 might be influenced by COMT rs737865 polymorphisms and PPI may be influenced by COMT rs165599 polymorphisms in schizophrenia, and their mutations are associated with the reduction of the risk of P50 or PPI defects in schizophrenia. Futher studies with a larger number of subjects are needed to verify the present findings.

  19. Inherent conformational flexibility of F1-ATPase α-subunit.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Herrera, Otto; Salcedo, Guillermo; Barril, Xavier; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The core of F1-ATPase consists of three catalytic (β) and three noncatalytic (α) subunits, forming a hexameric ring in alternating positions. A wealth of experimental and theoretical data has provided a detailed picture of the complex role played by catalytic subunits. Although major conformational changes have only been seen in β-subunits, it is clear that α-subunits have to respond to these changes in order to be able to transmit information during the rotary mechanism. However, the conformational behavior of α-subunits has not been explored in detail. Here, we have combined unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calorimetrically measured thermodynamic signatures to investigate the conformational flexibility of isolated α-subunits, as a step toward deepening our understanding of its function inside the α3β3 ring. The simulations indicate that the open-to-closed conformational transition of the α-subunit is essentially barrierless, which is ideal to accompany and transmit the movement of the catalytic subunits. Calorimetric measurements of the recombinant α-subunit from Geobacillus kaustophilus indicate that the isolated subunit undergoes no significant conformational changes upon nucleotide binding. Simulations confirm that the nucleotide-free and nucleotide-bound subunits show average conformations similar to that observed in the F1 crystal structure, but they reveal an increased conformational flexibility of the isolated α-subunit upon MgATP binding, which might explain the evolutionary conserved capacity of α-subunits to recognize nucleotides with considerable strength. Furthermore, we elucidate the different dependencies that α- and β-subunits show on Mg(II) for recognizing ATP.

  20. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C.; Attwood, Paul V.; Cleland, W. Wallace

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mutations in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of R. etli pyruvate carboxylase have been determined for the forward reaction to form oxaloacetate, the reverse reaction to form MgATP, the oxamate-induced decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate and the bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reaction. Additional studies with these mutants examined the effect of pyruvate and oxamate on the reactions of the biotin carboxylase domain. From these mutagenic studies, putative roles for catalytically relevant active site residues were assigned and a more accurate description of the mechanism of the carboxyl transferase domain is presented. The T882A mutant showed no catalytic activity for reactions involving the carboxyl transferase domain, but surprisingly showed a 7- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, as compared to the wild-type enzyme, for the ADP phosphorylation and bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reactions, respectively. Furthermore, the partial inhibition of the T882A catalyzed BC domain reactions by oxamate and pyruvate further supports the critical role of Thr882 in the proton transfer between biotin and pyruvate in the carboxyl transferase domain. The catalytic mechanism appears to involve the decarboxylation of carboxybiotin and proton removal from Thr882 by the resulting biotin enolate with either a concerted or subsequent transfer of a proton from pyruvate to Thr882. The resulting enolpyruvate then reacts with CO2 to form oxaloacetate and complete the reaction. PMID:19341298

  1. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  2. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  6. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs), is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp. PMID:28357217

  7. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  8. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  9. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.130 Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II. The...) which catalyzes the phosphorylation of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics, including kanamycin,...

  10. Maize white seedling 3 results from disruption of homogentisate solanesyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show here that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This re...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. A specific tryptophan in the I-II linker is a key determinant of beta-subunit binding and modulation in Ca(V)2.3 calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Berrou, L; Klein, H; Bernatchez, G; Parent, L

    2002-01-01

    The ancillary beta subunits modulate the activation and inactivation properties of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels in an isoform-specific manner. The beta subunits bind to a high-affinity interaction site, alpha-interaction domain (AID), located in the I-II linker of HVA alpha1 subunits. Nine residues in the AID motif are absolutely conserved in all HVA channels (QQxExxLxGYxxWIxxxE), but their contribution to beta-subunit binding and modulation remains to be established in Ca(V)2.3. Mutations of W386 to either A, G, Q, R, E, F, or Y in Ca(V)2.3 disrupted [(35)S]beta3-subunit overlay binding to glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the mutated I-II linker, whereas mutations (single or multiple) of nonconserved residues did not affect the protein-protein interaction with beta3. The tryptophan residue at position 386 appears to be an essential determinant as substitutions with hydrophobic (A and G), hydrophilic (Q, R, and E), or aromatic (F and Y) residues yielded the same results. beta-Subunit modulation of W386 (A, G, Q, R, E, F, and Y) and Y383 (A and S) mutants was investigated after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. All mutant channels expressed large inward Ba(2+) currents with typical current-voltage properties. Nonetheless, the typical hallmarks of beta-subunit modulation, namely the increase in peak currents, the hyperpolarization of peak voltages, and the modulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation, were eliminated in all W386 mutants, although they were preserved in part in Y383 (A and S) mutants. Altogether these results suggest that W386 is critical for beta-subunit binding and modulation of HVA Ca(2+) channels. PMID:12202369

  2. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  3. Amino-terminal truncations of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit influence catalysis and subunit interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, K; Morell, M K; Andrews, T J

    1993-01-01

    The first 20 residues at the amino terminus of the small subunit of spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase form an irregular arm that makes extensive contacts with the large subunit and also with another small subunit (S. Knight, I. Andersson, and C.-I. Brändén [1990] J Mol Biol 215: 113-160). The influence of these contacts on subunit binding and, indirectly, on catalysis was investigated by constructing truncations from the amino terminus of the small subunit of the highly homologous enzyme from Synechococcus PCC 6301 expressed in Escherichia coli. Removal of the first six residues (and thus the region of contact with a neighboring small subunit) affected neither the affinity with which the small subunits bound to the large subunits nor the catalytic properties of the assembled holoenzyme. Extending the truncation to include the first 12 residues (which encroaches into a highly conserved region that interacts with the large subunit) also did not weaken intersubunit binding appreciably, but it reduced the catalytic activity of the holoenzyme nearly 5-fold. Removal of an additional single residue (i.e. removal of a total of 13 residues) weakened intersubunit binding approximately 80-fold. Paradoxically, this partially restored catalytic activity to approximately 40% of that of the wild-type holoenzyme. None of these truncations materially affected the Km values for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate or CO2. Removal of all 20 residues of the irregular arm (thereby deleting the conserved region of contact with large subunits) totally abolished the small subunit's ability to bind to large subunits to form a stable holoenzyme. However, this truncated small subunit was still synthesized by the E. coli cells. These data are interpreted in terms of the role of the amino-terminal arm of the small subunit in maintaining the structure of the holoenzyme. PMID:8278544

  4. The ancient heart of the ribosomal large subunit: a response to Caetano-Anolles.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton S; Williams, Loren Dean

    2015-04-01

    Our recent Accretion Model of ribosomal evolution uses insertion fingerprints and a "trunk-branch" formalism to recapitulate the building up of common core rRNA of the Large Ribosomal Subunit. The Accretion Model is a conservative and natural extension of a method developed by Bokov and Steinberg (Nature 457:977-80, 2009), which confirms the correctness of lower resolution models by Fox and others. In each of these models, the LSU originates with the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), consistent with expectations that the ribosome is the source of defined-sequence functional proteins. In an adjacent note, Caetano-Anolles (J Mol Evol 80:162-165, 2015) disparages the Accretion Model, because it controverts the 'Growth Inferred by Genothermal Ordering' (GIGO) model. GIGO analyzes secondary structures, assigns the origin of the ribosome to a region outside of the PTC, and assumes or deduces that (i) large protein enzymes of defined amino acid sequence predate ribosomal synthesis of proteins, (ii) proteins directly replicate by non-ribosomal mechanisms, (iii) rRNA unfailingly increases in thermodynamic stability over time, and (iv) the Woese and Fox canonical tree of life is mis-rooted. Much of the specific GIGO critique of the Accretion Model is based on confusion about the three-dimensional nature of RNA and trunk-branch polymorphism; the Accretion Model incorporates several types of trunk-branch relationships.

  5. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA. PMID:27242998

  6. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jesse; Mullins, Elwood; Kappock, T.

    2016-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates less than 3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analogue dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analogue of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  7. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes andmore » orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.« less

  8. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  9. Complementation of subunits from different bacterial luciferases. Evidence for the role of the. beta. subunit in the bioluminescent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meighen, E.A.; Bartlet, I.

    1980-12-10

    Complementation of the nonidentical subunits (..cap alpha.. and ..beta..) of luciferases isolated from two different bioluminescent strains, Beneckea harveyi and Photobacterium phosphoreum, has resulted in the formation of a functional hybrid luciferase (..cap alpha../sub h/..beta../sub p/) containing the ..cap alpha.. subunit from B. harveyi luciferase (..cap alpha../sub h/) and the ..beta.. subunit from P. phosphoreum luciferase (..beta../sub p/). The complementation was unidirectional; activity could not be restored by complementing the ..cap alpha.. subunit of P. phosphoreum luciferase with the ..beta.. subunit of B. harveyi luciferase, showing that the subunits from these luciferases were not identical. Kinetic parameters of the hybrid luciferase reflecting the intermediate and later steps of the bioluminescent reaction as well as the overall activity and specificity were essentially identical to the same kinetic parameters for B. harveyi luciferase, the source of the ..cap alpha.. subunit, and quite distinct from those of P. phosphoreum luciferase. However, kinetic parameters that reflected the initial step in the reaction involving interaction of FMNH/sub 2/ and luciferase were altered in the hybrid luciferase compared to both the parental luciferases, the K/sub d/ for FMNH/sub 2/ actually being closer to that observed for the P. phosphoreum luciferase (the source of the ..beta.. subunit). These results provide direct evidence that modification or alteration of the ..beta.. subunit in a dimeric luciferase molecule can affect the kinetic properties and indicates that the ..beta.. subunit plays a functional role in the bioluminescent mechanism. It is proposed that both the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits are involved with the initial interaction with FMNH/sub 2/, whereas subsequent steps in the mechanism are dictated exclusively by the ..cap alpha.. subunit and are unaffected by alterations in the ..beta.. subunit.

  10. Formation of active bacterial luciferase between interspecific subunits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Almashanu, S; Tuby, A; Hadar, R; Einy, R; Kuhn, J

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific complementation between luxAs and luxBs from Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri, Photobacterium leiognathi and Xenorhabdus luminescens was examined in vivo. The individual genes from these species were cloned on different compatible plasmids or amplified by PCR and brought together to yield cis combinations without extraneous DNA. The beta subunits from V. harveyi and X. luminescens form active enzyme only with alpha subunits from one of these species. All other combinations yield active enzymes. The lack of activity of the V. harveyi and X. luminescens beta subunits with the alpha subunits from V. fischeri and P. leiognathi results from a lack of association. This was shown by in vivo competition in which these beta subunits were overproduced in comparison with the beta and alpha of V. fischeri. No reduction in light was found. Overall, the in vivo results parallel those found in vitro using isolated denatured subunits and renaturation by removal of the denaturant.

  11. Sodium channel β subunits: emerging targets in channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Heather A.; Isom, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. VGSCs in mammalian brain are heterotrimeric complexes of α and β subunits. Originally called “auxiliary,” we now know that β subunit proteins are multifunctional signaling molecules that play roles in both excitable and non-excitable cell types, and with or without the pore-forming α subunit present. β subunits function in VGSC and potassium channel modulation, cell adhesion, and gene regulation, with particularly important roles in brain development. Mutations in the genes encoding β subunits are linked to a number of diseases, including epilepsy, sudden death syndromes like SUDEP and SIDS, and cardiac arrhythmia. While VGSC β subunit-specific drugs have not yet been developed, this protein family is an emerging therapeutic target. PMID:25668026

  12. Inactivation of mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) by ethacrynic acid and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M F; Mantle, T J

    1993-01-01

    Mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) reacts with [14C]ethacrynic acid to form a covalent adduct with a stoichiometry of 1 mol per mol of subunit. Proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-[14C]ethacrynic acid adduct with V8 protease produced an 11 kDa fragment containing radioactivity. Sequencing revealed this to be an N-terminal peptide (minus the first 15 residues, terminating at Glu-112) which contains only one cysteine residue (Cys-47). This is tentatively identified as the site of ethacrynic attachment. Kinetic studies reveal that glutathione S-conjugates protect against inactivation by ethacrynic acid, but the level of protection is not consistent with their potency as product inhibitors. A model is proposed in which glutathione S-conjugates and ethacrynic acid compete for the free enzyme, and a second molecule of ethacrynic acid reacts covalently with the enzyme-ethacrynic acid complex. The native protein contains one thiol reactive with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at neutral pH. The resultant mixed disulphide, like the ethacrynic acid adduct, is inactive, but treatment with cyanide (which incorporates on a mol for mol basis) restores activity to 35% of that of the native enzyme. Images Figure 4 PMID:8363586

  13. The role of the C-terminal region on the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Wanda M; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Defelipe, Lucas A; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier; Delfino, José M

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcHPRT) is a critical enzyme for the survival of the parasite. This work demonstrates that the full-length form in solution adopts a stable and enzymatically active tetrameric form, exhibiting large inter-subunit surfaces. Although this protein irreversibly aggregates during unfolding, oligomerization is reversible and can be modulated by low concentrations of urea. When the C-terminal region, which is predicted as a disordered stretch, is excised by proteolysis, TcHPRT adopts a dimeric state, suggesting that the C-terminal region acts as a main guide for the quaternary arrangement. These results are in agreement with X-ray crystallographic data presented in this work. On the other hand, the C-terminal region exhibits a modulatory role on the enzyme, as attested by the enhanced activity observed for the dimeric form. Bisphosphonates act as substrate-mimetics, uncovering long-range communications among the active sites. All in all, this work contributes to establish new ways applicable to the design of novel inhibitors that could eventually result in new drugs against parasitic diseases.

  14. Ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr3 is the aminocarboxypropyl transferase responsible for 18S rRNA hypermodification in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta; Wurm, Jan Philip; Sharma, Sunny; Immer, Carina; Pogoryelov, Denys; Kötter, Peter; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.; Wöhnert, Jens; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m1acp3Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells. In functionally impaired Tsr3-mutants, a reduced level of acp modification directly correlates with increased 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The crystal structure of archaeal Tsr3 homologs revealed the same fold as in SPOUT-class RNA-methyltransferases but a distinct SAM binding mode. This unique SAM binding mode explains why Tsr3 transfers the acp and not the methyl group of SAM to its substrate. Structurally, Tsr3 therefore represents a novel class of acp transferase enzymes. PMID:27084949

  15. Cloning, expression and properties of porcine trachea UDP-galnac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Swain, Ja Baris; McNear, Adrian; Mendicino, Joseph

    2004-11-01

    A UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase which catalyses the transfer of GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to serine and threonine residues in mucin polypeptide chains was purified to homogeneity from swine trachea epithelium (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998). Peptides obtained by proteolysis of the purified enzyme were isolated, sequenced and used to prepare degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Amplified segments of a gene encoding GalNAc transferase were synthesised using the primers and a swine trachea epithelial cDNA library. Selected cDNA fragments were then used to screen the cDNA library, and a clone containing an open reading frame encoding 559 amino acids was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence contains type II transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites as well as all of the isolated peptide sequences. The nucleotide sequence and predicted primary protein structure of the transferase were very similar to those of type T-1 GalNAc transferases. The isolated clone was transiently expressed in COS 7 cells and the recombinant enzyme, which contained an N-terminal hexa-histidine tag, was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were examined. The Vmax of the recombinant enzyme, 2.08 micromol/(min mg), was nearly the same as the native enzyme, 2.12 micromol/(min mg), when assayed with partially deglycosylated mucins as glycosyl acceptors. Both enzymes showed much higher activities when assayed with peptides prepared by limited acid hydrolysis of incompletely deglycosylated Cowper's gland, swine, and human respiratory mucins and tryptic peptides isolated from deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. However, as noted earlier (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998), these enzymes showed very little activity with completely deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. When completely deglycosylated polypeptide chains were partially glycosylated by incubation with microsome

  16. Quantifying the cooperative subunit action in a multimeric membrane receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Nache, Vasilica; Eick, Thomas; Hummert, Sabine; Schulz, Eckhard; Schmauder, Ralf; Schirmeyer, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Benndorf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In multimeric membrane receptors the cooperative action of the subunits prevents exact knowledge about the operation and the interaction of the individual subunits. We propose a method that permits quantification of ligand binding to and activation effects of the individual binding sites in a multimeric membrane receptor. The power of this method is demonstrated by gaining detailed insight into the subunit action in olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated CNGA2 ion channels. PMID:26858151

  17. Restoration of Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Mouse 1R Cells After Fusion with Chick-Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bakay, Bohdan; Croce, Carlo M.; Koprowski, Hilary; Nyhan, William L.

    1973-01-01

    Fusion of the 1R mouse cell, which lacks activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.8), with chick-embryo fibroblasts yielded progeny cells that survived in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine selective medium. This property and the failure of the progeny to survive in 8-azaguanine indicated that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase activity was present. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that the enzyme was of mouse, not chick, origin. These observations are consistent with the operation of a regulator gene responsible for the absence of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase activity in the 1R cell and its presence in the progeny. Images PMID:4516198

  18. Genetic analysis of neuronal ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Granger, Adam J; Gray, John A; Lu, Wei; Nicoll, Roger A

    2011-09-01

    In the brain, fast, excitatory synaptic transmission occurs primarily through AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. These receptors are composed of subunit proteins that determine their biophysical properties and trafficking behaviour. Therefore, determining the function of these subunits and receptor subunit composition is essential for understanding the physiological properties of synaptic transmission. Here, we discuss and evaluate various genetic approaches that have been used to study AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. These approaches have demonstrated that the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is required for activity-dependent trafficking and contributes to basal synaptic transmission, while the GluA2 subunit regulates Ca(2+) permeability, homeostasis and trafficking to the synapse under basal conditions. In contrast, the GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits regulate synaptic AMPA receptor content, both during synaptic development and plasticity. Ongoing research in this field is focusing on the molecular interactions and mechanisms that control these functions. To accomplish this, molecular replacement techniques are being used, where native subunits are replaced with receptors containing targeted mutations. In this review, we discuss a single-cell molecular replacement approach which should arguably advance our physiological understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, but is generally applicable to study of any neuronal protein.

  19. Expression of GABA receptor rho subunits in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Boue-Grabot, E; Roudbaraki, M; Bascles, L; Tramu, G; Bloch, B; Garret, M

    1998-03-01

    The GABA receptor rho1, rho2, and rho3 subunits are expressed in the retina where they form bicuculline-insensitive GABA(C) receptors. We used northern blot, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR analysis to study the expression of rho subunits in rat brains. In situ hybridization allowed us to detect rho-subunit expression in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. RT-PCR experiments indicated that (a) in retina and in domains that may contain functional GABA(C) receptors, rho2 and rho1 subunits are expressed at similar levels; and (b) in domains and in tissues that are unlikely to contain GABA(C) receptors, rho2 mRNA is enriched relative to rho1 mRNA. These results suggest that both rho1 and rho2 subunits are necessary to form a functional GABA(C) receptor. The use of RT-PCR also showed that, except in the superior colliculus, rho3 is expressed along with rho1 and rho2 subunits. We also raised an antibody against a peptide sequence unique to the rho1 subunit. The use of this antibody on cerebellum revealed the rat rho1 subunit in the soma and dendrites of Purkinje neurons. The allocation of GABA(C) receptor subunits to identified neurons paves the way for future electrophysiological studies.

  20. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  1. Rubisco small subunit gene family in cassava.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T W; Mak, Y M; Ho, K K

    1999-01-01

    Cassava leaves of two different cultivars, Brazil and Buloh, were used to isolate mRNA. The mRNA isolated was successfully used in the construction of cDNA libraries for each of the cultivars. The cDNA libraries were screened for members of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene family and positive clones were sequenced. A total of seven different SSU genes, of which five were from cultivar Brazil and two were from cultivar Buloh, were isolated. Comparison results show that even though all the sequences are highly similar, they can be classified into three subfamilies. Homology between members of the same subfamily is higher than homology between members from the same cultivar.

  2. Subunit vaccine efficacy against Botulinum neurotoxin subtypes.

    PubMed

    Henkel, James S; Tepp, William H; Przedpelski, Amanda; Fritz, Robert B; Johnson, Eric A; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2011-10-13

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified into 7 serotypes (A-G) based upon neutralization by serotype-specific anti-sera. Several recombinant serotype-specific subunit BoNT vaccines have been developed, including a subunit vaccine comprising the receptor binding domain (HCR) of the BoNTs. Sequencing of the genes encoding BoNTs has identified variants (subtypes) that possess up to 32% primary amino acid variation among different BoNT serotypes. Studies were conducted to characterize the ability of the HCR of BoNT/A to protect against challenge by heterologous BoNT/A subtypes (A1-A3). High dose vaccination with HCR/A subtypes A1-A4 protected mice from challenge by heterologous BoNT/A subtype A1-A3, while low dose HCR vaccination yielded partial protection to heterologous BoNT/A subtype challenge. Absolute IgG titers to HCRs correlated to the dose of HCR used for vaccination, where HCR/A1 elicited an A1 subtype-specific IgG response, which was not observed with HCR/A2 vaccination. Survival of mice challenged to heterologous BoNT/A2 following low dose HCR/A1 vaccination correlated with elevated IgG titers directed to the denatured C-terminal sub-domain of HCR/A2, while survival of mice to heterologous BoNT/A1 following low dose HCR/A2 vaccination correlated to elevated IgG titers directed to native HCRc/A1. This implies that low dose vaccinations with HCR/A subtypes elicit unique IgG responses, and provides a basis to define how the host develops a neutralizing immune response to BoNT intoxication. These results may provide a reference for the development of pan-BoNT vaccines.

  3. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  4. Correlation Between Iron and alpha and pi Glutathione-S-Transferase Levels in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    including duodenal crypt cells and macrophages . Several well characterized mutations in this gene have been shown to increase iron levels.16 Of...genotoxic products of lipid peroxication. (1998) Biochem. J. 330:174-179. 4Townsend DM, Tew KD. “The role of glutathione-S-transferase in anti- cancer ...and ferritin.” Semin Hematol. (1998) 35:35-54. 12Iancu TC. “ Ultrastructural aspects of iron storage, transport, and metabolism.” J Neural Transm

  5. The synthesis of ethacrynic acid thiazole derivatives as glutathione S-transferase pi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Yang, Xinmei; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II enzyme which protects cells from death and detoxifies chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a weak GSTpi inhibitor. Structure modifications were done to improve the ability of EA to inhibit GSTpi activity. Eighteen EA thiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. Compounds 9a, 9b and 9c with a replacement of carboxyl group of EA by a heterocyclic thiazole exhibited improvement over EA to inhibit GSTpi activity.

  6. Dynamic regulation of β1 subunit trafficking controls vascular contractility.

    PubMed

    Leo, M Dennis; Bannister, John P; Narayanan, Damodaran; Nair, Anitha; Grubbs, Jordan E; Gabrick, Kyle S; Boop, Frederick A; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2014-02-11

    Ion channels composed of pore-forming and auxiliary subunits control physiological functions in virtually all cell types. A conventional view is that channels assemble with their auxiliary subunits before anterograde plasma membrane trafficking of the protein complex. Whether the multisubunit composition of surface channels is fixed following protein synthesis or flexible and open to acute and, potentially, rapid modulation to control activity and cellular excitability is unclear. Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that are functionally significant modulators of arterial contractility. Here, we show that native BKα subunits are primarily (∼95%) plasma membrane-localized in human and rat arterial myocytes. In contrast, only a small fraction (∼10%) of total β1 subunits are located at the cell surface. Immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy demonstrated that intracellular β1 subunits are stored within Rab11A-postive recycling endosomes. Nitric oxide (NO), acting via cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cAMP-dependent pathways stimulated rapid (≤1 min) anterograde trafficking of β1 subunit-containing recycling endosomes, which increased surface β1 almost threefold. These β1 subunits associated with surface-resident BKα proteins, elevating channel Ca(2+) sensitivity and activity. Our data also show that rapid β1 subunit anterograde trafficking is the primary mechanism by which NO activates myocyte BK channels and induces vasodilation. In summary, we show that rapid β1 subunit surface trafficking controls functional BK channel activity in arterial myocytes and vascular contractility. Conceivably, regulated auxiliary subunit trafficking may control ion channel activity in a wide variety of cell types.

  7. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively. PMID:24892084

  8. Euphorbia characias latex: micromorphology of rubber particles and rubber transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Francesca; Esposito, Francesca; Loche, Danilo; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-02-01

    We have recently characterized a natural rubber in the latex of Euphorbia characias. Following that study, we here investigated the rubber particles and rubber transferase in that Mediterranean shrub. Rubber particles, observed by scanning electron microscopy, are spherical in shape with diameter ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 μm. Washed rubber particles exhibit rubber transferase activity with a rate of radiolabeled [(14)C]IPP incorporation of 4.5 pmol min(-1)mg(-1). Denaturing electrophoresis profile of washed rubber particles reveals a single protein band of 37 kDa that is recognized in western blot analysis by antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide whose sequence, DVVIRTSGETRLSNF, is included in one of the five regions conserved among cis-prenyl chain elongation enzymes. The cDNA nucleotide sequence of E. characias rubber transferase (GenBank JX564541) and the deduced amino acid sequence appear to be highly homologous to the sequence of several plant cis-prenyltransferases.

  9. Characterization of a glycosyl transferase inactivating macrolides, encoded by gimA from Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Gourmelen, A; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Pernodet, J L

    1998-10-01

    In Streptomyces ambofaciens, the producer of the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, an open reading frame (ORF) was found downstream of srmA, a gene conferring resistance to spiramycin. The deduced product of this ORF had high degrees of similarity to Streptomyces lividans glycosyl transferase, which inactivates macrolides, and this ORF was called gimA. The cloned gimA gene was expressed in a susceptible host mutant of S. lividans devoid of any background macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity. In the presence of UDP-glucose, cell extracts from this strain could inactivate various macrolides by glycosylation. Spiramycin was not inactivated but forocidin, a spiramycin precursor, was modified. In vivo studies showed that gimA could confer low levels of resistance to some macrolides. The spectrum of this resistance differs from the one conferred by a rRNA monomethylase, such as SrmA. In S. ambofaciens, gimA was inactivated by gene replacement, without any deleterious effect on the survival of the strain, even under spiramycin-producing conditions. But the overexpression of gimA led to a marked decrease in spiramycin production. Studies with extracts from wild-type and gimA-null mutant strains revealed the existence of another macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity with a different substrate specificity. This activity might compensate for the effect of gimA inactivation.

  10. Characterization of a Glycosyl Transferase Inactivating Macrolides, Encoded by gimA from Streptomyces ambofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Gourmelen, Anne; Blondelet-Rouault, Marie-Hélène; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    1998-01-01

    In Streptomyces ambofaciens, the producer of the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, an open reading frame (ORF) was found downstream of srmA, a gene conferring resistance to spiramycin. The deduced product of this ORF had high degrees of similarity to Streptomyces lividans glycosyl transferase, which inactivates macrolides, and this ORF was called gimA. The cloned gimA gene was expressed in a susceptible host mutant of S. lividans devoid of any background macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity. In the presence of UDP-glucose, cell extracts from this strain could inactivate various macrolides by glycosylation. Spiramycin was not inactivated but forocidin, a spiramycin precursor, was modified. In vivo studies showed that gimA could confer low levels of resistance to some macrolides. The spectrum of this resistance differs from the one conferred by a rRNA monomethylase, such as SrmA. In S. ambofaciens, gimA was inactivated by gene replacement, without any deleterious effect on the survival of the strain, even under spiramycin-producing conditions. But the overexpression of gimA led to a marked decrease in spiramycin production. Studies with extracts from wild-type and gimA-null mutant strains revealed the existence of another macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity with a different substrate specificity. This activity might compensate for the effect of gimA inactivation. PMID:9756764

  11. Structure of the archaeal Cascade subunit Csa5: relating the small subunits of CRISPR effector complexes.

    PubMed

    Reeks, Judith; Graham, Shirley; Anderson, Linzi; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2013-05-01

    The Cascade complex for CRISPR-mediated antiviral immunity uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target invading DNA species from mobile elements such as viruses, leading to their destruction. The core of the Cascade effector complex consists of the Cas5 and Cas7 subunits, which are widely conserved in prokaryotes. Cas7 binds crRNA and forms the helical backbone of Cascade. Many archaea encode a version of the Cascade complex (denoted Type I-A) that includes a Csa5 (or small) subunit, which interacts weakly with the core proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Csa5 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Csa5 comprises a conserved α-helical domain with a small insertion consisting of a weakly conserved β-strand domain. In the crystal, the Csa5 monomers have multimerized into infinite helical threads. At each interface is a strictly conserved intersubunit salt bridge, deletion of which disrupts multimerization. Structural analysis indicates a shared evolutionary history among the small subunits of the CRISPR effector complexes. The same α-helical domain is found in the C-terminal domain of Cse2 (from Type I-E Cascade), while the N-terminal domain of Cse2 is found in Cmr5 of the CMR (Type III-B) effector complex. As Cmr5 shares no match with Csa5, two possibilities present themselves: selective domain loss from an ancestral Cse2 to create two new subfamilies or domain fusion of two separate families to create a new Cse2 family. A definitive answer awaits structural studies of further small subunits from other CRISPR effector complexes.

  12. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    PubMed Central

    Tandrup Schmidt, Signe; Foged, Camilla; Smith Korsholm, Karen; Rades, Thomas; Christensen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the specific PRR

  13. Epitopes from two soybean glycinin subunits antigenic in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Glycinin is a seed storage protein in soybean (Glycine max) that is allergenic in pigs. Glycinin is a hexamer composed of subunits consisting of a basic and acidic portion joined by disulfide bridges. There are 5 glycinin subunits designated Gy1-Gy5. Results: Twenty seven out of 30 pi...

  14. Specific Roles of NMDA Receptor Subunits in Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, H.; Hagino, Y.; Kasai, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays important roles in learning and memory. NMDA receptors are a tetramer that consists of two glycine-binding subunits GluN1, two glutamate-binding subunits (i.e., GluN2A, GluN2B, GluN2C, and GluN2D), a combination of a GluN2 subunit and glycine-binding GluN3 subunit (i.e., GluN3A or GluN3B), or two GluN3 subunits. Recent studies revealed that the specific expression and distribution of each subunit are deeply involved in neural excitability, plasticity, and synaptic deficits. The present article summarizes reports on the dysfunction of NMDA receptors and responsible subunits in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autoimmune-induced glutamatergic receptor dysfunction, mood disorders, and autism. A key role for the GluN2D subunit in NMDA receptor antagonist-induced psychosis has been recently revealed. PMID:25817860

  15. Proteopedia Entry: The Large Ribosomal Subunit of "Haloarcula Marismortui"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decatur, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a "Proteopedia" page that shows the refined version of the structure of the "Haloarcula" large ribosomal subunit as solved by the laboratories of Thomas Steitz and Peter Moore. The landmark structure is of great impact as it is the first atomic-resolution structure of the highly conserved ribosomal subunit which harbors…

  16. Mutational analysis of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The structural elements required for normal maturation and assembly of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit were investigated by expression of mutated subunits in transfected fibroblasts. Normally, the wild-type alpha subunit acquires high affinity alpha bungarotoxin binding in a time-dependent manner; however, mutation of the 128 and/or 142 cysteines to either serine or alanine, as well as deletion of the entire 14 amino acids in this region abolished all detectable high affinity binding. Nonglycosylated subunits that had a serine to glycine mutation in the consensus sequence also did not efficiently attain high affinity binding to toxin. In contrast, mutation of the proline at position 136 to glycine or alanine, or a double mutation of the cysteines at position 192 and 193 to serines had no effect on the acquisition of high affinity toxin binding. These data suggest that a disulfide bridge between cysteines 128 and 142 and oligosaccharide addition at asparagine 141 are required for the normal maturation of alpha subunit as assayed by high affinity toxin binding. The unassembled wild-type alpha subunit expressed in fibroblasts is normally degraded with a t1/2 of 2 h; upon assembly with the delta subunit, the degradation rate slows significantly (t1/2 greater than 13 h). All mutated alpha subunits retained the capacity to assemble with a delta subunit coexpressed in fibroblasts; however, mutated alpha subunits that were not glycosylated or did not acquire high affinity toxin binding were rapidly degraded (t1/2 = 20 min to 2 h) regardless of whether or not they assembled with the delta subunit. Assembly and rapid degradation of nonglycosylated acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits and subunit complexes were also observed in tunicamycin- treated BC3H-1 cells, a mouse musclelike cell line that normally expresses functional AChR. Hence, rapid degradation may be one form of regulation assuring that only correctly processed and assembled subunits

  17. Crystallographic trapping of the glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate of family I CoA transferases

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Iannuzzi, P.; Kernaghan, S.; Fraser, M.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme A transferases are involved in a broad range of biochemical processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exhibit a diverse range of substrate specificities. The YdiF protein from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an acyl-CoA transferase of unknown physiological function, and belongs to a large sequence family of CoA transferases, present in bacteria to humans, which utilize oxoacids as acceptors. In vitro measurements showed that YdiF displays enzymatic activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs. The crystal structures of YdiF and its complex with CoA, the first co-crystal structure for any Family I CoA transferase, have been determined and refined at 1.9 and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. YdiF is organized into tetramers, with each monomer having an open {alpha}/{beta} structure characteristic of Family I CoA transferases. Co-crystallization of YdiF with a variety of CoA thioesters in the absence of acceptor carboxylic acid resulted in trapping a covalent {gamma}-glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate. The CoA binds within a well defined pocket at the N- and C-terminal domain interface, but makes contact only with the C-terminal domain. The structure of the YdiF complex provides a basis for understanding the different catalytic steps in the reaction of Family I CoA transferases.

  18. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  19. A revised model for AMP-activated protein kinase structure: The alpha-subunit binds to both the beta- and gamma-subunits although there is no direct binding between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-11-24

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor for cellular metabolic energy state. It is activated by a high AMP/ATP ratio and leads to metabolic changes that conserve energy and utilize alternative cellular fuel sources. The kinase is composed of a heterotrimeric protein complex containing a catalytic alpha-subunit, an AMP-binding gamma-subunit, and a scaffolding beta-subunit thought to bind directly both the alpha- and gamma-subunits. Here, we use coimmunoprecipitation of proteins in transiently transfected cells to show that the alpha2-subunit binds directly not only to the beta-subunit, confirming previous work, but also to the gamma1-subunit. Deletion analysis of the alpha2-subunit reveals that the C-terminal 386-552 residues are sufficient to bind to the beta-subunit. The gamma1-subunit binds directly to the alpha2-subunit at two interaction sites, one within the catalytic domain consisting of alpha2 amino acids 1-312 and a second within residues 386-552. Binding of the alpha2 and the gamma1-subunits was not affected by 400 mum AMP or ATP. Furthermore, we show that the beta-subunit C terminus is essential for binding to the alpha2-subunit but, in contrast to previous work, the beta-subunit does not bind directly to the gamma1-subunit. Taken together, this study presents a new model for AMPK heterotrimer structure where through its C terminus the beta-subunit binds to the alpha-subunit that, in turn, binds to the gamma-subunit. There is no direct interaction between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

  20. The subunit composition and function of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, Bernhard; Hüttemann, Maik

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from mammals and birds is composed of 13 subunits. The three catalytic subunits I-III are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, the ten nuclear-coded subunits (IV, Va, Vb, VIa, VIb, VIc, VIIa, VIIb, VIIc, VIII) by nuclear DNA. The nuclear-coded subunits are essentially involved in the regulation of oxygen consumption and proton translocation by COX, since their removal or modification changes the activity and their mutation causes mitochondrial diseases. Respiration, the basis for ATP synthesis in mitochondria, is differently regulated in organs and species by expression of tissue-, developmental-, and species-specific isoforms for COX subunits IV, VIa, VIb, VIIa, VIIb, and VIII, but the holoenzyme in mammals is always composed of 13 subunits. Various proteins and enzymes were shown, e.g., by co-immunoprecipitation, to bind to specific COX subunits and modify its activity, but these interactions are reversible, in contrast to the tightly bound 13 subunits. In addition, the formation of supercomplexes with other oxidative phosphorylation complexes has been shown to be largely variable. The regulatory complexity of COX is increased by protein phosphorylation. Up to now 18 phosphorylation sites have been identified under in vivo conditions in mammals. However, only for a few phosphorylation sites and four nuclear-coded subunits could a specific function be identified. Research on the signaling pathways leading to specific COX phosphorylations remains a great challenge for understanding the regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in mammalian organisms. This article reviews the function of the individual COX subunits and their isoforms, as well as proteins and small molecules interacting and regulating the enzyme.

  1. Subunit structure of the follitropin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of intact human follitropin (FSH) were radioiodinated with /sup 125/I-FSH-sodium iodide and chloramine-T, and could be resolved on polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). The electrophoretic mobility of radioiodinated FSH ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits as well as the ..cap alpha beta.. dimer changed markedly depending on the concentration of reducing agents. /sup 125/I-FSH (Ka = 1.4 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/), complexes to the receptor on procine granulosa cells or in Triton X-100 extracts, was affinity-crosslinked with a cleavable (nondisulfide) homobifunctional reagent, bis(2-(succinimidooxycarbonyloxy)ethyl)sulfone, solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate with or without reducing agents, and electrophoresed. Crosslinked samples revealed three additional bands of slower electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to 65 (unreduced 62), 83 (unreduced 76) and 117 (unreduced 110)kDa, in addition to hormone bands. Formation of the three bands requires the /sup 125/I-FSH hormone to bind specifically to the receptor with subsequent cross-linking. The rate of formation and cleavage of the cross-linked complexes indicated a sequential and incremental addition of 22, 18, and 34 kDa components to the FSH ..cap alpha beta.. dimer. The results of reduction of cross-linked complexes demonstrated the existence of disulfide linkage between the three components. FSH was photoactively derivatized with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 4-azidobenzolyl-glycine and radioiodinated for photoaffinity labeling. When derivatized /sup 125/I-FSH (Ka = 1.12 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/) bound to the cell was photolyzed for cross-linking and resolved on the SDS-PAGE, two new bands (106 and 61 kDa) under reducing condition appeared in addition to the hormone bands. Upon reduction with dithiotheitol and second-dimensional electrophoresis, the unreduced 104 kDa (reduced 106 kDa) band released two small components 31 and 14 kDa.

  2. Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit (CD298): association with alpha subunit and expression on peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Chiampanichayakul, S; Khunkaewla, P; Pata, S; Kasinrerk, W

    2006-12-01

    Beta3 subunit is described as one of the Na, K ATPase subunits. Recently, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed P-3E10. This mAb was shown to react with the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit or CD298. By immunofluorescence analysis using mAb P-3E10, it was found that all peripheral blood leukocytes express Na, K ATPase beta3. The presence of beta3 subunit on leukocytes is not in a quantitative polymorphic manner. Upon phytohemagglutinin or phorbol myristate acetate activation, the expression level of the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not altered in comparison with those of unstimulated cells. Red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy donors showed negative reactivity with mAb P-3E10. However, more than 80% of thalassemic RBCs showed positive reactivity. By immunoprecipitation, moreover, a protein band of 55-65 kDa was precipitated from normal RBC membrane using mAb P-3E10. These results evidenced that the beta3 subunit of Na, K ATPase is expressed on RBC membrane but the epitope recognized by mAb P-3E10 is hidden in normal RBCs. Furthermore, we showed the association of beta3 subunit and alpha subunit of Na, K ATPase. This information is important for further understanding of the functional roles of this molecule.

  3. Altered 40 S ribosomal subunits in omnipotent suppressors of yeast.

    PubMed

    Eustice, D C; Wakem, L P; Wilhelm, J M; Sherman, F

    1986-03-20

    The five suppressors SUP35, SUP43, SUP44, SUP45 and SUP46, each mapping at a different chromosomal locus in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suppress a wide range of mutations, including representatives of all three types of nonsense mutations, UAA, UAG and UGA. We have demonstrated that ribosomes from the four suppressors SUP35, SUP44, SUP45 and SUP46 translate polyuridylate templates in vitro with higher errors than ribosomes from the normal stain, and that this misreading is substantially enhanced by the antibiotic paromomycin. Furthermore, ribosomal subunit mixing experiments established that the 40 S ribosomal subunit, and this subunit only, is responsible for the higher levels of misreading. Thus, the gene products of SUP35, SUP44, SUP45 and SUP46 are components of the 40 S subunit or are enzymes that modify the subunit. In addition, a protein from the 40 S subunit of the SUP35 suppressor has an altered electrophoretic mobility; this protein is distinct from the altered protein previously uncovered in the 40 S subunit of the SUP46 suppressor. In contrast to the ribosomes from the four suppressors SUP35, SUP44, SUP45 and SUP46, the ribosomes from the SUP43 suppressor do not significantly misread polyuridylate templates in vitro, suggesting that this locus may not encode a ribosomal component or that the misreading is highly specific.

  4. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  5. Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B Structure: Subunit Composition and Oligomeric States

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Karina M.; Cardoso, Mateus B.; Follmer, Cristian; da Silveira, Nádya P.; Vargas, Daiani M.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen B (AgB) is the major protein secreted by the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode and is involved in key host-parasite interactions during infection. The full comprehension of AgB functions depends on the elucidation of several structural aspects that remain unknown, such as its subunit composition and oligomeric states. Methodology/Principal Findings The subunit composition of E. granulosus AgB oligomers from individual bovine and human cysts was assessed by mass spectrometry associated with electrophoretic analysis. AgB8/1, AgB8/2, AgB8/3 and AgB8/4 subunits were identified in all samples analyzed, and an AgB8/2 variant (AgB8/2v8) was found in one bovine sample. The exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) was used to estimate the relative abundance of the AgB subunits, revealing that AgB8/1 subunit was relatively overrepresented in all samples. The abundance of AgB8/3 subunit varied between bovine and human cysts. The oligomeric states formed by E. granulosus AgB and recombinant subunits available, rAgB8/1, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, were characterized by native PAGE, light scattering and microscopy. Recombinant subunits showed markedly distinct oligomerization behaviors, forming oligomers with a maximum size relation of rAgB8/3>rAgB8/2>rAgB8/1. Moreover, the oligomeric states formed by rAgB8/3 subunit were more similar to those observed for AgB purified from hydatid fluid. Pressure-induced dissociation experiments demonstrated that the molecular assemblies formed by the more aggregative subunits, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, also display higher structural stability. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, AgB subunit composition was analyzed in samples from single hydatid cysts, revealing qualitative and quantitative differences between samples. We showed that AgB oligomers are formed by different subunits, which have distinct abundances and oligomerization properties. Overall, our findings have significantly contributed to increase the

  6. MIF protein are theta-class glutathione S-transferase homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, F. A.; Ellis, L. B.; Wackett, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    MIF proteins are mammalian polypeptides of approximately 13,000 molecular weight. This class includes human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a rat liver protein that has glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (TRANSMIF), and the mouse delayed early response gene 6 (DER6) protein. MIF proteins were previously linked to GSTs by demonstrating transferase activity and observing N-terminal sequence homology with a mu-class GST (Blocki, F.A., Schlievert, P.M., & Wackett, L.P., 1992, Nature 360, 269-270). In this study, MIF proteins are shown to be structurally related to the theta class of GSTs. This is established in three ways. First, unique primary sequence patterns are developed for each of the GST gene classes. The patterns identify the three MIF proteins as theta-like transferase homologs. Second, pattern analysis indicates that GST members of the theta class contain a serine residue in place of the N-terminal tyrosine that is implicated in glutathione deprotonation and activation in GSTs of known structure (Liu, S., et al., 1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4296-4299). The MIF proteins contain a threonine at this position. Third, polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant human MIF cross-react on Western blots with rat theta GST but not with alpha and mu GSTs. That MIF proteins have glutathione-binding ability may provide a common structural key toward understanding the varied functions of this widely distributed emerging gene family. Because theta is thought to be the most ancient evolutionary GST class, MIF proteins may have diverged early in evolution but retained a glutathione-binding domain. PMID:8298459

  7. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  8. NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

    1999-12-01

    Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae.

  9. Glutathione-Binding Site of a Bombyx mori Theta-Class Glutathione Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. D. Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents. PMID:24848539

  10. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.

  11. Glutathione-S-transferase selective release of metformin from its sulfonamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Vernerová, Monika; Aufderhaar, Imke; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, three sulfonamide prodrugs of metformin were designed and synthesized. The bioconversion of the sulfonamide prodrugs by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated in rat and human liver S9 fractions as well as with recombinant human GST forms. One of the prodrugs (3) was bioactivated by GST and released metformin in a quantitative manner, whereas the two others were enzymatically stable. Prodrug 3 had a much higher logD value relative to metformin and it was reasonably stable in both acidic buffer and rat small intestine homogenate, which indicates that this prodrug has the potential to increase the oral absorption of metformin.

  12. Fucosylation of xyloglucan: localization of the transferase in dictyosomes of pea stem cells. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, A.; Brummell, D.; MacLachlan, G.

    1987-07-01

    Microsomal membranes from elongating regions of etiolated Pisum sativum stems were separated by rate-zonal centrifugation on Renografin gradients. The transfer of labeled fucose and xylose from GDP-(/sup 14/C) fucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)xylose to xyloglucan occurred mainly in dictyosome-enriched fractions. No transferase activity was detected in secretory vesicle fractions. Pulse-chase experiments using pea stem slices incubated with (/sup 3/H)fucose suggest that xyloglucan chains are fucosylated and their structure completed within the dictyosomes, before being transported to the cell wall by secretory vesicles.

  13. Genetic Variations in Human Glutathione Transferase Enzymes: Significance for Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Josephy, P. David

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTs) catalyze reactions in which electrophiles are conjugated to the tripeptide thiol glutathione. While many GST-catalyzed transformations result in the detoxication of xenobiotics, a few substrates, such as dihaloalkanes, undergo bioactivation to reactive intermediates. Many molecular epidemiological studies have tested associations between polymorphisms (especially, deletions) of human GST genes and disease susceptibility or response to therapy. This review presents a discussion of the biochemistry of GSTs, the sources—both genetic and environmental—of interindividual variation in GST activities, and their implications for pharmaco- and toxicogenetics; particular attention is paid to the Theta class GSTs. PMID:20981235

  14. The Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases: Catalysis of a Posttranslational Modification Crucial for Life

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Vickery, Christopher R.; Noel, Joseph P.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Although holo-acyl carrier protein synthase, AcpS, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase), was characterized in the 1960s, it was not until the publication of the landmark paper by Lambalot et al. in 1996 that PPTases garnered wide-spread attention being classified as a distinct enzyme superfamily. In the past two decades an increasing number of papers has been published on PPTases ranging from identification, characterization, structure determination, mutagenesis, inhibition, and engineering in synthetic biology. In this review, we comprehensively discuss all current knowledge on this class of enzymes that post-translationally install a 4′-phosphopantetheine arm on various carrier proteins. PMID:24292120

  15. Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene by curcumin in breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Ujjawal; Rathi, Garima

    2017-02-01

    One of the mechanisms for epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is hypermethylation of cytosine residue at CpG islands at their promoter region that contributes to malignant progression of tumor. Therefore, activation of tumor suppressor genes that have been silenced by promoter methylation is considered to be very attractive molecular target for cancer therapy. Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi 1, a tumor suppressor gene, is involved in various types of cancers including breast cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes can be reversed by several molecules including natural compounds such as polyphenols that can act as a hypomethylating agent. Curcumin has been found to specifically target various tumor suppressor genes and alter their expression. To check the effect of curcumin on the methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in dose-dependent manner. To check the reversal of methylation pattern of hypermethylated glutathione S-transferase pi 1, MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin for different time periods. DNA and proteins of treated and untreated cell lines were isolated, and methylation status of the promoter region of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 was analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, and expression of this gene was analyzed by immunoblotting using specific antibodies against glutathione S-transferase pi 1. A very low and a nontoxic concentration (10 µM) of curcumin treatment was able to reverse the hypermethylation and led to reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 protein expression in MCF-7 cells after 72 h of treatment, although the IC50 value of curcumin was found to be at 20 µM. However, curcumin less than 3 µM of curcumin could not alter the promoter methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1. Treatment of breast cancer MCF-7 cells with curcumin causes

  16. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    A database on large ribosomal subunit RNA is made available. It contains 258 sequences. It provides sequence, alignment and secondary structure information in computer-readable formats. Files can be obtained using ftp. PMID:7524023

  17. The eukaryotic RNA exosome: same scaffold but variable catalytic subunits.

    PubMed

    Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Tomecki, Rafal; Jensen, Torben Heick; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The RNA exosome is a versatile ribonucleolytic protein complex that participates in a multitude of cellular RNA processing and degradation events. It consists of an invariable nine-subunit core that associates with a variety of enzymatically active subunits and co-factors. These contribute to or even provide the catalytic activity and substrate specificity of the complex. The S. cerevisiae exosome has been intensively studied since its discovery in 1997 and thus serves as the archetype of eukaryotic exosomes. Notably, its catalytic potential, derived exclusively from associated subunits, differs between the nuclear and cytoplasmic versions of the complex. The same holds true for other eukaryotes, however, recent discoveries from various laboratories including our own have revealed that there are variations on this theme. Here, we review the latest findings concerning catalytic subunits of eukaryotic exosomes, and we discuss the apparent need for differential composition and subcellular distribution of exosome variants.

  18. Genetic Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunit Families

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles. PMID:16440056

  19. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  20. Subunit-Specific Trafficking of GABAA Receptors during Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, Howard P.; Joshi, Suchitra; Mtchedlishvili, Zakaria; Brar, Jasmit; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that a reduced surface expression of GABAA receptors (GABARs) contributes to the pathogenesis of status epilepticus (SE), a condition characterized by prolonged seizures. This hypothesis was based on the finding that prolonged epileptiform bursting (repetitive bursts of prolonged depolarizations with superimposed action potentials) in cultures of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons (dissociated cultures) results in the increased intracellular accumulation of GABARs. However, it is not known whether this rapid modification in the surface-expressed GABAR pool results from selective, subunit-dependent or nonselective, subunit-independent internalization of GABARs. In hippocampal slices obtained from animals undergoing prolonged SE (SE-treated slices), we found that the surface expression of the GABARβ2/3 and γ2 subunits was reduced, whereas that of the δ subunit was not. Complementary electrophysiological recordings from dentate granule cells in SE-treated slices demonstrated a reduction in GABAR-mediated synaptic inhibition, but not tonic inhibition. A reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit, but not the δ subunit was also observed in dissociated cultures and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures when incubated in an elevated KCl external medium or an elevated KCl external medium supplemented with NMDA, respectively. Additional studies demonstrated that the reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit was independent of direct ligand binding of the GABAR. These findings demonstrate that the regulation of surface-expressed GABAR pool during SE is subunit-specific and occurs independent of ligand binding. The differential modulation of the surface expression of GABARs during SE has potential implications for the treatment of this neurological emergency. PMID:18322097

  1. F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Seino, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Tirtom, Naciye Esma; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken; Hayashi, Kumiko

    2014-09-01

    Vacuolar-type H(+)-pumping ATPases (V-ATPases) perform remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms. They are present in the membranes of many organelles and regulate the pH of several intracellular compartments. A family of V-ATPases is also present in the plasma membranes of some bacteria. Such V-ATPases function as ATP-synthases. Each V-ATPase is composed of a water-soluble domain (V1) and a membrane-embedded domain (Vo). The ATP-driven rotary unit, V[Formula: see text], is composed of A, B, D, and F subunits. The rotary shaft (the DF subcomplex) rotates in the central cavity of the A3B3-ring (the catalytic hexamer ring). The D-subunit, which has a coiled-coil domain, penetrates into the ring, while the F-subunit is a globular-shaped domain protruding from the ring. The minimal ATP-driven rotary unit of V[Formula: see text] is comprised of the A3B3D subunits, and we therefore investigated how the absence of the globular-shaped F-subunit affects the rotary torque generation of V[Formula: see text]. Using a single-molecule technique, we observed the motion of the rotary motors. To obtain the torque values, we then analyzed the measured motion trajectories based on the fluctuation theorem, which states that the law of entropy production in non-equilibrium conditions and has been suggested as a novel and effective method for measuring torque. The measured torque of A3B3D was half that of the wild-type V1, and full torque was recovered in the mutant V1, in which the F-subunit was genetically fused with the D-subunit, indicating that the globular-shaped F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V1.

  2. Transcription Activator Interactions with Multiple SWI/SNF Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Kristen E.; Hassan, Ahmed H.; Brown, Christine E.; Howe, LeAnn; Workman, Jerry L.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that the yeast SWI/SNF complex stimulates in vitro transcription from chromatin templates in an ATP-dependent manner. SWI/SNF function in this regard requires the presence of an activator with which it can interact directly, linking activator recruitment of SWI/SNF to transcriptional stimulation. In this study, we determine the SWI/SNF subunits that mediate its interaction with activators. Using a photo-cross-linking label transfer strategy, we show that the Snf5, Swi1, and Swi2/Snf2 subunits are contacted by the yeast acidic activators, Gcn4 and Hap4, in the context of the intact native SWI/SNF complex. In addition, we show that the same three subunits can interact individually with acidic activation domains, indicating that each subunit contributes to binding activators. Furthermore, mutations that reduce the activation potential of these activators also diminish its interaction with each of these SWI/SNF subunits. Thus, three distinct subunits of the SWI/SNF complex contribute to its interactions with activation domains. PMID:11865042

  3. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  4. Diuretic drug binding to human glutathione transferase P1-1: potential role of Cys-101 revealed in the double mutant C47S/Y108V.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Parker, Lorien J; Primavera, Alessandra; Wielens, Jerome; Holien, Jessica K; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Aguilera, Ana M; Nuccetelli, Marzia; Mazzetti, Anna P; Lo Bello, Mario; Parker, Michael W; García-Fuentes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The diuretic drug ethacrynic acid (EA), both an inhibitor and substrate of pi class glutathione S-transferase (GST P1-1), has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. We recently studied the role of the active site residue Tyr-108 in binding EA to the enzyme and found that the analysis was complicated by covalent binding of this drug to the highly reactive Cys-47. Previous attempts to eliminate this binding by chemical modification yielded ambiguous results and therefore we decided here to produce a double mutant C47S/Y108V by site directed mutagenesis and further expression in Escherichia coli and the interaction of EA and its GSH conjugate (EASG) examined by calorimetric studies and X-ray diffraction. Surprisingly, in the absence of Cys-47, Cys-101 (located at the dimer interface) becomes a target for modification by EA, albeit at a lower conjugation rate than Cys-47. The Cys-47 → Ser mutation in the double mutant enzyme induces a positive cooperativity between the two subunits when ligands with affinity to G-site bind to enzyme. However, this mutation does not seem to affect the thermodynamic properties of ligand binding to the electrophilic binding site (H-site) and the thermal or chemical stability of this double mutant does not significantly affect the unfolding mechanism in either the absence or presence of ligand. Crystal structures of apo and an EASG complex are essentially identical with a few exceptions in the H-site and in the water network at the dimer interface.

  5. Purification and partial characterization of glutathione S-transferase from insecticide-resistant field populations of Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Dou, Wei; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2009-02-01

    Enzymes that possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were purified to homogeneity by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography from three field populations of Liposcelis paeta (Pearman). These populations were collected from Nanyang city of Henan Province (NY), Wuzhou (WZ) and Hezhou (HZ) cities of Guangxi Province, China, and had different susceptibilities to dichlorvos [LC(50)s of the NY (281.48 mg/m(2)), the WZ (285.07 mg/m(2)), and the HZ (243.52 mg/m(2)), respectively]. The specific activities of purified enzymes from these three populations increased 32.24-, 99.81-, and 42.52-fold, respectively. Kinetic analyses showed that the catalytic activity of purified GST from NY population towards GSH was much higher than the others, while WZ population reached the highest in V(max) (CDNB). SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST had two subunits with a molecular mass of 23.31 and 20.43 kDa for NY, 53.14 and 20.13 kDa for WZ, and 50.79 and 19.42 kDa for HZ, respectively. The in vitro inhibition studies of GSTs indicated that three kinds of insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbosulfan, and cypermethrin) and five metallic ions (Zn(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+)) all possessed inhibitory effects on purified GST, and ethacrynic acid (EA, a specific inhibitor of GST) expressed inhibitory effects. In the bioassay, three populations of L. paeta had different susceptibilities to different insecticides, even after they were reared on diets consisting of 25% EA. The GST activities of L. paeta from different areas also showed different temperature and pH stabilities. The differences in GST among the three populations may be attributed partially to the differences in control practices for psocids between Henan and Guangxi Provinces. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Structure of Human O-GlcNAc Transferase and its Complex with a Peptide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    M Lazarus; Y Nam; J Jiang; P Sliz; S Walker

    2011-12-31

    The essential mammalian enzyme O-linked {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, here OGT) couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. OGT catalyses the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to serines and threonines of cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins, including numerous transcription factors, tumour suppressors, kinases, phosphatases and histone-modifying proteins. Aberrant glycosylation by OGT has been linked to insulin resistance, diabetic complications, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Despite the importance of OGT, the details of how it recognizes and glycosylates its protein substrates are largely unknown. We report here two crystal structures of human OGT, as a binary complex with UDP (2.8 {angstrom} resolution) and as a ternary complex with UDP and a peptide substrate (1.95 {angstrom}). The structures provide clues to the enzyme mechanism, show how OGT recognizes target peptide sequences, and reveal the fold of the unique domain between the two halves of the catalytic region. This information will accelerate the rational design of biological experiments to investigate OGT's functions; it will also help the design of inhibitors for use as cellular probes and help to assess its potential as a therapeutic target.

  7. Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 risk polymorphism and increased bilateral thalamus mean diffusivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Gravina, Paolo; Bello, Mario Lo; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage in brain cells is one of the factors hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1*B polymorphism, a genotype associated with a higher risk of oxidative damage, is associated with increased frequency of schizophrenia diagnosis. Thus, here we studied Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1 polymorphism and diffusion tensor imaging-mean diffusivity (MD) data on deep grey matter brain structures in 56 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia. Clinical diagnosis and psychopathological symptom severity were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-P) and the Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). Results confirmed that patients with schizophrenia who were carriers of the GSTA1 *B risk allele had an increased MD in bilateral thalami and increased severity of auditory and global hallucinations in comparison with non-B carriers. Thus, oxidative stress associated factors may be implicated in specific mechanisms of schizophrenia such as altered microstructure of the thalami and specific psychopathological features of auditory hallucinations.

  8. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  9. Riboswitch control of induction of aminoglycoside resistance acetyl and adenyl-transferases.

    PubMed

    He, Weizhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jun; Jia, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Wenxia; Jiang, Hengyi; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by human pathogens poses a significant threat to public health. The mechanisms that control the proliferation and expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are a historically important class of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. Aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug or enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or through the overexpression of efflux pumps. In our recent paper, we reported that expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes encoding the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (AAD) enzymes was controlled by an aminoglycoside-sensing riboswitch RNA. This riboswitch is embedded in the leader RNA of the aac/aad genes and is associated with the integron cassette system. The leader RNA can sense and bind specific aminoglycosides such that the binding causes a structural transition in the leader RNA, which leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Specific aminoglycosides induce reporter gene expression mediated by the leader RNA. Aminoglycoside RNA binding was measured directly and, aminoglycoside-induced changes in RNA structure monitored by chemical probing. UV cross-linking and mutational analysis identified potential aminoglycoside binding sites on the RNA.

  10. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase from dwarf pine needles (Pinus mugo Turra).

    PubMed

    Schröder, P; Rennenberg, H

    1992-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity conjugating xenobiotics with glutathione (GSH) was found in extracts from needles of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra). In vivo incubation of needle segments with the herbicide fluorodifen at 25 degrees C resulted in conversion of the xenobiotic to water-soluble products at initial rates of 0.7 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). At 15 degrees C, the initial rate of product formation was decreased to 0.1 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). In vitro conjugation studies with chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as model substrates gave apparent K(m) values of 0.5 mM GSH and 1.14 mM CDNB in the GSH/CDNB system and 0.3 mM GSH and 0.44 mM DCNB in the GSH/DCNB system. The pH optimum was between 7.7 and 7.9 for both the GSH/CDNB and the GSH/DCNB systems. The temperature optimum for these model substrates was between 30 and 35 degrees C, and only minute amounts of enzyme activity were detected at 15 degrees C. The activation energy in the temperature range of 15 to 30 degrees C was 46 kJ mol(-1). Dwarf pine glutathione S-transferase exhibited an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD.

  11. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyl Transferase 2: A Promising Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chunhui; Qi, Jia; Deng, Quanwen; Chen, Rihong; Zhai, Duanyang; Yu, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers all over the world. It is essential to search for more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods for CRC. Abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has been considered as a characteristic of cancer cells. In this study, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) as well as p53-mediated cancer signaling pathways were investigated in patients with colorectal cancer. The CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 95 untreated colorectal cancer patients and were stained for expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) and p53. The survival rate was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted as well. Our data demonstrated that expression of NMNAT2 and p53 was significantly higher in CRC tissues, while NMNAT2 expression is in correlation with the invasive depth of tumors and TNM stage. Significant positive correlation was found between the expression of NMNAT2 and the expression of p53. However, NMNAT2 expression was not a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival. In conclusion, our results indicated that NMNAT2 might participate in tumorigenesis of CRC in a p53-dependent manner and NMNAT2 expression might be a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27218101

  12. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  13. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

  14. A strategy to discover inhibitors of Bacillus subtilis surfactin-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Yasgar, Adam; Foley, Timothy L; Jadhav, Ajit; Inglese, James; Burkart, Michael D; Simeonov, Anton

    2010-02-01

    Surfactin-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases (Sfp-PPTases) are responsible for modifying type I polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthases of prokaryotes and have been implicated in the activation of a variety of pathogen-associated virulence factors. As such, inhibitors of this enzyme class represent enticing leads for antibiotic development and can serve as tools in studies of bacterial metabolism. Currently, no small molecule inhibitors of Sfp-PPTase are known, highlighting the need for efficient methods for PPTase inhibitor identification and development. Herein, we present the design and implementation of a robust and miniaturized high-throughput kinetic assay for inhibitors of Sfp-PPTase using the substrate combination of rhodamine-labeled coenzyme A and Black Hole Quencher-2 labeled consensus acceptor peptide YbbR. Upon PPTase-catalyzed transfer of the rhodamine-labeled phosphopantetheinyl arm onto the acceptor peptide, the fluorescent donor and quencher are covalently joined and the fluorescence signal is reduced. This assay was miniaturized to a low 4 microL volume in 1536-well format and was used to screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC(1280)). Top inhibitors identified by the screen were further characterized in secondary assays, including protein phosphopantetheinylation detected by gel electrophoresis. The present assay enables the screening of large compound libraries against Sfp-PPTase in a robust and automated fashion and is applicable to designing assays for related transferase enzymes.

  15. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli originated MCR-1, a phosphoethanolamine transferase for Colistin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Menglong; Guo, Jiubiao; Cheng, Qipeng; Yang, Zhiqiang; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Chen, Sheng; Hao, Quan

    2016-01-01

    MCR-1 is a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) transferase that modifies the pEtN moiety of lipid A, conferring resistance to colistin, which is an antibiotic belonging to the class of polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins and is the last-line antibiotic used to treat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Here we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of MCR-1 (MCR-1-ED), which is originated in Escherichia coli (E. coli). MCR-1-ED was found to comprise several classical β-α-β-α motifs that constitute a “sandwich” conformation. Two interlaced molecules with different phosphorylation status of the residue T285 could give rise to two functional statuses of MCR-1 depending on the physiological conditions. MCR-1, like other known pEtN transferases, possesses an enzymatic site equipped with zinc binding residues. Interestingly, two zinc ions were found to mediate intermolecular interactions between MCR-1-ED molecules in one asymmetric unit and hence concatenation of MCR-1, allowing the protein to be oligomer. Findings of this work shall provide important insight into development of effective and clinically useful inhibitors of MCR-1 or structurally similar enzymes. PMID:27958270

  16. Copper-Induced Inactivation of Camel Liver Glutathione S-Transferase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwar; Malik, Ajamaluddin; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Rabbani, Nayyar; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes and play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and protection against oxidative stress. Camel liver glutathione transferase (cGST) was recently isolated and characterized in our lab. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations on its activity and stability. Cu(++) was found to be the potent inhibitor of GST activity which loses complete activity at 0.5-mM concentration. Other metal ions did not inhibit GST even at higher concentration of 2 mM. GST incubated with Cu(++) (0.1 mM) resulted decrease in free sulfhydryl groups by 55%, whereas other metal ions did not show any effect on free thiol content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed formation of GST aggregates instantly in the presence of Cu(++), which further increased in molecular size with increase in time of incubation. DTT treatment resulted in de-aggregation of GST oligomers to its monomeric form. However, the GST activity was not recovered completely after de-aggregation. Cu(++) was found to inhibit GST activity by accelerating the inter- and intra-disulfide bond formation. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) results showed that Cu(++)-catalyzed air oxidation of sulfhydryl groups leads to minor conformational changes in the GST.

  17. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Dobb, Katharine S.; Kaye, Sarah J.; Beckmann, Nicola; Thain, John L.; Stateva, Lubomira; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds. PMID:26606674

  18. Miners compensated for pneumoconiosis and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anna; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans-Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of quartz-containing dust produces reversible inflammatory changes in lungs resulting in irreversible fibrotic changes termed pneumoconiosis. Due to the inflammatory process in the lungs, highly reactive substances are released that may be detoxified by glutathione S-transferases. Therefore, 90 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis as a recognized occupational disease (in Germany: Berufskrankheit BK 4101) were genotyped for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) according to standard methods. Furthermore, occupational exposure and smoking habits were assessed by questionnaire. Changes in a chest x-ray were classified according to ILO classification 2000. Of the investigated hard coal miners 43% were GSTM1 negative whereas 57% were GSTM1 positive. The arithmetic mean of the age at time of investigation was 74.2 yr (range: 42-87 yr). Seventy-four percent of the hard coal miners reported being ever smokers, while 26% denied smoking. All hard coal miners provided pneumoconiosis-related changes in the chest x-ray. The observed frequency of GSTM1 negative hard coal miners was not different from frequencies reported for general Caucasian populations and in agreement with findings reported for Chinese coal miners. In contrast, in a former study, 16 of 19 German hard coal miners (84%) with urinary bladder cancer displayed a GSTM1 negative genotype. The outcome of this study provides evidence that severely occupationally exposed Caucasian hard coal miners do not present an elevated level of GSTM1 negative individuals.

  19. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22164343

  20. Structure of a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase suggests how conformational changes govern substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Evans, Genevieve L; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L; John, Constance M; Phillips, Nancy J; Jarvis, Gary A; Wills, Siobhan S; Stubbs, Keith A; Moraes, Isabel; Kahler, Charlene M; Vrielink, Alice

    2017-02-28

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. One type of lipid A modification involves the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the 1 and 4' headgroup positions by phosphoethanolamine transferases. Previous structural work on a truncated form of this enzyme suggested that the full-length protein was required for correct lipid substrate binding and catalysis. We now report the crystal structure of a full-length lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase from Neisseria meningitidis, determined to 2.75-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized helical membrane domain and a periplasmic facing soluble domain. The domains are linked by a helix that runs along the membrane surface interacting with the phospholipid head groups. Two helices located in a periplasmic loop between two transmembrane helices contain conserved charged residues and are implicated in substrate binding. Intrinsic fluorescence, limited proteolysis, and molecular dynamics studies suggest the protein may sample different conformational states to enable the binding of two very different- sized lipid substrates. These results provide insights into the mechanism of endotoxin modification and will aid a structure-guided rational drug design approach to treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  1. Immunohistochemical localisation of the voltage gated potassium ion channel subunit Kv3.3 in the rat medulla oblongata and thoracic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Atkinson, Lucy; Edwards, Ian; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2006-01-27

    Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a diverse group of channels important in determining neuronal excitability. The Kv superfamily is divided into 12 subfamilies (Kv1-12) and members of the Kv3 subfamily are highly abundant in the CNS, with each Kv3 gene (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) exhibiting a unique expression pattern. Since the localisation of Kv subunits is important in defining the roles they play in neuronal function, we have used immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of the Kv3.3 subunit in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of rats. Kv3.3 subunit immunoreactivity (Kv3.3-IR) was widespread but present only in specific cell populations where it could be detected in somata, dendrites and synaptic terminals. Labelled neurones were observed in the spinal cord in laminae IV and V, in the region of the central canal and in the ventral horn. In the medulla oblongata, labelled cell bodies were numerous in the spinal trigeminal, cuneate and gracilis nuclei whilst rarer in the lateral reticular nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus and raphe nucleus. Regions containing autonomic efferent neurones were predominantly devoid of labelling with only occasional labelled neurones being observed. Dual immunohistochemistry revealed that some Kv3.3-IR neurones in the ventral medullary reticular nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal horn, ventral horn and central canal region were also immunoreactive for the Kv3.1b subunit. The presence of Kv3.3 subunits in terminals was confirmed by co-localisation of Kv3.3-IR with the synaptic vesicle protein SV2, the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT2 and the glycine transporter GlyT2. Co-localisation of Kv3.3-IR was not observed with VGluT1, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin or choline acetyl transferase. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Kv3.3-IR in terminals and somatic membranes in ventral horn neurones, but not motoneurones. This study provides evidence supporting a role for Kv3.3 subunits in regulating neuronal excitability

  2. Null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase μ1 and glutathione S-transferase θ1 are associated with osteosarcoma risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, JICHENG; DENG, WEI; WANG, LAIYING; QI, WANLI

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms has been reported to be associated with osteosarcoma; however, the results of previous studies are conflicting. Thus, in the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on osteosarcoma risk. A literature search was performed in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to identify case-control studies published prior to March 2014. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In addition, Begg’s test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analysis were performed to ensure the accuracy of the results. The meta-analysis results demonstrated no significant association between the null genotype of GSTM1 and osteosarcoma risk (OR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.37–1.85). By contrast, the results revealed a significant association for the comparison of null vs. non-null genotypes of GSTT1 (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.09–2.19). In conclusion, the GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with an increased risk of developing osteosarcoma. Further studies with larger sample sizes and well-designed methodologies are required to verify these conclusions. PMID:25789067

  3. Mice Deficient in Glutathione Transferase Zeta/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Exhibit a Range of Pathological Changes and Elevated Expression of Alpha, Mu, and Pi Class Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cindy E.L.; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Blackburn, Anneke C.; Davis, Richard P.; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Koina, Mark E.; Anders, M.W.; Board, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Glutathione transferase zeta (GSTZ1-1) is the major enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of α-halo acids such as dichloroacetic acid, a carcinogenic contaminant of chlorinated water. GSTZ1-1 is identical with maleylacetoacetate isomerase, which catalyzes the penultimate step in the catabolic pathways for phenylalanine and tyrosine. In this study we have deleted the Gstz1 gene in BALB/c mice and characterized their phenotype. Gstz1−/− mice do not have demonstrable activity with maleylacetone and α-halo acid substrates, and other GSTs do not compensate for the loss of this enzyme. When fed a standard diet, the GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed enlarged liver and kidneys as well as splenic atrophy. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed multifocal hepatitis and ultrastructural changes in the kidney. The addition of 3% (w/v) phenylalanine to the drinking water was lethal for young mice (<28 days old) and caused liver necrosis, macrovesicular steatosis, splenic atrophy, and a significant loss of circulating leukocytes in older surviving mice. GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed constitutive induction of alpha, mu, and pi class GSTs as well as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1. The overall response is consistent with the chronic accumulation of a toxic metabolite(s). We detected the accumulation of succinylacetone in the serum of deficient mice but cannot exclude the possibility that maleylacetoacetate and maleylacetone may also accumulate. PMID:15277241

  4. Hybrid Rubisco of tomato large subunits and tobacco small subunits is functional in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Hai; Webb, James; Huang, Yi-Hong; Lin, Li; Tang, Ri-Sheng; Liu, Aimin

    2011-03-01

    Biogenesis of functional ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in plants requires specific assembly in the chloroplast of the imported, cytosol-synthesized small subunits (SS) with the chloroplast-made large subunits (LS). Accumulating evidence indicates that chloroplasts (plastids) generally have a low tolerance for assembling foreign or modified Rubisco. To explore Rubisco engineering, we created two lines of transplastomic tobacco plants whose rbcL gene was replaced by tomato-derived rbcL: plant LLS2 with Rubisco composed of tobacco SS and Q437R LS and plant LLS4 with a hybrid Rubisco of tobacco SS and tomato LS (representing four substitutions of Y226F, A230T, S279T and Q437R from tobacco LS). Plant LLS2 exhibited similar phenotypes as the wild type. Plant LLS4 showed lower chlorophyll and Rubisco levels particularly in young emerging leaves, lower photosynthesis rates and biomass during early stages of development, but was able to reach reproductive maturity and somewhat wild type-like phenotype under ambient CO₂ condition. In vitro assays detected similar carboxylase activity and RuBP affinity in LLS2 and LLS4 plants as in wild type. Our studies demonstrated that tomato LS was sufficiently assembled with tobacco SS into functional Rubisco. The hybrid Rubisco of tomato LS and tobacco SS can drive photosynthesis that supports photoautotrophic growth and reproduction of tobacco plants under ambient CO₂ and light conditions. We discuss the effect of these residue substitutions on Rubisco activity and the possible attribution of chlorophyll deficiency to the in planta photosynthesis performance in the hybrid Rubisco plants.

  5. NOX Activation by Subunit Interaction and Underlying Mechanisms in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Radhika; Geng, Xiaokun; Li, Fengwu; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme complex with the sole function of producing superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NADPH. Vital to the immune system as well as cellular signaling, NOX is also involved in the pathologies of a wide variety of disease states. Particularly, it is an integral player in many neurological diseases, including stroke, TBI, and neurodegenerative diseases. Pathologically, NOX produces an excessive amount of ROS that exceed the body’s antioxidant ability to neutralize them, leading to oxidative stress and aberrant signaling. This prevalence makes it an attractive therapeutic target and as such, NOX inhibitors have been studied and developed to counter NOX’s deleterious effects. However, recent studies of NOX have created a better understanding of the NOX complex. Comprised of independent cytosolic subunits, p47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and Rac, and membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, the NOX complex requires a unique activation process through subunit interaction. Of these subunits, p47-phox plays the most important role in activation, binding and translocating the cytosolic subunits to the membrane and anchoring to p22-phox to organize the complex for NOX activation and function. Moreover, these interactions, particularly that between p47-phox and p22-phox, are dependent on phosphorylation initiated by upstream processes involving protein kinase C (PKC). This review will look at these interactions between subunits and with PKC. It will focus on the interaction involving p47-phox with p22-phox, key in bringing the cytosolic subunits to the membrane. Furthermore, the implication of these interactions as a target for NOX inhibitors such as apocynin will be discussed as a potential avenue for further investigation, in order to develop more specific NOX inhibitors based on the inhibition of NOX assembly and activation. PMID:28119569

  6. Protein Expression of Proteasome Subunits in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Madeline R; Rubio, Maria D; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major regulator of protein processing, trafficking, and degradation. While protein ubiquitination is utilized for many cellular processes, one major function of this system is to target proteins to the proteasome for degradation. In schizophrenia, studies have found UPS transcript abnormalities in both blood and brain, and we have previously reported decreased protein expression of ubiquitin-associated proteins in brain. To test whether the proteasome is similarly dysregulated, we measured the protein expression of proteasome catalytic subunits as well as essential subunits from proteasome regulatory complexes in 14 pair-matched schizophrenia and comparison subjects in superior temporal cortex. We found decreased expression of Rpt1, Rpt3, and Rpt6, subunits of the 19S regulatory particle essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the proteasome. Additionally, the α subunit of the 11S αβ regulatory particle, which enhances proteasomal degradation of small peptides and unfolded proteins, was also decreased. Haloperidol-treated rats did not have altered expression of these subunits, suggesting the changes we observed in schizophrenia are likely not due to chronic antipsychotic treatment. Interestingly, expression of the catalytic subunits of both the standard and immunoproteasome were unchanged, suggesting the abnormalities we observed may be specific to the complexed state of the proteasome. Aging has significant effects on the proteasome, and several subunits (20S β2, Rpn10, Rpn13, 11Sβ, and 11Sγ) were significantly correlated with subject age. These data provide further evidence of dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in schizophrenia, and suggest that altered proteasome activity may be associated with the pathophysiology of this illness. PMID:26202105

  7. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs.

  8. Externalization and recognition by macrophages of large subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 in apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Yuji; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Manaka, Junko; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Takio, Koji; Zhang Jianting; Suganuma, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu . E-mail: nakanaka@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-09-10

    We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages [C. Fujii, A. Shiratsuchi, J. Manaka, S. Yonehara, Y. Nakanishi. Cell Death Differ. 8 (2001) 1113-1122]. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a was expressed in a culture cell line as a protein fused to green fluorescence protein, the fusion protein was detected at the cell surface only after the induction of apoptosis. The same phenomenon was seen when the localization of endogenous eIF3a was determined using anti-eIF3a antibody, and eIF3a seemed to be partially degraded during apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterially expressed N-terminal half of eIF3a fused to glutathione S-transferase bound to the surface of macrophages and inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages when it was added to phagocytosis reactions. These results collectively suggest that eIF3a translocates to the cell surface upon apoptosis, probably after partial degradation, and bridges apoptotic cells and macrophages to enhance phagocytosis.

  9. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  10. A distinct holoenzyme organization for two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Philip H.; Jo, Jeanyoung; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Min-Han; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Tong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) has important roles in metabolism and is crucial for virulence for some pathogenic bacteria. PC contains biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. It is a single-chain enzyme in eukaryotes and most bacteria, and functions as a 500 kD homo-tetramer. In contrast, PC is a two-subunit enzyme in a collection of Gram-negative bacteria, with the α subunit containing the BC and the β subunit the CT and BCCP domains, and it is believed that the holoenzyme has α4β4 stoichiometry. We report here the crystal structures of a two-subunit PC from Methylobacillus flagellatus. Surprisingly, our structures reveal an α2β4 stoichiometry, and the overall architecture of the holoenzyme is strikingly different from that of the homo-tetrameric PCs. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies confirm the stoichiometry and other structural observations. Our functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa show that its two-subunit PC is important for colony morphogenesis. PMID:27708276

  11. O-GlcNAc transferase invokes nucleotide sugar pyrophosphate participation in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schimpl, Marianne; Zheng, Xiaowei; Borodkin, Vladimir S; Blair, David E; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W; Navratilova, Iva; Aristotelous, Tonia; Albarbarawi, Osama; Robinson, David A; Macnaughtan, Megan A; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2012-12-01

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification on hundreds of intracellular proteins in metazoa, catalyzed by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) using unknown mechanisms of transfer and substrate recognition. Through crystallographic snapshots and mechanism-inspired chemical probes, we define how human OGT recognizes the sugar donor and acceptor peptide and uses a new catalytic mechanism of glycosyl transfer, involving the sugar donor α-phosphate as the catalytic base as well as an essential lysine. This mechanism seems to be a unique evolutionary solution to the spatial constraints imposed by a bulky protein acceptor substrate and explains the unexpected specificity of a recently reported metabolic OGT inhibitor.

  12. Glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) expression in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Horti, Maria; Kandilaris, Kosmas; Skolarikos, Andreas; Trakas, Nikolaos; Kastriotis, Ioannis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance correlates with unfavourable treatment outcomes in numerous cancers including renal cell carcinoma. The expression and clinical relevance of Glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi), a multidrug resistance factor, in kidney tumors remain controversial. We analyzed the expression of GST-pi in 60 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal cell carcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry and compared them with matched normal regions of the kidney. A significantly higher expression of GST-pi was observed in 87% of clear cell carcinoma and 50% of papillary subtypes. GST-pi expression did not correlate with tumor grade or patient survival. GST-pi is unlikely to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. However, further studies with large number of samples are warranted to establish the role of GST-pi, if any, in intrinsic or acquired resistance of renal cell carcinoma to conventional treatments.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase mediates an ageing response to mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, Beverley M.; Brockway, Nicole; Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Yang, Yoing; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    To understand primary mitochondrial disease, we utilized a complex I-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, gas-1. These animals strongly upregulate the expression of gst-14 (encoding a glutathione S-transferase). Knockdown of gst-14 dramatically extends the lifespan of gas-1 and increases hydroxynonenal (HNE) modified mitochondrial proteins without improving complex I function. We observed no change in reactive oxygen species levels as measured by Mitosox staining, consistent with a potential role of GST-14 in HNE clearance. The upregulation of gst-14 in gas-1 animals is specific to the pharynx. These data suggest that an HNE-mediated response in the pharynx could be beneficial for lifespan extension in the context of complex I dysfunction in C. elegans. Thus, whereas HNE is typically considered damaging, our work is consistent with recent reports of its role in signaling, and that in this case, the signal is pro-longevity in a model of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26704446

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of glutathione transferases from cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Susanne C.; Tang, Julian; Hansen, Guido; Gorman, Michael A.; Wiktelius, Eric; Stenberg, Gun; Parker, Michael W.

    2009-05-08

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of multifunctional enzymes that are found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Their primary function is to remove toxins derived from exogenous sources or the products of metabolism from the cell. Mammalian GSTs have been extensively studied, in contrast to bacterial GSTs which have received relatively scant attention. A new class of GSTs called Chi has recently been identified in cyanobacteria. Chi GSTs exhibit a high glutathionylation activity towards isothiocyanates, compounds that are normally found in plants. Here, the crystallization of two GSTs are presented: TeGST produced by Thermosynechococcus elongates BP-1 and SeGST from Synechococcus elongates PCC 6301. Both enzymes formed crystals that diffracted to high resolution and appeared to be suitable for further X-ray diffraction studies. The structures of these GSTs may shed further light on the evolution of GST catalytic activity and in particular why these enzymes possess catalytic activity towards plant antimicrobial compounds.

  15. Glutathione transferases are structural and functional outliers in the thioredoxin fold.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Holly J; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-11-24

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous scavengers of toxic compounds that fall, structurally and functionally, within the thioredoxin fold suprafamily. The fundamental catalytic capability of GSTs is catalysis of the nucleophilic addition or substitution of glutathione at electrophilic centers in a wide range of small electrophilic compounds. While specific GSTs have been studied in detail, little else is known about the structural and functional relationships between different groupings of GSTs. Through a global analysis of sequence and structural similarity, it was determined that variation in the binding of glutathione between the two major subgroups of cytosolic (soluble) GSTs results in a different mode of glutathione activation. Additionally, the convergent features of glutathione binding between cytosolic GSTs and mitochondrial GST kappa are described. The identification of these structural and functional themes helps to illuminate some of the fundamental contributions of the thioredoxin fold to catalysis in the GSTs and clarify how the thioredoxin fold can be modified to enable new functions.

  16. Biochemical properties of an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Banno, Yutaka; Aso, Yoichi

    2009-05-01

    A cDNA encoding an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori (bmGSTO), was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting clone was sequenced and deduced for amino acid sequence, which revealed 40, 40, and 39% identities to omega-class GSTs from human, pig, and mouse, respectively. A recombinant protein (rbmGSTO) was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells in a soluble form and purified to homogeneity. rbmGSTO was able to catalyze the biotranslation of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a model substrate for GST, as well as with 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation. This enzyme was shown to have high affinity for organophosphorus insecticide and was present abundantly in silkmoth strain exhibiting fenitrothion resistance. These results indicate that bmGSTO could be involved in the increase in level of insecticide resistance for lepidopteran insects.

  17. Molybdenum and tungsten oxygen transferases--and functional diversity within a common active site motif.

    PubMed

    Pushie, M Jake; Cotelesage, Julien J; George, Graham N

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are the only second and third-row transition elements with a known function in living organisms. The molybdenum and tungsten enzymes show common structural features, with the metal being bound by a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor called molybdopterin. They catalyze a variety of oxygen transferase reactions coupled with two-electron redox chemistry in which the metal cycles between the +6 and +4 oxidation states usually with water, either product or substrate, providing the oxygen. The functional roles filled by the molybdenum and tungsten enzymes are diverse; for example, they play essential roles in microbial respiration, in the uptake of nitrogen in green plants, and in human health. Together, the enzymes form a superfamily which is among the most prevalent known, being found in all kingdoms of life. This review discusses what is known of the active site structures and the mechanisms, together with some recent insights into the evolution of these important enzyme systems.

  18. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  19. Structural studies of a baboon (Papio sp.) plasma protein inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transferase.

    PubMed

    Buchko, G W; Rozek, A; Kanda, P; Kennedy, M A; Cushley, R J

    2000-08-01

    A 38-residue protein associated with cholesteryl ester transfer inhibition has been identified in baboons (Papio sp.). The cholesteryl ester transfer inhibitor protein (CETIP) corresponds to the N-terminus of baboon apoC-I. Relative to CETIP, baboon apoC-I is a weak inhibitor of baboon cholesteryl ester transferase (CET). To study the structural features responsible for CET inhibition, CETIP was synthesized by solid-phase methods. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to model the lipoprotein environment, the solution structure of CETIP was probed by optical and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Circular dichroism data show that the protein lacks a well-defined structure in water but, upon the addition of SDS, becomes helical (56%). A small blue shift of 8 nm was observed in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of CETIP in the presence of saturating amounts of SDS, suggesting that tryptophan-23 is not buried deeply in the lipid environment. The helical nature of CETIP in the presence of SDS was confirmed by upfield 1Halpha secondary shifts and an average solution structure determined by distance geometry/simulated annealing calculations using 476 NOE-based distance restraints. The backbone (N-Calpha-C=O) root-mean-square deviation of an ensemble of 17 out of 25 calculated structures superimposed on the average structure was 1.06+0.30 A using residues V4-P35 and 0.51+/-0.17 A using residues A7-S32. Although the side-chain orientations fit the basic description of a class A amphipathic helix, both intramolecular salt bridge formation and "snorkeling" of basic side chains toward the polar face play minor, if any, roles in stabilizing the lipid-bound amphipathic structure. Conformational features of the calculated structures for CETIP are discussed relative to models of CETIP inhibition of cholesteryl ester transferase.

  20. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase-II inactivity aggravates lipid accumulation in rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juan-Juan; Yao, Min; Yang, Jie; Cai, Yin; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Wang, Li; Yao, Deng-Bing; Yao, Deng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the dynamic alteration of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT-II) expression during malignant transformation of rat hepatocytes. METHODS Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with normal, high fat (HF), and HF containing 2-fluorenylacetamide (2-FAA) diet, respectively. According to the Hematoxylin and Eosin staining of livers, rats were divided into control, fatty liver, degeneration, precancerous, and cancerous groups. Liver lipids were dyed with Oil Red O, CPT-II alterations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and compared with CPT-II specific concentration (μg/mg protein). Levels of total cholesterol (Tch), triglyceride (TG), and amino-transferases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] were determined by the routine methods. RESULTS After intake of HF and/or HF+2-FAA diets, the rat livers showed mass lipid accumulation. The lipid level in the control group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The changes of serum TG and Tch levels were abnormally increasing, 2-3 times more than those in the controls (P < 0.05). During the rat liver morphological changes from normal to cancer development process with hepatocyte injury, serum AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (4-8 times, P < 0.05) than those in the control group. The specific concentration of CPT-II in liver tissues progressively decreased during hepatocyte malignant transformation, with the lowest CPT-II levels in the cancer group than in any of the other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Low CPT-II expression might lead to abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation, which should promote the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. PMID:28127199

  1. A Glutathione Transferase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens Reveals a Novel Class of Bacterial GST Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Labrou, Nikolaos E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we report a novel class of glutathione transferases (GSTs) originated from the pathogenic soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, with structural and catalytic properties not observed previously in prokaryotic and eukaryotic GST isoenzymes. A GST-like sequence from A. tumefaciens C58 (Atu3701) with low similarity to other characterized GST family of enzymes was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to a distinct GST class not previously described and restricted only in soil bacteria, called the Eta class (H). This enzyme (designated as AtuGSTH1-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and its structural and catalytic properties were investigated. Functional analysis showed that AtuGSTH1-1 exhibits significant transferase activity against the common substrates aryl halides, as well as very high peroxidase activity towards organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of AtuGSTH1-1 was determined at 1.4 Å resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione (Nb-GSH). Although AtuGSTH1-1 adopts the canonical GST fold, sequence and structural characteristics distinct from previously characterized GSTs were identified. The absence of the classic catalytic essential residues (Tyr, Ser, Cys) distinguishes AtuGSTH1-1 from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure and function. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, an Arg residue (Arg34), an electron-sharing network, and a bridge of a network of water molecules may form the basis of the catalytic mechanism. Comparative sequence analysis, structural information, and site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetic analysis showed that Phe22, Ser25, and Arg187 are additional important residues for the enzyme's catalytic efficiency and specificity. PMID:22496785

  2. The Drosophila protein palmitoylome: Characterizing palmitoyl-thioesterases and DHHC palmitoyl-transferases

    PubMed Central

    Bannan, Barbra A.; Van Etten, Jamie; Kohler, John A.; Tsoi, Yui; Hansen, Nicole M.; Sigmon, Stacey; Fowler, Elizabeth; Buff, Haley; Williams, Tiffany S.; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Glaser, Robert L.; Korey, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of a palmitate moiety to a cysteine residue through a covalent thioester bond. The addition and removal of this modification is controlled by both palmitoyl acyl-transferases and thioesterases. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified 22 DHHC family palmitoyl acyl-transferase homologs in the Drosophila genome. We used in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and published FlyAtlas microarray data to characterize the expression patterns of all 22 fly homologs. Our results indicate that all are expressed genes, but several, including CG1407, CG4676, CG5620, CG6017/dHIP14, CG6618, CG6627, and CG17257 appear to be enriched in neural tissues suggesting that they are important for neural function. Furthermore, we have found that several may be expressed in a sex-specific manner with adult male-specific expression of CG4483 and CG17195. Using tagged versions of the DHHC genes, we demonstrate that fly DHHC proteins are primarily located in either the Golgi Apparatus or Endoplasmic Reticulum in S2 cells, except for CG1407, which was found on the plasma membrane. We also characterized the subcellular localization and expression of the three known thioesterases: Palmitoyl-protein Thioesterase 1 (Ppt1), Palmitoyl-protein Thioesterase 2 (Ppt2), and Acyl-protein Thioesterase 1 (APT1). Our results indicate that Ppt1 and Ppt2 are the major lysosomal thioesterases while APT1 is the likely cytoplasmic thioesterase. Finally, in vivo rescue experiments show that Ppt2 expression cannot rescue the neural inclusion phenotypes associated with loss of Ppt1, further supporting distinct functions and substrates for these two thioesterases. These results will serve as the basis for a more complete understanding of the protein palmitoylome's normal cellular functions in the fly and will lead to further insights into the molecular etiology of diseases associated with the mis-regulation of palmitoylation. PMID:18719403

  3. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit.

  4. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines.

  5. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Keegan J.; Royal, Joshua M.; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction. PMID:25802972

  6. Cholera toxin B: one subunit with many pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Keegan J; Royal, Joshua M; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-20

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  7. Antigenic breadth: a missing ingredient in HSV-2 subunit vaccines?

    PubMed

    Halford, William P

    2014-06-01

    The successful human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus subunit vaccines contain single viral proteins that represent 22 and 12%, respectively, of the antigens encoded by these tiny viruses. The herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genome is >20 times larger. Thus, a single protein subunit represents 1% of HSV-2's total antigenic breadth. Antigenic breadth may explain why HSV-2 glycoprotein subunit vaccines have failed in clinical trials, and why live HSV-2 vaccines that express 99% of HSV-2's proteome may be more effective. I review the mounting evidence that live HSV-2 vaccines offer a greater opportunity to stop the spread of genital herpes, and I consider the unfounded 'safety concerns' that have kept live HSV-2 vaccines out of U.S. clinical trials for 25 years.

  8. COMPARATIVE EXPRESSION OF TWO ALPHA CLASS GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES IN HUMAN ADULT AND PRENATAL LIVER TISSUES. (R827441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The ability of the fetus to detoxify transplacental drugs and chemicals can be a critical determinant of teratogenesis and developmental toxicity. Developmentally regulated expression of alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is of particular int...

  9. Function and phylogeny of bacterial butyryl-CoA:acetate transferases and their diversity in the proximal colon of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studying the host-associated butyrate-producing bacterial community is important because butyrate is essential for colonic homeostasis and gut health. Previous research has identified the butyryl-coA:acetate transferase (2.3.8.3) as a the main gene for butyrate production in intestinal ecosystems; h...

  10. BIOTRANSFORMATION AND GENOTOXICITY OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: DNA BINDING MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) was
    previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium that overexpress rat glutathione
    transferase theta 1-1 (GSTT1-1). Several experimental approaches were undertaken in this study
    to inve...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel series of farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors as non-peptidic CAAX tetrapeptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Perez, Michel; Maraval, Catherine; Dumond, Stephan; Lamothe, Marie; Schambel, Philippe; Etiévant, Chantal; Hill, Bridget

    2003-04-17

    A novel series of compounds, derived from 4-amino-phenyl piperazine, has been designed to selectively inhibit farnesyl protein transferase (FPTase) as CAAX tetrapeptide analogues. Certain of these compounds were shown to possess low nanomolar inhibitory activity both against the isolated enzyme and in cultured cells.

  12. Dimethyl adenosine transferase (KsgA) deficiency in Salmonella Enteritidis confers susceptibility to high osmolarity and virulence attenuation in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Dimethyladenosine transferase (KsgA) performs diverse roles in bacteria including ribosomal maturation, DNA mismatch repair, and synthesis of KsgA is responsive to antibiotics and cold temperature. We previously showed that ksgA mutation in Salmonella Enteritidis results in impaired invasiveness i...

  13. The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. Howev...

  14. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  15. G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Strathmann, M P; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) are central to the signaling processes of multicellular organisms. We have explored the diversity of the G protein subunits in mammals and found evidence for a large family of genes that encode the alpha subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons show that the different alpha subunits fall into at least three classes. These classes have been conserved in animals separated by considerable evolutionary distances; they are present in mammals, Drosophila, and nematodes. We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha 12 and G alpha 13, that define a fourth class. The translation products are predicted to have molecular masses of 44 kDa and to be insensitive to ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They share 67% amino acid sequence identity with each other and less than 45% identity with other alpha subunits. Their transcripts can be detected in every tissue examined, although the relative levels of the G alpha 13 message appear somewhat variable. Images PMID:1905812

  16. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  17. Stiffness of γ subunit of F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a molecular motor in which the γ subunit rotates inside the α(3)β(3) ring upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Recent works on single-molecule manipulation of F(1)-ATPase have shown that kinetic parameters such as the on-rate of ATP and the off-rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) strongly depend on the rotary angle of the γ subunit (Hirono-Hara et al. 2005; Iko et al. 2009). These findings provide important insight into how individual reaction steps release energy to power F(1) and also have implications regarding ATP synthesis and how reaction steps are reversed upon reverse rotation. An important issue regarding the angular dependence of kinetic parameters is that the angular position of a magnetic bead rotation probe could be larger than the actual position of the γ subunit due to the torsional elasticity of the system. In the present study, we assessed the stiffness of two different portions of F(1) from thermophilic Bacillus PS3: the internal part of the γ subunit embedded in the α(3)β(3) ring, and the complex of the external part of the γ subunit and the α(3)β(3) ring (and streptavidin and magnetic bead), by comparing rotational fluctuations before and after crosslinkage between the rotor and stator. The torsional stiffnesses of the internal and remaining parts were determined to be around 223 and 73 pNnm/radian, respectively. Based on these values, it was estimated that the actual angular position of the internal part of the γ subunit is one-fourth of the magnetic bead position upon stalling using an external magnetic field. The estimated elasticity also partially explains the accommodation of the intrinsic step size mismatch between F(o) and F(1)-ATPase.

  18. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  19. Micelle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Trimaille, Thomas; Verrier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the development of subunit vaccines with purified or recombinant antigens for cancer and infectious diseases, the design of improved and safe adjuvants able to efficiently target the antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, represents a crucial challenge. Nanoparticle-based antigen delivery systems have been identified as an innovative strategy to improve the efficacy of subunit vaccines. Among them, self-assembled micellar nanoparticles from amphiphilic (macro)molecules have recently emerged as promising candidates. In this short review, we report on the recent research findings highlighting the versatility and potential of such systems in vaccine delivery. PMID:26426060

  20. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  1. Carrier subunit of plasma membrane transporter is required for oxidative folding of its helper subunit.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mònica; Chillarón, Josep

    2012-05-25

    We study the amino acid transport system b(0,+) as a model for folding, assembly, and early traffic of membrane protein complexes. System b(0,+) is made of two disulfide-linked membrane subunits: the carrier, b(0,+) amino acid transporter (b(0,+)AT), a polytopic protein, and the helper, related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter (rBAT), a type II glycoprotein. rBAT ectodomain mutants display folding/trafficking defects that lead to type I cystinuria. Here we show that, in the presence of b(0,+)AT, three disulfides were formed in the rBAT ectodomain. Disulfides Cys-242-Cys-273 and Cys-571-Cys-666 were essential for biogenesis. Cys-673-Cys-685 was dispensable, but the single mutants C673S, and C685S showed compromised stability and trafficking. Cys-242-Cys-273 likely was the first disulfide to form, and unpaired Cys-242 or Cys-273 disrupted oxidative folding. Strikingly, unassembled rBAT was found as an ensemble of different redox species, mainly monomeric. The ensemble did not change upon inhibition of rBAT degradation. Overall, these results indicated a b(0,+)AT-dependent oxidative folding of the rBAT ectodomain, with the initial and probably cotranslational formation of Cys-242-Cys-273, followed by the oxidation of Cys-571-Cys-666 and Cys-673-Cys-685, that was completed posttranslationally.

  2. An alternative mechanism for the catalysis of peptide bond formation by L/F transferase: substrate binding and orientation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela W; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Abeysundara, Heshani; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Fahlman, Richard P

    2011-06-17

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase (L/F transferase) catalyzes the transfer of a leucine or a phenylalanine from an aminoacyl-tRNA to the N-terminus of a protein substrate. This N-terminal addition of an amino acid is analogous to that of peptide synthesis by ribosomes. A previously proposed catalytic mechanism for Escherichia coli L/F transferase identified the conserved aspartate 186 (D186) and glutamine 188 (Q188) as key catalytic residues. We have reassessed the role of D186 and Q188 by investigating the enzymatic reactions and kinetics of enzymes possessing mutations to these active-site residues. Additionally three other amino acids proposed to be involved in aminoacyl-tRNA substrate binding are investigated for comparison. By quantitatively measuring product formation using a quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based assay, our results clearly demonstrate that, despite significant reduction in enzymatic activity as a result of different point mutations introduced into the active site of L/F transferase, the formation of product is still observed upon extended incubations. Our kinetic data and existing X-ray crystal structures result in a proposal that the critical roles of D186 and Q188, like the other amino acids in the active site, are for substrate binding and orientation and do not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Overall, we propose that L/F transferase does not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation but catalyzes the reaction by binding and orientating the substrates for reaction in an analogous mechanism that has been described for ribosomes.

  3. Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, S M; Kofoed, C; Vester, B

    2000-12-01

    Many antibiotics, including the macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes. Only some of the macrolides affect the peptidyl transferase reaction. The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase. All these have a disaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring with a mycarose moiety. We have investigated the functional role of this mycarose moiety. The 14-member ring macrolide erythromycin and the 16-member ring macrolides desmycosin and chalcomycin do not inhibit the peptidyl transferase reaction. These drugs have a monosaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring. The presence of mycarose was correlated with inhibition of peptidyl transferase, footprints on 23 S rRNA and whether the macrolide can compete with binding of hygromycin A to the ribosome. The binding sites of the macrolides to Escherichia coli ribosomes were investigated by chemical probing of domains II and V of 23 S rRNA. The common binding site is around position A2058, while effects on U2506 depend on the presence of the mycarose sugar. Also, protection at position A752 indicates that a mycinose moiety at position 14 in 16-member ring macrolides interact with hairpin 35 in domain II. Competitive footprinting of ribosomal binding of hygromycin A and macrolides showed that tylosin and spiramycin reduce the hygromycin A protections of nucleotides in 23 S rRNA and that carbomycin abolishes its binding. In contrast, the macrolides that do not inhibit the peptidyl transferase reaction bind to the ribosomes concurrently with hygromycin A. Data are presented to argue that a disaccharide at position 5 in the lactone ring of macrolides is essential for inhibition of peptide bond formation and that the mycarose moiety is placed near the conserved U2506 in the central loop region of domain V 23 S rRNA.

  4. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity in human melanoma cells by alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives. Effects of acrolein, cinnamaldehyde, citral, crotonaldehyde, curcumin, ethacrynic acid, and trans-2-hexenal.

    PubMed

    Iersel, M L; Ploemen, J P; Struik, I; van Amersfoort, C; Keyzer, A E; Schefferlie, J G; van Bladeren, P J

    1996-10-21

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in intact human IGR-39 melanoma cells was determined by the quantification by HPLC-analysis of the excreted glutathione (GSH) conjugate (S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione; DNPSG). The major GST subunit expressed in these melanoma cells is the pi-class GST subunit P1. Using this system, the effect of exposure for 1 h to a series of alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds at non-toxic concentrations was studied. Curcumin was the most potent inhibitor (96% inhibition at 25 microM), while 67 and 61% inhibition at 25 microM was observed for ethacrynic acid and trans-2-hexenal, respectively. Moderate inhibition was observed for cinnamaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, while no inhibition was found for citral. The reactive acrolein did not inhibit the DNPSG-excretion at 2.5 microM, the highest non-toxic concentration. Up to about 50% GSH-depletion was found after treatment with crotonaldehyde, curcumin and ethacrynic acid, however the consequences for GST conjugation are presumably small. Reversible inhibition of GST was the major mechanism of inhibition of DNPSG-excretion in melanoma cells, except in the cases of curcumin and ethacrynic acid, which compounds also inactivated GSTP1-1 by covalent modification. This was clear from the fact that depending on the dose between 30 and 80% inhibition was still observed after lysis of the cells, under which conditions reversible inhibition was is absent. Intracellular levels of DNPSG remained relatively high in the case of ethacrynic acid. It is possible that ethacrynic acid also inhibits the transport of DNPSG by inhibition of the multidrug resistance-associated protein gene encoding glutathione conjugate export pump (MRP/GS-X pump) in some way.

  5. Effects of cations and cosolvents on eukaryotic ribosomal subunit conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.N.; Spremulli, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of various cations and cosolvents on the conformation of wheat germ ribosomes and ribosomal subunits have been investigated by using the techniques of circular dichroism and differential hydrogen exchange. A class of hydrogens on both the 40S and 60S subunits exchange out more rapidly as the Mg/sup 2 +/ concentration is raised, indicating that Mg/sup 2 +/ causes a change in subunit conformation. Ca/sup 2 +/ and the polyamines produce a similar increase in the rate of hydrogen exchange. These results suggest that increases in cation concentrations permit a tightening of ribosome structure and a greater degree of internalization of the rRNA. The cosolvent glycerol causes an alteration in the CD spectrum of 80S ribosomes in both the nucleic acid and protein portions of the spectrum. Glycerol also causes a decrease in the rate of exchange of a number of hydrogens on both the 40S and 60S subunits. These results are interpreted to mean that glycerol favors a more native, less denatured structure in the ribosome.

  6. The multifaceted subunit interfaces of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Nayeem, Naushaba

    2015-01-01

    The past fifteen years has seen a revolution in our understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) structure, starting with the first view of the ligand binding domain (LBD) published in 1998, and in many ways culminating in the publication of the full-length structure of GluA2 in 2009. These reports have revealed not only the central role played by subunit interfaces in iGluR function, but also myriad binding sites within interfaces for endogenous and exogenous factors. Changes in the conformation of inter-subunit interfaces are central to transmission of ligand gating into pore opening (itself a rearrangement of interfaces), and subsequent closure through desensitization. With the exception of the agonist binding site, which is located entirely within individual subunits, almost all modulatory factors affecting iGluRs appear to bind to sites in subunit interfaces. This review seeks to summarize what we currently understand about the diverse roles interfaces play in iGluR function, and to highlight questions for future research.

  7. The multifaceted subunit interfaces of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Tim; Nayeem, Naushaba

    2014-06-06

    The past fifteen years has seen a revolution in our understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) structure, starting with the first view of the ligand binding domain (LBD) published in 1998, and in many ways culminating in the publication of the full-length structure of GluA2 in 2009. These reports have revealed not only the central role played by subunit interfaces in iGluR function, but also myriad binding sites within interfaces for endogenous and exogenous factors. Changes in the conformation of inter-subunit interfaces are central to transmission of ligand gating into pore opening (itself a rearrangement of interfaces), and subsequent closure through desensitization. With the exception of the agonist binding site, which is located entirely within individual subunits, almost all modulatory factors affecting iGluRs appear to bind to sites in subunit interfaces. This review seeks to summarize what we currently understand about the diverse roles interfaces play in iGluR function, and to highlight questions for future research.

  8. Spectroscopic properties of Carcinus aestuarii hemocyanin and its structural subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Hristova, Rumiyana; Stoeva, Stanka; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1999-12-01

    Hemocyanin (Hc) of Carcinus aestuarii contains three major and one minor electrophoretically separable polypeptide chains which were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) ion exchange chromatography. N-terminal amino acid sequences of four structural subunits (SSs) from C. aestuarii were compared with known N-terminal sequences from other arthropodan hemocyanins. The conformational changes, induced by various treatments, were monitored by far UV, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical temperatures for the structural subunits, Tc, determined by fluorescence spectroscopy, are in the region of 52-59°C and coincide with the melting temperatures, Tm (49-55°C), determined by CD spectroscopy. The free energy of stabilization in water, Δ GDH 2O , toward guanidinium hydrochloride is about 1.3 times higher for the dodecameric Hc as compared to the isolated subunits and about one time higher for Ca1, comparing with other SSs. The studies reveal that the conformational stability of the native dodecamer towards various denaturants (temperature and guanidinium hydrochloride) indicate that the quaternary structure is stabilized by oligomerization between structural subunits, and the possibility of a structural role of the sugar mojeties cannot be excluded.

  9. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Brendan A.

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior. PMID:27551100

  10. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  11. ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michelle D.

    2012-02-01

    Helicases are vital enzymes that carry out strand separation of duplex nucleic acids during replication, repair and recombination. T7 helicase, a model hexameric motor, has been observed to use dTTP, but not ATP, to unwind dsDNA as it translocates along ssDNA. Whether and how different subunits of the helicase coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding during translocation is still under debate. Here we address this question using a single-molecule approach to monitor helicase unwinding. We found that T7 helicase does in fact unwind dsDNA in the presence of ATP and that the unwinding rate is even faster than that with dTTP. However, unwinding was repeatedly interrupted by sudden slippage events, ultimately preventing unwinding over a substantial distance. This behaviour was greatly reduced with the supplement of a small amount of dTTP. These findings presented an opportunity to use nucleotide mixtures to investigate helicase subunit coordination. Our results support a model where nearly all subunits coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding. Such subunit coordination may be general to many ring-shaped helicases and reveals a potential mechanism for regulation of DNA unwinding during replication.

  12. A World History Sub-Unit: Teaching about Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This document is a sub-unit teaching plan for world history teachers who want to use multicultural concepts in the world history curriculum. The objective explored includes a student response to the Turkish question of "Who are we"? Teacher preparation involves defining social and cultural roots and outlining periods of Turkish history.…

  13. Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: I. The glycosylated end of human alpha-subunit loop 2 is threaded through a beta-subunit hole.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yongna; Myers, Rebecca V; Cao, Donghui; Lin, Win; Jiang, Mei; Bernard, Michael P; Moyle, William R

    2004-08-20

    Glycoprotein hormone heterodimers are stabilized by their unusual structures in which a glycosylated loop of the alpha-subunit straddles a hole in the beta-subunit. This hole is formed when a cysteine at the end of a beta-subunit strand known as the "seatbelt" becomes "latched" by a disulfide to a cysteine in the beta-subunit core. The heterodimer is stabilized in part by the difficulty of threading the glycosylated end of the alpha-subunit loop 2 through this hole, a phenomenon required for subunit dissociation. Subunit combination in vitro, which occurs by the reverse process, can be accelerated by removing the alpha-subunit oligosaccharide. In cells, heterodimer assembly was thought to occur primarily by a mechanism in which the seatbelt is wrapped around the alpha-subunit after the subunits dock. Here we show that this "wraparound" process can be used to assemble disulfide cross-linked human choriogonadotropin analogs that contain an additional alpha-subunit cysteine, but only if the normal beta-subunit latch site has been removed. Normally, the seatbelt is latched before the subunits dock and assembly is completed when the glycosylated end of alpha-subunit loop 2 is threaded beneath the seatbelt. The unexpected finding that most assembly of human choriogonadotropin, human follitropin, and human thyrotropin heterodimers occurs in this fashion, indicates that threading may be an important phenomenon during protein folding and macromolecule assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. We suggest that the unusual structures of the glycoprotein hormones makes them useful for identifying factors that influence this process in living cells.

  14. Binding interactions with the complementary subunit of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Blum, Angela P; Van Arnam, Ethan B; German, Laurel A; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-03-08

    The agonist-binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) spans an interface between two subunits of the pentameric receptor. The principal component of this binding site is contributed by an α subunit, and it binds the cationic moiety of the nicotinic pharmacophore. The other part of the pharmacophore, a hydrogen bond acceptor, has recently been shown to bind to the complementary non-α subunit via the backbone NH of a conserved Leu. This interaction was predicted by studies of ACh-binding proteins and confirmed by functional studies of the neuronal (CNS) nAChR, α4β2. The ACh-binding protein structures further suggested that the hydrogen bond to the backbone NH is mediated by a water molecule and that a second hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the water molecule and the backbone CO of a conserved Asn, also on the non-α subunit. Here, we provide new insights into the nature of the interactions between the hydrogen bond acceptor of nicotinic agonists and the complementary subunit backbone. We studied both the nAChR of the neuromuscular junction (muscle-type) and a neuronal subtype, (α4)2(β4)3. In the muscle-type receptor, both ACh and nicotine showed a strong interaction with the Leu NH, but the potent nicotine analog epibatidine did not. This interaction was much attenuated in the α4β4 receptor. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for a functionally significant interaction with the backbone carbonyl of the relevant Asn in either receptor with an array of agonists.

  15. The centromere-kinetochore complex: a repeat subunit model

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the kinetochore and the DNA/protein composition of the centromere-kinetochore region was investigated using two novel techniques, caffeine-induced detachment of unreplicated kinetochores and stretching of kinetochores by hypotonic and/or shear forces generated in a cytocentrifuge. Kinetochore detachment was confirmed by EM and immunostaining with CREST autoantibodies. Electron microscopic analyses of serial sections demonstrated that detached kinetochores represented fragments derived from whole kinetochores. This was especially evident for the seven large kinetochores in the male Indian muntjac that gave rise to 80-100 fragments upon detachment. The kinetochore fragments, all of which interacted with spindle microtubules and progressed through the entire repertoire of mitotic movements, provide evidence for a subunit organization within the kinetochore. Further support for a repeat subunit model was obtained by stretching or uncoiling the metaphase centromere-kinetochore complex by hypotonic treatments. When immunostained with CREST autoantibodies and subsequently processed for in situ hybridization using synthetic centromere probes, stretched kinetochores displayed a linear array of fluorescent subunits arranged in a repetitive pattern along a centromeric DNA fiber. In addition to CREST antigens, each repetitive subunit was found to bind tubulin and contain cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule motor localized in the zone of the corona. Collectively, the data suggest that the kinetochore, a plate-like structure seen by EM on many eukaryotic chromosomes is formed by the folding of a linear DNA fiber consisting of tandemly repeated subunits interspersed by DNA linkers. This model, unlike any previously proposed, can account for the structural and evolutional diversity of the kinetochore and its relationship to the centromere of eukaryotic chromosomes of many species. PMID:1828250

  16. Expression of glutamate receptor subunits in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Stepulak, Andrzej; Luksch, Hella; Gebhardt, Christine; Uckermann, Ortrud; Marzahn, Jenny; Sifringer, Marco; Rzeski, Wojciech; Staufner, Christian; Brocke, Katja S; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a role for glutamate and its receptors in the biology of cancer. This study was designed to systematically analyze the expression of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits in various human cancer cell lines, compare expression levels to those in human brain tissue and, using electrophysiological techniques, explore whether cancer cells respond to glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists. Expression analysis of glutamate receptor subunits NR1-NR3B, GluR1-GluR7, KA1, KA2 and mGluR1-mGluR8 was performed by means of RT-PCR in human rhabdomyosarcoma/medulloblastoma (TE671), neuroblastoma (SK-NA-S), thyroid carcinoma (FTC 238), lung carcinoma (SK-LU-1), astrocytoma (MOGGCCM), multiple myeloma (RPMI 8226), glioma (U87-MG and U343), lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT 29), T cell leukemia cells (Jurkat E6.1), breast carcinoma (T47D) and colon adenocarcinoma (LS180). Analysis revealed that all glutamate receptor subunits were differentially expressed in the tumor cell lines. For the majority of tumors, expression levels of NR2B, GluR4, GluR6 and KA2 were lower compared to human brain tissue. Confocal imaging revealed that selected glutamate receptor subunit proteins were expressed in tumor cells. By means of patch-clamp analysis, it was shown that A549 and TE671 cells depolarized in response to application of glutamate agonists and that this effect was reversed by glutamate receptor antagonists. This study reveals that glutamate receptor subunits are differentially expressed in human tumor cell lines at the mRNA and the protein level, and that their expression is associated with the formation of functional channels. The potential role of glutamate receptor antagonists in cancer therapy is a feasible goal to be explored in clinical trials.

  17. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    There are two clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor complexes in the cell, one associated with the plasma membrane and one associated with the TGN. The subunit composition of the plasma membrane adaptor complex is alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19. To search for adaptor targeting signals, we have constructed chimeras between alpha-adaptin and gamma-adaptin within their NH2-terminal domains. We have identified stretches of sequence in the two proteins between amino acids approximately 130 and 330-350 that are essential for targeting. Immunoprecipitation reveals that this region determines whether a construct coassemblies with AP50 and AP17, or with AP47 and AP19. These observations suggest that these other subunits may play an important role in targeting. In contrast, beta- and beta'-adaptins are clearly not involved in this event. Chimeras between the alpha- and gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domains reveal the presence of a second targeting signal. We have further investigated the interactions between the adaptor subunits using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions can be detected between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the alpha/gamma- adaptins, between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the AP50/AP47 subunits, between alpha-adaptin and AP17, and between gamma-adaptin and AP19. These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane. PMID:7593184

  18. Heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gγ13 is critical to olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Ponissery-Saidu, Samsudeen; Yee, Karen; Wang, Hong; Chen, Meng-Ling; Iguchi, Naoko; Zhang, Genhua; Jiang, Ping; Reisert, Johannes; Huang, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    The activation of G-protein-coupled olfactory receptors on the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) triggers a signaling cascade, which is mediated by a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of α, β and γ subunits. Although its α subunit, Gαolf, has been identified and well characterized, the identities of its β and γ subunits and their function in olfactory signal transduction, however, have not been well established yet. We and others have found the expression of Gγ13 in the olfactory epithelium, particularly in the cilia of the OSNs. In this study, we generated a conditional gene knockout mouse line to specifically nullify Gγ13 expression in the olfactory marker protein-expressing OSNs. Immunohistochemical and Western blot results showed that Gγ13 subunit was indeed eliminated in the mutant mice’s olfactory epithelium. Intriguingly, Gαolf, β1 subunits, Ric-8B and CEP290 proteins were also absent in the epithelium whereas the presence of the effector enzyme adenylyl cyclase III remained largely unaltered. Electro-olfactogram studies showed that the mutant animals had greatly reduced responses to a battery of odorants including three presumable pheromones. Behavioral tests indicated that the mutant mice had a remarkably reduced ability to perform an odor-guided search task although their motivation and agility seemed normal. Our results indicate that Gαolf exclusively forms a functional heterotrimeric G protein with Gβ1 and Gγ13 in OSNs, mediating olfactory signal transduction. The identification of the olfactory G protein’s βγ moiety has provided a novel approach to understanding the feedback regulation of olfactory signal transduction pathways as well as the control of subcellular structures of OSNs. PMID:23637188

  19. ATP Synthesis-coupled and -uncoupled Acetate Production from Acetyl-CoA by Mitochondrial Acetate:Succinate CoA-transferase and Acetyl-CoA Thioesterase in Trypanosoma*

    PubMed Central

    Millerioux, Yoann; Morand, Pauline; Biran, Marc; Mazet, Muriel; Moreau, Patrick; Wargnies, Marion; Ebikeme, Charles; Deramchia, Kamel; Gales, Lara; Portais, Jean-Charles; Boshart, Michael; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Insect stage trypanosomes use an “acetate shuttle” to transfer mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to the cytosol for the essential fatty acid biosynthesis. The mitochondrial acetate sources are acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT) and an unknown enzymatic activity. We have identified a gene encoding acetyl-CoA thioesterase (ACH) activity, which is shown to be the second acetate source. First, RNAi-mediated repression of ASCT in the ACH null background abolishes acetate production from glucose, as opposed to both single ASCT and ACH mutants. Second, incorporation of radiolabeled glucose into fatty acids is also abolished in this ACH/ASCT double mutant. ASCT is involved in ATP production, whereas ACH is not, because the ASCT null mutant is ∼1000 times more sensitive to oligomycin, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial F0/F1-ATP synthase, than wild-type cells or the ACH null mutant. This was confirmed by RNAi repression of the F0/F1-ATP synthase F1β subunit, which is lethal when performed in the ASCT null background but not in the wild-type cells or the ACH null background. We concluded that acetate is produced from both ASCT and ACH; however, only ASCT is responsible, together with the F0/F1-ATP synthase, for ATP production in the mitochondrion. PMID:22474284

  20. Activation and inhibition of rubber transferases by metal cofactors and pyrophosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Deborah J; da Costa, Bernardo M T; Espy, Stephanie C; Keasling, Jay D; Cornish, Katrina

    2003-09-01

    Metal cofactors are necessary for the activity of alkylation by prenyl transfer in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Rubber transferase (RuT, a cis-prenyl transferase) associated with purified rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Ficus elastica can use magnesium and manganese interchangably to achieve maximum velocity. We define the concentration of activator required for maximum velocity as [A](max). The [A](max)(Mg2+) in F. elastica (100 mM) is 10 times the [A](max)(Mg2+) for either H. brasiliensis (10 mM) or P. argentatum (8 mM). The [A](max)(Mn2+) in F. elastica (11 mM), H. brasiliensis (3.8 mM) and P. argentatum (6.8 mM) and the [A](max)(Mg2+) in H. brasiliensis (10 mM) and P. argentatum (8 mM) are similar. The differences in [A](max)(Mg2+) correlate with the actual endogenous Mg(2+) concentrations in the latex of living plants. Extremely low Mn(2+) levels in vivo indicate that Mg(2+) is the RuT cofactor in living H. brasiliensis and F. elastica trees. Kinetic analyses demonstrate that FPP-Mg(2+) and FPP-Mn(2+) are active substrates for rubber molecule initiation, although free FPP and metal cations, Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), can interact independently at the active site with the following relative dissociation constants K(d)(FPP)

  1. Inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and

  2. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-02-15

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1.

  3. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structures of Y. pestis RipA mutants were determined to provide insights into the CoA transferase reaction pathway. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenylalanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully

  4. Catalytic Subunit 1 of Protein Phosphatase 2A Is a Subunit of the STRIPAK Complex and Governs Fungal Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anna; Krisp, Christoph; Wolters, Dirk A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The generation of complex three-dimensional structures is a key developmental step for most eukaryotic organisms. The details of the molecular machinery controlling this step remain to be determined. An excellent model system to study this general process is the generation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies in filamentous fungi like Sordaria macrospora. Fruiting body development is controlled by subunits of the highly conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which has been described in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans. The highly conserved heterotrimeric protein phosphatase PP2A is a subunit of STRIPAK. Here, catalytic subunit 1 of PP2A was functionally characterized. The Δpp2Ac1 strain is sterile, unable to undergo hyphal fusion, and devoid of ascogonial septation. Further, PP2Ac1, together with STRIPAK subunit PRO22, governs vegetative and stress-related growth. We revealed in vitro catalytic activity of wild-type PP2Ac1, and our in vivo analysis showed that inactive PP2Ac1 blocks the complementation of the sterile deletion strain. Tandem affinity purification, followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis, verified that PP2Ac1 is a subunit of STRIPAK. Further, these data indicate links between the STRIPAK complex and other developmental signaling pathways, implying the presence of a large interconnected signaling network that controls eukaryotic developmental processes. The insights gained in our study can be transferred to higher eukaryotes and will be important for understanding eukaryotic cellular development in general. PMID:27329756

  5. Arrangement of Kv1 alpha subunits dictates sensitivity to tetraethylammonium.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Ahmed; Shamotienko, Oleg; Dhochartaigh, Sorcha Ni; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Le Berre, Marie; Shaban, Hamdy; Wang, Jiafu; Sack, Jon T; Dolly, J Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Shaker-related Kv1 channels contain four channel-forming alpha subunits. Subfamily member Kv1.1 often occurs oligomerized with Kv1.2 alpha subunits in synaptic membranes, and so information was sought on the influence of their positions within tetramers on the channels' properties. Kv1.1 and 1.2 alpha genes were tandem linked in various arrangements, followed by expression as single-chain proteins in mammalian cells. As some concatenations reported previously seemed not to reliably position Kv1 subunits in their assemblies, the identity of expressed channels was methodically evaluated. Surface protein, isolated by biotinylation of intact transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, gave Kv1.1/1.2 reactivity on immunoblots with electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to full-length concatenated tetramers. There was no evidence of protein degradation, indicating that concatemers were delivered intact to the plasmalemma. Constructs with like genes adjacent (Kv1.1-1.1-1.2-1.2 or Kv1.2-1.2-1.1-1.1) yielded delayed-rectifying, voltage-dependent K(+) currents with activation parameters and inactivation kinetics slightly different from the diagonally positioned genes (Kv1.1-1.2-1.1-1.2 or 1.2-1.1-1.2-1.1). Pore-blocking petidergic toxins, alpha dendrotoxin, agitoxin-1, tityustoxin-Kalpha, and kaliotoxin, were unable to distinguish between the adjacent and diagonal concatamers. Unprecedentedly, external application of the pore-blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) differentially inhibited the adjacent versus diagonal subunit arrangements, with diagonal constructs having enhanced susceptibility. Concatenation did not directly alter the sensitivities of homomeric Kv1.1 or 1.2 channels to TEA or the toxins. TEA inhibition of currents generated by channels made up from dimers (Kv1.1-1.2 and/or Kv1.2-1.1) was similar to the adjacently arranged constructs. These collective findings indicate that assembly of alpha subunits can be directed by this optimized concatenation, and that subunit

  6. Mechanism of β4 Subunit Modulation of BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Rothberg, Brad S.; Brenner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Large-conductance (BK-type) Ca2+-activated potassium channels are activated by membrane depolarization and cytoplasmic Ca2+. BK channels are expressed in a broad variety of cells and have a corresponding diversity in properties. Underlying much of the functional diversity is a family of four tissue-specific accessory subunits (β1–β4). Biophysical characterization has shown that the β4 subunit confers properties of the so-called “type II” BK channel isotypes seen in brain. These properties include slow gating kinetics and resistance to iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin blockade. In addition, the β4 subunit reduces the apparent voltage sensitivity of channel activation and has complex effects on apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. Specifically, channel activity at low Ca2+ is inhibited, while at high Ca2+, activity is enhanced. The goal of this study is to understand the mechanism underlying β4 subunit action in the context of a dual allosteric model for BK channel gating. We observed that β4's most profound effect is a decrease in Po (at least 11-fold) in the absence of calcium binding and voltage sensor activation. However, β4 promotes channel opening by increasing voltage dependence of Po-V relations at negative membrane potentials. In the context of the dual allosteric model for BK channels, we find these properties are explained by distinct and opposing actions of β4 on BK channels. β4 reduces channel opening by decreasing the intrinsic gating equilibrium (L0), and decreasing the allosteric coupling between calcium binding and voltage sensor activation (E). However, β4 has a compensatory effect on channel opening following depolarization by shifting open channel voltage sensor activation (Vho) to more negative membrane potentials. The consequence is that β4 causes a net positive shift of the G-V relationship (relative to α subunit alone) at low calcium. At higher calcium, the contribution by Vho and an increase in allosteric coupling to Ca2+ binding (C

  7. Urinary π-glutathione S-transferase Predicts Advanced Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lai, Chien-Heng; Tseng, Li-Jung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Connolly, Rory; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2016-08-16

    Urinary biomarkers augment the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), with AKI after cardiovascular surgeries being a prototype of prognosis scenario. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were evaluated as biomarkers of AKI. Urine samples were collected in 141 cardiovascular surgical patients and analyzed for urinary alpha-(α-) and pi-(π-) GSTs. The outcomes of advanced AKI (KDIGO stage 2, 3) and all-cause in-patient mortality, as composite outcome, were recorded. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to predict outcomes. Thirty-eight (26.9%) patients had AKI, while 12 (8.5%) were with advanced AKI. Urinary π-GST differentiated patients with/without advanced AKI or composite outcome after surgery (p < 0.05 by generalized estimating equation). Urinary π-GST predicted advanced AKI at 3 hrs post-surgery (p = 0.033) and composite outcome (p = 0.009), while the corresponding ROC curve had AUC of 0.784 and 0.783. Using GAM, the cutoff value of 14.7 μg/L for π-GST showed the best performance to predict composite outcome. The addition of π-GST to the SOFA score improved risk stratification (total net reclassification index = 0.47). Thus, urinary π-GST levels predict advanced AKI or hospital mortality after cardiovascular surgery and improve in SOFA outcome assessment specific to AKI.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  9. Effects of Catechol O-Methyl Transferase Inhibition on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Luteolin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Lee, Jin-Ah; Cho, Eun Jung; Choi, Inwook

    2017-02-01

    Although luteolin is known to have potent anti-inflammatory activities, much less information has been provided on such activities of its hepatic metabolites. Luteolin was subjected to hepatic metabolism in HepG2 cells either without or with catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. To identify hepatic metabolites of luteolin without (luteolin metabolites, LMs) or with COMT inhibitor (LMs+CI), metabolites were treated by β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, and found that they were composed of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of diosmetin in LMs or these conjugates of luteolin in LMs+CI. LMs and LMs+CI were examined for their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS and production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were suppressed more effectively by the treatment with LMs+CI than LMs. Our data provide a new insight on possible improvement in functional properties of luteolin on target cells by modifying their metabolic pathway in hepatocytes.

  10. Methionine sulfoxide reductase regulates brain catechol-O-methyl transferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M.; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) plays a key role in the degradation of brain dopamine (DA). Specifically, low COMT activity results in higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), thereby reducing the vulnerability for attentional and cognitive deficits in both psychotic and healthy individuals. COMT activity is markedly reduced by a non-synonymous SNP that generates a valine-to-methionine substitution on the residue 108/158, by means of as-yet incompletely understood posttranslational mechanisms. One posttranslational modification is methionine sulfoxide, which can be reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) A and B enzymes. We used recombinant COMT proteins (Val/Met108) and mice (wild-type (WT) and MsrA knockout) to determine the effect of methionine oxidation on COMT activity and COMT interaction with Msr, through a combination of enzymatic activity and Western blot assays. Recombinant COMT activity is positively regulated by MsrA, especially under oxidative conditions, while brains of MsrA knockout mice exhibited lower COMT activity (as compared with their WT counterparts). These results suggest that COMT activity may be reduced by methionine oxidation, and point to Msr as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity in the brain. The role of Msr in modulating cognitive functions in healthy individuals and schizophrenia patients is yet to be determined. PMID:24735585

  11. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dominic C.; Jervis, Adrian J.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E.; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB . The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesised by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  12. The phytohormone precursor OPDA is isomerized in the insect gut by a single, specific glutathione transferase

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Paulina; Freitak, Dalial; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Oxylipins play important roles in stress signaling in plants. The compound 12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) is an early biosynthetic precursor of jasmonic acid (JA), the key phytohormone orchestrating the plant anti-herbivore defense. When consumed by feeding Lepidopteran larvae, plant-derived cis-OPDA suffers rapid isomerization to iso-OPDA in the midgut and is excreted in the frass. Unlike OPDA epimerization (yielding trans-OPDA), the formation of iso-OPDA is enzyme-dependent, and is catalyzed by an inducible glutathione transferase (GSTs) from the larval gut. Purified GST fractions from the gut of Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) both exhibited strong OPDA isomerization activity, most likely via transient formation of a glutathione-OPDA conjugate. Out of 16 cytosolic GST proteins cloned from the gut of cotton bollworm larvae and expressed in E. coli, only one catalyzed the OPDA isomerization. The biological function of the double bond shift might be seen in an inactivation of cis-OPDA, similar to the inactivation of prostaglandin A1 to prostaglandin B1 in mammalian tissue. The enzymatic isomerization is particularly widespread among generalist herbivores that have to cope with various amounts of cis-OPDA in their spectrum of host plants. PMID:19805297

  13. Comparison of glycation of glutathione S-transferase by methylglyoxal, glucose or fructose.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Průchová, Zuzana; Trnková, Lucie; Dršata, Jaroslav

    2011-11-01

    Glycation is a process closely related to the aging and pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In this process, reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (e.g., methylglyoxal) cause protein modification accompanied with potential loss of their biological activity and persistence of damaged molecules in tissues. We suppose that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a group of cytosolic biotransformation enzymes, may be modified by glycation in vivo, which would provide a rationale of its use as a model protein for studying glycation reactions. Glycation of GST by methylglyoxal, fructose, and glucose in vitro was studied. The course of protein glycation was evaluated using the following criteria: enzyme activity, formation of advanced glycation end-products using fluorescence and western blotting, amine content, protein conformation, cross linking and aggregation, and changes in molecular charge of GST. The ongoing glycation by methylglyoxal 2 mM resulted in pronounced decrease in the GST activity. It also led to the loss of 14 primary amino groups, which was accompanied by changes in protein mobility during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Formation of cross links with molecular weight of 75 kDa was observed. Obtained results can contribute to understanding of changes, which proceed in metabolism of xenobiotics during diabetes mellitus and ageing.

  14. Glutathione S-transferases as a cefpiramide binding protein in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Guji, A; Nishiya, H; Aoki, M; Ohyatsu, I; Yamaguchi, M; Tokumura, Y; Sugiyama, H; Miyashita, T; Ono, Y; Kunii, O

    1995-03-01

    To clarify the intrahepatical transport mechanism of cefpiramide, we investigated effects of various agents mainly excreted into the bile by several different mechanisms on the biliary excretion of cefpiramide in rats. Sulfobromophthalein, indocyanine green, bilirubin and probenecid, known to be bound to glutathione S-transferases (GST) (EC 2.5.1.18) in liver cytosol, reduced the biliary excretion of cefpiramide, while neither secretory IgA, which is transported via vesicles in the liver, nor colchicine, which inhibits movements of vesicles, had any effect on the excretion of cefpiramide. Propranolol and metoprolol, metabolized by mixed function oxidases, had no effect on the biliary excretion of cefpiramide. In the chromatography of liver cytosol, the amount of sulfobromophthalein or benzylpenicillin bound to the GST fraction decreased in the presence of cefpiramide or probenecid. The study showed that cefpiramide was transported in the liver without relation to mixed function oxidases or vesichle-mediated transporting system, but in relation to GST which binds cefpiramide, sulfobromophthalein, benzylpenicillin and probenecid, indicating an important role of GST in the cefpiramide excretion into the bile.

  15. Relationship between oxidative stress, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Belini Junior, Edis; Torres, Lidiane de Souza; Ricci Júnior, Octávio; Lobo, Clarisse de Castro; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity markers in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients with and without treatment with hydroxyurea. We assessed GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in patients and a control group. The study groups were composed of 48 subjects without hemoglobinopathies and 28 SCA patients, 13 treated with HU [SCA (+HU)], and 15 SCA patients not treated with HU [SCA (-HU)]. We observed a significant difference for GSTP1 polymorphisms in SCA patients with the V/V genotype that showed higher glutathione (GSH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) (p=0.0445 and p=0.0360), respectively, compared with the I/I genotype. HU use was associated with a 35.2% decrease in the lipid peroxidation levels of the SCA (+HU) group (p<0.0001). Moreover, the SCA (+HU) group showed higher TEAC as compared to the control group (p=0.002). We did not find any significant difference in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity between the groups (p=0.76), but the catalase (CAT) activity was about 17% and 30% decreased in the SCA (+HU) and SCA (-HU) groups, respectively (p<0.00001). Whereas the plasma GSH levels were ~2 times higher in the SCA patients than the control group (p=0.0005). HU use has contributed to higher CAT activity and TEAC, and lower lipid peroxidation in patients under treatment. These findings may explain the influence of HU in ameliorating oxidative stress on SCA subjects.

  16. Septins guide microtubule protrusions induced by actin-depolymerizing toxins like Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT)

    PubMed Central

    Nölke, Thilo; Schwan, Carsten; Lehmann, Friederike; Østevold, Kristine; Pertz, Olivier; Aktories, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, produce the actin-ADP ribosylating toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT). CDT depolymerizes actin, causes formation of microtubule-based protrusions, and increases pathogen adherence. Here, we show that septins (SEPT) are essential for CDT-induced protrusion formation. SEPT2, -6, -7, and -9 accumulate at predetermined protrusion sites and form collar-like structures at the base of protrusions. The septin inhibitor forchlorfenuron or knockdown of septins inhibits protrusion formation. At protrusion sites, septins colocalize with the GTPase Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) and its effector Borg (binder of Rho GTPases), which act as up-stream regulators of septin polymerization. Precipitation and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed high-affinity binding of septins to the microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1, thereby guiding incoming microtubules. The data suggest that CDT usurps conserved regulatory principles involved in microtubule–membrane interaction, depending on septins, Cdc42, Borgs, and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27339141

  17. Contribution of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms to development of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zeyuan; Liu, Ting; Li, Xiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) family genes are of vital importance in maintaining cellular defence systems, protecting cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen produced during the synthesis of melanin, and detoxifying environmental mutagens and chemical or synthetic drugs. As no previous meta-analyses have examined the association of polymorphisms at GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val with skin cancer risk and independently published studies have produced inconsistent conclusions, we were promoted to estimate the associations in the largest study to date. Methods: Computer-assisted searches were carried out to systematically identify the studies of GST polymorphisms and skin cancer. The eligibility of studies was evaluated following the requirements of inclusion criteria. Risk of skin cancers (OR and 95% CI) was assessed with the fixed or random effects meta-analysis. Major findings: The fixed effects meta-analysis of 15 studies suggested no overall association between GSTT1 null and skin cancer. Nor was there a significant association in any subgroup. However, in the stratified analysis by histologic type for GSTP1 Ile105Val, we found 1.56 times higher risk of malignant melanoma (MM) among people with the 105-Val/Val genotype (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32, pheterogeneity = 0.584). Conclusions: These statistical data demonstrate that Ile105Val polymorphism of the GSTP1 gene may have genetic contribution to the development of skin cancer, MM in particular. PMID:25785008

  18. [A prevalent genetic variety of UDP-glycuronosyl transferase predicts high risk of irinotecan toxicity].

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Matias; Garberi, Juan; Ferrandini, Silvia; Berenguer, Roxana; Trini, Ernesto; Politi, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    The advances in genetics and molecular biology have raised new areas in medicine, such as pharmacogenomics, which tries to predict drug responses and toxicities based on the individual genetic variability, describing the so called: pharmacogenomic syndromes. Oncology would find this development extremely useful because of the severe toxicity of chemotherapy. There are a lot of genetic loci under investigation for their potential in predicting drug toxicity, but only three of them have showed clinical usefulness up to now. In particular, quantification of the number of thymine-adenine (TA) dinucleotics in the promoter region of the UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 enzime (TA indel) proved to be capable of predicting severe neutropenia in patients exposed to intermediate or high doses of irinotecan. Herein we report a case of a patient with small cell lung cancer who suffered severe hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity after being treated with relatively low doses (65 mg/m(2)) of irinotecan and whose leucocyte DNA analysis showed the presence of seven TA repetitions in both alleles. This case is an example of the clinical applicability and the utility of the test as a toxicity predictor. We also discuss the clinical decisions that may be taken with these patients.

  19. Role of glutathione S-transferases in the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Gotay, D; Almaguer-Mederos, L E; Aguilera-Rodríguez, R; Estupiñán-Rodríguez, A; González-Zaldivar, Y; Cuello-Almarales, D; Laffita-Mesa, J M; Vázquez-Mojena, Y

    2014-06-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative and incurable hereditary disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion mutation on ATXN2 gene. The identification of reliable biochemical markers of disease severity is of paramount significance for the development and assessment of clinical trials. In order to evaluate the potential use of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity as a biomarker for SCA2, a case-control study in 38 affected, presymptomatic individuals or healthy controls was conducted. An enlarged sample of 121 affected individuals was set to assess the impact of GST activity on SCA2 clinical expression. There was a significant increase in GST activity in affected individuals relative to controls, although sensibility and specificity were not high. GST activity was not significantly influenced by sex, age, disease duration or CAG repeat size and did not significantly influence disease severity markers. These findings show a disruption of in vivo GST activity in SCA2, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process.

  20. Characterization and evolutionary implications of the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu in group II phosphopantetheinyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Li, Yu-Dong; Liu, Jian-Bo; Ran, Xin-Xin; Guo, Yuan-Yang; Ren, Ni-Ni; Chen, Xin; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases), which play an essential role in both primary and secondary metabolism, are magnesium binding enzymes. In this study, we characterized the magnesium binding residues of all known group II PPTases by biochemical and evolutionary analysis. Our results suggested that group II PPTases could be classified into two subgroups, two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu and three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases containing the triad Asp-Glu-Glu. Mutations of two three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases and one two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTase indicate that the first and the third residues in the triads are essential to activities; the second residues in the triads are non-essential. Although variations of the second residues in the triad Asp-Xxx-Glu exist throughout the whole phylogenetic tree, the second residues are conserved in animals, plants, algae, and most prokaryotes, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that: the animal group II PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant two-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may originate from one common ancestor; the plant three-magnesium-binding-residue-PPTases may derive from horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes.

  1. Rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure: rare presentation of carnitine palmityl-transferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gentili, A; Iannella, E; Masciopinto, F; Latrofa, M E; Giuntoli, L; Baroncini, S

    2008-05-01

    Carnitine palmityl-transferase (CPT) II deficiency is a rare disorder of the fatty acid beta-oxidation cycle. CPT II deficiency can be associated with rhabdomyolysis in particular conditions that increase the requirement for fatty acid oxidation, such as low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet, fasting, exposure to excessive cold, lack of sleep and prolonged exercise. The best known CPT II deficiency is the muscular form with episodic muscle necrosis and paroxysmal myoglobinuria after prolonged exercise. We report a case of a four-year-old male child, who, after one day of hyperthermia and fasting, developed a massive rhabdomyolysis beginning with acute respiratory failure and later complicated by acute renal failure. Appropriate management in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) (mechanical ventilatory support, fluid supply combined with mannitol and bicarbonate infusions, administration of acetaminophen and antibiotics, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration) brought about complete resolution with an excellent outcome. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and genetic analysis showed a deficiency of CPT II. The onset of CPT II deficiency with respiratory failure is extremely rare, but a correct and early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is the key to successful treatment. A metabolic myopathy such as CPT II deficiency should be suspected in children affected by rhabdomyolysis if trauma, crash, infections, drugs or extreme exertion can be excluded.

  2. Identification, characterization and structure of a new Delta class glutathione transferase isoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six individual classes. Interest in insect GSTs has focused on their role in conferring insecticide resistance. Previously from the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles dirus, two genes encoding five Delta class GSTs have been characterized for structural as well as enzyme activities. We have obtained a new Delta class GST gene and isoenzyme from A. dirus, which we name adGSTD5-5. The adGSTD5-5 isoenzyme was identified and was only detectably expressed in A. dirus adult females. A putative promoter analysis suggests that this GST has an involvement in oogenesis. The enzyme displayed little activity for classical GST substrates, although it possessed the greatest activity for DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] observed for Delta GSTs. However, GST activity was inhibited or enhanced in the presence of various fatty acids, suggesting that the enzyme may be modulated by fatty acids. We obtained a crystal structure for adGSTD5-5 and compared it with other Delta GSTs, which showed that adGSTD5-5 possesses an elongated and more polar active-site topology. PMID:15717864

  3. Insights into ligand binding to a glutathione S-transferase from mango: Structure, thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Chavira, Ignacio; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; García-Orozco, Karina D; Hernandez-Paredes, Javier; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Stojanoff, Vivian; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    We studied a mango glutathione S-transferase (GST) (Mangifera indica) bound to glutathione (GSH) and S-hexyl glutathione (GSX). This GST Tau class (MiGSTU) had a molecular mass of 25.5 kDa. MiGSTU Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants were determined for their substrates obtaining a Km, Vmax and kcat for CDNB of 0.792 mM, 80.58 mM min(-1) and 68.49 s(-1) respectively and 0.693 mM, 105.32 mM min(-1) and 89.57 s(-1), for reduced GSH respectively. MiGSTU had a micromolar affinity towards GSH (5.2 μM) or GSX (7.8 μM). The crystal structure of the MiGSTU in apo or bound to GSH or GSX generated a model that explains the thermodynamic signatures of binding and showed the importance of enthalpic-entropic compensation in ligand binding to Tau-class GST enzymes.

  4. Overexpression of orotate phosphoribosyl transferase in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoaki; Kawashima, Hidenori; Matsumura, Kentaro; Yamashita-Hosono, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Rikio; Kuratsukuri, Katsuyuki; Harimoto, Koji; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) is the initial enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) activation, in which 5-FU is converted to 5-fluorouridinemonophosphate. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is a degrading enzyme that catabolizes 5-FU. In this study, we investigated the expression of these enzymes in normal prostate gland (NP), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Forty-two prostatic tissue specimens were obtained from patients who had undergone prostate needle biopsies without any treatments or with PSA failure after initial androgen deprivation. The tissue samples derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were made by laser-captured microdissection and from those RNA was extracted. The levels of OPRT and DPD mRNA expression were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The level of OPRT mRNA expression in the HSPC or the HRPC specimens was significantly higher than that in the NP specimens. Immunohistochemical staining for OPRT revealed strong expression of OPRT in prostate cancer cells. There was a significant correlation between OPRT mRNA expression levels and the tumor pathological grade. Furthermore, the OPRT/DPD expression ratio, a powerful predictive factor to evaluate 5-FU sensitivity, in the HRPC group was significantly higher than that in the low grade HSPC group. Thus, 5-FU may be an effective option for some HRPC patients.

  5. Transcriptomic Responses of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to Oak Acetonic Extracts: Focus on a New Glutathione Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Belli, Gemma; Herrero, Enrique; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Kohler, Annegret; Deroy, Aurélie; Dhalleine, Tiphaine; Bchini, Raphael; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with the toxicity of these molecules, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in the presence of oak acetonic extracts. It reveals that in complement to the extracellular machinery of degradation, intracellular antioxidant and detoxification systems contribute to the lignolytic capabilities of fungi, presumably by preventing cellular damages and maintaining fungal health. Focusing on these systems, a glutathione transferase (P. chrysosporium GTT2.1 [PcGTT2.1]) has been selected for functional characterization. This enzyme, not characterized so far in basidiomycetes, has been classified first as a GTT2 compared to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoform. However, a deeper analysis shows that the GTT2.1 isoform has evolved functionally to reduce lipid peroxidation by recognizing high-molecular-weight peroxides as substrates. Moreover, the GTT2.1 gene has been lost in some non-wood-decay fungi. This example suggests that the intracellular detoxification system evolved concomitantly with the extracellular ligninolytic machinery in relation to the capacity of fungi to degrade wood. PMID:25107961

  6. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, J Z; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans.

  7. The role of human glutathione transferases and epoxide hydrolases in the metabolism of xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Seidegård, J; Ekström, G

    1997-01-01

    Human glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of electrophilic compounds of both exogenous and endogenous origin. GSTs are generally recognized as detoxifying enzymes by catalyzing the conjugation of these compounds with glutathione, but they may also be involved in activation of some carcinogens. The memmalian GSTs can be differentiated into four classes of cytosolic enzymes and two membrane bound enzymes. Human epoxide hydrolases (EHs) catalyze the addition of water to epoxides to form the corresponding dihydrodiol. The enzymatic hydration is essentially irreversible and produces mainly metabolites of lower reactivity that can be conjugated and excreted. The reaction of EHs is therefore generally regarded as detoxifying. The mammalian EHs can be distinguished by their physical and enzymatic properties. Microsomal EH (mEH) exhibits a broad substrate specificity, while the soluble EH (sEH) is an enzyme with a "complementary" substrate specificity to mEH. Cholesterol EH and leukotriene A4 hydrolase are two EHs with very limited substrate specificity. The activities of either GSTs or EHs expressed in vivo exhibit a relatively large interindividual variation, which might be explained by induction, inhibition, or genetic factors. These variations in levels or activities of individual isoenzymes are of importance with respect to an individual's susceptibility to genotoxic effects. This article gives a general overview of GSTs and EHs, discussing the modulation of activities, determination of these enzymes ex vivo, and the polymorphic expression of some isoenzymes. PMID:9255563

  8. Biochemical characterization and distribution of glutathione S-transferases in leaping mullet (Liza saliens).

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Kirikbakan, A

    2004-09-01

    In this study, feral leaping mullet (Liza saliens) liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were investigated and characterized using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and ethacrynic acid (EA) as substrates. The average GST activities towards CDNB and EA were found to be 1365 +/- 41 and 140 +/- 20 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. The effects of cytosolic protein amount and temperature ranging from 4 to 70 degrees C on enzyme activities were examined. While both activities towards CDNB and EA showed similar dependence on protein amount, temperature optima were found as 37 and 42 degrees C, respectively. In addition, the effects of pH on GST-CDNB and -EA activities were studied and different pH activity profiles were observed. For both substrates, GST activities were found to obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent V(max) and K(m) values of 1661 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.24 mM and 157 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.056 mM for CDNB and EA, respectively. Distribution of GST in Liza saliens tissues was investigated and compared with other fish species. Very high GST activities were measured in tissues from Liza saliens such as liver, kidney, testis, proximal intestine, and gills. Moreover, our results suggested that GST activities from Liza saliens would be a valuable biomarker for aquatic pollution.

  9. Development of pyrethroid-like fluorescent substrates for glutathione S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huazhang; Yao, Hongwei; Liu, Jun-Yan; Samra, Aman I.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive substrates is critical for the development of precise and rapid assays for detecting changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity that are associated with GST-mediated metabolism of insecticides. In this study, six pyrethroid-like compounds were synthesized and characterized as substrates for insect and mammalian GSTs. All of the substrates were esters composed of the same alcohol moiety, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and acid moieties that structurally mimic some commonly used pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. CpGSTD1, a recombinant Delta class GST from the mosquito Culex pipiens, metabolized our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric (i.e., the cis-isomers were metabolized at 2- to 5-fold higher rates than the corresponding trans-isomers) preference. A GST preparation from mouse liver also metabolized most of our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric preference but at 10- to 170-fold lower rates. CpGSTD1 and mouse GSTs metabolized CDNB, a general GST substrate, at more than 200-fold higher rates than our novel pyrethroid-like substrates. There was a 10-fold difference in the specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) of CpGSTD1 for CDNB and those of CpGSTD1 for cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC suggesting that cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC may be useful for the detection of GST-based metabolism of pyrethroids in mosquitoes. PMID:23000005

  10. Role of Carnitine Acetyl Transferase in Regulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Sun, Xutong; Agarwal, Saurabh; Rafikov, Ruslan; Dasarathy, Sridevi; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart defects with increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) result in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction that is dependent, at least in part, on decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Utilizing a lamb model with left-to-right shunting of blood and increased PBF that mimics the human disease, we have recently shown that a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, due to a decreased carnitine acetyl transferase (CrAT) activity, correlates with decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that the CrAT enzyme plays a major role in regulating NO signaling through its effect on mitochondrial function. We utilized the siRNA gene knockdown approach to mimic the effect of decreased CrAT activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC). Our data indicate that silencing the CrAT gene disrupted cellular carnitine homeostasis, reduced the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-and resulted in an increase in oxidative stress within the mitochondrion. CrAT gene silencing also disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics resulting in reduced ATP generation and decreased NO signaling secondary to a reduction in eNOS/Hsp90 interactions. Thus, this study links the disruption of carnitine homeostasis to the loss of NO signaling observed in children with CHD. Preserving carnitine homeostasis may have important clinical implications that warrant further investigation. PMID:23344032

  11. The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi. PMID:19171936

  12. Sildenafil citrate rescues fetal growth in the catechol-O-methyl transferase knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Joanna L; Andersson, Irene J; Poudel, Rajan; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Sibley, Colin P; Davidge, Sandra T; Baker, Philip N

    2012-05-01

    Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are responsible for the majority of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with complicated pregnancies. Although their etiologies are complex and multifactorial, both are associated with increased uterine artery resistance. Sildenafil citrate is able to rescue the dysfunction observed ex vivo in uterine arteries of women with preeclampsia. The ability of sildenafil citrate to increase uterine artery vasodilation, thereby decreasing uterine artery resistance and, hence, ameliorated preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, was tested in a mouse model of preeclampsia, the catechol-O-methyl transferase knockout mouse (COMT(-/-)). COMT(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice were treated (0.2 mg/mL in drinking water, n=6-12) from gestational day 12.5 to 18.5. Measures of pup growth, including body weight, crown/rump length, and abdominal circumference, were reduced in COMT(-/-) mice; this was normalized after treatment with Sildenafil. COMT(-/-) mice also demonstrated abnormal umbilical Doppler waveforms, including reverse arterial blood flow velocity. This was normalized after treatment with Sildenafil. Abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveforms were not demonstrated in COMT(-/-) mice, although ex vivo responses of uterine arteries to phenylephrine were increased; moreover, treatment with Sildenafil did improve ex vivo sensitivity to an endothelium-dependent vasodilator. The data presented here demonstrate that Sildenafil can rescue pup growth and improve abnormal umbilical Doppler waveforms, providing support for a potential new therapeutic strategy targeting fetal growth restriction.

  13. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  14. Studies on interactions between plant secondary metabolites and glutathione transferase using fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Cheng, Xinsheng; Wang, Chuanqin; Xue, Zechun; Yang, Liwen; Xi, Zheng

    2007-04-01

    The interactions between plant secondary metabolites (tannic acid, rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin) and glutathione transferase (GST) were investigated by fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Intrinsic fluorescence of GST was measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan (Trp) residues and quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding affinity was found to be strongest for tannic acid and ranked in the order tannic acid>rutin>cinnamic acid>catechin. The pH values in the range of 6.7-7.9, except for tannic acid, did not affect significantly the affinity of rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin with GST. Results showed that the fluorescence quenching of GST was a static_quenching. Fluorescence quenching and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy suggested that only the tannic acid changed the microenvironment of the Trp residues. Furthermore, the number of binding sites and binding constants at different pH values showed that tannic acid had strongest affinity towards GST and hydrogen bonding played an important role in the affinity between GST and the metabolites.

  15. Rat liver nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase is an efficient adenylyl transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, J M; López-Gómez, J; Vergeles, J M; Costas, M J; García-Díaz, M; Fernández, A; Flores, A; Cameselle, J C

    2000-01-01

    Rat liver nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase I (NPP/PDE) catalysed efficiently the transfer of adenylate from ATP to alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, 2, 2-dichloroethanol and glycerol 2-phosphate), which acted as adenylate acceptors competing with water with different efficiencies. NPP/PDE kinetics in alcohol/water mixtures were accounted for by rate equations for competitive substrates, modified to include alcohol negative co-operativity and, depending on the nature of the alcohol, enzyme denaturation by high alcohol concentrations or activation by low alcohol concentrations. The correlation of alcohol efficiencies with alcohol acidities, the comparison of rat liver with snake venom NPP/PDE, and the different effects of ionic additives on the efficiencies of glycerol 2-phosphate and glycerol provided evidence for interaction of the alcohols with a base catalyst, a non-polar and a cationic subsite in the active centre of rat liver NPP/PDE. The enzyme thus appears to be well suited to act as transferase, and we propose that NPP/PDE could be an adenylylating agent in the membrane. PMID:10657235

  16. The protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21 modulates α1 adrenergic receptor function and regulates hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Jozsef, Levente; Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Held, Kara F.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Melendez, Jonathan; Milstone, Leonard M.; Velazquez, Heino; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Palmitoylation, the reversible addition of the lipid palmitate to a cysteine, can alter protein localization, stability, and function. The ZDHHC family of protein acyl transferases catalyzes palmitoylation of numerous proteins. The role of ZDHHC enzymes in intact tissue and in vivo is largely unknown. Herein, we characterize vascular functions in a mouse that expresses a nonfunctional ZDHHC21 (“F233Δ”). Approach and Results Physiological studies of isolated aortae and mesenteric arteries from F233Δ mice revealed an unexpected defect in responsiveness to phenylephrine, an α1 adrenergic receptor agonist. In vivo, F233Δ mice displayed a blunted response to infusion of phenylephrine and were found to have elevated catecholamine levels and elevated vascular α1 adrenergic receptor gene expression. Telemetry studies showed that the F233Δ mice were tachycardic and hypotensive at baseline, consistent with diminished vascular tone. In biochemical studies, ZDHHC21 was shown to palmitoylate the α1D adrenoceptor, and to interact with it in a molecular complex, thus suggesting a possible molecular mechanism by which the receptor can be regulated by ZDHHC21. Conclusions Together the data support a model in which ZDHHC21 F233Δ diminishes the function of vascular α1 adrenergic receptors, leading to reduced vascular tone which manifests in vivo as hypotension and tachycardia. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a ZDHHC isoform affecting vascular function in vivo and identifies a novel molecular mode of regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. PMID:26715683

  17. Legionella shows a diverse secondary metabolism dependent on a broad spectrum Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Ahrendt, Tilman; Schell, Ursula; Miltenberger, Melissa; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Several members of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease, a potentially debilitating form of pneumonia. Studies frequently focus on the abundant number of virulence factors present in this genus. However, what is often overlooked is the role of secondary metabolites from Legionella. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled and annotated the Legionella parisiensis DSM 19216 genome. Together with 14 other members of the Legionella, we performed comparative genomics and analysed the secondary metabolite potential of each strain. We found that Legionella contains a huge variety of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that are potentially making a significant number of novel natural products with undefined function. Surprisingly, only a single Sfp-like phosphopantetheinyl transferase is found in all Legionella strains analyzed that might be responsible for the activation of all carrier proteins in primary (fatty acid biosynthesis) and secondary metabolism (polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis). Using conserved active site motifs, we predict some novel compounds that are probably involved in cell-cell communication, differing to known communication systems. We identify several gene clusters, which may represent novel signaling mechanisms and demonstrate the natural product potential of Legionella. PMID:27904811

  18. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity in human buccal epithelial dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Lin, L M

    1997-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and amount of GST alpha, mu and pi isoforms were measured in 40 patients with histopathologically confirmed oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. The results were compared with those of normal mucosa in an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Mean total GST activities were significantly elevated from normal buccal mucosa for mild OED, moderate OED, severe OED and squamous cell carcinoma. GST activity of value approximating 100 nmol/min/mg distinguished between normal and dysplasia, and of value about 400 nmol/min/mg delineated between dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma were observed. GST pi was the predominant class in both the diseased and normal buccal mucosa examined. This class pi GST was present at an intracellular concentration, which was significantly higher in diseased buccal mucosa than in normal buccal mucosa. These results indicated that pi class GST was the major form of this enzyme in the cytosolic fraction of oral mucosa. The severity of OED related to squamous cell carcinoma development seemed to increase concomitantly with an increase in the level of this enzyme. Further studies will validate the role of GST pi estimation in predicting the potential malignancy of OED.

  19. Mechanistic evaluation and transcriptional signature of a glutathione S-transferase omega 1 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Kavya; Samanta, Soma; Kyani, Anahita; Yang, Suhui; Tamura, Shuzo; Ziemke, Elizabeth; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Li, Si; Chinnaswamy, Krishnapriya; Otake, Hiroyuki; Debnath, Bikash; Yarovenko, Vladimir; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.; Ljungman, Mats; Neamati, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) is an atypical GST isoform that is overexpressed in several cancers and has been implicated in drug resistance. Currently, no small-molecule drug targeting GSTO1 is under clinical development. Here we show that silencing of GSTO1 with siRNA significantly impairs cancer cell viability, validating GSTO1 as a potential new target in oncology. We report on the development and characterization of a series of chloroacetamide-containing potent GSTO1 inhibitors. Co-crystal structures of GSTO1 with our inhibitors demonstrate covalent binding to the active site cysteine. These potent GSTO1 inhibitors suppress cancer cell growth, enhance the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and inhibit tumour growth in colon cancer models as single agent. Bru-seq-based transcription profiling unravelled novel roles for GSTO1 in cholesterol metabolism, oxidative and endoplasmic stress responses, cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our findings demonstrate the therapeutic utility of GSTO1 inhibitors as anticancer agents and identify the novel cellular pathways under GSTO1 regulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:27703239

  20. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dominic C; Jervis, Adrian J; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes.

  1. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, JZ; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans. PMID:27551520

  2. Computational evidence for the detoxifying mechanism of epsilon class glutathione transferase toward the insecticide DDT.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-05-06

    A combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computation of the detoxifying mechanism of an epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) toward organochlorine insecticide DDT, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, has been carried out. The exponential average barrier of the proton transfer mechanism is 15.2 kcal/mol, which is 27.6 kcal/mol lower than that of the GS-DDT conjugant mechanism. It suggests that the detoxifying reaction proceeds via a proton transfer mechanism where GSH acts as a cofactor rather than a conjugate. The study reveals that the protein environment has a strong effect on the reaction barrier. The experimentally proposed residues Arg112, Glu116 and Phe120 were found to have a strong influence on the detoxifying reaction. The influence of residues Pro13, Cys15, His53, Ile55, Glu67, Ser68, Phe115, and Leu119 was detected as well. It is worth noticing that Ile55 facilitates the detoxifying reaction most. On the basis of the structure of DDT, structure 2, (BrC6H4)2CHCCl3, is the best candidate among all the tested structures in resisting the detoxification of enzyme agGSTe2.

  3. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  4. Recognition and Detoxification of the Insecticide DDT by Drosophila melanogaster Glutathione S-Transferase D1

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Wai Yee; Feil, Susanne C.; Ng, Hooi Ling; Gorman, Michael A.; Morton, Craig J.; Pyke, James; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bieri, Michael; Mok, Yee-Foong; Robin, Charles; Gooley, Paul R.; Parker, Michael W.; Batterham, Philip

    2010-06-14

    GSTD1 is one of several insect glutathione S-transferases capable of metabolizing the insecticide DDT. Here we use crystallography and NMR to elucidate the binding of DDT and glutathione to GSTD1. The crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster GSTD1 has been determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution, which reveals that the enzyme adopts the canonical GST fold but with a partially occluded active site caused by the packing of a C-terminal helix against one wall of the binding site for substrates. This helix would need to unwind or be displaced to enable catalysis. When the C-terminal helix is removed from the model of the crystal structure, DDT can be computationally docked into the active site in an orientation favoring catalysis. Two-dimensional {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence NMR experiments of GSTD1 indicate that conformational changes occur upon glutathione and DDT binding and the residues that broaden upon DDT binding support the predicted binding site. We also show that the ancestral GSTD1 is likely to have possessed DDT dehydrochlorinase activity because both GSTD1 from D. melanogaster and its sibling species, Drosophila simulans, have this activity.

  5. Dual functionality of O-GlcNAc transferase is required for Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Mariappa, Daniel; Zheng, Xiaowei; Schimpl, Marianne; Raimi, Olawale; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Müller, H-Arno J; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) catalysed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has been linked to regulation of diverse cellular functions. OGT possesses a C-terminal glycosyltransferase catalytic domain and N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats that are implicated in protein-protein interactions. Drosophila OGT (DmOGT) is encoded by super sex combs (sxc), mutants of which are pupal lethal. However, it is not clear if this phenotype is caused by reduction of O-GlcNAcylation. Here we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that post-pupal Drosophila development can proceed with negligible OGT catalysis, while early embryonic development is OGT activity-dependent. Structural and enzymatic comparison between human OGT (hOGT) and DmOGT informed the rational design of DmOGT point mutants with a range of reduced catalytic activities. Strikingly, a severely hypomorphic OGT mutant complements sxc pupal lethality. However, the hypomorphic OGT mutant-rescued progeny do not produce F2 adults, because a set of Hox genes is de-repressed in F2 embryos, resulting in homeotic phenotypes. Thus, OGT catalytic activity is required up to late pupal stages, while further development proceeds with severely reduced OGT activity.

  6. Organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Yongdong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Wu, Kui; Sadler, Peter J; Xiong, Shaoxiang

    2013-11-01

    The organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1), biphenyl (2) or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3); en = ethylenediamine), exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. In the present work, we show that they inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) with IC50 values of 59.4 ± 1.3, 63.2 ± 0.4 and 37.2 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Mass spectrometry revealed that complex 1 binds to the S-donors of Cys15, Cys48 within the G-site and Cys102 at the interface of the GSTπ dimer, while complex 2 binds to Cys48 and Met92 at the dimer interface and complex 3 to Cys15, Cys48 and Met92. Moreover, the binding of complex 1 to Cys15 and Cys102, complex 2 to Cys48 and complex 3 to Cys15 induces the irreversible oxidation of the coordinated thiolates to sulfenates. Molecular modeling studies indicate that the coordination of the {(arene)Ru(en)}(2+) fragment to Cys48 blocks the hydrophilic G-site sterically, perhaps preventing substrate from proper positioning and accounting for the reduction in enzymatic activity of ruthenated GSTπ. The binding of the ruthenium arene complexes to Cys102 or Met92 disrupts the dimer interface which is an essential structural feature for the proper functioning of GSTπ, perhaps also contributing to the inhibition of GSTπ.

  7. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  8. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    PubMed

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-03-31

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress.

  9. Differential induction of glutathione transferases and glucosyltransferases in wheat, maize and Arabidopsis thaliana by herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Robert; Del Buono, Daniele; Fordham, Michael; Skipsey, Mark; Brazier, Melissa; Dixon, David P; Cummings, Ian

    2005-01-01

    By learning lessons from weed science we have adopted three approaches to make plants more effective in phytoremediation: (1) The application of functional genomics to identify key components involved in the detoxification of, or tolerance to, xenobiotics for use in subsequent genetic engineering/breeding programmes. (2) The rational metabolic engineering of plants through the use of forced evolution of protective enzymes, or alternatively transgenesis of detoxification pathways. (3) The use of chemical treatments which protect plants from herbicide injury. In this paper we examine the regulation of the xenome by herbicide safeners, which are chemicals widely used in crop protection due to their ability to enhance herbicide selectivity in cereals. We demonstrate that these chemicals act to enhance two major groups of phase 2 detoxification enzymes, notably the glutathione transferases and glucosyltransferases, in both cereals and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, with the safeners acting in a chemical- and species-specific manner. Our results demonstrate that by choosing the right combination of safener and plant it should be possible to enhance the tolerance of diverse plants to a wide range of xenobiotics including pollutants.

  10. Characterization of Discrete Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases in Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19 Unveils a Complicate Phosphopantetheinylation Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Dou; Ren, Ni-Ni; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS. Our results here indicate that the functions of these PPTases complement each other for ACPs/PCPs substrates, suggesting a complicate phosphopantetheinylation network in S. tsukubaensis L19. Engineering of these PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 resulted in a mutant strain that can improve FK506 production. PMID:27052100

  11. Assembly of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex via Heterotetrameric Glutathione Transferase-homology Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Maeng, Seo Jin; Cho, Hyo Je; Choi, Yoon Seo; Chung, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hoi Kyoung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Guo, Min; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Many multicomponent protein complexes mediating diverse cellular processes are assembled through scaffolds with specialized protein interaction modules. The multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC), consisting of nine different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and three non-enzymatic factors (AIMP1–3), serves as a hub for many signaling pathways in addition to its role in protein synthesis. However, the assembly process and structural arrangement of the MSC components are not well understood. Here we show the heterotetrameric complex structure of the glutathione transferase (GST) domains shared among the four MSC components, methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS), glutaminyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS), AIMP2 and AIMP3. The MRS-AIMP3 and EPRS-AIMP2 using interface 1 are bridged via interface 2 of AIMP3 and EPRS to generate a unique linear complex of MRS-AIMP3:EPRS-AIMP2 at the molar ratio of (1:1):(1:1). Interestingly, the affinity at interface 2 of AIMP3:EPRS can be varied depending on the occupancy of interface 1, suggesting the dynamic nature of the linear GST tetramer. The four components are optimally arranged for maximal accommodation of additional domains and proteins. These characteristics suggest the GST tetramer as a unique and dynamic structural platform from which the MSC components are assembled. Considering prevalence of the GST-like domains, this tetramer can also provide a tool for the communication of the MSC with other GST-containing cellular factors. PMID:26472928

  12. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  13. Prolactin confers resistance against cisplatin in breast cancer cells by activating glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    LaPensee, Elizabeth W; Schwemberger, Sandy J; LaPensee, Christopher R; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Afton, Scott E; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2009-08-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for successful treatment of breast cancer patients. Given that prolactin (PRL) acts as an anti-apoptotic/survival factor in the breast, we postulated that it antagonizes cytotoxicity by chemotherapeutic drugs. Treatment of breast cancer cells with PRL caused variable resistance to taxol, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin. PRL prevented cisplatin-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the presence of PRL, significantly less cisplatin was bound to DNA, as determined by mass spectroscopy, and little DNA damage was seen by gamma-H2AX staining. PRL dramatically increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which sequesters cisplatin in the cytoplasm; this increase was abrogated by Jak and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. PRL upregulated the expression of the GSTmu, but not the pi, isozyme. A GST inhibitor abrogated antagonism of cisplatin cytotoxicity by PRL. In conclusion, PRL confers resistance against cisplatin by activating a detoxification enzyme, thereby reducing drug entry into the nucleus. These data provide a rational explanation for the ineffectiveness of cisplatin in breast cancer, which is characterized by high expression of both PRL and its receptor. Suppression of PRL production or blockade of its actions should benefit patients undergoing chemotherapy by allowing for lower drug doses and expanded drug options.

  14. Novel derivatives of aclacinomycin A block cancer cell migration through inhibition of farnesyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Magi, Shigeyuki; Shitara, Tetsuo; Takemoto, Yasushi; Sawada, Masato; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Tashiro, Etsu; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Imoto, Masaya

    2013-03-01

    In the course of screening for an inhibitor of farnesyl transferase (FTase), we identified two compounds, N-benzyl-aclacinomycin A (ACM) and N-allyl-ACM, which are new derivatives of ACM. N-benzyl-ACM and N-allyl-ACM inhibited FTase activity with IC50 values of 0.86 and 2.93 μM, respectively. Not only ACM but also C-10 epimers of each ACM derivative failed to inhibit FTase. The inhibition of FTase by N-benzyl-ACM and N-allyl-ACM seems to be specific, because these two compounds did not inhibit geranylgeranyltransferase or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase up to 100 μM. In cultured A431 cells, N-benzyl-ACM and N-allyl-ACM also blocked both the membrane localization of H-Ras and activation of the H-Ras-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway. In addition, they inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration of A431 cells. Thus, N-benzyl-ACM and N-allyl-ACM inhibited EGF-induced migration of A431 cells by inhibiting the farnesylation of H-Ras and subsequent H-Ras-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  15. Ablation of Arg-tRNA-protein transferases results in defective neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Seonmu; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Min Jae

    2016-08-01

    The arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in which post-translational conjugation of Arg by ATE1-encoded Arg-tRNA-protein transferase to N-terminal Asp, Glu, or oxidized Cys residues generates essential degradation signals. Here, we characterized the ATE1-/- mice and identified the essential role of N-terminal arginylation in neural tube development. ATE1-null mice showed severe intracerebral hemorrhages and cystic space near the neural tubes. Expression of ATE1 was prominent in the developing brain and spinal cord, and this pattern overlapped with the migration path of neural stem cells. The ATE1-/- brain showed defective G-protein signaling. Finally, we observed reduced mitosis in ATE1-/- neuroepithelium and a significantly higher nitric oxide concentration in the ATE1-/- brain. Our results strongly suggest that the crucial role of ATE1 in neural tube development is directly related to proper turn-over of the RGS4 protein, which participate in the oxygen-sensing mechanism in the cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 443-448].

  16. Plant glutathione transferase-mediated stress tolerance: functions and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis; Kissoudis, Christos; Voulgari, Georgia; Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2017-04-08

    Plant glutathione transferases (EC 2.5.1.18, GSTs) are an ancient, multimember and diverse enzyme class. Plant GSTs have diverse roles in plant development, endogenous metabolism, stress tolerance, and xenobiotic detoxification. Their study embodies both fundamental aspects and agricultural interest, because of their ability to confer tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and to detoxify herbicides. Here we review the biotechnological applications of GSTs towards developing plants that are resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. We integrate recent discoveries, highlight, and critically discuss the underlying biochemical and molecular pathways involved. We elaborate that the functions of GSTs in abiotic and biotic stress adaptation are potentially a result of both catalytic and non-catalytic functions. These include conjugation of reactive electrophile species with glutathione and the modulation of cellular redox status, biosynthesis, binding, and transport of secondary metabolites and hormones. Their major universal functions under stress underline the potential in developing climate-resilient cultivars through a combination of molecular and conventional breeding programs. We propose that future GST engineering efforts through rational and combinatorial approaches, would lead to the design of improved isoenzymes with purpose-designed catalytic activities and novel functional properties. Concurrent GST-GSH metabolic engineering can incrementally increase the effectiveness of GST biotechnological deployment.

  17. Identification, genomic organization and expression pattern of glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quanyou; Lu, Cheng; Li, Bin; Fang, Shoumin; Zuo, Weidong; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional supergene family and some play an important role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 23 putative cytosolic GSTs by searching the new assembly of the Bombyx mori genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses on the amino acid sequences reveal that 21 of the B. mori GSTs fall into six classes represented in other insects, the other two being unclassified. The majority of the silkworm GSTs belong to the Delta, Epsilon, and Omega classes. Most members of each class are tandemly arranged in the genome, except for the Epsilon GSTs. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to 19 of the 23 GSTs were found in available databases. Furthermore RT-PCR experiments detected expression of all the GSTs in multiple tissues on day 3 of fifth instar larvae. Surprisingly, we found little or no expression of most Delta and Epsilon GSTs in the fat body, which is thought to be the main detoxification organ. This may explain the sensitivity of the silkworm to certain insecticides. Our data provide some insights into the evolution of the B. mori GST family and the functions of individual GST enzymes.

  18. Developmental expression and stress induction of glutathione S-transferase in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Feng; Davey; S D Pang A; Ladd; Retnakaran; Tomkins; Zheng; Palli

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and stress-induced expression of Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase (CfGST) mRNA and protein were examined using Northern blots and Western blots. High levels of CfGST mRNA and protein were detected in 1st instar larvae and diapausing 2nd instar larvae. Expression of CfGST gradually decreased during larval development from 3rd to 5th instar, after which the expression increased once again, reaching peak levels in 6th instar larvae. CfGST mRNA and protein were undetectable in the pupal stage. Exposure to low temperature did not induce an increase in CfGST expression. Feeding on balsam fir foliage resulted in an increase in the expression of CfGST as compared to larvae that fed on artificial diet. The bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt), the non-steroidal ecdysone analog, tebufenozide, and the synthetic pyrethroid, permethrin, induced the expression of CfGST mRNA in 5th instar larvae, whereas the chitin synthesis inhibitor, diflubenzuron, did not have any such effect. These results suggest that CfGST plays an important role in detoxifying various allelochemicals and insecticides in the spruce budworm. The developmental expression pattern strongly suggests that in addition to detoxification, CfGST might be involved in other functions.

  19. Preliminary studies on the renaturation of denatured catfish (Clarias gariepinus) glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Ojopagogo, Yetunde Adedolapo; Adewale, Isaac Olusanjo; Afolayan, Adeyinka

    2013-12-01

    Purified juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) glutathione transferase (cgGST) was denatured in vitro and renatured in the absence and presence of different concentrations of endogenous or xenobiotic model substrates. Protein transitions during unfolding and refolding were monitored by activity measurement as well as changes in protein conformation using UV difference spectra at 230 nm. Gdn-HCl at 0.22 M caused 50 % inactivation of the enzyme and at 1.1 M, the enzyme was completely unfolded. Refolding of cgGST main isozyme was not completely reversible at higher concentrations of Gdn-HCl and is dependent on protein concentration. An enzyme concentration of 30 μg/ml yielded 40 % percentage residual activity in the presence of glutathione (GSH), regardless of the concentration that was present as opposed to 30 % obtained in its absence. The xenobiotic model substrate, lindane, appears to have no effect on the refolding of the enzyme. In summary, our results show that GSH assists in the refolding of cgGST in a concentration-independent manner and may be involved in the same function in vivo whereas the xenobiotic model substrate does not.

  20. Characterization and Prediction of Lysine (K)-Acetyl-Transferase Specific Acetylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Du, Yipeng; Wang, Likun; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenlin; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification on both histone and nonhistone proteins. More than 2000 acetylated proteins and 4000 lysine acetylation sites have been identified by large scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods. Although over 20 lysine (K)-acetyl-transferases (KATs) have been characterized, which KAT is responsible for a given protein or lysine site acetylation is mostly unknown. In this work, we collected KAT-specific acetylation sites manually and analyzed sequence features surrounding the acetylated lysine of substrates from three main KAT families (CBP/p300, GCN5/PCAF, and the MYST family). We found that each of the three KAT families acetylates lysines with different sequence features. Based on these differences, we developed a computer program, Acetylation Set Enrichment Based method to predict which KAT-families are responsible for acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of our method, and experimentally detected four proteins that were predicted to be acetylated by two KAT families when one representative member of the KAT family is over expressed. We conclude that our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying KAT families responsible for acetylated substrates proteome-wide. PMID:21964354

  1. Glutathione-S-transferase activity of Fucus spp. as a biomarker of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Cairrão, E; Couderchet, M; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

    2004-12-20

    Coastal zones are important areas from both ecological and economical points of view. However, in the last decades, in several regions of the globe, they have been increasingly impacted by complex discharges of contaminants and by marine traffic accidents. The Portuguese Atlantic coast is particularly exposed to these contaminants due to the proximity of important navigation routes. Several rocky shore organisms have been tested and used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. However, to the best of our knowledge Fucus spp., which are key species in rocky shore communities, have not been used as bioindicators in monitoring studies based on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of several Fucus species (Fucus ceranoides, Fucus spiralis var. platycarpus, Fucus spiralis var. spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus var. vesiculosus) to discriminate sites with different contamination levels along the Portuguese Northwestern coast, between the Minho river estuary and the Aveiro's Lagoon, as an environmental biomarker. With the exception of F. spiralis var. spiralis, for which a confusing pattern of activity was found requiring further analysis, all the other species and varieties showed higher GST levels in more contaminated sites than in less contaminated ones, indicating that Fucus spp. are suitable for use as bioindicators and their GSTs as biomarkers of environmental contamination in coastal zones and estuaries.

  2. Allyl isothiocyanate depletes glutathione and upregulates expression of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Anders; Stokland, Ragni A.; Åsberg, Signe E.; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Bones, Atle M.

    2015-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical associated with plant defense in plants from the Brassicaceae family. AITC has long been recognized as a countermeasure against external threats, but recent reports suggest that AITC is also involved in the onset of defense-related mechanisms such as the regulation of stomatal aperture. However, the underlying cellular modes of action in plants remain scarcely investigated. Here we report evidence of an AITC-induced depletion of glutathione (GSH) and the effect on gene expression of the detoxification enzyme family glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment of A. thaliana wild-type with AITC resulted in a time- and dose-dependent depletion of cellular GSH. AITC-exposure of mutant lines vtc1 and pad2-1 with elevated and reduced GSH-levels, displayed enhanced and decreased AITC-tolerance, respectively. AITC-exposure also led to increased ROS-levels in the roots and loss of chlorophyll which are symptoms of oxidative stress. Following exposure to AITC, we found that GSH rapidly recovered to the same level as in the control plant, suggesting an effective route for replenishment of GSH or a rapid detoxification of AITC. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding GSTs showed an upregulation in response to AITC. These findings demonstrate cellular effects by AITC involving a reversible depletion of the GSH-pool, induced oxidative stress, and elevated expression of GST-encoding genes. PMID:25954298

  3. Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Jennifer L; Butler, P Jonathan G; McMahon, Harvey T

    2005-12-01

    Endophilins have been proposed to have an enzymatic activity (a lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase or LPAAT activity) that can make phosphatidic acid in membranes. This activity is thought to change the bilayer asymmetry in such a way that negative membrane curvature at the neck of a budding vesicle will be stabilized. An LPAAT activity has also been proposed for CtBP/BARS (carboxy-terminal binding protein/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate), a transcription co-repressor that is implicated in dynamin-independent endocytosis and fission of the Golgi in mitosis. Here we show that the LPAAT activity associated with endophilin is a contaminant of the purification procedure and can be also found associated with the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin. Likewise, the LPAAT activity associated with CtBP/BARS is also a co-purification artefact. The proposed locus of activity in endophilins includes the BAR domain, which has no catalytic site but instead senses positive membrane curvature. These data will prompt a re-evaluation of the molecular details of membrane budding.

  4. Association study of Glutathione S-Transferase polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Mina; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Heidarizadeh, Masood; Kamali, Koorosh; Memariani, Toktam; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Associations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes polymorphisms in endometriosis have been investigated by various researchers; however, the results are not consistent. Objective: We examined the associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and GSTP1 313 A/G polymorphisms with endometriosis in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 151 women with diagnosis of endometriosis and 156 normal healthy women as control group were included. The genotyping was determined using multiplex PCR and PCR- RFLP methods. Results: The GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher (p=0.027) in the cases (7.3%) than the control group (1.3%). There was no significant difference between the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes between the cases and controls. The GSTP1 313 AG genotype was significantly lower (p=0.048) in the case (33.1%) than the control group (44.4%). Conclusion: Our results showed that GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be associated with susceptibility of endometriosis in Iranian women. PMID:27351025

  5. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  6. Optical biosensor consisting of glutathione-S-transferase for detection of captan.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, In-ho; Lee, Won-Hong

    2003-10-15

    The optical biosensor consisting of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the decrease of yellow product, s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione, produced from substrates, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), due to the inhibition of GST reaction by captan. Absorbance of the product as the output of enzyme reaction was detected and the light was guided through the optical fibers. The enzyme reactor of the sensor system was fabricated by the gel entrapment technique for the immobilized GST film. The immobilized GST had the maximum activity at pH 6.5. The optimal concentrations of substrates were determined with 1 mM for both of CDNB and GSH. The optimum concentration of enzyme was also determined with 100 microg/ml. The activity of immobilized enzyme was fairly sustained during 30 days. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan up to 2 ppm and the response time to steady signal was about 15 min.

  7. Enzyme immobilization in porous silicon: quantitative analysis of the kinetic parameters for glutathione-S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Delouise, Lisa A; Miller, Benjamin L

    2005-04-01

    Porous silicon matrixes are attractive materials for the construction of biosensors and may also have utility for the production of immobilized enzyme bioreactors. In an effort to gain a quantitative understanding of the effects of immobilization on enzyme activity, we compared the activity of glutathione-S-transferase immobilized in electrochemically etched porous silicon films (approximately 6.5 microm thick) with the enzyme in solution. Kinetic measurements were made by varying the glutathione concentration while maintaining a fixed saturating concentration of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The reaction kinetics follow steady-state equilibrium behavior. The specific activity of the free enzyme in solution is approximately 4x higher than the immobilized enzyme, for which we measured an apparent K'(m)(GSH) value of 1.0 +/- 0.3. The maximum velocity, V'(max), is linearly proportional to immobilized enzyme concentration, but the magnitude is approximately 20 times lower than that in solution. Results suggest approximately 25% of the enzyme is bound with the catalytic site in an inactive conformation or in a hindered orientation. Finally, the effects of hydration and exposure to denaturants on the immobilized enzyme activity are presented.

  8. Dual functionality of O-GlcNAc transferase is required for Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Mariappa, Daniel; Zheng, Xiaowei; Schimpl, Marianne; Raimi, Olawale; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Müller, H.-Arno J.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) catalysed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has been linked to regulation of diverse cellular functions. OGT possesses a C-terminal glycosyltransferase catalytic domain and N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats that are implicated in protein–protein interactions. Drosophila OGT (DmOGT) is encoded by super sex combs (sxc), mutants of which are pupal lethal. However, it is not clear if this phenotype is caused by reduction of O-GlcNAcylation. Here we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that post-pupal Drosophila development can proceed with negligible OGT catalysis, while early embryonic development is OGT activity-dependent. Structural and enzymatic comparison between human OGT (hOGT) and DmOGT informed the rational design of DmOGT point mutants with a range of reduced catalytic activities. Strikingly, a severely hypomorphic OGT mutant complements sxc pupal lethality. However, the hypomorphic OGT mutant-rescued progeny do not produce F2 adults, because a set of Hox genes is de-repressed in F2 embryos, resulting in homeotic phenotypes. Thus, OGT catalytic activity is required up to late pupal stages, while further development proceeds with severely reduced OGT activity. PMID:26674417

  9. Identifying and characterizing binding sites on the irreversible inhibition of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 by S-thiocarbamoylation.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Primavera, Alessandra; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Téllez-Sanz, Ramiro; Barón, Carmen; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Lo Bello, Mario; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2012-07-23

    Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (hGST P1-1) is involved in cell detoxification processes through the conjugation of its natural substrate, reduced glutathione (GSH), with xenobiotics. GSTs are known to be overexpressed in tumors, and naturally occurring isothiocyanates, such as benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), are effective cancer chemopreventive compounds. To identify and characterize the potential inhibitory mechanisms of GST P1-1 induced by isothiocyanate conjugates, we studied the binding of GST P1-1 and some cysteine mutants to the BITC-SG conjugate as well as to the synthetic S-(N-benzylcarbamoylmethyl)glutathione conjugate (BC-SG). We report here the inactivation of GST P1-1 through the covalent modification of two Cys47 residues per dimer and one Cys101. The evidence has been compiled by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). ITC experiments suggest that the BITC-SG conjugate generates adducts with Cys47 and Cys101 at physiological temperatures through a corresponding kinetic process, in which the BITC moiety is covalently bound to these enzyme cysteines through an S-thiocarbamoylation reaction. ESI-MS analysis of the BITC-SG incubated enzymes indicates that although the Cys47 in each subunit is covalently attached to the BITC ligand moiety, only one of the Cys101 residues in the dimer is so attached. A plausible mechanism is given for the emergence of inactivation through the kinetic processes with both cysteines. Likewise, our molecular docking simulations suggest that steric hindrance is the reason why only one Cys101 per dimer is covalently modified by BITC-SG. No covalent inactivation of GST P1-1 with the BC-SG inhibitor has been observed. The affinities and inhibitory potencies for both conjugates are high and very similar, but slightly lower for BC-SG. Thus, we conclude that the presence of the sulfur atom from the isothiocyanate moiety in BITC-SG is crucial for its irreversible inhibition of

  10. [Effects of Tagetes erecta extracts on glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-lu; Wang, You-nian; Wang, Hong-lei; Zhao, Li-lin; Liu, Su-qi; Cao, Hui; Yu, Tong-quan; Lu, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With in vivo and in vitro Tagetes erecta roots under light and dark as test materials, this paper studied the effects of their extracts on the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis. The results showed that the chloroform extract of T. erecta roots had the highest light-activated activity, followed by water extract, and methanol extract. After treated with chloroform extract, the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities in T. viennensis increased markedly, while its protein content decreased obviously. The variation degree of T. viennensis protease activity and protein content was significantly higher when the chloroform extract came from the T. erecta roots under light, suggesting that there existed active matters in the extract, which could promote the activation of protease, and thus, the decomposition of protein in T. viennensis. The bioactivity of T. erecta metabolites was mainly of light-activated one.

  11. Bedaquiline Targets the ε Subunit of Mycobacterial F-ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subhashri; Biukovic, Goran; Grüber, Gerhard; Dick, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The tuberculosis drug bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial F-ATP synthase by binding to its c subunit. Using the purified ε subunit of the synthase and spectroscopy, we previously demonstrated that the drug interacts with this protein near its unique tryptophan residue. Here, we show that replacement of ε's tryptophan with alanine resulted in bedaquiline hypersusceptibility of the bacteria. Overexpression of the wild-type ε subunit caused resistance. These results suggest that the drug also targets the ε subunit.

  12. Bedaquiline Targets the ε Subunit of Mycobacterial F-ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Subhashri; Biukovic, Goran; Grüber, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculosis drug bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial F-ATP synthase by binding to its c subunit. Using the purified ε subunit of the synthase and spectroscopy, we previously demonstrated that the drug interacts with this protein near its unique tryptophan residue. Here, we show that replacement of ε's tryptophan with alanine resulted in bedaquiline hypersusceptibility of the bacteria. Overexpression of the wild-type ε subunit caused resistance. These results suggest that the drug also targets the ε subunit. PMID:27620476

  13. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function.

    PubMed

    Boffi, Juan Carlos; Marcovich, Irina; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Corradi, Jeremías; Collins, Toby; Lipovsek, María Marcela; Moglie, Marcelo; Plazas, Paola V; Craig, Patricio O; Millar, Neil S; Bouzat, Cecilia; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2017-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits. Whereas mammalian α9 subunits can form functional homomeric α9 receptors, α10 subunits do not generate functional channels when expressed heterologously. Hence, it has been proposed that α10 might serve as a structural subunit, much like a β subunit of heteromeric nAChRs, providing only complementary components to the agonist binding site. Here, we have made use of site-directed mutagenesis to examine the contribution of subunit interface domains to α9α10 receptors by a combination of electrophysiological and radioligand binding studies. Characterization of receptors containing Y190T mutations revealed unexpectedly that both α9 and α10 subunits equally contribute to the principal components of the α9α10 nAChR. In addition, we have shown that the introduction of a W55T mutation impairs receptor binding and function in the rat α9 subunit but not in the α10 subunit, indicating that the contribution of α9 and α10 subunits to complementary components of the ligand-binding site is nonequivalent. We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits.

  14. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Boffi, Juan Carlos; Marcovich, Irina; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Corradi, Jeremías; Collins, Toby; Lipovsek, María Marcela; Moglie, Marcelo; Plazas, Paola V.; Craig, Patricio O.; Millar, Neil S.; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits. Whereas mammalian α9 subunits can form functional homomeric α9 receptors, α10 subunits do not generate functional channels when expressed heterologously. Hence, it has been proposed that α10 might serve as a structural subunit, much like a β subunit of heteromeric nAChRs, providing only complementary components to the agonist binding site. Here, we have made use of site-directed mutagenesis to examine the contribution of subunit interface domains to α9α10 receptors by a combination of electrophysiological and radioligand binding studies. Characterization of receptors containing Y190T mutations revealed unexpectedly that both α9 and α10 subunits equally contribute to the principal components of the α9α10 nAChR. In addition, we have shown that the introduction of a W55T mutation impairs receptor binding and function in the rat α9 subunit but not in the α10 subunit, indicating that the contribution of α9 and α10 subunits to complementary components of the ligand-binding site is nonequivalent. We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits. PMID:28069778

  15. Regulation of expression of a soybean storage protein subunit gene. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Madison, J.T.

    1984-04-23

    We have found that the methionine repression of the ..beta..-subunit gene expression is not due to degradation of the ..beta..-subunit but is due to an effect on synthesis of the ..beta..-subunit. The effect of methionine on the synthesis of the ..beta..-is due to an inhibition of ..beta..-subunit mRNA synthesis. 3 references, 1 figure.

  16. p190RhoGEF Binds to a destabilizing element in the 3' untranslated region of light neurofilament subunit mRNA and alters the stability of the transcript.

    PubMed

    Cañete-Soler, R; Wu, J; Zhai, J; Shamim, M; Schlaepfer, W W

    2001-08-24

    Stabilization of neurofilament (NF) mRNAs plays a major role in regulating levels of NF expression and in establishing axonal size and rate of axonal conduction. Previous studies have identified a 68-nucleotide destabilizing element at the junction of the coding region and 3' untranslated region of the light NF subunit (NF-L) mRNA. The present study has used the destabilizing element (probe A) to screen a rat brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. A cDNA clone encoding 1068 nucleotides in the C-terminal domain of p190RhoGEF (clone 39) was found to bind strongly and specifically to the RNA probe. The interaction was confirmed using a glutathione S-transferase/clone 39 fusion protein in Northwestern, gel-shift, and cross-linkage studies. The glutathione S-transferase/clone 39 fusion protein also enhanced the cross-linkage of a major 43-kDa protein in brain extract to the destabilizing element. Functional studies on stably transfected neuronal cells showed that p190RhoGEF expression increased the half-life of a wild-type NF-L mRNA but did not alter the half-life of a mutant NF-L mRNA lacking the destabilizing element. The findings reveal a novel interactive feature of p190RhoGEF that links the exchange factor with NF mRNA stability and regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton.

  17. A 49 kDa microtubule cross-linking protein from Artemia franciscana is a coenzyme A-transferase.

    PubMed

    Oulton, Mindy M; Amons, Reinout; Liang, Ping; MacRae, Thomas H

    2003-12-01

    Embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were shown previously to possess a protein, now termed p49, which cross-links microtubules in vitro. Molecular characteristics of p49 were described, but the protein's identity and its role in the cell were not determined. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of peptide sequence obtained by Edman degradation during this study were used to generate p49 cDNAs by RT-PCR and these were cloned and sequenced. Comparison with archived sequences revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of p49 resembled the Drosophila gene product CG7920, as well as related proteins encoded in the genomes of Anopheles and Caenorhabditis. Similar proteins exist in several bacteria but no evident homologues were found in vertebrates and plants, and only very distant homologues resided in yeast. When evolutionary relationships were compared, p49 and the homologues from Drosophila, Anopheles and Caenorhabditis formed a distinct subcluster within phylogenetic trees. Additionally, the predicted secondary structures of p49, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum and glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans were similar and the enzymes may possess related catalytic mechanisms. The purified Artemia protein exhibited 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase activity, thereby establishing p49 as the first crustacean CoA-transferase to be characterized. Probing of Western blots with an antibody against p49 revealed a cross-reactive protein in Drosophila that associated with microtubules, but to a lesser extent than did p49 from Artemia.

  18. Partial purification and characterization of a mannosyl transferase involved in O -linked mannosylation of glycoproteins in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Flores, Blanca L; Calvo-Méndez, Carlos; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; López-Romero, Everardo

    2004-04-01

    Incubation of a mixed membrane fraction of C. albicans with the nonionic detergents Nonidet P-40 or Lubrol solubilized a fraction that catalyzed the transfer of mannose either from endogenously generated or exogenously added dolichol-P-[14C]Man onto endogenous protein acceptors. The protein mannosyl transferase solubilized with Nonidet P-40 was partially purified by a single step of preparative nondenaturing electrophoresis and some of its properties were investigated. Although transfer activity occurred in the absence of exogenous mannose acceptors and thus depended on acceptor proteins isolated along with the enzyme, addition of the protein fraction obtained after chemical de-mannosylation of glycoproteins synthesized in vitro stimulated mannoprotein labeling in a concentration-dependent manner. Other de-mannosylated glycoproteins, such as yeast invertase or glycoproteins extracted from C. albicans, failed to increase the amount of labeled mannoproteins. Mannosyl transfer activity was not influenced by common metal ions such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Ca(2+), but it was stimulated up to 3-fold by EDTA. Common phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylglycerol and, to a lower extent, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine enhanced transfer activity. Interestingly, coupled transfer activity between dolichol phosphate mannose synthase, i.e., the enzyme responsible for Dol-P-Man synthesis, and protein mannosyl transferase could be reconstituted in vitro from the partially purified transferases, indicating that this process can occur in the absence of cell membranes.

  19. On the specificity of antibiotics targeting the large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2011-12-01

    The peptidyltransferase center of the large ribosomal subunit is responsible for catalyzing peptide bonds. This active site is the target of a variety of diverse antibiotics, many of which are used clinically. The past decade has seen a plethora of structures of antibiotics in complex with the large ribosomal subunit, providing unprecedented insight into the mechanism of action of these inhibitors. Ten distinct antibiotics (chloramphenicol, clindamycin, linezolid, tiamulin, sparsomycin, and five macrolides) have been crystallized in complex with four distinct ribosomal species, three bacterial, and one archaeal. This review aims to compare these structures in order to provide insight into the conserved and species-specific modes of interaction for particular members of each class of antibiotics. Coupled with the wealth of biochemical data, a picture is emerging defining the specific functional states of the ribosome that antibiotics preferentially target. Such mechanistic insight into antibiotic inhibition will be important for the development of the next generation of antimicrobial agents.

  20. AMPK beta subunits display isoform specific affinities for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Koay, Ann; Woodcroft, Ben; Petrie, Emma J; Yue, Helen; Emanuelle, Shane; Bieri, Michael; Bailey, Michael F; Hargreaves, Mark; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Ralph, Stuart; Neumann, Dietbert; Stapleton, David; Gooley, Paul R

    2010-08-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimer of catalytic (alpha) and regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits with at least two isoforms for each subunit. AMPK beta1 is widely expressed whilst AMPK beta2 is highly expressed in muscle and both beta isoforms contain a mid-molecule carbohydrate-binding module (beta-CBM). Here we show that beta2-CBM has evolved to contain a Thr insertion and increased affinity for glycogen mimetics with a preference for oligosaccharides containing a single alpha-1,6 branched residue. Deletion of Thr-101 reduces affinity for single alpha-1,6 branched oligosaccharides by 3-fold, while insertion of this residue into the equivalent position in the beta1-CBM sequence increases affinity by 3-fold, confirming the functional importance of this residue.

  1. The role of auxiliary subunits for the functional diversity of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α(1) subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein-protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein-protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity.

  2. Electrophysiology and beyond: multiple roles of Na+ channel β subunits in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Patino, Gustavo A; Isom, Lori L

    2010-12-10

    Voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) β Subunits are not "auxiliary." These multi-functional molecules not only modulate Na+ current (I(Na)), but also function as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)-playing roles in aggregation, migration, invasion, neurite outgrowth, and axonal fasciculation. β subunits are integral members of VGSC signaling complexes at nodes of Ranvier, axon initial segments, and cardiac intercalated disks, regulating action potential propagation through critical intermolecular and cell-cell communication events. At least in vitro, many β subunit cell adhesive functions occur both in the presence and absence of pore-forming VGSC α subunits, and in vivo β subunits are expressed in excitable as well as non-excitable cells, thus β subunits may play important functional roles on their own, in the absence of α subunits. VGSC β1 subunits are essential for life and appear to be especially important during brain development. Mutations in β subunit genes result in a variety of human neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, some cancer cells exhibit alterations in β subunit expression during metastasis. In short, these proteins, originally thought of as merely accessory to α subunits, are critical players in their own right in human health and disease. Here we discuss the role of VGSC β subunits in the nervous system.

  3. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children: Associations with Gender, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)Pi Polymorphisms (SNP) and Heavy Metals

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Hassan El-Fawal Abstract Details PRESENTATION TYPE: Platform or Poster CURRENT CATEGORY: Neurodegenerative Disease | Biomarkers | Neurotoxicity, Metals KEYWORDS: Autoantibodies, Glutathione-S-Transferase, DATE/TIME LAST MODIFIED: DATE/TIME SUBMITTED: Abs...

  4. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Caers, A; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ now provides a database of 496 large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. All these sequences are aligned, incorporate secondary structure information, and can be obtained in a number of formats. Other information about the sequences, such as literature references, accession numbers and taxonomic information is also available and searchable. If necessary, the data on the server can also be obtained by anonymous ftp. PMID:9399830

  5. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Our database on large ribosomal subunit RNA contained 334 sequences in July, 1995. All sequences in the database are aligned, taking into account secondary structure. The aligned sequences are provided, together with incorporated secondary structure information, in several computer-readable formats. These data can easily be obtained through the World Wide Web. The files in the database are also available via anonymous ftp. PMID:8594610

  6. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  7. Mcm subunits can assemble into two different active unwinding complexes.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Diane M; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2008-11-07

    The replication fork helicase in eukaryotes is a large complex that is composed of Mcm2-7, Cdc45, and GINS. The Mcm2-7 proteins form a heterohexameric ring that hydrolyzes ATP and provide the motor function for this unwinding complex. A comprehensive study of how individual Mcm subunit biochemical activities relate to unwinding function has not been accomplished. We studied the mechanism of the Mcm4-Mcm6-Mcm7 complex, a useful model system because this complex has helicase activity in vitro. We separately purified each of three Mcm subunits until they were each nuclease-free, and we then examined the biochemical properties of different combinations of Mcm subunits. We found that Mcm4 and Mcm7 form an active unwinding assembly. The addition of Mcm6 to Mcm4/Mcm7 results in the formation of an active Mcm4/Mcm6/Mcm7 helicase assembly. The Mcm4-Mcm7 complex forms a ringed-shaped hexamer that unwinds DNA with 3' to 5' polarity by a steric exclusion mechanism, similar to Mcm4/Mcm6/Mcm7. The Mcm4-Mcm7 complex has a high level of ATPase activity that is further stimulated by DNA. The ability of different Mcm mixtures to form rings or exhibit DNA stimulation of ATPase activity correlates with the ability of these complexes to unwind DNA. The Mcm4/Mcm7 and Mcm4/Mcm6/Mcm7 assemblies can open to load onto circular DNA to initiate unwinding. We conclude that the Mcm subunits are surprisingly flexible and dynamic in their ability to interact with one another to form active unwinding complexes.

  8. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators

    PubMed Central

    Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Days, Emily L.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun; Sulikowski, Gary; Weaver, C. David; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2017-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM), respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R)-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q) complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q)-GSG1L complexes. PMID:28358902

  9. Energy-driven subunit rotation at the interface between subunit a and the c oligomer in the FO sector of Escherichia coli ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheon, Marcus L.; Duncan, Thomas M.; Ngai, Helen; Cross, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Subunit rotation within the F1 catalytic sector of the ATP synthase has been well documented, identifying the synthase as the smallest known rotary motor. In the membrane-embedded FO sector, it is thought that proton transport occurs at a rotor/stator interface between the oligomeric ring of c subunits (rotor) and the single-copy a subunit (stator). Here we report evidence for an energy-dependent rotation at this interface. FOF1 was expressed with a pair of substituted cysteines positioned to allow an intersubunit disulfide crosslink between subunit a and a c subunit [aN214C/cM65C; Jiang, W. & Fillingame, R. H. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 6607–6612]. Membranes were treated with N,N′-dicyclohexyl-[14C]carbodiimide to radiolabel the D61 residue on less than 20% of the c subunits. After oxidation to form an a–c crosslink, the c subunit properly aligned to crosslink to subunit a was found to contain very little 14C label relative to other members of the c ring. However, exposure to MgATP before oxidation significantly increased the radiolabel in the a–c crosslink, indicating that a different c subunit was now aligned with subunit a. This increase was not induced by exposure to MgADP/Pi. Furthermore, preincubation with MgADP and azide to inhibit F1 or with high concentrations of N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to label most c subunits prevented the ATP effect. These results provide evidence for an energy-dependent rotation of the c ring relative to subunit a. PMID:11438702

  10. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase β1 subunit associates with α1 subunit modulating a "higher-NKA-in-hyposmotic media" response in gills of euryhaline milkfish, Chanos chanos.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chu, Keng-Fu; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2017-03-10

    The euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos) is a popular aquaculture species that can be cultured in fresh water, brackish water, or seawater in Southeast Asia. In gills of the milkfish, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (i.e., NKA; sodium pump) responds to salinity challenges including changes in mRNA abundance, protein amount, and activity. The functional pump is composed of a heterodimeric protein complex composed of α- and β-subunits. Among the NKA genes, α1-β1 isozyme comprises the major form of NKA subunits in mammalian osmoregulatory organs; however, most studies on fish gills have focused on the α1 subunit and did not verify the α1-β1 isozyme. Based on the sequenced milkfish transcriptome, an NKA β1 subunit gene was identified that had the highest amino acid homology to β233, a NKA β1 subunit paralog originally identified in the eel. Despite this high level of homology to β233, phylogenetic analysis and the fact that only a single NKA β1 subunit gene exists in the milkfish suggest that the milkfish gene should be referred to as the NKA β1 subunit gene. The results of accurate domain prediction of the β1 subunit, co-localization of α1 and β1 subunits in epithelial ionocytes, and co-immunoprecipitation of α1 and β1 subunits, indicated the formation of a α1-β1 complex in milkfish gills. Moreover, when transferred to hyposmotic media (fresh water) from seawater, parallel increases in branchial mRNA and protein expression of NKA α1 and β1 subunits suggested their roles in hypo-osmoregulation of euryhaline milkfish. This study molecularly characterized the NKA β1 subunit and provided the first evidence for an NKA α1-β1 association in gill ionocytes of euryhaline teleosts.

  11. Cornichon proteins determine the subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bruce E; Shi, Yun; Suh, Young Ho; Zheng, Chan-Ying; Blankenship, Sabine M; Roche, Katherine W; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-03-20

    Cornichon-2 and cornichon-3 (CNIH-2/-3) are AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding proteins that promote receptor trafficking and markedly slow AMPAR deactivation in heterologous cells, but their role in neurons is unclear. Using CNIH-2 and CNIH-3 conditional knockout mice, we find a profound reduction of AMPAR synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. This deficit is due to the selective loss of surface GluA1-containing AMPARs (GluA1A2 heteromers), leaving a small residual pool of synaptic GluA2A3 heteromers. The kinetics of AMPARs in neurons lacking CNIH-2/-3 are faster than those in WT neurons due to the fast kinetics of GluA2A3 heteromers. The remarkably selective effect of CNIHs on the GluA1 subunit is probably mediated by TARP γ-8, which prevents a functional association of CNIHs with non-GluA1 subunits. These results point to a sophisticated interplay between CNIHs and γ-8 that dictates subunit-specific AMPAR trafficking and the strength and kinetics of synaptic AMPAR-mediated transmission.

  12. Rescue of lethal subunits into functional K+ channels.

    PubMed Central

    Taglialatela, M; Payne, J P; Drewe, J A; Brown, A M

    1994-01-01

    In a chimeric, voltage-dependent K+ channel (CHM), the valine at position 369 and the leucine at position 374 interact within the pore or P-region to regulate ion permeation and block. Here we show that the point mutation, CHM V369L, abolished channel function whereas previous experiments showed that CHM V369 and CHM V369I are functional. Coinjection of "lethal" CHM V369L cRNA with CHM L374V cRNA but not CHM cRNA generated functional heteromultimers. The whole-cell Rb+/K+ conductance ratio was 2.98 +/- 0.43 for CHM L374V and was reduced to 0.87 +/- 0.04 for the coexpressed CHM V369L and CHM L374V subunits. When single-channel currents were recorded, a single class of CHM V369L/CHM L374V heteromultimers was identified. This class was readily distinguishable from CHM L374V homomultimers by K+ conductance, gating, and blockade by internal tetraethylammonium. Coinjection experiments at various RNA ratios suggest that the CHM V369L/CHM L374V heteromultime, assuming it to be a tetramer, was composed of three CHM L374V subunits and one CHM V369L subunit. It appears that in the critical P-region of CHM position 369 may tolerate only one leucine. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8130337

  13. Differential Localization of G Protein βγ Subunits

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    G protein βγ subunits play essential roles in regulating cellular signaling cascades, yet little is known about their distribution in tissues or their subcellular localization. While previous studies have suggested specific isoforms may exhibit a wide range of distributions throughout the central nervous system, a thorough investigation of the expression patterns of both Gβ and Gγ isoforms within subcellular fractions has not been conducted. To address this, we applied a targeted proteomics approach known as multiple-reaction monitoring to analyze localization patterns of Gβ and Gγ isoforms in pre- and postsynaptic fractions isolated from cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and striatum. Particular Gβ and Gγ subunits were found to exhibit distinct regional and subcellular localization patterns throughout the brain. Significant differences in subcellular localization between pre- and postsynaptic fractions were observed within the striatum for most Gβ and Gγ isoforms, while others exhibited completely unique expression patterns in all four brain regions examined. Such differences are a prerequisite for understanding roles of individual subunits in regulating specific signaling pathways throughout the central nervous system. PMID:24568373

  14. Molecular basis of AKAP specificity for PKA regulatory subunits.

    PubMed

    Gold, Matthew G; Lygren, Birgitte; Dokurno, Pawel; Hoshi, Naoto; McConnachie, George; Taskén, Kjetil; Carlson, Cathrine R; Scott, John D; Barford, David

    2006-11-03

    Localization of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) restricts the action of this broad specificity kinase. The high-resolution crystal structures of the docking and dimerization (D/D) domain of the RIIalpha regulatory subunit of PKA both in the apo state and in complex with the high-affinity anchoring peptide AKAP-IS explain the molecular basis for AKAP-regulatory subunit recognition. AKAP-IS folds into an amphipathic alpha helix that engages an essentially preformed shallow groove on the surface of the RII dimer D/D domains. Conserved AKAP aliphatic residues dominate interactions to RII at the predominantly hydrophobic interface, whereas polar residues are important in conferring R subunit isoform specificity. Using a peptide screening approach, we have developed SuperAKAP-IS, a peptide that is 10,000-fold more selective for the RII isoform relative to RI and can be used to assess the impact of PKA isoform-selective anchoring on cAMP-responsive events inside cells.

  15. Serotonergic modulation of muscle acetylcholine receptors of different subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R

    1996-01-01

    Modulation of muscle acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors (AcChoRs) by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)] and other serotonergic compounds was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Various combinations of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunit RNAs were injected into oocytes, and membrane currents elicited by AcCho were recorded under voltage clamp. Judging by the amplitudes of AcCho currents generated, the levels of functional receptor expression were: alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma > alpha gamma delta. The alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta AcChoR Subtypes were strongly blocked by 5HT, whereas the alpha beta gamma receptor was blocked only slightly. The order of blocking potency of AcChoRs by 5HT was: alpha beta delta > alpha beta gamma delta > alpha beta gamma. 5HT receptor antagonists, such as methysergide and spiperone, were even more potent blockers of AcChoRs than 5HT but did not show much subunit selectivity. Blockage of alpha beta gamma delta and alpha beta delta receptors by 5HT was voltage-dependent, and the voltage dependence was abolished when the delta subunit was omitted. These findings may need to be taken into consideration when trying to elucidate the mode of action of many clinically important serotonergic compounds. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633003

  16. Molecular Modeling of the Misfolded Insulin Subunit and Amyloid Fibril

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay H.; May, Barnaby C.H.; Wille, Holger; Cohen, Fred E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Insulin, a small hormone protein comprising 51 residues in two disulfide-linked polypeptide chains, adopts a predominantly α-helical conformation in its native state. It readily undergoes protein misfolding and aggregates into amyloid fibrils under a variety of conditions. Insulin is a unique model system in which to study protein fibrillization, since its three disulfide bridges are retained in the fibrillar state and thus limit the conformational space available to the polypeptide chains during misfolding and fibrillization. Taking into account this unique conformational restriction, we modeled possible monomeric subunits of the insulin amyloid fibrils using β-solenoid folds, namely, the β-helix and β-roll. Both models agreed with currently available biophysical data. We performed molecular dynamics simulations, which allowed some limited insights into the relative structural stability, suggesting that the β-roll subunit model may be more stable than the β-helix subunit model. We also constructed β-solenoid-based insulin fibril models and conducted fiber diffraction simulation to identify plausible fibril architectures of insulin amyloid. A comparison of simulated fiber diffraction patterns of the fibril models to the experimental insulin x-ray fiber diffraction data suggests that the model fibers composed of six twisted β-roll protofilaments provide the most reasonable fit to available experimental diffraction patterns and previous biophysical studies. PMID:20006956

  17. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  18. Individual Interactions of the b Subunits within the Stator of the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Karsten; Maiwald, Sarah; Herkenhoff-Hesselmann, Brigitte; Gnirß, Kerstin; Greie, Jörg-Christian; Dunn, Stanley D.; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    FOF1 ATP synthases are rotary nanomotors that couple proton translocation across biological membranes to the synthesis/hydrolysis of ATP. During catalysis, the peripheral stalk, composed of two b subunits and subunit δ in Escherichia coli, counteracts the torque generated by the rotation of the central stalk. Here we characterize individual interactions of the b subunits within the stator by use of monoclonal antibodies and nearest neighbor analyses via intersubunit disulfide bond formation. Antibody binding studies revealed that the C-terminal region of one of the two b subunits is principally involved in the binding of subunit δ, whereas the other one is accessible to antibody binding without impact on the function of FOF1. Individually substituted cysteine pairs suitable for disulfide cross-linking between the b subunits and the other stator subunits (b-α, b-β, b-δ, and b-a) were screened and combined with each other to discriminate between the two b subunits (i.e. bI and bII). The results show the b dimer to be located at a non-catalytic α/β cleft, with bI close to subunit α, whereas bII is proximal to subunit β. Furthermore, bI can be linked to subunit δ as well as to subunit a. Among the subcomplexes formed were a-bI-α, bII-β, α-bI-bII-β, and a-bI-δ. Taken together, the data obtained define the different positions of the two b subunits at a non-catalytic interface and imply that each b subunit has a different role in generating stability within the stator. We suggest that bI is functionally related to the single b subunit present in mitochondrial ATP synthase. PMID:23846684

  19. Glutathione S-transferase P protects against cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Baba, Shahid; Merchant, Michael L.; Prough, Russell A.; Williams, Jessica D.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-06-01

    High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100–300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein–acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1–5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10–20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity. - Graphical abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment results in P450-mediated metabolic formation of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein (3-propenal). Acrolein is either metabolized and

  20. 8-Methoxypsoralen is a competitive inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase P1-1

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; de Farias, Marcel Tavares; Teles, André Lacerda Braga; dos Santos Junior, Manoelito Coelho; de Cerqueira, Martins Dias; Lima, Rute Maria Ferreira; El-Bachá, Ramon Santos

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is known to protect healthy brain cells from potentially dangerous chemical agents, but there are many evidences supporting the idea that this protective action is extended to tumor cells. Since the process of angiogenesis in brain tumors leads to BBB breakdown, biochemical characteristics of the BBB seem to be more relevant than physical barriers to protect tumor cells from chemotherapy. In fact, a number of resistance related factors were already demonstrated to be component of both BBB and tumor cells. The enzyme glutathione S-transferases (GST) detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous secondary metabolites formed during oxidative stress. A role has been attributed to GST in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. This study characterized 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) as a human GST P1-1 (hGST P1-1) inhibitor. To identify and characterize the potential inhibitory activity of 8-MOP, we studied the enzyme kinetics of the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) with GSH catalyzed by hGST P1-1. We report here that 8-MOP competitively inhibited hGST P1-1 relative to CDNB, but there was an uncompetitive inhibition relative to GSH. Chromatographic analyses suggest that 8-MOP is not a substrate. Molecular docking simulations suggest that 8-MOP binds to the active site, but its position prevents the GSH conjugation. Thus, we conclude that 8-MOP is a promising prototype for new GST inhibitors pharmacologically useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and the resistance of cancer to chemotherapy. PMID:25324722

  1. Glucosylceramide transferase in Giardia preferentially catalyzes the synthesis of galactosylceramide during encystation.

    PubMed

    Robles-Martinez, Leobarda; Mendez, Tavis L; Apodaca, Jennifer; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    The stage differentiation from trophozoite to cyst (i.e., encystation) is an essential step for Giardia to survive outside its human host and spread the infection via the fecal-oral route. We have previously shown that Giardia expresses glucosylceramide transferase 1 (GlcT1) enzyme, the activity of which is elevated during encystation. We have also reported that blocking the activity of gGlcT1 interferes with the biogenesis of encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) and cyst viability in Giardia. To further understand the role of this enzyme and how it regulates encystation, we overexpressed, knocked down, and rescued the giardial GlcT1 (gGlcT1) gene and measured its enzymatic activity in live parasites as well as in isolated membrane fractions using NBD-ceramide and UDP-glucose or UDP-galactose. We observed that gGlcT1 is able to catalyze the synthesis of both glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and galactosylceramide (GalCer), however the synthesis of GalCer is 2-3 fold higher than of GlcCer. Although both activities follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the bindings of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose with the enzyme appear to be non-competitive and independent of each other. The modulation of gGlcT1 synthesis concomitantly influenced the expression cyst-wall protein (CWP) and overall encystation. We propose that gGlcT1 is a unique enzyme and that Giardia uses this enzyme to synthesize both GlcCer and GalCer to facilitate the process of encystation/cyst production.

  2. Overexpression of GalNAc-transferase GalNAc-T3 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Keisuke; Cerny, Ronald L.; Tanouchi, Aki; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Saibara, Toshiji; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    O-linked glycans of secreted and membrane bound proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer by modulating immune responses, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. A critical aspect of O-glycosylation, the position at which proteins are glycosylated with N-acetyl-galactosamine on serine and threonine residues, is regulated by the substrate specificity of UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts). Thus, GalNAc-Ts regulate the first committed step in O-glycosylated protein biosynthesis, determine sites of O-glycosylation on proteins, and are important for understanding normal and carcinoma-associated O-glycosylation. We have found that one of these enzymes, GalNAc-T3, is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues, and suppression of GalNAc-T3 significantly attenuates growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, suppression of GalNAc-T3 induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results indicate that GalNAc-T3 is likely to be involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Modification of cellular glycosylation occurs in nearly all types of cancer as a result of alterations in the expression levels of glycosyltransferases. We report guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 (GNAT1) as a possible substrate protein of GalNAc-T3. GalNAc-T3 is associated with O-glycosylation of GNAT1, and affects the subcellular distribution of GNAT1. Knocking down endogenous GNAT1 significantly suppresses the growth/survival of PDAC cells. Our results imply that GalNAc-T3 contributes to the function of O-glycosylated proteins and thereby affects the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, substrate proteins of GalNAc-T3 should serve as important therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancers. PMID:21625220

  3. Association of γ-glutamyl transferase with premature coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    GHATGE, MADANKUMAR; SHARMA, ANKIT; VANGALA, RAJANI KANTH

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that higher γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in the blood are associated with the incident of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, and have prognostic importance. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of the GGT level with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in an Asian Indian population has not been evaluated. In the present study, 240 (120 unaffected and 120 CAD affected) young subjects (males, ≤45 years and females, ≤50 years) were selected. The markers assayed were GGT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipids, secretory phospholipase A2, neopterin, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-6, cystatin-C, tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis and lipoprotein (a). The plasma GGT levels in these subjects showed a positive correlation with quantitative variables, such as waist circumference, triglycerides, neopterin levels and cross-sectional correlation with qualitative variable smoking. The findings suggest that the subjects in the highest tertile of GGT had a 2.1-fold [odds ratio (OR), 2.104; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.063–4.165; P=0.033] higher risk of developing premature CAD in comparison with the reference tertile. Furthermore, a 1 U/l increase of GGT (on a log scale) increased the OR by 5.2-fold (OR, 5.208; 95% CI, 1.018–24.624; P=0.048) and 7.4-fold (OR, 7.492; 95% CI, 1.221–45.979; P=0.030) on addition of associated risk factors. In conclusion, the elevated plasma GGT levels potentially indicate increased oxidative stress and the risk of developing premature CAD. Therefore, these findings could be potentially used in the risk stratification of premature CAD following further evaluation. PMID:26998267

  4. Genetic polymorphism in three glutathione s-transferase genes and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Woldegiorgis, S.; Ahmed, R.C.; Zhen, Y.; Erdmann, C.A.; Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    2002-04-01

    The role of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme family is to detoxify environmental toxins and carcinogens and to protect organisms from their adverse effects, including cancer. The genes GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 code for three GSTs involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. In humans, GSTM1 is deleted in about 50% of the population, GSTT1 is absent in about 20%, whereas the GSTP1 gene has a single base polymorphism resulting in an enzyme with reduced activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that GST polymorphisms increase the level of carcinogen-induced DNA damage and several studies have found a correlation of polymorphisms in one of the GST genes and an increased risk for certain cancers. We examined the role of polymorphisms in genes coding for these three GST enzymes in breast cancer. A breast tissue collection consisting of specimens of breast cancer patients and non-cancer controls was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and for GSTP1 single base polymorphism by PCR/RFLP. We found that GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions occurred more frequently in cases than in controls, and GSTP1 polymorphism was more frequent in controls. The effective detoxifier (putative low-risk) genotype (defined as presence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and GSTP1 wild type) was less frequent in cases than controls (16% vs. 23%, respectively). The poor detoxifier (putative high-risk) genotype was more frequent in cases than controls. However, the sample size of this study was too small to provide conclusive results.

  5. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-04-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit (3)H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A 1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A 1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction.

  6. Identification and evolution of a plant cell wall specific glycoprotein glycosyl transferase, ExAD.

    PubMed

    Møller, Svenning Rune; Yi, Xueying; Velásquez, Silvia Melina; Gille, Sascha; Hansen, Pernille Louise Munke; Poulsen, Christian P; Olsen, Carl Erik; Rejzek, Martin; Parsons, Harriet; Zhang, Yang; Wandall, Hans H; Clausen, Henrik; Field, Robert A; Pauly, Markus; Estevez, Jose M; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Petersen, Bent Larsen

    2017-03-30

    Extensins are plant cell wall glycoproteins that act as scaffolds for the deposition of the main wall carbohydrate polymers, which are interlocked into the supramolecular wall structure through intra- and inter-molecular iso-di-tyrosine crosslinks within the extensin backbone. In the conserved canonical extensin repeat, Ser-Hyp4, serine and the consecutive C4-hydroxyprolines (Hyps) are substituted with an α-galactose and 1-5 β- or α-linked arabinofuranoses (Arafs), respectively. These modifications are required for correct extended structure and function of the extensin network. Here, we identified a single Arabidopsis thaliana gene, At3g57630, in clade E of the inverting Glycosyltransferase family GT47 as a candidate for the transfer of Araf to Hyp-arabinofuranotriose (Hyp-β1,4Araf-β1,2Araf-β1,2Araf) side chains in an α-linkage, to yield Hyp-Araf4 which is exclusively found in extensins. T-DNA knock-out mutants of At3g57630 showed a truncated root hair phenotype, as seen for mutants of all hitherto characterized extensin glycosylation enzymes; both root hair and glycan phenotypes were restored upon reintroduction of At3g57630. At3g57630 was named Extensin Arabinose Deficient transferase, ExAD, accordingly. The occurrence of ExAD orthologs within the Viridiplantae along with its' product, Hyp-Araf4, point to ExAD being an evolutionary hallmark of terrestrial plants and charophyte green algae.

  7. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIANG; LIU, REN; MA, HONG-BIN; YING, MING-ZHEN; WANG, YA-JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G2/M phase arrest in the GSTP1-expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1-expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G2/M phase arrest. PMID:26622693

  8. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. PMID:20482766

  9. Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ian; Wortley, David J; Sabbadin, Federico; He, Zhesi; Coxon, Christopher R; Straker, Hannah E; Sellars, Jonathan D; Knight, Kathryn; Edwards, Lesley; Hughes, David; Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert

    2013-04-09

    Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management.

  10. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  11. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-01-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit 3H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. PMID:24434817

  12. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers.

  13. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    PubMed Central

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  14. Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Ian; Wortley, David J.; Sabbadin, Federico; He, Zhesi; Coxon, Christopher R.; Straker, Hannah E.; Sellars, Jonathan D.; Knight, Kathryn; Hughes, David; Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management. PMID:23530204

  15. Functional complementation of anthocyanin sequestration in the vacuole by widely divergent glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Alfenito, M R; Souer, E; Goodman, C D; Buell, R; Mol, J; Koes, R; Walbot, V

    1998-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last genetically defined step of the maize anthocyanin pigment pathway. This step is the conjugation of glutathione to cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G). Glutathionated C3G is transported to the vacuole via a tonoplast Mg-ATP-requiring glutathione pump (GS-X pump). Genetically, the comparable step in the petunia anthocyanin pathway is controlled by the Anthocyanin9 (An9) gene. An9 was cloned by transposon tagging and found to encode a type I plant GST. Bz2 and An9 have evolved independently from distinct types of GSTs, but each is regulated by the conserved transcriptional activators of the anthocyanin pathway. Here, a phylogenetic analysis is presented, with special consideration given to the origin of these genes and their relaxed substrate requirements. In particle bombardment tests, An9 and Bz2 functionally complement both mutants. Among several other GSTs tested, only soybean GmGST26A (previously called GmHsp26A and GH2/4) and maize GSTIII were found to confer vacuolar sequestration of anthocyanin. Previously, these genes had not been associated with the anthocyanin pathway. Requirements for An9 and Bz2 gene function were investigated by sequencing functional and nonfunctional germinal revertants of an9-T3529, bz2::Ds, and bz2::Mu1. PMID:9668133

  16. The still mysterious roles of cysteine-containing glutathione transferases in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lallement, Pierre-Alexandre; Brouwer, Bastiaan; Keech, Olivier; Hecker, Arnaud; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent a widespread multigenic enzyme family able to modify a broad range of molecules. These notably include secondary metabolites and exogenous substrates often referred to as xenobiotics, usually for their detoxification, subsequent transport or export. To achieve this, these enzymes can bind non-substrate ligands (ligandin function) and/or catalyze the conjugation of glutathione onto the targeted molecules, the latter activity being exhibited by GSTs having a serine or a tyrosine as catalytic residues. Besides, other GST members possess a catalytic cysteine residue, a substitution that radically changes enzyme properties. Instead of promoting GSH-conjugation reactions, cysteine-containing GSTs (Cys-GSTs) are able to perform deglutathionylation reactions similarly to glutaredoxins but the targets are usually different since glutaredoxin substrates are mostly oxidized proteins and Cys-GST substrates are metabolites. The Cys-GSTs are found in most organisms and form several classes. While Beta and Omega GSTs and chloride intracellular channel proteins (CLICs) are not found in plants, these organisms possess microsomal ProstaGlandin E-Synthase type 2, glutathionyl hydroquinone reductases, Lambda, Iota and Hemerythrin GSTs and dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs); the four last classes being restricted to the green lineage. In plants, whereas the role of DHARs is clearly associated to the reduction of dehydroascorbate to ascorbate, the physiological roles of other Cys-GSTs remain largely unknown. In this context, a genomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cys-GSTs in photosynthetic organisms provides an updated classification that is discussed in the light of the recent literature about the functional and structural properties of Cys-GSTs. Considering the antioxidant potencies of phenolic compounds and more generally of secondary metabolites, the connection of GSTs with secondary metabolism may be interesting from a pharmacological

  17. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Tseliou, Vasilis; Riga, Maria; Nauen, Ralf; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we functionally expressed and characterized three GSTs, two of the delta class (TuGSTd10, TuGSTd14) and one of the mu class (TuGSTm09), which had been previously associated with striking resistance phenotypes against abamectin and other acaricides/insecticides, by transcriptional studies. Functional analysis showed that all three GSTs were capable of catalyzing the conjugation of both 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene(DCNB) to glutathione (GSH), as well as exhibiting GSH-dependent peroxidase activity toward Cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH). The steady-state kinetics of the T. urticae GSTs for the GSH/CDNB conjugation reaction were determined and compared with other GSTs. The interaction of the three recombinant proteins with several acaricides and insecticides was also investigated. TuGSTd14 showed the highest affinity toward abamectin and a competitive type of inhibition, which suggests that the insecticide may bind to the H-site of the enzyme. The three-dimensional structure of the TuGSTd14 was predicted based on X-ray structures of delta class GSTs using molecular modeling. Structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of TuGSTd14.

  18. Effects of Local Heart Irradiation in a Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4-Null Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Singh, Preeti; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti; Sharma, Sunil; Singh, Sharda P

    2015-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4-4) is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an electrophilic product of lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes during oxidative stress. 4-HNE is a direct activator of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor with many target genes encoding antioxidant and anti-electrophile enzymes. We have previously shown that Gsta4-null mice on a 129/Sv background exhibited increased activity of Nrf2 in the heart. Here we examined the sensitivity of this Gsta4-null mouse model towards cardiac function and structure loss due to local heart irradiation. Male Gsta4-null and wild-type mice were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 18 Gy to the heart. Six months after irradiation, immunohistochemical staining for respiratory complexes 2 and 5 indicated that radiation exposure had caused most pronounced alterations in mitochondrial morphology in Gsta4-null mice. On the other hand, wild-type mice showed a decline in cardiac function and an increase in plasma levels of troponin-I, while no such changes were observed in Gsta4-null mice. Radiation-induced Nrf2-target gene expression only in Gsta4-null mice. In conclusion, although loss of GSTA4-4 led to enhanced susceptibility of cardiac mitochondria to radiation-induced loss of morphology, cardiac function was preserved in Gsta4-null mice. We propose that this protection against cardiac function loss may occur, at least in part, by upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  19. Effects of chlorpyrifos on glutathione S-transferase in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Liu, Ting; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Xueyao; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a typical organophosphate pesticide and is among the most widely used worldwide. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the effect of chlorpyrifos exposure on glutathione S-transferase in Locusta migratoria. In the present study, chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mgg(-1) body weight) was topically applied in the abdomen of locusts. The GST activity, mRNA levels of ten L. migratoria GSTs and protein levels of four representative GSTs were detected. The results showed that chlorpyrifos treatment caused significant decrease of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) activities, whereas 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) activity was not altered in locusts. The mRNA levels of seven L. migratoria GSTs, including LmGSTs2, LmGSTs3, LmGSTs4, LmGSTs5, LmGSTs6, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1, were decreased after chlorpyrifos exposure. The protein levels of LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1 and LmGSTu1 were significantly decreased at higher doses of chlorpyrifos. However, chlorpyrifos elevated the mRNA and protein expression of LmGSTd1. It indicated that LmGSTd1 might contribute to the resistance of locust to organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, whereas the decrease in other GSTs might be an economic compensation by the insect to differentially regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the detoxification of insecticides on the expense of those that are not.

  20. Organisation and structural evolution of the rice glutathione S-transferase gene family.

    PubMed

    Soranzo, N; Sari Gorla, M; Mizzi, L; De Toma, G; Frova, C

    2004-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of key defence enzymes against xenobiotic toxicity. Here we describe the comprehensive characterisation of this important multigene family in the model monocot species rice [ Oryza sativa(L.)]. Furthermore, we investigate the molecular evolution of the family based on the analysis of (1) the patterns of within-genome duplication, and (2) the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary divergence among rice, Arabidopsis, maize and soybean GSTs. By in-silico screening of the EST and genome divisions of the Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ database we have isolated 59 putative genes and two pseudogenes, making this the largest plant GST family characterised to date. Of these, 38 (62%) are represented by genomic and EST sequences and 23 (38%) are known only from their genomic sequences. A preliminary survey of EST collections shows a large degree of variability in gene expression between different tissues and environmental conditions, with a small number of genes (13) accounting for 80% of all ESTs. Rice GSTs are organised in four main phylogenetic classes, with 91% of all rice genes belonging to the two plant-specific classes Tau (40 genes) and Phi (16 genes). Pairwise identity scores range between 17 and 98% for proteins of the same class, and 7 and 21% for interclass comparisons. Rapid evolution by gene duplication is suggested by the discovery of two large clusters of 7 and 23 closely related genes on chromosomes 1 and 10, respectively. A comparison of the complete GST families in two monocot and two dicot species suggests a monophyletic origin for all Theta and Zeta GSTs, and no more than three common ancestors for all Phi and Tau genes.

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  2. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. PMID:26858288

  3. Glutathione-supported arsenate reduction coupled to arsenolysis catalyzed by ornithine carbamoyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeti, Balazs; Gregus, Zoltan

    2009-09-01

    Three cytosolic phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes, (purine nucleoside phosphorylase [PNP], glycogen phosphorylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been shown to mediate reduction of arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) in a thiol-dependent manner. With unknown mechanism, hepatic mitochondria also reduce AsV. Mitochondria possess ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT), which catalyzes phosphorolytic or arsenolytic citrulline cleavage; therefore, we examined if mitochondrial OCT facilitated AsV reduction in presence of glutathione. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with AsV, and AsIII formed was quantified. Glutathione-supplemented permeabilized or solubilized mitochondria reduced AsV. Citrulline (substrate for OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis) increased AsV reduction. The citrulline-stimulated AsV reduction was abolished by ornithine (OCT substrate inhibiting citrulline cleavage), phosphate (OCT substrate competing with AsV), and the OCT inhibitor norvaline or PALO, indicating that AsV reduction is coupled to OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis of citrulline. Corroborating this conclusion, purified bacterial OCT mediated AsV reduction in presence of citrulline and glutathione with similar responsiveness to these agents. In contrast, AsIII formation by intact mitochondria was unaffected by PALO and slightly stimulated by citrulline, ornithine, and norvaline, suggesting minimal role for OCT in AsV reduction in intact mitochondria. In addition to OCT, mitochondrial PNP can also mediate AsIII formation; however, its role in AsV reduction appears severely limited by purine nucleoside supply. Collectively, mitochondrial and bacterial OCT promote glutathione-dependent AsV reduction with coupled arsenolysis of citrulline, supporting the hypothesis that AsV reduction is mediated by phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes. Nevertheless, because citrulline cleavage is disfavored physiologically, OCT may have little role in AsV reduction in vivo.

  4. Value of glutathion-S transferase pi as a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saip, P; Tuzlali, S; Demir, K; Sakar, B; Yavuz, E; Berkman, S; Bengisu, E; Topuz, E

    2005-01-01

    The association between glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) and other clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome were investigated in chemotherapy naive epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded material from 55 patients were used for immunohistochemical analysis. All patients had received six cycles of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and 41 of them were revalued by laparotomy. Pre- and post-chemotherapy GSTpi staining were detected in the cancer tissues of 18/55 (32.7%) and 5/14 (35.7%) patients, respectively. GSTpi expression was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Of 17 patients with postoperative measurable residual disease clinical response was observed in 4/7 of GSTpi positive and in 9/10 GSTpi negative patients (p = 0.25). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 5/8 of GSTpi positive and 11/22 of GSTpi negative cases (p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) according to initial GSTpi status. However the PFS of the five patients (median 22 +/- 5.9 months) who had postchemotherapy positive GSTpi was significantly shorter than the nine patients (10.0 +/- 2.19 months) who had negative GSTpi (p = 0.006). This difference was not observed in overall survival. These results suggest that initial immunohistochemical staining of GSTpi does not aid in the prediction of pCR and clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nonetheless investigation of GSTpi expression after chemotherapy needs further evaluation.

  5. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Verstuyft, Céline; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hummel, Aurélie; Le Guern, Véronique; Sacré, Karim; Meyer, Olivier; Daugas, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Sultan, Audrey; Lobbedez, Thierry; Galicier, Lionel; Pourrat, Jacques; Le Hello, Claire; Godin, Michel; Morello, Rémy; Lambert, Marc; Hachulla, Eric; Vanhille, Philippe; Queffeulou, Guillaume; Potier, Jacky; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Bataille, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Moulis, Guillaume; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Duhaut, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Bernadette; Deroux, Alban; Manuzak, Jennifer; Francès, Camille; Aumaitre, Olivier; Bezanahary, Holy; Becquemont, Laurent; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST). Methods We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline. Results Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients. PMID:27002825

  6. Identification and evolution of a plant cell wall specific glycoprotein glycosyl transferase, ExAD

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Svenning Rune; Yi, Xueying; Velásquez, Silvia Melina; Gille, Sascha; Hansen, Pernille Louise Munke; Poulsen, Christian P.; Olsen, Carl Erik; Rejzek, Martin; Parsons, Harriet; Zhang, Yang; Wandall, Hans H.; Clausen, Henrik; Field, Robert A.; Pauly, Markus; Estevez, Jose M.; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Petersen, Bent Larsen

    2017-01-01

    Extensins are plant cell wall glycoproteins that act as scaffolds for the deposition of the main wall carbohydrate polymers, which are interlocked into the supramolecular wall structure through intra- and inter-molecular iso-di-tyrosine crosslinks within the extensin backbone. In the conserved canonical extensin repeat, Ser-Hyp4, serine and the consecutive C4-hydroxyprolines (Hyps) are substituted with an α-galactose and 1–5 β- or α-linked arabinofuranoses (Arafs), respectively. These modifications are required for correct extended structure and function of the extensin network. Here, we identified a single Arabidopsis thaliana gene, At3g57630, in clade E of the inverting Glycosyltransferase family GT47 as a candidate for the transfer of Araf to Hyp-arabinofuranotriose (Hyp-β1,4Araf-β1,2Araf-β1,2Araf) side chains in an α-linkage, to yield Hyp-Araf4 which is exclusively found in extensins. T-DNA knock-out mutants of At3g57630 showed a truncated root hair phenotype, as seen for mutants of all hitherto characterized extensin glycosylation enzymes; both root hair and glycan phenotypes were restored upon reintroduction of At3g57630. At3g57630 was named Extensin Arabinose Deficient transferase, ExAD, accordingly. The occurrence of ExAD orthologs within the Viridiplantae along with its’ product, Hyp-Araf4, point to ExAD being an evolutionary hallmark of terrestrial plants and charophyte green algae. PMID:28358137

  7. Characterization of the ligandin site of maize glutathione S-transferase I

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) are a major reserve of high-capacity binding proteins and exhibit ligand-binding properties for a large variety of compounds. In the present study, the binding of two non-substrate anthraquinone dyes VBAR (Vilmafix Blue A-R) and CB3GA (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to maize (Zea mays) GST I was investigated. The results showed that the enzyme was specifically and irreversible inactivated by VBAR with a Kd of 35.5±2.2 μM and a k3 of 0.47 min−1. Proteolytic cleavage of the VBAR-modified enzyme and subsequent separation of peptides gave only one modified peptide. Sequencing of the modified peptide revealed the target site of VBAR reaction to be Lys41. CB3GA binds reversibly to GST I and behaves as a competitive inhibitor towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and glutathione. CB3GA binding to GST I is accompanied by a characteristic spectral change in the absorption at positive maximum (670 nm) which exhibited a hyperbolic dependence on dye concentration with a Kd of 12.1±0.5 μM. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues (Trp12, Phe35, Lys41, Asn49, Gln53, Ser67 and Ile118) was employed, and the mutated enzymes were assessed for CB3GA binding. These results, together with molecular-modelling studies, established that the ligandin-binding site of GST I is located mainly in the hydrophobic binding site. The ability of VBAR to specifically inactivate GST I was exploited further to demonstrate the specific binding of several plant hormones and flavonoids to GST I. The inactivation of other GST isoenzymes by VBAR was also investigated, and it was concluded that VBAR may have wide applicability as an affinity label for probing structure–function relationships of GST isoenzymes. PMID:15196053

  8. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of rat class theta glutathione transferase T2-2.

    PubMed Central

    Jemth, P; Stenberg, G; Chaga, G; Mannervik, B

    1996-01-01

    Rat glutathione transferase (GST) T2-2 of class Theta (rGST T2-2), previously known as GST 12-12 and GST Yrs-Yrs, has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli XLI-Blue. The corresponding cDNA was isolated from a rat hepatoma cDNA library, ligated into and expressed from the plasmid pKK-D. The sequence is the same as that of the previously reported cDNA of GST Yrs-Yrs. The enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized ferric ions, and the yield was approx. 200 mg from a 1 litre bacterial culture. The availability of a stable recombinant rGST T2-2 has paved the way for a more accurate characterization of the enzyme. The functional properties of the recombinant rGST T2-2 differ significantly from those reported earlier for the enzyme isolated from rat tissues. These differences probably reflect the difficulties in obtaining fully active enzyme from sources where it occurs in relatively low concentrations, which has been the case in previous studies. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a substrate often used with GSTs of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi, is a substrate also for rGST T2-2, but the specific activity is relatively low. The Km value for glutathione was determined with four different electrophiles and was found to be in the range 0.3 mM-0.8 mM. The Km values for some electrophilic substrates were found to be in the micromolar range, which is low compared with those determined for GSTs of other classes. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with menaphthyl sulphate, which gave a Kcat/Km value of 2.3 x 10(6) s-1.M-1 and a rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction of 3 x 10(10). PMID:8645195

  9. Glutathione-S-transferase P protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; Prough, Russell A; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-05-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke impairs endothelium-dependent arterial dilation. Reactive constituents of cigarette smoke are metabolized and detoxified by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Although polymorphisms in GST genes are associated with the risk of cancer in smokers, the role of these enzymes in regulating the cardiovascular effects of smoking has not been studied. The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, was expressed in high abundance in the mouse lung and aorta. Exposure to tobacco smoke for 3 days (5 h/day) decreased total plasma protein. These changes were exaggerated in GSTP(-/-) mice. Aortic rings isolated from tobacco smoke-exposed GSTP(-/-) mice showed greater attenuation of ACh-evoked relaxation than those from GSTP(+/+) mice. The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. Relative to GSTP(+/+) mice, modification of some proteins by acrolein was increased in the aorta of GSTP(-/-) mice. Aortic rings prepared from GSTP(-/-) mice that inhaled acrolein (1 ppm, 5 h/day for 3 days) or those exposed to acrolein in an organ bath showed diminished ACh-induced arterial relaxation more strongly than GSTP(+/+) mice. Acrolein-induced endothelial dysfunction was prevented by pretreatment of the aorta with N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that GSTP protects against the endothelial dysfunction induced by tobacco smoke exposure and that this protection may be related to the detoxification of acrolein or other related cigarette smoke constituents.

  10. Genetic Deficiency of Glutathione S-Transferase P Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Guo, Yiru; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Kilfoil, Peter; Haberzettl, Petra; Hill, Bradford G.; Baba, Shahid P.; Guo, Luping; Wetzelberger, Karin; Obal, Detlef; Rokosh, D. Gregg; Prough, Russell A.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Velayutham, Murugesan; Zweier, Jay L.; Hoetker, David; Riggs, Daniel W.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bolli, Roberto; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. However, the contribution of aldehydes to myocardial I/R injury has not been assessed. Objective We tested the hypothesis that removal of aldehydes by glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) diminishes I/R injury. Methods and Results In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity. mGstp1/2 deletion reduced total GST activity, but no compensatory increase in GSTA and GSTM or major antioxidant enzymes was observed. Genetic deficiency of GSTP did not alter cardiac function, but in comparison with hearts from wild-type (WT) mice, the hearts isolated from GSTP-null mice were more sensitive to I/R injury. Disruption of the GSTP gene also increased infarct size after coronary occlusion in situ. Ischemia significantly increased acrolein in hearts, and GSTP deficiency induced significant deficits in the metabolism of the unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, but not in the metabolism 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) or trans-2-hexanal; and, upon ischemia, the GSTP-null hearts accumulated more acrolein-modified proteins than WT hearts. GSTP-deficiency did not affect I/R-induced free radical generation, JNK activation or depletion of reduced glutathione. Acrolein-exposure induced a hyperpolarizing shift in INa, and acrolein-induced cell death was delayed by SN-6, a Na+/Ca++ exchange inhibitor. Cardiomyocytes isolated from GSTP-null hearts were more sensitive than WT myocytes to acrolein-induced protein crosslinking and cell death. Conclusions GSTP protects the heart from I/R injury by facilitating the detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes such as acrolein. PMID:26169370

  11. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  12. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase activity in follicular fluid from women undergoing ovarian stimulation: role in maturation.

    PubMed

    Meijide, Susana; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ferrando, Marcos; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    Female infertility involves an emotional impact for the woman, often leading to a state of anxiety and low self-esteem. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are used to overcome the problem of infertility. In a first step of the in vitro fertilization therapy women are subjected to an ovarian stimulation protocol to obtain mature oocytes, which will result in competent oocytes necessary for fertilization to occur. Ovarian stimulation, however, subjects the women to a high physical and psychological stress, thus being essential to improve ART and to find biomarkers of dysfunction and fertility. GSH is an important antioxidant, and is also used in detoxification reactions, catalysed by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present work, we have investigated the involvement of GST in follicular maturation. Patients with fertility problems and oocyte donors were recruited for the study. From each woman follicles at two stages of maturation were extracted at the preovulatory stage. Follicular fluid was separated from the oocyte by centrifugation and used as the enzyme source. GST activity was determined based on its conjugation with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and the assay was adapted to a 96-well microplate reader. The absorbance was represented against the incubation time and the curves were adjusted to linearity (R(2)>0.990). Results showed that in both donors and patients GST activity was significantly lower in mature oocytes compared to small ones. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the follicle maturation by detoxifying xenobiotics, thus contributing to the normal development of the oocyte. Supported by FIS/FEDER (PI11/02559), Gobierno Vasco (Dep. Educación, Universiades e Investigación, IT687-13), and UPV/EHU (CLUMBER UFI11/20 and PES13/58). The work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (CEISH/96/2011/RUIZLARREA), and performed according to the UPV/EHU and IVI-Bilbao agreement (Ref. 2012/01).

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Anopheline Glutathione S-Transferase Epsilon Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Constância; Müller, Pie; Dyer, Naomi; Wilding, Craig; Rigden, Daniel; Donnelly, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family play critical roles in detoxification of xenobiotics across many taxa. While GSTs are ubiquitous both in animals and plants, the GST epsilon class (GSTE) is insect-specific and has been associated with resistance to chemical insecticides. While both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae GSTE clusters consist of eight members, only four putative orthologs are identifiable between the species, suggesting independent expansions of the class in each lineage. We used a primer walking approach, sequencing almost the entire cluster from three Anopheles species (An. stephensi, An. funestus (both Cellia subgenus) and An. plumbeus (Anopheles subgenus)) and compared the sequences to putative orthologs in An. gambiae (Cellia) in an attempt to trace the evolution of the cluster within the subfamily Anophelinae. Furthermore, we measured transcript levels from the identified GSTE loci by real time reverse transcription PCR to determine if all genes were similarly transcribed at different life stages. Among the species investigated, gene order and orientation were similar with three exceptions: (i) GSTE1 was absent in An. plumbeus; (ii) GSTE2 is duplicated in An. plumbeus and (iii) an additional transcriptionally active pseudogene (ψAsGSTE2) was found in An. stephensi. Further statistical analysis and protein modelling gave evidence for positive selection on codons of the catalytic site in GSTE5 albeit its origin seems to predate the introduction of chemical insecticides. Gene expression profiles revealed differences in expression pattern among genes at different life stages. With the exception of GSTE1, ψAsGSTE2 and GSTE2b, all Anopheles species studied share orthologs and hence we assume that GSTE expansion generally predates radiation into subgenera, though the presence of GSTE1 may also suggest a recent duplication event in the Old World Cellia subgenus, instead of a secondary loss. The modifications of the catalytic site

  15. Overexpression of GalNAc-transferase GalNAc-T3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, K; Cerny, R L; Tanouchi, A; Kohno, K; Kotani, N; Honke, K; Saibara, T; Hollingsworth, M A

    2011-12-08

    O-linked glycans of secreted and membrane-bound proteins have an important role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer by modulating immune responses, inflammation and tumorigenesis. A critical aspect of O-glycosylation, the position at which proteins are glycosylated with N-acetyl-galactosamine on serine and threonine residues, is regulated by the substrate specificity of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts). Thus, GalNAc-Ts regulate the first committed step in O-glycosylated protein biosynthesis, determine sites of O-glycosylation on proteins and are important for understanding normal and carcinoma-associated O-glycosylation. We have found that one of these enzymes, GalNAc-T3, is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and suppression of GalNAc-T3 significantly attenuates the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, suppression of GalNAc-T3 induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results indicate that GalNAc-T3 is likely involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Modification of cellular glycosylation occurs in nearly all types of cancer as a result of alterations in the expression levels of glycosyltransferases. We report guanine the nucleotide-binding protein, α-transducing activity polypeptide-1 (GNAT1) as a possible substrate protein of GalNAc-T3. GalNAc-T3 is associated with O-glycosylation of GNAT1 and affects the subcellular distribution of GNAT1. Knocking down endogenous GNAT1 significantly suppresses the growth/survival of PDAC cells. Our results imply that GalNAc-T3 contributes to the function of O-glycosylated proteins and thereby affects the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, substrate proteins of GalNAc-T3 should serve as important therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancers.

  16. Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) polymorphisms are associated with relapse after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cotignola, Javier; Leonardi, Daiana B.; Shahabi, Ahva; Acuña, Alejandro D.; Stern, Mariana C.; Navone, Nora; Scorticati, Carlos; De Siervi, Adriana; Mazza, Osvaldo; Vazquez, Elba

    2013-01-01

    Background Organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) can be cured by radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP); however, some tumors will still recur. Current tools fail to identify patients at risk of recurrence. Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) are involved in the metabolism of carcinogens, hormones and drugs. Thus, genetic polymorphisms that modify the GSTs activities may modify the risk of PCa recurrence. Methods We retrospectively recruited Argentine PCa patients treated with RRP to study the association between GSTs polymorphisms and PCa biochemical relapse after RRP. We genotyped germline DNA in 105 patients for: GSTP1 c.313 A>G (p.105 Ile>Val, rs1695) by PCR-RFLP; and GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null polymorphisms by multiplex-PCR. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate these associations. Results Patients with GSTP1 c.313 GG genotype showed shorter biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) (p=0.003) and higher risk for recurrence in unadjusted (Hazard Ratio (HR)=3.16, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=1.41–7.06, p=0.005) and multivariate models (HR=3.01, 95% CI=1.13–8.02, p=0.028). We did not find significant associations for GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. In addition, we found shorter BRFS (p=0.010) and increased risk for recurrence for patients having 2 or more risk alleles when we combined the genotypes of the three GSTs in multivariate models (HR=3.06, 95% CI=1.20–7.80, p=0.019). Conclusions Our results give support to the implementation of GSTs genotyping for personalized therapies as a novel alternative for PCa management for patients who undergo RRP. This is the first study that examined GST polymorphisms in PCa progression in Argentine men. Replication of our findings in larger cohort is warranted. PMID:23146971

  17. Structure of ST0929, a putative glycosyl transferase from Sulfolobus tokodaii.

    PubMed

    Cielo, Charles B C; Okazaki, Seiji; Suzuki, Atsuo; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yamane, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    The Sulfolobus tokodaii protein ST0929 shares close structural homology with S. acidocaldarius maltooligosyl trehalose synthase (SaMTSase), suggesting that the two enzymes share a common enzymatic mechanism. MTSase is one of a pair of enzymes that catalyze trehalose biosynthesis. The relative geometries of the ST0929 and SaMTSase active sites were found to be essentially identical. ST0929 also includes the unique tyrosine cluster that encloses the reducing-end glucose subunit in Sulfolobus sp. MTSases. The current structure provides insight into the structural basis of the increase in the hydrolase side reaction that is observed for mutants in which a phenylalanine residue is replaced by a tyrosine residue in the subsite +1 tyrosine cluster of Sulfolobus sp.

  18. Structure of ST0929, a putative glycosyl transferase from Sulfolobus tokodaii

    PubMed Central

    Cielo, Charles B. C.; Okazaki, Seiji; Suzuki, Atsuo; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yamane, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The Sulfolobus tokodaii protein ST0929 shares close structural homology with S. acidocaldarius maltooligosyl trehalose synthase (SaMTSase), suggesting that the two enzymes share a common enzymatic mechanism. MTSase is one of a pair of enzymes that catalyze trehalose biosynthesis. The relative geometries of the ST0929 and SaMTSase active sites were found to be essentially identical. ST0929 also includes the unique tyrosine cluster that encloses the reducing-end glucose subunit in Sulfolobus sp. MTSases. The current structure provides insight into the structural basis of the increase in the hydrolase side reaction that is observed for mutants in which a phenylalanine residue is replaced by a tyrosine residue in the subsite +1 tyrosine cluster of Sulfolobus sp. PMID:20383007

  19. Two-subunit DNA escort mechanism and inactive subunit bypass in an ultra-fast ring ATPase

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ninning; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-10-09

    SpoIIIE is a homo-hexameric dsDNA translocase responsible for completing chromosome segregation in Bacillus subtilis . Here, we use a single-molecule approach to monitor SpoIIIE translocation when challenged with neutral-backbone DNA and non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs. We show that SpoIIIE makes multiple essential contacts with phosphates on the 5'→3' strand in the direction of translocation. Using DNA constructs with two neutral-backbone segments separated by a single charged base pair, we deduce that SpoIIIE’s step size is 2 bp. Finally, experiments with non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs suggest that SpoIIIE can operate with non-consecutive inactive subunits. We propose a two-subunit escort translocation mechanism thatmore » is strict enough to enable SpoIIIE to track one DNA strand, yet sufficiently compliant to permit the motor to bypass inactive subunits without arrest. We speculate that such a flexible mechanism arose for motors that, like SpoIIIE, constitute functional bottlenecks where the inactivation of even a single motor can be lethal for the cell.« less

  20. Early expression of GABA(A) receptor delta subunit in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Didelon, F; Mladinic', M; Cherubini, E; Bradbury, A

    2000-12-01

    The cDNA library screening strategy was used to identify the genes encoding for GABA(A) receptor subunits in the rat hippocampus during development. With this technique, genes encoding eleven GABA(A) receptor subunits were identified. The alpha5 subunit was by far the most highly expressed, followed by the gamma2, alpha2 and alpha4 subunits respectively. The expression of the beta2, alpha1, gamma1, beta1 and beta3 subunits was moderate, although that of the alpha3 and delta subunits was weak. In situ hybridization experiments, using digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes, confirmed that the delta subunit was expressed in the neonatal as well as in the adult hippocampus, and is likely to form functional receptors in association with other subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. When the more sensitive RT-PCR approach was used, the gamma3 subunit was also detected, suggesting that this subunit is present in the hippocampus during development but at low levels of expression. The insertion of the delta subunit into functional GABA(A) receptors may enhance the efficacy of GABA in the immediate postnatal period when this amino acid is still exerting a depolarizing and excitatory action.

  1. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  2. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  3. Subunit regulation of the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    De Waard, M; Campbell, K P

    1995-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are multi-protein complexes composed of at least three subunits: alpha 1, alpha 2 delta and beta. Ba2+ currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes expressing the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Various subunit combinations were studied: alpha 1A, alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b, alpha 1A beta or alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b beta. 2. The alpha 1A subunit alone directs the expression of functional Ca2+ channels. It carries all the properties of the channel: gating, permeability, voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and pharmacology. The alpha 1A channel is activated by low voltages when physiological concentrations of the permeant cation are used. Both ancillary subunits alpha 2 delta and beta induced considerable changes in the biophysical properties of the alpha 1A current. The subunit specificity of the changes in current properties was analysed for all four beta gene products by coexpressing beta 1b, beta 2a, beta 3 and beta 4. 3. All beta subunits induce a stimulation in the current amplitude, a change in inactivation kinetics, and two hyperpolarizing shifts--one in the voltage dependence of activation and a second in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The most significant difference in regulation among beta subunits is the induction of variable rate constants of current inactivation. Rates of inactivation were induced in the following order (fastest to slowest): beta 3 > beta 1b = beta 4 > beta 2a. 4. The alpha 2 delta b subunit does not modify the properties of alpha 1A Ca2+ channels in the absence of beta subunits. However, this subunit increases the beta-induced stimulation in current amplitude and also regulates the beta-induced change in inactivation kinetics. 5. Of all the subunit combinations tested, Ca2+ channels that included a beta subunit were the most prone to decrease in activity. It is concluded that beta subunits are the primary target for the

  4. Characterization of the interface between gamma and epsilon subunits of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tang, C; Capaldi, R A

    1996-02-09

    The interaction faces of the gamma and epsilon subunits in the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase have been explored by a combination of cross-linking and chemical modification experiments using several mutant epsilon subunits as follows: epsilonS10C, epsilonH38C, epsilonT43C, epsilonS65C, epsilonS108C, and epsilonM138C, along with a mutant of the gamma subunit, gammaT106C. The replacement of Ser-10 by a Cys or Met-138 by a Cys reduced the inhibition of ECF1 by the epsilon subunit, while the mutation S65C increased this inhibitory effect. Modification of the Cys at position 10 with N-ethylmaleimide or fluoroscein maleimide further reduced the binding affinity of, and the maximal inhibition by, the epsilon subunit. Similar chemical modification of the Cys at position 43 of the epsilon subunit (in the mutant epsilonT43C) and a Cys at position 106 of the gamma subunit (gammaT106C) also affected the inhibition of ECF1 by the epsilon subunit. The various epsilon subunit mutants were reacted with TFPAM3, and the site(s) of cross-linking within the ECF1 complex was determined. Previous studies have shown cross-linking from the Cys at positions 10 and 38 with the gamma subunit and from a Cys at position 108 to an alpha subunit (Aggeler, R., Chicas-Cruz, K., Cai, S. X., Keana, J. F. W., and Capaldi, R. A. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 2956-2961; Aggeler, R., Weinreich, F., and Capaldi, R. A. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1230, 62-68). Here, cross-linking was found from a Cys at position 43 to the gamma subunit and from the Cys at position 138 to a beta subunit. The site of cross-linking from Cys-10 of epsilon to the gamma subunit was localized by peptide mapping to a region of the gamma subunit between residues 222 and 242. Cross-linking from a Cys at position 38 and at position 43 was with the C-terminal part of the gamma subunit, between residues 202 and 286. ECF1 treated with trypsin at pH 7.0 still binds purified epsilon subunit, while enzyme treated with the protease at pH 8.0 does

  5. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R M; Franco, E; Teixeira, A R

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a +5 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35S-labelled ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (< 1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photo-synthetic tissues.

  6. Properties and subunit structure of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Hiraoka, T; Koike, K; Ogasahara, K; Kanzaki, T

    1976-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.4.1] was separated from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 150,000 by sedimentation equilibrium methods. The enzyme was dissociated into two subunits (alpha and beta), with estimated molecular weights of 41,000 (alpha) and 36,000 (beta), respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunits were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and their chemical properties were examined. The subunit structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase was assigned as alpha2beta2. The content of right-handed alpha-helix in the enzyme molecule was estimated to be about 29 and 28% by optical rotatory dispersion and by circular dichroism, respectively. The enzyme contained no thiamine-PP, and its dehydrogenase activity was completely dependent on added thiamine-PP and partially dependent on added Mg2+ and Ca2+. The Km value of pyruvate dehydrogenase for thiamine diphosphate was estimated to be 6.5 X 10(-5) M in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. The enzyme showed highly specific activity for thiamine-PP dependent oxidation of both pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate, but it also showed some activity with alpha-ketovalerate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and alpha-ketoisovalerate. The pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was strongly inhibited by bivalent heavy metal ions and by sulfhydryl inhibitors; and the enzyme molecule contained 27 moles of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-reactive sulfhydryl groups and a total of 36 moles of sulfhydryl groups. The inhibitory effect of p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by preincubating the enzyme with thiamine-PP plus pyruvate. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase necessary for formation of the complex is also reported.

  7. Spinal NMDA NR1 Subunit Expression Following Transient TNBS Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Background: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the development of hypersensitivity to visceral and somatic stimuli following inflammation or tissue injury. Our objective was to investigate the role of NMDA NR1 receptors in the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) of a subset of rats that remain hypersensitive following histological resolution of TNBS-induced colitis compared to saline treated rats and rats that had recovered both behaviorally and histologically. We hypothesized that NMDA NR1 subunit expression mediates hypersensitivity following transient TNBS colitis. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150g-250g) received 20mg/rat intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in 50% ethanol or saline. Animals underwent nociceptive visceral/somatic pain testing 16 weeks after resolution of TNBS colitis. Animals were sacrificed and their spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) was retrieved and 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistocytochemistry techniques were used to investigate spinal-NMDA receptor expression. Results: NR1001 was the only NMDA NR1 receptor subunit that was expressed in recovered and control rats, whereas hypersensitive animals expressed NR1011 and NR1111 as well as NR1001 subunits. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated increased expression of NMDA NR1-N1, C1, and C2-plus expression in lamina I & II of the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) in hypersensitive rats but not in recovered/control rats. Conclusions: Selective increases in the expression of the NMDA NR1 splice variants occur in hypersensitive rats following resolution of TNBS colitis. This suggests that the NMDA NR1 receptor play an important role in the development of neuronal plasticity and central sensitization. The recombination of NR1 splice variants may serve as a key functional protein that maintains hypersensitivity following resolution of TNBS colitis. PMID:19406112

  8. The β Subunit of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Buraei, Zafir; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium regulates a wide spectrum of physiological processes such as heartbeat, muscle contraction, neuronal communication, hormone release, cell division, and gene transcription. Major entry-ways for Ca2+ in excitable cells are high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca2+channels. These are plasma membrane proteins composed of several subunits, including α1, α2δ, β, and γ. Although the principal α1 subunit (Cavα1) contains the channel pore, gating machinery and most drug binding sites, the cytosolic auxiliary β subunit (Cavβ) plays an essential role in regulating the surface expression and gating properties of HVA Ca2+ channels. Cavβ is also crucial for the modulation of HVA Ca2+ channels by G proteins, kinases, and the Ras-related RGK GTPases. New proteins have emerged in recent years that modulate HVA Ca2+ channels by binding to Cavβ. There are also indications that Cavβ may carry out Ca2+ channel-independent functions, including directly regulating gene transcription. All four subtypes of Cavβ, encoded by different genes, have a modular organization, consisting of three variable regions, a conserved guanylate kinase (GK) domain, and a conserved Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, placing them into the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family. Crystal structures of Cavβs reveal how they interact with Cavα1, open new research avenues, and prompt new inquiries. In this article, we review the structure and various biological functions of Cavβ, with both a historical perspective as well as an emphasis on recent advances. PMID:20959621

  9. Crystal Structure of the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain of Subunit I, a Homolog of Subunit a, of V-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Sankaranarayanan; Vyas, Nand K.; Baker, Matthew L.; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2012-02-27

    Subunit 'a' is associated with the membrane-bound (VO) complex of eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase acidification machinery. It has also been shown recently to be involved in diverse membrane fusion/secretory functions independent of acidification. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal cytosolic domain from the Meiothermus ruber subunit 'I' homolog of subunit a. The structure is composed of a curved long central {alpha}-helix bundle capped on both ends by two lobes with similar {alpha}/{beta} architecture. Based on the structure, a reasonable model of its eukaryotic subunit a counterpart was obtained. The crystal structure and model fit well into reconstructions from electron microscopy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases, respectively, clarifying their orientations and interactions and revealing features that could enable subunit a to play a role in membrane fusion/secretion.

  10. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The latest release of the large ribosomal subunit RNA database contains 429 sequences. All these sequences are aligned, and incorporate secondary structure information. The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ provides researchers with an easily accessible resource to obtain the data in this database in a number of computer-readable formats. A new query interface has been added to the server. If necessary, the data can also be obtained by anonymous ftp from the same site. PMID:9016517

  11. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Nicolaï, S; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp and World Wide Web(WWW). PMID:8594609

  12. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Van den Broeck, I; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contains (June 1994) 2824 nucleotide sequences. All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp on our server in Antwerp. A special effort was made to improve electronic retrieval and a program is supplied that allows to create different file formats. The database can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library. PMID:7524022

  13. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Jansen, J; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA now offers more than 6000 nucleotide sequences (August 1996). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. For ease of use, the complete database is made available to the scientific community via World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ . PMID:9016516

  14. A pseudaminic acid or a legionaminic acid derivative transferase is strain-specifically implicated in the general protein O-glycosylation system of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Markus B; Janesch, Bettina; Maresch, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-03-16

    The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins. Bioinformatic analyses provided the candidate genes Tanf_01245 (strain ATCC 43037) and TFUB4_00887 (strain UB4), encoding a putative pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase, respectively. These transferases have identical C-termini and contain motifs typical of glycosyltransferases (DXD) and bacterial sialyltransferases (D/E-D/E-G and HP). They share homology to type B glycosyltransferases and TagB, an enzyme catalyzing glycerol transfer to an N-acetylmannosamine residue in teichoic acid biosynthesis. Analysis of a cellular pool of nucleotide-activated sugars confirmed the presence of the CMP-activated nonulosonic acid derivatives, which are most likely serving as substrates for the corresponding transferase. Single gene knock-out mutants targeted at either transferase were analyzed for S-layer O-glycan composition by ESI-MS, confirming the loss of the nonulosonic acid derivative. Cross-complementation of the mutants with the nonnative nonulosonic acid transferase was not successful indicating high stringency of the enzymes. This study identified plausible candidates for a pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase; these may serve as valuable tools for engineering of novel sialoglycoconjugates.

  15. Determination of kainate receptor subunit ratios in mouse brain using novel chimeric protein standards.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Iida, Izumi; Konno, Kohtarou; Akashi, Kaori; Abe, Manabu; Natsume, Rie; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are tetrameric channels assembled from GluK1-5. GluK1-3 are low-affinity subunits that form homomeric and heteromeric KARs, while GluK4 and GluK5 are high-affinity subunits that require co-assembly with GluK1-3 for functional expression. Although the subunit composition is thought to be highly heterogeneous in the brain, the distribution of KAR subunits at the protein level and their relative abundance in given regions of the brain remain largely unknown. In the present study, we titrated C-terminal antibodies to each KAR subunit using chimeric GluA2-GluK fusion proteins, and measured their relative abundance in the P2 and post-synaptic density (PSD) fractions of the adult mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. Analytical western blots showed that GluK2 and GluK3 were the major KAR subunits, with additional expression of GluK5 in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In both regions, GluK4 was very low and GluK1 was below the detection threshold. The relative amount of low-affinity subunits (GluK2 plus GluK3) was several times higher than that of high-affinity subunits (GluK4 plus GluK5) in both regions. Of note, the highest ratio of high-affinity subunits to low-affinity subunits was found in the hippocampal PSD fraction (0.32), suggesting that heteromeric receptors consisting of high- and low-affinity subunits highly accumulate at hippocampal synapses. In comparison, this ratio was decreased to 0.15 in the cerebellar PSD fraction, suggesting that KARs consisting of low-affinity subunits are more prevalent in the cerebellum. Therefore, low-affinity KAR subunits are predominant in the brain, with distinct subunit combinations between the hippocampus and cerebellum. Kainate receptors, an unconventional member of the iGluR receptor family, have a tetrameric structure assembled from low-affinity (GluK1-3) and high-affinity (GluK4 and GluK5) subunits. We used a simple but novel procedure to measure the relative abundance of both low- and

  16. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  17. Differential induction of distinct glutathione-S-transferases of wheat by xenobiotics and by pathogen attack.

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1993-01-01

    We have previously characterized a pathogen-induced gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was named GstA1 based on sequence similarities with glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) of maize (R. Dudler, C. Hertig, G. Rebmann, J. Bull, F. Mauch [1991] Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4: 14-18). We have constructed a full-length GstA1 cDNA by combinatorial polymerase chain reaction and demonstrate by functional expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli that the GstA1-encoded protein has GST activity. An antiserum raised against a GstA1 fusion protein specifically recognized a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kD on immunoblots of extracts from bacteria expressing the GstA1 cDNA and extracts from wheat inoculated with Erysiphe graminis. The GstA1-encoded protein was named GST29. RNA and immunoblot analysis showed that GstA1 was only weakly expressed in control plants and was specifically induced by pathogen attack and by the GST substrate glutathione, but not by various xenobiotics. In contrast, a structurally and antigenically unrelated GST with an apparent molecular mass of 25 kD that was detected with an antiserum raised against GSTs of maize was expressed at a high basal level. This GST25 and an additional immunoreactive protein named GST26 were strongly induced by cadmium and by the herbicides atrazine, paraquat, and alachlor, but not by pathogen attack. Compared with the pathogen-induced GST29, GST25 and GST26 showed a high affinity toward glutathione-agarose and were much more active toward the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Thus, wheat contains at least two distinct GST classes that are differentially regulated by xenobiotics and by pathogen attack and whose members have different enzymic properties. GST25 and GST26 appear to have a function in xenobiotic metabolism, whereas GST29 is speculated to fulfill a more specific role in defense reactions against pathogens. PMID:8278547

  18. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  19. Dietary Patterns and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT. Methods Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 women age 40–69 years) without a history of liver diseases or elevated serum aminotransferase. We examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis of 46 items determined from a validated, short food frequency questionnaire. Results We defined dietary patterns as healthy, Western, seafood, bread, and dessert. The healthy pattern was inversely related to GGT in men (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.92; P < 0.01 for trend) and women (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66–1.0; P = 0.05 for trend), whereas the seafood pattern was positively related to GGT in men (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01–1.61; P = 0.03 for trend) and women (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98–1.49; P = 0.05 for trend). Male-specific inverse associations with GGT were found for bread and dessert patterns (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50–0.80 and OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68, respectively; P < 0.01 for both trends). Seafood or bread patterns and alcohol consumption significantly interacted with GGT in men (P = 0.03 and <0.01 for interaction, respectively) and between the dessert pattern and body mass index or smoking habit in women (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively, for interaction). Conclusions Dietary patterns may be important determinants of GGT, and their possible clinical implications warrant further investigation. PMID:25787241

  20. Genetic and epigenetic regulation and expression signatures of glutathione S-transferases in developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Cui, Julia Yue; Choudhuri, Supratim; Knight, Tamara R; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-07-01

    The hepatic glutathione S-transferases (Gsts) are critical phase II enzymes in protecting cellular macromolecules against electrophiles and oxidative stress. Little is known about the ontogeny of Gsts and the underlying regulatory mechanisms during liver development. Therefore, in this study, the ontogeny and the regulatory mechanisms of 19 known Gst isoforms were investigated in mouse liver from 2 days before birth to postnatal day 45. With the exception of Gstm5 and MGst2 that showed a progressive decline in postnatal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, most other Gst isoforms showed a progressive increase in postnatal mRNA expression. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct expression patterns of these Gsts isoforms: perinatal, adolescent, and adult enriched. The expression signatures of certain Gst isoforms showed positive association with the ontogeny of critical xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor-2. Specifically, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with the next generation sequencing technology (ChIP-Seq) revealed direct PXR-binding sites to the Gsta, Gstm, Gstt, and Gstp polycistron clusters as well as to the Mgst1 gene locus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation and histone H3K27-trimethylation (H3K27me3), two-gene expression-suppressing epigenetic marks, were consistently low around the Gstz1 gene locus. In contrast, enrichment of histone H3K4-dimethylation (H3K4me2), a hallmark for gene activation, increased 60% around the Gstz1 gene locus from prenatal to the young adult period. Regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between the enrichment of H3K4me2 and Gstz1 mRNA expression (r = 0.76). In conclusion, this study characterized three distinct ontogenic expression signatures of the 19 Gst isoforms

  1. Catalytic characterization of human microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2: identification of rate-limiting steps.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shabbir; Niegowski, Damian; Wetterholm, Anders; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Morgenstern, Ralf; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2013-03-12

    Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 (MGST2) is a 17 kDa trimeric integral membrane protein homologous to leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S). MGST2 has been suggested to catalyze the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in cells devoid of LTC4S. A detailed biochemical study of MGST2 is critical for the understanding of its cellular function and potential role as an LTC4-producing enzyme. Here we have characterized the substrate specificity and catalytic properties of purified MGST2 by steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments. In comparison with LTC4S, which has a catalytic efficiency of 8.7 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), MGST2, with a catalytic efficiency of 1.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), is considerably less efficient in producing LTC4. However, the two enzymes display a similar KM(LTA4) of 30-40 μM. While LTC4S has one activated glutathione (GSH) (forming a thiolate) per enzyme monomer, the MGST2 trimer seems to display only third-of-the-sites reactivity for thiolate activation, which in part would explain its lower catalytic efficiency. Furthermore, MGST2 displays GSH-dependent peroxidase activity of ∼0.2 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) toward several lipid hydroperoxides. MGST2, but not LTC4S, is efficient in catalyzing conjugation of the electrophilic substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with GSH. Using stopped-flow pre-steady-state kinetics, we have characterized the full catalytic reaction of MGST2 with CDNB and GSH as substrates, showing an initial rapid equilibrium binding of GSH followed by thiolate formation. Burst kinetics for the CDNB-GSH conjugation step was observed only at low GSH concentrations (thiolate anion formation becoming rate-limiting under these conditions). Product release is rapid and does not limit the overall reaction. Therefore, in general, the chemical conjugation step is rate-limiting for MGST2 at physiological GSH concentrations. MGST2 and LTC4S

  2. Comprehensive characterization of three glutathione S-transferase family proteins from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, J D H E; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are categorized as phase II enzymes, which form an important multifunctional family associated with a wide variety of catalytic activities. GSTω, GSTρ, and GSTθ are cytosolic GSTs which have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms; however, few studies have focused on teleosts. Those paralogs from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii; RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, respectively) were molecularly, biochemically, and functionally characterized to determine their antioxidant extent and protective aptitudes upon pathogenic stress. RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, contained open reading frames of 717bp, 678bp, and 720bp respectively, which encoded respective proteins of 239, 226, and 240 amino acids in length. In silico analysis revealed that all RfGSTs possessed characteristic N-terminal domains bearing glutathione (GSH)-binding sites, and C-terminal domains containing substrate-binding sites. Recombinant RfGSTω (rRfGSTω) catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to dehydroascorbate (DHA), while rRfGSTθ and rRfGSTρ catalyzed to the model GST substrate 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Kinetic analysis revealed variation in Km and Vmax values for each rRfGST, indicating their different conjugation rates. The optimum conditions (pH and temperature) and inhibition assays of each protein demonstrated different optimal ranges showing their wide range of activity as an assembly. RfGSTω and RfGSTθ paralogs demonstrated their antioxidant potential towards H2O2 and heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in vitro, while RfGSTρ had an antioxidant potential only towards heavy metals (Zn and Cu). Though all the paralogs were ubiquitously expressed in different magnitudes, RfGSTω was highly expressed in blood, whereas RfGSTρ and RfGSTθ were highly expressed in liver. The mRNA expression of RfGSTω and RfGSTθ, upon Streptococcus iniae and poly I:C stimulation, revealed a significantly up-regulated expression, whereas RfGSTρ m

  3. Cloning and characterization of a biotic-stress-inducible glutathione transferase from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous proteins in plants that play important roles in stress tolerance and in the detoxification of toxic chemicals and metabolites. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic diversification of a GST isoenzyme from Phaseolus vulgaris (PvGST) which is induced under biotic stress treatment (Uromyces appendiculatus infection). The full-length cDNA of this GST isoenzyme (termed PvGSTU3-3) with complete open reading frame, was isolated using RACE-RT and showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with the tau class plant GSTs. PvGSTU3-3 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase, thioltransferase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. In addition, its K m for GSH is about five to ten times lower compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that PvGSTU3-3 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g., oxidative stress). Its ability to conjugate GSH with isothiocyanates may provide an additional role for this enzyme to act as a regulator of the released isothiocyanates from glucosinolates as a response of biotic stress. Molecular modeling showed that PvGSTU3-3 shares the same overall fold and structural organization with other plant cytosolic GSTs, with major differences at their hydrophobic binding sites (H-sites) and some differences at the level of C-terminal domain and the linker between the C- and N-terminal domains. PvGSTU3-3, in general, exhibits restricted ability to bind xenobiotics in a nonsubstrate manner, suggesting that the biological role of PvGSTU3-3, is restricted mainly to the catalytic function. Our findings highlight the functional and catalytic diversity of plant GSTs and demonstrate their pivotal role for addressing biotic stresses in Phaseolus

  4. Expression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase pi in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important agents of the antioxidant defense system of the cell because, in conjunction with the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S transferase pi (GSTpi), it plays a central role in the detoxification and biotransformation of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study evaluated the expression of GSH and the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine mammary tumors, relating the clinicopathological parameters, clinical outcome and survival of the bitches. In an in vitro study, the expression of the genes glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) that synthesize GSH and GSH-Px gene were verified by qPCR and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin, to check the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Results The immunohistochemical expression of GSH, GSH-Px and GSTpi was compared with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the clinical outcome in the bitches, including metastasis and death. The results showed that high immunoexpression of GSH was correlated to the absence of tumor ulceration and was present in dogs without metastasis (P < 0.05). There was significant correlation of survival with the increase of GSH (P < 0.05). The expression of the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes showed no statistically significant correlation with the analyzed variables (p > 0.05). The analysis of the relative expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of GSH (GCLC and GSS) and GSH-Px by quantitative PCR was done with cultured cells of 10 tumor fragments from dogs with mammary tumors. The culture cells showed a decrease in GCLC and GSS expression when compared with no treated cells (P < 0.05). High GSH immunoexpression was associated with better clinical outcomes. Conclusion Therefore, high expression of the GSH seems to play an important role in the clinical outcome of patients with mammary tumors and suggest its use as prognostic marker. The in

  5. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  6. Effects of imidacloprid on detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase on Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Sillapawattana, Panwad; Schäffer, Andreas

    2016-04-20

    Chemical analyses of the environment can document contamination by various xenobiotics, but it is also important to understand the effect of pollutants on living organisms. Thus, in the present work, we investigated the effect of the pesticide imidacloprid on the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Folsomia candida (Collembola), a standard test organism for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on non-target soil arthropods. Test animals were treated with different concentrations of imidacloprid for 48 h. Changes in steady-state levels of GST messenger RNA (mRNA) and GST enzyme activity were investigated. Extracted proteins were separated according to their sizes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resolved protein bands were detected by silver staining. The size of the glutathione (GSH) pool in Collembola was also determined. A predicted protein sequence of putative GSTs was identified with animals from control group. A 3-fold up-regulation of GST steady-state mRNA levels was detected in the samples treated with 5.0 mg L(-1) imidacloprid compared to the control, while a 2.5- and 2.0- fold up-regulation was found in organisms treated with 2.5 and 7.5 mg L(-1) imidacloprid, respectively. GST activity increased with increasing imidacloprid amounts from an initial activity of 0.11 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein in the control group up to 0.25 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein in the sample treated with the 5.0 mg L(-1) of pesticide. By contrast, the total amount of GSH decreased with increasing imidacloprid concentration. The results suggest that the alteration of GST activity, steady-state level of GST mRNA, and GSH level may be involved in the response of F. candida to the exposure of imidacloprid and can be used as biomarkers to monitor the toxic effects of imidacloprid and other environmental pollutants on Collembola.

  7. Arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L E; Rendell, N B; Murray, S; Allport, J R; Lo, G; Kefalas, P; Taylor, G W; MacDermot, J

    1996-01-01

    An Arg-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMNs) was confirmed by the use of diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)guanidine (DEA-BAG) as an ADP-ribose acceptor. Two separate HPLC systems were used to separate ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG from reaction mixtures, and its presence was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG was produced in the presence of PMNs, but not in their absence. Incubation of DEA-BAG with ADP-ribose (0.1-10 mM) did not yield ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG, which indicates that ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG formed in the presence of PMNs was not simply a product of a reaction between DEA-BAG and free ADP-ribose, due possibly to the hydrolysis of NAD+ by an NAD+ glycohydrolase. The assay of mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase with agmatine as a substrate was modified for intact PMNs, and the activity was found to be approx. 50-fold lower than that in rabbit cardiac membranes. The Km of the enzyme for NAD+ was 100.1 30.4 microM and the Vmax 1.4 0.2 pmol of ADP-ribosylagmatine/h per 10(6) cells. The enzyme is likely to be linked to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, since incubation of intact PMNs with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) led to a 98% decrease in mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity in the cells. Cell surface proteins were labelled after exposure of intact PMNs to [32P]NAD+. Their molecular masses were 79, 67, 46, 36 and 26 kDa. The time course for labelling was non-linear under these conditions over a period of 4 h. The labelled products were identified as mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins by hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-AMP. PMID:8615841

  8. Glutathione-s-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and associations with type 1 diabetes age-at-onset.

    PubMed

    Bekris, Lynn M; Shephard, Cindy; Peterson, Morgan; Hoehna, Jana; Van Yserloo, Brian; Rutledge, Elizabeth; Farin, Federico; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lernmark, Ake

    2005-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic beta cell destruction involving auto-reactive T-cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of insulin. Monozygotic twin studies show a 20-60% concordance with T1D indicating there may be an environmental component to the disease. Glutathione (GSH) is the major endogenous antioxidant produced by the cell. GSH participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals and plays a role in the immune response. Glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) conjugate GSH to free-radicals or xenobiotics. GST activity depletes GSH levels and may either detoxify or enhance the toxicity of a compound. Glutathione-s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione-s-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) have polymorphic homozygous deletion (null) genotypes resulting in complete absence of enzyme activity. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in Caucasian populations have frequencies of approximately 40-60% and 15-20%, respectively. GST null genotypes have been associated with susceptibility to cancer and protection against chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate associations with GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in a group T1D patients and control subjects 0-35 years old who participated in the Combined Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry and Diabetes Incidence Study (1986-1988). Results show that the presence of the GSTM1 and not the null genotype (OR, 2.13 95% CI, 1.23-3.70, p-value, 0.007, Bonferroni corrected p-value, 0.035) may be a susceptibility factor in T1D 14-20 years old. These results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with T1D protection and T1D age-at-onset and that susceptibility to T1D may involve GST conjugation.

  9. The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Loida; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Prieto, Alicia; Khraiwesh, Husam; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. In silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative N-glycosyl transferase encoding genes (named gnt) in F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici genome. gnt2 deletion mutants showed a dramatic reduction in virulence on both plant and animal hosts. Δgnt2 mutants had αalterations in cell wall properties related to terminal αor β-linked N-acetyl glucosamine. Mutant conidia and germlings also showed differences in structure and physicochemical surface properties. Conidial and hyphal aggregation differed between the mutant and wild type strains, in a pH independent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of germlings showed strong cell-to-cell adherence and the presence of an extracellular chemical matrix. Δgnt2 cell walls presented a significant reduction in N-linked oligosaccharides, suggesting the involvement of Gnt2 in N-glycosylation of cell wall proteins. Gnt2 was localized in Golgi-like sub-cellular compartments as determined by fluorescence microscopy of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein after treatment with the antibiotic brefeldin A or by staining with fluorescent sphingolipid BODIPY-TR ceramide. Furthermore, density gradient ultracentrifugation allowed co-localization of GFP::Gnt2 fusion protein and Vps10p in subcellular fractions enriched in Golgi specific enzymatic activities. Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity.

  10. Phosphoethanolamine Transferase LptA in Haemophilus ducreyi Modifies Lipid A and Contributes to Human Defensin Resistance In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Michael P; Post, Deborah M B; Rinker, Sherri D; Reinders, Lorri M; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth W; Janowicz, Diane M; Baye, Fitsum M; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M; Bauer, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi resists the cytotoxic effects of human antimicrobial peptides (APs), including α-defensins, β-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Resistance to LL-37, mediated by the sensitive to antimicrobial peptide (Sap) transporter, is required for H. ducreyi virulence in humans. Cationic APs are attracted to the negatively charged bacterial cell surface. In other gram-negative bacteria, modification of lipopolysaccharide or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) by the addition of positively charged moieties, such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA), confers AP resistance by means of electrostatic repulsion. H. ducreyi LOS has PEA modifications at two sites, and we identified three genes (lptA, ptdA, and ptdB) in H. ducreyi with homology to a family of bacterial PEA transferases. We generated non-polar, unmarked mutants with deletions in one, two, or all three putative PEA transferase genes. The triple mutant was significantly more susceptible to both α- and β-defensins; complementation of all three genes restored parental levels of AP resistance. Deletion of all three PEA transferase genes also resulted in a significant increase in the negativity of the mutant cell surface. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that LptA was required for PEA modification of lipid A; PtdA and PtdB did not affect PEA modification of LOS. In human inoculation experiments, the triple mutant was as virulent as its parent strain. While this is the first identified mechanism of resistance to α-defensins in H. ducreyi, our in vivo data suggest that resistance to cathelicidin LL-37 may be more important than defensin resistance to H. ducreyi pathogenesis.

  11. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine modification of mammalian Notch receptors by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt1

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaidani, Yuta; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Saito, Chika; Nomura, Tomoko; Ito, Makiko; Nishio, Yosuke; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Koichi; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized A130022J15Rik (Eogt1)-a mouse gene homologous to Drosophila Eogt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect in the Eogt mutant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is conserved through evolution. -- Abstract: O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.

  12. Phosphoethanolamine Transferase LptA in Haemophilus ducreyi Modifies Lipid A and Contributes to Human Defensin Resistance In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Trombley, Michael P.; Post, Deborah M. B.; Rinker, Sherri D.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Fortney, Kate R.; Zwickl, Beth W.; Janowicz, Diane M.; Baye, Fitsum M.; Katz, Barry P.; Spinola, Stanley M.; Bauer, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi resists the cytotoxic effects of human antimicrobial peptides (APs), including α-defensins, β-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Resistance to LL-37, mediated by the sensitive to antimicrobial peptide (Sap) transporter, is required for H. ducreyi virulence in humans. Cationic APs are attracted to the negatively charged bacterial cell surface. In other gram-negative bacteria, modification of lipopolysaccharide or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) by the addition of positively charged moieties, such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA), confers AP resistance by means of electrostatic repulsion. H. ducreyi LOS has PEA modifications at two sites, and we identified three genes (lptA, ptdA, and ptdB) in H. ducreyi with homology to a family of bacterial PEA transferases. We generated non-polar, unmarked mutants with deletions in one, two, or all three putative PEA transferase genes. The triple mutant was significantly more susceptible to both α- and β-defensins; complementation of all three genes restored parental levels of AP resistance. Deletion of all three PEA transferase genes also resulted in a significant increase in the negativity of the mutant cell surface. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that LptA was required for PEA modification of lipid A; PtdA and PtdB did not affect PEA modification of LOS. In human inoculation experiments, the triple mutant was as virulent as its parent strain. While this is the first identified mechanism of resistance to α-defensins in H. ducreyi, our in vivo data suggest that resistance to cathelicidin LL-37 may be more important than defensin resistance to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. PMID:25902140

  13. Mechanisms of induction of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferase (GST) genes by xenobiotics and pro-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Larry G; Hayes, John D

    2011-05-01

    Glutathione transferase (GST) isoezymes are encoded by three separate families of genes (designated cytosolic, microsomal and mitochondrial transferases), with distinct evolutionary origins, that provide mammalian species with protection against electrophiles and oxidative stressors in the environment. Members of the cytosolic class Alpha, Mu, Pi and Theta GST, and also certain microsomal transferases (MGST2 and MGST3), are up-regulated by a diverse spectrum of foreign compounds typified by phenobarbital, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile, 3-methylcholanthrene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, β-naphthoflavone, butylated hydroxyanisole, ethoxyquin, oltipraz, fumaric acid, sulforaphane, coumarin, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, dexamethasone and thiazolidinediones. Collectively, these compounds induce gene expression through the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CAATT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β. The microsomal T family includes 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), leukotriene C(4) synthase (LTC4S) and prostaglandin E(2) synthase (PGES-1), and these are up-regulated by tumour necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide and transforming growth factor-β. Induction of genes encoding FLAP, LTC4S and PGES-1 is mediated by the transcription factors C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, C/EBPϵ, nuclear factor-κB and early growth response-1. In this article we have reviewed the literature describing the mechanisms by which cytosolic and microsomal GST are up-regulated by xenobiotics, drugs, cytokines and endotoxin. We discuss cross-talk between the different induction mechanisms, and have employed bioinformatics to identify cis-elements in the upstream regions of GST genes to which the various transcription

  14. Crystal structure and molecular imaging of the Nav channel β3 subunit indicates a trimeric assembly.

    PubMed

    Namadurai, Sivakumar; Balasuriya, Dilshan; Rajappa, Rajit; Wiemhöfer, Martin; Stott, Katherine; Klingauf, Jurgen; Edwardson, J Michael; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Jackson, Antony P

    2014-04-11

    The vertebrate sodium (Nav) channel is composed of an ion-conducting α subunit and associated β subunits. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human β3 subunit immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, a functionally important component of Nav channels in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Surprisingly, we found that the β3 subunit Ig domain assembles as a trimer in the crystal asymmetric unit. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed the presence of Ig domain monomers, dimers, and trimers in free solution, and atomic force microscopy imaging also detected full-length β3 subunit monomers, dimers, and trimers. Mutation of a cysteine residue critical for maintaining the trimer interface destabilized both dimers and trimers. Using fluorescence photoactivated localization microscopy, we detected full-length β3 subunit trimers on the plasma membrane of transfected HEK293 cells. We further show that β3 subunits can bind to more than one site on the Nav 1.5 α subunit and induce the formation of α subunit oligomers, including trimers. Our results suggest a new and unexpected role for the β3 subunits in Nav channel cross-linking and provide new structural insights into some pathological Nav channel mutations.

  15. Ca(2+) channel inactivation heterogeneity reveals physiological unbinding of auxiliary beta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Restituito, S; Cens, T; Rousset, M; Charnet, P

    2001-01-01

    Voltage gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) auxiliary beta subunits increase membrane expression of the main pore-forming alpha(1) subunits and finely tune channel activation and inactivation properties. In expression studies, co-expression of beta subunits also reduced neuronal Ca(2+) channel regulation by heterotrimeric G protein. Biochemical studies suggest that VGCC beta subunits and G protein betagamma can compete for overlapping interaction sites on VGCC alpha(1) subunits, suggesting a dynamic association of these subunits with alpha(1). In this work we have analyzed the stability of the alpha(1)/beta association under physiological conditions. Regulation of the alpha(1A) Ca(2+) channel inactivation properties by beta(1b) and beta(2a) subunits had two major effects: a shift in voltage-dependent inactivation (E(in)), and an increase of the non-inactivating current (R(in)). Unexpectedly, large variations in magnitude of the effects were recorded on E(in), when beta(1b) was expressed, and R(in), when beta(2a) was expressed. These variations were not proportional to the current amplitude, and occurred at similar levels of beta subunit expression. beta(2a)-induced variations of R(in) were, however, inversely proportional to the magnitude of G protein block. These data underline the two different mechanisms used by beta(1b) and beta(2a) to regulate channel inactivation, and suggest that the VGCC beta subunit can unbind the alpha1 subunit in physiological situations. PMID:11423397

  16. Purification and characterization of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase from swine trachea epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, J; Sangadala, S

    1998-08-01

    UDP-GalNac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from swine trachea epithelium was purified to homogeneity by procedures which included affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B columns containing bound deglycosylated Cowper's gland mucin. The enzyme, purified 12,000-fold from microsomes with a yield of 40%, showed only a single band on dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The homogenous enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 70,000 Da, as determined by gel electrophoresis or gel filtration. The transferase has a broad pH optimum between 6.7-7.8 with maximal activity at pH 7.2, and required Mn2+ for activity with maximal activity at 5-7.5 mM. Higher concentrations of Mn2+, inhibited the enzyme. The purified transferase was specific for UDPGalNAc and glycosylated both threonine and serine residues in tryptic peptides prepared from deglycosylated Cowper's gland and swine and human trachea mucins. The apparent Km of the transferase for UDPGalNAc was 6.3 microM, and the Km values for deglycosylated Cowper's gland and human and swine trachea mucins were 0.83, 1.12 and 0.94 mg/ml, respectively. The Vmax of the purified enzyme was 2.1 micromol/min/mg with deglycosylated Cowper's gland mucin, as the glycosyl acceptor. However, the activities with peptides prepared from deglycosylated mucins by limited acid hydrolysis were 20-fold greater than the intact glycoprotein under identical conditions. The deglycosylated mucins and larger peptides aggregated with time of storage and precipitated from solution. Aggregation was accompanied by a corresponding loss of enzymatic activity even after dispersion of the aggregate by sonication. The deglycosylated mucins which were prepared by chemical treatment and periodate oxidation still contained about 20% of the N-acetylgalactosamine present in the intact mucin. When this residual amino sugar was removed by periodate oxidation the completely deglycosylated mucins became very poor substrates for the purified

  17. Maternally supplied S-acyl-transferase is required for crystalloid organelle formation and transmission of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Neuza; Ramesar, Jai; Avramut, M. Cristina; Koster, Abraham J.; Dessens, Johannes T.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Chevalley-Maurel, Séverine; Janse, Chris J.; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the malaria parasite from the mammalian host to the mosquito vector requires the formation of adequately adapted parasite forms and stage-specific organelles. Here we show that formation of the crystalloid—a unique and short-lived organelle of the Plasmodium ookinete and oocyst stage required for sporogony—is dependent on the precisely timed expression of the S-acyl-transferase DHHC10. DHHC10, translationally repressed in female Plasmodium berghei gametocytes, is activated translationally during ookinete formation, where the protein is essential for the formation of the crystalloid, the correct targeting of crystalloid-resident protein LAP2, and malaria parasite transmission. PMID:27303037

  18. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity as a biomarker of PAH pollution in mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dussumieri, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2013-03-01

    As an attempt to study on the biomarkers types to assess the specification of the pollutants and health status of marine ecosystems, sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) were collected from the Persian Gulf. The liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mudskipper was higher as compared with that in blood which could be illustrated by high metabolic rate in this organ, its key role in the metabolism of PAHs detoxification and specificity of enzymes composition. The results suggest that the liver GST activity in B. dussumieri was PAH inducible and could be extended as a biomarker of PAH pollution.

  19. Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2016-06-01

    Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recovery following cadmium administration. Almost all comparisons of the indices of phenotypic plasticity revealed statistically significant differences. Despite the facts that GST has important role in xenobiotic biotransformation, our results indicate that this enzyme in insect midgut does not represent the key factor in cadmium detoxification.

  20. Smallpox subunit vaccine produced in planta confers protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Golovkin, Maxim; Spitsin, Sergei; Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Yuriy; Xiao, Yuhong; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Markley, Karen; Brodzik, Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Koprowski, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    We report here the in planta production of the recombinant vaccinia virus B5 antigenic domain (pB5), an attractive component of a subunit vaccine against smallpox. The antigenic domain was expressed by using efficient transient and constitutive plant expression systems and tested by various immunization routes in two animal models. Whereas oral administration in mice or the minipig with collard-derived insoluble pB5 did not generate an anti-B5 immune response, intranasal administration of soluble pB5 led to a rise of B5-specific immunoglobulins, and parenteral immunization led to a strong anti-B5 immune response in both mice and the minipig. Mice immunized i.m. with pB5 generated an antibody response that reduced virus spread in vitro and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal dose of vaccinia virus. These results indicate the feasibility of producing safe and inexpensive subunit vaccines by using plant production systems. PMID:17428917

  1. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. )

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  2. Unraveling Subunit Cooperativity in Homotetrameric HCN2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, Klaus; Thon, Susanne; Schulz, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    In a multimeric receptor protein, the binding of a ligand can modulate the binding of a succeeding ligand. This phenomenon, called cooperativity, is caused by the interaction of the receptor subunits. By using a complex Markovian model and a set of parameters determined previously, we analyzed how the successive binding of four ligands leads to a complex cooperative interaction of the subunits in homotetrameric HCN2 pacemaker channels. The individual steps in the model were characterized by Gibbs free energies for the equilibria and activation energies, specifying the affinity of the binding sites and the transition rates, respectively. Moreover, cooperative free energies were calculated for each binding step in both the closed and the open channel. We show that the cooperativity sequence positive-negative-positive determined for the binding affinity is generated by the combined effect of very different cooperativity sequences determined for the binding and unbinding rates, which are negative-negative-positive and no-negative-no, respectively. It is concluded that in the ligand-induced activation of HCN2 channels, the sequence of cooperativity based on the binding affinity is caused by two even qualitatively different sequences of cooperativity that are based on the rates of ligand binding and unbinding. PMID:23199914

  3. A small subunit processome protein promotes cancer by altering translation.

    PubMed

    Yang, H W; Kim, T-M; Song, S S; Menon, L; Jiang, X; Huang, W; Black, P M; Park, P J; Carroll, R S; Johnson, M D

    2015-08-20

    Dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis or translation can promote cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. UTP18 is a component of the small subunit processome, a nucleolar multi-protein complex whose only known function is to cleave pre-ribosomal RNA to yield the 18S ribosomal RNA component of 40S ribosomal subunits. Here, we show that UTP18 also alters translation to promote stress resistance and growth, and that UTP18 is frequently gained and overexpressed in cancer. We observed that UTP18 localizes to the cytoplasm in a subset of cells, and that serum withdrawal increases cytoplasmic UTP18 localization. Cytoplasmic UTP18 associates with the translation complex and Hsp90 to upregulate the translation of IRES-containing transcripts such as HIF1a, Myc and VEGF, thereby inducing stress resistance. Hsp90 inhibition decreases cytoplasmic UTP18 and UTP18-induced increases in translation. Importantly, elevated UTP18 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and decreased survival in numerous cancers. Enforced UTP18 overexpression promotes transformation and tumorigenesis, whereas UTP18 knockdown inhibits these processes. This stress adaptation mechanism is thus co-opted for growth by cancers, and its inhibition may represent a promising new therapeutic target.

  4. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, Megan W. T.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Self-assembling macromolecular machines drive fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, mRNA processing, translation, DNA replication, and cellular transport. The ribosome, which carries out protein synthesis, is one such machine, and the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome is the preeminent model system for biophysical analysis of large RNA-protein complexes. Our understanding of 30S assembly is incomplete, due to the challenges of monitoring the association of many components simultaneously. We have developed a new method involving pulse-chase monitored by quantitative mass spectrometry (PC/QMS) to follow the assembly of the 20 ribosomal proteins with 16S rRNA during formation of the functional particle. These data represent the first detailed and quantitative kinetic characterization of the assembly of a large multicomponent macromolecular complex. By measuring the protein binding rates at a range of temperatures, we have found that local transformations throughout the assembling subunit have similar but distinct activation energies. This observation shows that the prevailing view of 30S assembly as a pathway proceeding through a global rate-limiting conformational change must give way to a view in which the assembly of the complex traverses a landscape dotted with a variety of local conformational transitions. PMID:16319883

  5. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation.

  6. RNA Editing TUTase 1: structural foundation of substrate recognition, complex interactions and drug targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rajappa-Titu, Lional; Suematsu, Takuma; Munoz-Tello, Paola; Long, Marius; Demir, Özlem; Cheng, Kevin J.; Stagno, Jason R.; Luecke, Hartmut; Amaro, Rommie E.; Aphasizheva, Inna; Aphasizhev, Ruslan; Thore, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3′ RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei. In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3′ processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs. Along with KPAP1 poly(A) polymerase, RET1 also participates in mRNA translational activation. RET1 is divergent from human TUTases and is essential for parasite viability in the mammalian host and the insect vector. Given its robust in vitro activity, RET1 represents an attractive target for trypanocide development. Here, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the RET1 catalytic core alone and in complex with UTP analogs. These structures reveal a tight docking of the conserved nucleotidyl transferase bi-domain module with a RET1-specific C2H2 zinc finger and RNA recognition (RRM) domains. Furthermore, we define RET1 region required for incorporation into the 3′ processome, determinants for RNA binding, subunit oligomerization and processive UTP incorporation, and predict druggable pockets. PMID:27744351

  7. Intrinsic regulation of FIC-domain AMP-transferases by oligomerization and automodification

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Frédéric V.; Harms, Alexander; Aragão, Hugo; Mazur, Adam; Sharpe, Timothy; Dehio, Christoph; Schirmer, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    Filamentation induced by cyclic AMP (FIC)-domain enzymes catalyze adenylylation or other posttranslational modifications of target proteins to control their function. Recently, we have shown that Fic enzymes are autoinhibited by an α-helix (αinh) that partly obstructs the active site. For the single-domain class III Fic proteins, the αinh is located at the C terminus and its deletion relieves autoinhibition. However, it has remained unclear how activation occurs naturally. Here, we show by structural, biophysical, and enzymatic analyses combined with in vivo data that the class III Fic protein NmFic from Neisseria meningitidis gets autoadenylylated in cis, thereby autonomously relieving autoinhibition and thus allowing subsequent adenylylation of its target, the DNA gyrase subunit GyrB. Furthermore, we show that NmFic activation is antagonized by tetramerization. The combination of autoadenylylation and tetramerization results in nonmonotonic concentration dependence of NmFic activity and a pronounced lag phase in the progress of target adenylylation. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that this elaborate dual-control mechanism is conserved throughout class III Fic proteins. PMID:26787847

  8. Teaching argumentation and scientific discourse using the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Argumentation and discourse are two integral parts of scientific investigation that are often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address this limitation, the story of peptide bond formation by the ribosome can be used to illustrate the importance of evidence, claims, arguments, and counterarguments in scientific discourse. With the determination of the first structure of the large ribosomal subunit bound to a transition state inhibitor came an initial hypothesis about the role of the ribosome in peptide bond formation. This initial hypothesis was based on a few central assumptions about the transition state mimic and acid-base catalysis by serine proteases. The initial proposed mechanism started a flurry of scientific discourse in experimental articles and commentaries that tested the validity of the initial proposed mechanism. Using this civil argumentation as a guide, class discussions, assignments, and a debate were designed that allow students to analyze and question the claims and evidence about the mechanism of peptide bond synthesis. In the end, students develop a sense of critical skepticism, and an understanding of scientific discourse, while learning about the current consensus mechanism for peptide bond synthesis. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 185-190, 2011.

  9. Palmitoylation of the β4-Subunit Regulates Surface Expression of Large Conductance Calcium-activated Potassium Channel Splice Variants*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lie; Bi, Danlei; Tian, Lijun; McClafferty, Heather; Steeb, Franziska; Ruth, Peter; Knaus, Hans Guenther; Shipston, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory β-subunits of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in generating functional diversity and control of cell surface expression of the pore forming α-subunits. However, in contrast to α-subunits, the role of reversible post-translational modification of intracellular residues on β-subunit function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the human β4-subunit is S-acylated (palmitoylated) on a juxtamembrane cysteine residue (Cys-193) in the intracellular C terminus of the regulatory β-subunit. β4-Subunit palmitoylation is important for cell surface expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of the β4-subunit alone. Importantly, palmitoylated β4-subunits promote the ER exit and surface expression of the pore-forming α-subunit, whereas β4-subunits that cannot be palmitoylated do not increase ER exit or surface expression of α-subunits. Strikingly, however, this palmitoylation- and β4-dependent enhancement of α-subunit surface expression was only observed in α-subunits that contain a putative trafficking motif (… REVEDEC) at the very C terminus of the α-subunit. Engineering this trafficking motif to other C-terminal α-subunit splice variants results in α-subunits with reduced surface expression that can be rescued by palmitoylated, but not depalmitoylated, β4-subunits. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which palmitoylated β4-subunit controls surface expression of BK channels through masking of a trafficking motif in the C terminus of the α-subunit. As palmitoylation is dynamic, this mechanism would allow precise control of specific splice variants to the cell surface. Our data provide new insights into how complex interplay between the repertoire of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms controls cell surface expression of BK channels. PMID:23504458

  10. [Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of phycocyanin and its subunits purified from Anabaena variabilis CCC421].

    PubMed

    Chakdar, N; Sakha, S; Pabbi, S

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin, a high value pigment was purified from diazotrophic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis CCC421 using a strategy involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose column. 36% phycocyanin with a purity of 2.75 was recovered finally after anion exchange chromatography. Purified phycocyanin was found to contain 2 subunits of 17 and 18 kDa which were identified as a-and (3 subunits by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOE HPLC method using a C5 column coupled with fluorescence or photodiode-based detection was also developed to separate and detect the A. variabilis CCC421 phycocyanin subunits. The fluorescence method was more sensitive than photodiode one. The purified phycocyanin from A. variabilis CCC421 as well as its subunits was characterized with respect to absorption and IR spectra. Spectral characterization of the subunits revealed that alpha and beta subunits contained one and two phycocyanobilin groups as chromophores, respectively.

  11. Redox-sensitive extracellular gates formed by auxiliary beta subunits of calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2003-06-01

    An important step to understanding ion channels is identifying the structural components that act as the gates to ion movement. Here we describe a new channel gating mechanism, produced by the beta3 auxiliary subunits of Ca2+-activated, large-conductance BK-type K+ channels when expressed with their pore-forming alpha subunits. BK beta subunits have a cysteine-rich extracellular segment connecting two transmembrane segments, with small cytosolic N and C termini. The extracellular segments of the beta3 subunits form gates to block ion permeation, providing a mechanism by which current can be rapidly diminished upon cellular repolarization. Furthermore, this gating mechanism is abolished by reduction of extracellular disulfide linkages, suggesting that endogenous mechanisms may regulate this gating behavior. The results indicate that auxiliary beta subunits of BK channels reside sufficiently close to the ion permeation pathway defined by the alpha subunits to influence or block access of small molecules to the permeation pathway.

  12. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  13. Subunits of ADA-two-A-containing (ATAC) or Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltrasferase (SAGA) Coactivator Complexes Enhance the Acetyltransferase Activity of GCN5.

    PubMed

    Riss, Anne; Scheer, Elisabeth; Joint, Mathilde; Trowitzsch, Simon; Berger, Imre; Tora, László

    2015-11-27

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play a crucial role in eukaryotes by regulating chromatin architecture and locus specific transcription. GCN5 (KAT2A) is a member of the GNAT (Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase) family of HATs. In metazoans this enzyme is found in two functionally distinct coactivator complexes, SAGA (Spt Ada Gcn5 acetyltransferase) and ATAC (Ada Two A-containing). These two multiprotein complexes comprise complex-specific and shared subunits, which are organized in functional modules. The HAT module of ATAC is composed of GCN5, ADA2a, ADA3, and SGF29, whereas in the SAGA HAT module ADA2b is present instead of ADA2a. To better understand how the activity of human (h) hGCN5 is regulated in the two related, but different, HAT complexes we carried out in vitro HAT assays. We compared the activity of hGCN5 alone with its activity when it was part of purified recombinant hATAC or hSAGA HAT modules or endogenous hATAC or hSAGA complexes using histone tail peptides and full-length histones as substrates. We demonstrated that the subunit environment of the HAT complexes into which GCN5 incorporates determines the enhancement of GCN5 activity. On histone peptides we show that all the tested GCN5-containing complexes acetylate mainly histone H3K14. Our results suggest a stronger influence of ADA2b as compared with ADA2a on the activity of GCN5. However, the lysine acetylation specificity of GCN5 on histone tails or full-length histones was not changed when incorporated in the HAT modules of ATAC or SAGA complexes. Our results thus demonstrate that the catalytic activity of GCN5 is stimulated by subunits of the ADA2a- or ADA2b-containing HAT modules and is further increased by incorporation of the distinct HAT modules in the ATAC or SAGA holo-complexes.

  14. Efficient Expression of Functional (α6β2)2β3 AChRs in Xenopus Oocytes from Free Subunits Using Slightly Modified α6 Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Carson Kai-Kwong; Kuryatov, Alexander; Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human (α6β2)(α4β2)β3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are essential for addiction to nicotine and a target for drug development for smoking cessation. Expressing this complex AChR is difficult, but has been achieved using subunit concatamers. In order to determine what limits expression of α6* AChRs and to efficiently express α6* AChRs using free subunits, we investigated expression of the simpler (α6β2)2β3 AChR. The concatameric form of this AChR assembles well, but is transported to the cell surface inefficiently. Various chimeras of α6 with the closely related α3 subunit increased expression efficiency with free subunits and produced pharmacologically equivalent functional AChRs. A chimera in which the large cytoplasmic domain of α6 was replaced with that of α3 increased assembly with β2 subunits and transport of AChRs to the oocyte surface. Another chimera replacing the unique methionine 211 of α6 with leucine found at this position in transmembrane domain 1 of α3 and other α subunits increased assembly of mature subunits containing β3 subunits within oocytes. Combining both α3 sequences in an α6 chimera increased expression of functional (α6β2)2β3 AChRs to 12-fold more than with concatamers. This is pragmatically useful, and provides insights on features of α6 subunit structure that limit its expression in transfected cells. PMID:25068303

  15. Efficient expression of functional (α6β2)2β3 AChRs in Xenopus oocytes from free subunits using slightly modified α6 subunits.

    PubMed

    Ley, Carson Kai-Kwong; Kuryatov, Alexander; Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human (α6β2)(α4β2)β3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are essential for addiction to nicotine and a target for drug development for smoking cessation. Expressing this complex AChR is difficult, but has been achieved using subunit concatamers. In order to determine what limits expression of α6* AChRs and to efficiently express α6* AChRs using free subunits, we investigated expression of the simpler (α6β2)2β3 AChR. The concatameric form of this AChR assembles well, but is transported to the cell surface inefficiently. Various chimeras of α6 with the closely related α3 subunit increased expression efficiency with free subunits and produced pharmacologically equivalent functional AChRs. A chimera in which the large cytoplasmic domain of α6 was replaced with that of α3 increased assembly with β2 subunits and transport of AChRs to the oocyte surface. Another chimera replacing the unique methionine 211 of α6 with leucine found at this position in transmembrane domain 1 of α3 and other α subunits increased assemb