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Sample records for nucleus counter ccnc

  1. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of Amazonian biomass burning and European background HULIS and investigation of their effects on surface tension with two models linking H-TDMA to CCNC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, E. O.; Rissler, J.; Massling, A.; Svenningsson, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Hoffer, A.; Bilde, M.; Kiss, G.; Janitsek, S.; Henning, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Decesari, S.; Swietlicki, E.

    2010-06-01

    HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS) have been identified as major contributors to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. The term "HULIS" is used to describe the organic material found in aerosol particles that resembles the humic organic material in rivers and sea water and in soils. In this study, two sets of filter samples from atmospheric aerosols were collected at different sites. One set of samples was collected at the K-puszta rural site in Hungary, about 80 km SE of Budapest, and a second was collected at a site in Rondônia, Amazonia, Brazil, during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC) biomass burning season experiment. HULIS were extracted from the samples and their hygroscopic properties were studied using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) at relative humidity (RH) <100%, and a cloud condensation nucleus counter (CCNC) at RH >100%. The H-TDMA measurements were carried out at a dry diameter of 100 nm and for RH ranging from 30 to 98%. At 90% RH the HULIS samples showed diameter growth factors between 1.04 and 1.07, reaching values of 1.4 at 98% RH. The cloud nucleating properties of the two sets of aerosol samples were analysed using two types of thermal static cloud condensation nucleus counters. Two different parameterization models were applied to investigate the potential effect of HULIS surface activity, both yielding similar results. For the K-puszta winter HULIS sample, the surface tension at the point of activation was estimated to be lowered by between 34% (47.7 mN/m) and 31% (50.3 mN/m) for dry sizes between 50 and 120 nm in comparison to pure water. A moderate lowering was also observed for the entire water soluble aerosol sample, including both organic and inorganic compounds, where the surface tension was decreased by between 2% (71.2 mN/m) and 13% (63.3 mN/m).

  3. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) and cyclin E (CCNE) genes: Deletion of the CCNC gene in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haimin; Lahti, J.M.; Kidd, V.J.

    1996-03-01

    The human G1-phase cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle progression that interact with various cyclin-dependent kinases and facilitate entry into S-phase. We have confirmed the localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) gene to chromosome 6q21 and of human cyclin E (CCNE to 19q12). The CCNC gene structure was also determined, and we have shown that it is deleted in a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias, including a patient sample containing a t(2;6)(p21;q15), with no apparent cytogenetic deletion. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the remaining CCNC allele from patients with a deletion of one allele established that there were no further mutations within the exons or the flanking intronic sequences. These results suggest either that haploinsufficiency of the cyclin C protein is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis or that the important tumor suppressor gene is linked to the CCNC locus. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Manchester Ice Nucleus Counter (MINC) measurements from the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. M.; Flynn, M. J.; Demott, P. J.; Möhler, O.

    2011-01-01

    An ice nucleus counter was developed and constructed to enable investigation of potential ice nucleating materials. The Manchester Ice Nucleus Chamber (MINC) is a concentric-cylinder continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC). A full explanation of the MINC instrument is given here, along with first results and a comparison to an established instrument of similar design (Colorado State University CFDC) during sampling of common ice nucleating aerosols at the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007). MINC and CSU-CFDC detected the onset of ice nucleation under similar conditions of temperature and supersaturation for several different types of ice nuclei. Comparisons of the ratio of ice nuclei to total aerosol concentrations as a function of supersaturation with respect to water (SSw) showed agreement within one order of magnitude. Possible reasons for differences between the two instruments relating to differences in their design are discussed, along with suggestions to future improvements to the current design.

  5. Manchester Ice Nucleus Counter (MINC) measurements from the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. M.; Flynn, M. J.; Demott, P. J.; Möhler, O.

    2010-08-01

    An ice nucleus counter was developed and constructed to enable investigation of potential ice nucleating materials. The Manchester Ice Nucleus Chamber (MINC) is a concentric-cylinder continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC). A full explanation of the MINC instrument is given here, along with first results and a comparison to an established instrument of similar design (Colorado State University CFDC) during sampling of common ice nucleating aerosols at the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007). Both instruments detected the onset of ice nucleation under similar conditions of temperature and supersaturation for several different types of ice nuclei. Comparisons of the ratio of ice nuclei to total aerosol concentrations as a function of relative humidity (RH) showed agreement within one order of magnitude. Possible reasons for differences between the two instruments relating to differences in their design are discussed, along with suggestions to future improvements to the current design.

  6. Operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter at various inlet pressures, various operation temperatures and design of a new inlet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangasluoma, J.; Franchin, A.; Duplissy, J.; Ahonen, L.; Korhonen, F.; Attoui, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Vanhanen, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.

    2015-08-01

    Measuring sub-3 nm particles outside of controlled laboratory conditions is a challenging task, as many of the instruments are operated at their limits and are subjected to changing ambient conditions. In this study, we advance the current understanding on the operation of Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter (nCNC), which consists of a A10 Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) and A20 condensation particle counter (CPC). We explore the effect of the inlet line pressure on the measured particle concentration. We identify two different regions inside the instrument where supersaturation of working fluid can take place. We show the possibility of varying the cut-off of the instrument from 1 to 6 nm, a wider size range than the one usually covered by the PSM. We also present a new inlet system, which allows automated measurements of the background, minimizes the diffusion losses in the sampling line and is equipped with an electrostatic filter to remove ions. Finally, our view of the guidelines for optimal use of the Airmodus nCNC are provided.

  7. Operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter at various inlet pressures and various operation temperatures, and design of a new inlet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Duplissy, Jonahtan; Ahonen, Lauri; Korhonen, Frans; Attoui, Michel; Mikkilä, Jyri; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Vanhanen, Joonas; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2016-07-01

    Measuring sub-3 nm particles outside of controlled laboratory conditions is a challenging task, as many of the instruments are operated at their limits and are subject to changing ambient conditions. In this study, we advance the current understanding of the operation of the Airmodus A11 nano Condensation Nucleus Counter (nCNC), which consists of an A10 Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) and an A20 Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The effect of the inlet line pressure on the measured particle concentration was measured, and two separate regions inside the A10, where supersaturation of working fluid can take place, were identified. The possibility of varying the lower cut-off diameter of the nCNC was investigated; by scanning the growth tube temperature, the range of the lower cut-off was extended from 1-2.5 to 1-6 nm. Here we present a new inlet system, which allows automated measurement of the background concentration of homogeneously nucleated droplets, minimizes the diffusion losses in the sampling line and is equipped with an electrostatic filter to remove ions smaller than approximately 4.5 nm. Finally, our view of the guidelines for the optimal use of the Airmodus nCNC is provided.

  8. Scanning supersaturation condensation particle counter applied as a nano-CCN counter for size-resolved analysis of the hygroscopicity and chemical composition of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Su, H.; Wang, X.; Ma, N.; Wiedensohler, A.; Poschl, U.; Cheng, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge about the chemical composition of aerosol particles is essential to understand their formation and evolution in the atmosphere. Due to analytical limitations, however, relatively little information is available for sub-10 nm particles. We present the design of a nano-cloud condensation nuclei counter (nano-CCNC) for measuring size-resolved hygroscopicity and inferring chemical composition of sub-10 nm aerosol particles. We extend the use of counting efficiency spectra from a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and link it to the analysis of CCN activation spectra, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of a scanning supersaturation CPC (SS-CPC) as a nano-CCNC. Measurement procedures and data analysis methods are demonstrated through laboratory experiments with monodisperse particles of diameter down to 2.5 nm, where sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, sucrose and tungsten oxide can be easily discriminated by different characteristic supersaturations of water droplet formation. A near-linear relationship between hygroscopicity parameter κ and organic mass fraction is also found for sucrose-ammonium sulfate mixtures. The design is not limited to the water CPC, but also applies to CPCs with other working fluids (e.g. butanol, perfluorotributylamine). We suggest that a combination of SS-CPCs with multiple working fluids may provide further insight into the chemical composition of nanoparticles and the role of organic and inorganic compounds in the initial steps of atmospheric new particle formation and growth.

  9. Radiation Counters

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-01-31

    Geiger-Mueller and proportional counters operating at low potentials (about 125-300 v) obtained by utilizing certain ratios of diameters of the electrodes and particular mixtures of noble gases as the ionizing medium are covered in this application.

  10. PULSE COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Trumbo, D.E.

    1959-02-10

    A transistorized pulse-counting circuit adapted for use with nuclear radiation detecting detecting devices to provide a small, light weight portable counter is reported. The small size and low power requirements of the transistor are of particular value in this instance. The circuit provides an adjustable count scale with a single transistor which is triggered by the accumulated charge on a storage capacitor.

  11. Cherenkov Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon

    2012-04-19

    When a charged particle passes through an optically transparent medium with a velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium, it emits prompt photons, called Cherenkov radiation, at a characteristic polar angle that depends on the particle velocity. Cherenkov counters are particle detectors that make use of this radiation. Uses include prompt particle counting, the detection of fast particles, the measurement of particle masses, and the tracking or localization of events in very large, natural radiators such as the atmosphere, or natural ice fields, like those at the South Pole in Antarctica. Cherenkov counters are used in a number of different fields, including high energy and nuclear physics detectors at particle accelerators, in nuclear reactors, cosmic ray detectors, particle astrophysics detectors and neutrino astronomy, and in biomedicine for labeling certain biological molecules.

  12. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  13. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  14. Distributed performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  15. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  16. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  17. Countering Internet Extremism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    literally examine hundreds of books and speeches. Since the purpose of this work is examining ways to counter an extremist’s Internet use of the...provide differing perspectives on how to counter extremist Internet use . A 2008 New York Times article indirectly offers some methods. Writers Eric...or scholars have the most potential to effectively counter extremist Internet use . Such efforts could help to stifle some of the issues that

  18. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  19. An Inexpensive Radiation Counter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Brian; Balla, Zsolt

    1985-01-01

    Describes a radiation counter comparable to commercial units which costs less than $100. It consists of six sections: Geiger-Mueller tube and holder; high voltage supply; low voltage supply; pulse shaping circuit; "start/stop counts" gating circuit; and counter/display. List of materials needed and schematic diagrams are included. (JN)

  20. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  1. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  2. Cerenkov counters for high energy nuclei: Some new developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swordy, S. P.; Muller, D.

    1985-01-01

    A method to determine with gas Cerenkov counters the Lorentz factor, gamma = E/mc, of cosmic ray nuclei with high accuracy over the range gamma approx. 20 to 100 is discussed. The measurement of the Cerenkov emission angle theta, by use of a suitable imaging system is considered. Imaging counters, the ring imaging Cerenkov counters (RICH), were developed for use on accelerators. The image of off-axis particles to determine the amount of image distortion as a function of the direction of the incoming nucleus is examined and an acceptance solid angle, relative to the optical axis, within which the nucleus produces an image with an acceptable level of distortion is defined. The properties of the image, which becomes elliptical, for off-axis particles are analyzed.

  3. GASEOUS SCINTILLATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Eggler, C.; Huddleston, C.M.

    1959-04-28

    A gaseous excitation counter for detecting the presence amd measuring the energy of subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation is described. The counter includes a gas-tight chamber filled with an elemental gas capable of producing ultra-violet excitation quanta when irradiated with subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation. The gas has less than one in a thousand parts ultra-violet absorbing contamination. When nuclear radiation ps present the ultra-violet light produced by the gas strikes a fluorescent material within the counter, responsive to produce visible excitation quanta, and photo-sensitive counting means detect the visible emission.

  4. Coincidence Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J H

    1950-11-21

    A coincidence proportional counter having a plurality of collecting electrodes so disposed as to measure the range or energy spectrum of an ionizing particle-emitting source such as an alpha source, is disclosed.

  5. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  6. Comparison of a designed virtual counter with a real counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tektas, G.; Celiktas, C.

    2017-02-01

    A counter is a device which counts the incident pulses within a fixed time. In this work, a virtual counter was designed by developing a code by LabVIEW software. Generator signals were sent to the virtual counter via a National Instruments multifunction data acquisition device. Analog and PFI (Programmable Function Interface) inputs of the device was used for the process. A real counter was also used for comparison. Counts acquired from both counters in different time intervals were compared with each other. It was concluded from the obtained results that the developed virtual counter could be used as a real counter.

  7. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  8. Compressor surge counter

    DOEpatents

    Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  9. Counter-propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Caria, Ugo

    1931-01-01

    A counter-propeller is a fixed propeller smaller than the main propeller, mounted either fore or aft of the latter and performing the function of changing the direction of motion of the fluid filaments, which naturally tend to adopt a helicoidal form. This paper presents a consideration of the real advantage of counter-propellers on aircraft and the best shape of the blades. First, the author determines the possible energy absorption by the tangential increments. This process will be facilitated by the examination of the polygons of the relative velocities fore and aft of the generic section, of radius r, of one of the blades of the propeller.

  10. Calibration of TSI model 3025 ultrafine condensation particle counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kesten, J.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The registration efficiency of the TSI model 3025 ultrafine condensation particle counter for Ag and NaCl particles of between 2 and 20 nm in diameter was determined. Taking into account the different shapes of the input aerosol size distributions entering the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the transfer function of the DMA, the counting efficiencies of condensation nucleus counters (CNC) for monodisperse Ag and NaCl particles were estimated. In addition, the dependence of the CNC registration efficiency on the particle concentration was investigated.

  11. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  12. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  13. Countering antivaccination attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John E.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people’s antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people’s attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths. PMID:26240325

  14. Low latency counter event indication

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-08-24

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  15. Low latency counter event indication

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2008-09-16

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  16. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  17. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  18. The microstrip proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  19. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  20. Counter-Learning under Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukaydin, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study utilized the method of narrative analysis to explore the counter-learning process of an oppressed Kurdish woman from Turkey. Critical constructivism was utilized to analyze counter-learning; Frankfurt School-based Marcusian critical theory was used to analyze the sociopolitical context and its impact on the oppressed. Key…

  1. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  2. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  3. Oscillatory counter-centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shujing; Nadim, Ali

    2016-02-01

    In ordinary centrifugation, a suspended particle that is heavier than the displaced fluid migrates away from the rotation axis when the fluid-filled container rotates steadily about that axis. In contrast a particle that is lighter than the displaced fluid (e.g., a bubble) migrates toward the rotation axis in a centrifuge. In this paper, we show theoretically that if a fluid-filled container rotates in an oscillatory manner as a rigid body about an axis, at high enough oscillation frequencies, the sense of migration of suspended particles is reversed. That is, in that case particles denser than the fluid migrate inward, while those that are lighter than the fluid move outward. We term this unusual phenomenon "Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation" or OCC, for short. Through application of the method of averaging to the equations of motion, we derive a simple criterion to predict the occurrence of OCC. The analysis also reveals that the time-average of the Coriolis force in the radial direction is the term that is responsible for this effect. In addition, we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Rubinow-Keller lift force on particle trajectories and find that OCC persists even when these forces are active. The phenomenon awaits experimental verification.

  4. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  5. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  6. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  7. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  8. Pyrochemical neutron multiplicity counter design

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Pyrochemical process materials are difficult to measure using conventional neutron counting methods because of significant self- multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Multiplicity counters measure the first three moments of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to determine sample mass even when multiplication and ({alpha},n) rate are unknown. A new multiplicity counter suitable for inplant measurement of pyrochemical process materials has been designed using Monte Carlo simulations. The goals were to produce a counter that has high neutron detection efficiency, low die-away time, a flat spatial efficiency profile, and is insensitive to the neutron energy spectrum. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for several prototype models consisting of four rings of 71-cm active length {sup 3}He tubes in a polyethylene body. The cadmium-lined sample well is 25 cm in diameter to accommodate a wide variety of inplant sample containers. The counter can be free-standing or in-line without mechanical modification. The calculations were performed to determine the above design criteria for several configurations of tube spacing, cadmium liners, and sample height. Calculations were also performed for distributed sample sources to understand the integrated effects of variable neutron spectra on the counter. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Eros of Counter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  10. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  11. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  12. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  13. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  14. Reality of comet nucleus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The prime problem of a comet mission must be to settle whether the cometary nucleus has an actual tangible material existence, or whether it arises from some optical effect present only at times within comets. The absence of any large particles in a comet seems to be demonstrated by certain meteor showers. A feature that would seem to indicate that a comet consists primarily of a swarm of particles is that the coma in general contracts as the comet approaches the sun, roughly in proportion within the distance, and then expands again as it recedes.

  15. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  16. Lossy Counter Machines Decidability Cheat Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnoebelen, Philippe

    Lossy counter machines (LCM's) are a variant of Minsky counter machines based on weak (or unreliable) counters in the sense that they can decrease nondeterministically and without notification. This model, introduced by R. Mayr [TCS 297:337-354 (2003)], is not yet very well known, even though it has already proven useful for establishing hardness results.

  17. Science Experimenter: Experimenting with a Geiger Counter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of geiger counters for scientific investigations and experiments. Presents information about background radiation, its sources and detection. Describes how geiger counters work and other methods of radiation detection. Provides purchasing information for geiger counters, related computer software and equipment. (MCO)

  18. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Networking the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other—a complex network—and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  1. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  2. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

  3. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.

  4. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  5. Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3772 CPC is a compact, rugged, and full-featured instrument that detects airborne particles down to 10 nm in diameter, at an aerosol flow rate of 1.0 lpm, over a concentration range from 0 to 1x104 #/cc. This CPC is ideally suited for applications without high concentration measurements, such as basic aerosol research, filter and air-cleaner testing, particle counter calibrations, environmental monitoring, mobile aerosol studies, particle shedding and component testing, and atmospheric and climate studies.

  6. Counter machines and crystallographic structures

    PubMed Central

    Krajcevski, M.; McColm, G.

    2016-01-01

    One way to depict a crystallographic structure is by a periodic (di)graph, i.e., a graph whose group of automorphisms has a translational subgroup of finite index acting freely on the structure. We establish a relationship between periodic graphs representing crystallographic structures and an infinite hierarchy of intersection languages 𝒟𝒞ℒd, d = 0, 1, 2, …, within the intersection classes of deterministic context-free languages. We introduce a class of counter machines that accept these languages, where the machines with d counters recognize the class 𝒟𝒞ℒd An intersection of d languages in 𝒟𝒞ℒ1 defines 𝒟𝒞ℒd. We prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between sets of walks starting and ending in the same unit of a d-dimensional periodic (di)graph and the class of languages in 𝒟𝒞ℒd. The proof uses the following result: given a digraph Δ and a group G, there is a unique digraph Γ such that G ≤ Aut Γ, G acts freely on the structure, and Γ/G ≅ Δ. PMID:27616944

  7. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion) forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete "territories" for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a "crumpled globule" with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates). This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter-intuitive consequences.

  8. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  9. Surface albedo of cometary nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, T.; Mukai, S.

    A variation of the albedo on the illuminated disk of a comet nucleus is estimated, taking into account the multiple reflection of incident light due to small scale roughness. The dependences of the average albedo over the illuminated disk on the degree of roughness and on the complex refractive index of the surface materials are examined. The variation estimates are compared with measurements of the nucleus albedo of Comet Halley (Reitsema et al., 1987).

  10. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    The 3 UNCLASSIFIED Energy Institute (EI) has published guidance documents and test methods relating to fuel quality measurement using... Energy (11) have conducted laboratory and field evaluations of particle counter technologies for fuel contamination monitoring. Testing has concluded...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  11. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  12. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  13. Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2012-12-15

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

  14. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over-the-Counter Medicines The Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... your family when using over-the-counter (OTC) medicines (available without a prescription). This is especially true ...

  15. Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2015-09-01

    We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.

  16. Detecting the elusive blazar counter-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.; Angelakis, E.

    2017-02-01

    Detection of blazar pc scale counter-jets is difficult, but it can provide invaluable insight into the relativistic effects, radiative processes and the complex mechanisms of jet production, collimation and accelation in blazars. We build on recent populations models (optimized using the MOJAVE apparent velocity and redshift distributions) in order to derive the distribution of jet-to-counter-jet ratios and the flux densities of the counter-jet at different frequencies, in an effort to set minimum sensitivity limits required for existing and future telescope arrays in order to detect these elusive counter-jets. We find that: for the BL Lacs, 5 per cent of their counter-jets have a flux density higher than 100 mJy, 15 per cent are higher than 10 mJy, and 32 per cent have higher flux density than 1 mJy, whereas for the FSRQs, 8 per cent have a flux density higher than 10 mJy, 17 per cent are higher than 1 mJy, and 32 per cent are higher than 0.1 mJy (at 15 GHz). Future telescopes like the SKA and newly operating like e-MERLIN and JVLA may detect up to 99 per cent of the BL Lac and 77 per cent of the FSRQ counter-jets. Sources with both low apparent velocity and a low Doppler factor make prime candidates for counter-jet detection. Combining our findings with the literature values, we have identified five such counter-jet detection candidates. Finally, we discuss possible effects beyond relativistic deboosting that may complicate the detection of counter-jets and that need to be accounted for in the interpretation of detections.

  17. Acoustic counter-sniper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, Gregory L.; Gilbert, Douglas C.; Barger, James E.

    1997-02-01

    BBN has developed, tested, and fielded pre-production versions of a versatile acoustics-based counter-sniper system. This system was developed by BBN for the DARPA Tactical Technology Office to provide a low cost and accurate sniper detection and localization system. The system uses observations of the shock wave from supersonic bullets to estimate the bullet trajectory, Mach number, and caliber. If muzzle blast observations are also available from unsilenced weapons, the exact sniper location along the trajectory is also estimated. A newly developed and very accurate model of the bullet ballistics and acoustic radiation is used which includes bullet deceleration. This allows the use of very flexible acoustic sensor types and placements, since the system can model the bullet's flight, and hence the acoustic observations, over a wide area very accurately. System sensor configurations can be as simple as two small four element tetrahedral microphone arrays on either side of the area to be protected, or six omnidirectional microphones spread over the area to be monitored. Increased performance can be obtained by expanding the sensor field in size or density, and the system software is easily reconfigured to accommodate this at deployment time. Sensor nodes can be added using wireless network telemetry or hardwired cables to the command node processing and display computer. The system has been field tested in three government sponsored tests in both rural and simulated urban environments at the Camp Pendleton MOUT facility. Performance was characterized during these tests for various shot geometries and bullet speeds and calibers.

  18. Monte Carlo Shower Counter Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. David

    1991-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments related to the Monte Carlo shower counter studies are summarized. A tape of the VMS version of the GEANT software was obtained and installed on the central computer at Gallaudet University. Due to difficulties encountered in updating this VMS version, a decision was made to switch to the UNIX version of the package. This version was installed and used to generate the set of data files currently accessed by various analysis programs. The GEANT software was used to write files of data for positron and proton showers. Showers were simulated for a detector consisting of 50 alternating layers of lead and scintillator. Each file consisted of 1000 events at each of the following energies: 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 10, 44, and 200 GeV. Data analysis activities related to clustering, chi square, and likelihood analyses are summarized. Source code for the GEANT user subprograms and data analysis programs are provided along with example data plots.

  19. Scintillation counter with WLS fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, D. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of a cylindrical scintillation counter of 126 mm in diameter and 370 mm in length with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout are presented. The fibers are glued into machined grooves along the scintillator. Light from both ends of the WLS fibers is transmitted to separate photomultipliers by 1 m long clear optical fibers. The average total signal, collected from both sides of the counter is equivalent to 8 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle. The described cylindrical scintillation counter is a part of inner system of collider detector SND.

  20. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  1. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  2. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  3. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  4. Foot-operated cell-counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J., Jr.; Fry, R. J. M.; Le Buis, D.

    1969-01-01

    Cell-counter for cell indices consists of a footboard with four pressure sensitive switches and an enclosure for the components and circuitry. This device increases the operators efficiency by reducing the number of required hand movements.

  5. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  6. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analgesics; Acetaminophen; NSAID; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Pain medicine - over-the-counter; Pain medicine - OTC ... Pain medicines are also called analgesics. Each kind of pain medicine has benefits and risks. Some types of pain ...

  7. Position sensitive counter development at the linac

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.A.

    1981-05-20

    In a novel application of the multiwire proportional counter we have imaged a collimated neutron beam. Although preliminary, the results are of sufficient import to be described here because of the potential wide application of the multiwire proportional counter to Laboratory problems. The counter was operated with a counting gas pressure of 20 Torr; the counting gas was pure C/sub 4/H/sub 10/. The radiator was a /sup 235/U foil. Under these conditions, the counter is (1) relatively insensitive to charged particles (other than fission fragments), (2) insensitive to ..gamma..-radiation, and (3) has an efficiency for the detection of fission fragments independent of incident neutron energy over a wide range of neutron energies.

  8. Novel Designs of Quantum Reversible Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xuemei; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Fulong; Zhu, Junru; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-11-01

    Reversible logic, as an interesting and important issue, has been widely used in designing combinational and sequential circuits for low-power and high-speed computation. Though a significant number of works have been done on reversible combinational logic, the realization of reversible sequential circuit is still at premature stage. Reversible counter is not only an important part of the sequential circuit but also an essential part of the quantum circuit system. In this paper, we designed two kinds of novel reversible counters. In order to construct counter, the innovative reversible T Flip-flop Gate (TFG), T Flip-flop block (T_FF) and JK flip-flop block (JK_FF) are proposed. Based on the above blocks and some existing reversible gates, the 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) counter and controlled Up/Down synchronous counter are designed. With the help of Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL), these counters above have been modeled and confirmed. According to the simulation results, our circuits' logic structures are validated. Compared to the existing ones in terms of quantum cost (QC), delay (DL) and garbage outputs (GBO), it can be concluded that our designs perform better than the others. There is no doubt that they can be used as a kind of important storage components to be applied in future low-power computing systems.

  9. Characteristics of central collision events in Fe-nucleus interactions for 20 - 60 GeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Drake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.

    1985-01-01

    A counter emulsion hybrid chamber in Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE-3) was flown on a balloon at the altitude (5.4 g/sq cm) in 1982 with the objective of probing the heavy nuclear collisions above 20 GeV per nucleon. In the energy region, it is suggested that nucleus-nucleus collisions provide dense collisions complex through compression and secondary particle production. In the lower energy region, an evidence of collective flow has been reported. And also, at higher energy region, it has been argued that nucleus has rather large stopping power. In this paper, the high multiplicity characteristics of Fe nucleus central collisions with energies 20 to 50 GeV/nucleon are presented. This is considered to be relevant to compressibility and collective flow of nuclear matter.

  10. Higgs and Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe

    We apply a diagrammatic approach to study Higgs boson, a color-neutral heavy particle, pro- duction in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the saturation framework without quantum evolution. We assume the strong coupling constant much smaller than one. Due to the heavy mass and colorless nature of Higgs particle, final state interactions are absent in our calculation. In order to treat the two nuclei dynamically symmetric, we use the Coulomb gauge which gives the appropriate light cone gauge for each nucleus. To further eliminate initial state interactions we choose specific prescriptions in the light cone propagators. We start the calculation from only two nucleons in each nucleus and then demonstrate how to generalize the calculation to higher orders diagrammatically. We simplify the diagrams by the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities. The resulting cross section is factorized into a product of two Weizsacker-Williams gluon distributions of the two nuclei when the transverse momentum of the produced scalar particle is around the saturation momentum. To our knowledge this is the first process where an exact analytic formula has been formed for a physical process, involving momenta on the order of the saturation momentum, in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the quasi-classical approximation. Since we have performed the calculation in an unconventional gauge choice, we further confirm our results in Feynman gauge where the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution is interpreted as a transverse momentum broadening of a hard gluons traversing a nuclear medium. The transverse momentum factorization manifests itself in light cone gauge but not so clearly in Feynman gauge. In saturation physics there are two different unintegrated gluon distributions usually encountered in the literature: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution. The first gluon distribution is constructed by solving classical Yang-Mills equation of motion in the Mc

  11. Sign-And-Magnitude Up/Down Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Magnitude-and-sign counter includes conventional up/down counter for magnitude part and special additional circuitry for sign part. Negative numbers indicated more directly. Counter implemented by programming erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) or programmable logic array (PLA). Used in place of conventional up/down counter to provide sign and magnitude values directly to other circuits.

  12. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  13. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOEpatents

    Vanstraelen, Guy F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a "0" to "1" transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  14. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

  15. Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

  16. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yongying; Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-04-15

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 126}Sn+{sup 130}Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depths of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of the fusion barrier is also investigated. The fusion pocket becomes shallow for a heavy fusion system and almost disappears for heavy nearly symmetric systems, and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  17. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Sarkar, S.; Singh, G.

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  18. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  19. Checkerboard Theory of the Nucleus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2006-04-01

    The Checker Board Model (CBM) is a 2D model of the nucleus that proposes that the synchronization of the 2 outer rotating quarks in the nucleons accounts for magnetic moment of the nucleons and that the magnetic flux from the nucleons couples (weaves) into the 2D checker board array structures and this magnetic coupling in addition to electrostatic forces of the rotating and stationary quarks accounts for the apparent strong nuclear force. The symmetry of the He nucleus helps explain why this 2D structure is so stable. This model explain the mass of the proton and neutron, along with their magnetic moments and their absolute and relative sizes in terms of the above structure and predict the masses of two newly proposed quarks ^(1): the ``up'' and the ``dn'' quarks. Since the masses of the ``up'' and ``dn'' quark determined by the CBM (237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively) did not fit within the standard model as candidates for u and d, a new model (New Physics) had to be invented. This new particle physics model predicts that nature has 5 generations not 3. (1). T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000). (2). T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/

  20. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

    1993-10-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  1. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

    1991-11-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  2. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  3. Neutron spectrometry with He-3 proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Manolopoulou, M.; Fragopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Vagena, E.; Westmeier, W.; Zamani, M.

    2011-07-01

    Helium filled proportional counters are widely used in the field of neutron detection and spectrometry. In this work the response of a commercially available He-3 counter is studied experimentally and calculated with Monte Carlo for the neutron energy range from 230 keV up to about 7 MeV. The calculated response of the system is used to determine neutron yield energy distribution emitted from an extended {sup nat}U/Pb assembly irradiated with 1.6 GeV deuterons. The results are in acceptable agreement with the calculated neutron distribution with DCM-DEM code. (authors)

  4. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altsybeev, Igor; Kovalenko, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range). In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  5. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  6. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical

  7. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging

  8. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: Implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE PAGES

    Thalman, R.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; ...

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O₃ oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O₃ can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore » O₃ is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O₃ exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O₃ exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1:1 by mass MNC: KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions

  9. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE PAGES

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore » OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions

  10. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: Implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thalman, R.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O₃ oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O₃ can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH and O₃ is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O₃ exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O₃ exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1:1 by mass MNC: KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical

  11. Exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Mateo, M.; Fich, M.; Massey, P.

    1988-11-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies. 30 references.

  12. Nucleus morphology of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitsema, H. J.; Delamere, W. A.; Huebner, W. F.; Keller, H. U.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Wilhelm, K.; Schmidt, H. U.; Whipple, Fred L.

    1986-01-01

    Images obtained by the Halley multicolor camera were used to determine the projected size and shape of the nucleus. The location of the terminator and numerous surface features were determined. There is good correlation between the brightest surface features and the dust jets; however, many bright features are seen which are not associated with jets. Most of the observed features are circular and appear to be related to surface elevation. The angularity of the terminator gives an indication of the three-dimensional structure of the face which was observed.

  13. High School Equivalency as Counter-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joni

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is based on the findings of an ethnographic study of an urban General Education Development (GED®) program and suggests that, for some marginalized African American and other young men of color, adult education programs are counter-spaces (Yosso, Ceja, Smith, & Solorzano, [Yosso, T., 2009]) of spatial justice in opposition to…

  14. Diasporic Philosophy, Counter-Education and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur-Ze'ev, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Counter-education that addresses seriously the challenge of loss, exile, and the deceiving "home-returning" projects accepts that no positive Utopia awaits us as "truth", "genuine life", "worthy struggle", "pleasure" or worthy self-annihilation. Loss is not to be recovered or compensated; not for the individual nor for any kind of "we". And yet,…

  15. Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3776 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC; pictured in Appendix A) is designed for researchers interested in airborne particles smaller than 20 nm. With sensitivity to particles down to 2.5 nm in diameter, this UCPC is ideally suited for atmospheric and climate research, particle formation and growth studies, combustion and engine exhaust research, and nanotechnology research.

  16. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  17. Educator Response to the Counter Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loken, Joel

    Differences in political attitudes, opinions, and responses toward the counter culture exist among educators of the right, the new and old left, and conservative, liberal and radical outlooks. Differences in response to student radicalism and dissent involve the function of the school system and its teachers, the nature of the students' role in…

  18. Effectiveness of a Television Counter Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Mulac, Anthony

    This paper investigates the potential effectiveness of counter advertising in influencing the buying habits of a convinced audience. One month before the actual study, 109 subjects indicated a brand preference in a consumer questionnaire. The subjects were randomly assigned to groups that viewed one of the following: (1) a pro-Bayer aspirin…

  19. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  20. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Near You Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help? Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications ... OTC) medications. What Is The Role Of OTC Medication For Sinus Pain? There are many different OTC ...

  1. Heavy nucleus collisions between 20 and 60 GeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Interest in studying relativistic nucleus-nucleus interations arises from the fact that they offer an opportunity to probe nuclear matter at high density and temperature. It is expected that under such extreme conditions a transition from hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma occurs and that in the interactions of highly relativistic nuclei such conditions are created. Cosmic rays remain a unique source of high energy heavy nuclei. The Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE-3) was designed to study the collisions of heavy cosmic ray nuclei with different nuclear targets at energies beyond 20 GeV/nucleon. JACEE-3 experiment was carried out using a combined electronic counters and an emulsion chamber detector, which was exposed to the cosmic rays on a balloon at an altitude of 5 g/sq cm.

  2. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  5. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  11. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  12. The Timing Counter of the MEG Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, K.

    2010-04-01

    The MEG experiment is searching for the rare μ+ → e+γ decay with a sensitivity on the BR at the level of 10-13. This kind of precision needs stringent requirements on the performances of the detectors involved in the project. In particular, the Timing Counter detector has been designed to measure the time and the position of the positron at the end of its path inside the MEG detector, reaching a resolution of 100 ps FWHM and 1 cm, respectively. The Timing Counter consists of two subdetectors: one made of contiguous scintillator bars having PMTs at their opposite ends, and the other one made of scintillating fibers read by APDs. Both sub-detectors also generate a first level trigger signal for timing and direction of the positron, respectively.

  13. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  14. Coaxial anode wire for gas radiation counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a gas radiation counter are discussed. The coaxial anode consists of an elongated central wire covered with an electrically insulating sleeve. Several longitudinally discontinuous segments of an electrically conductive coating are disposed about the insulating sleeve in a coaxial pattern along the length of the central wire. The conductive coating segments form a veto or rejection anode at each end of the central wire and a main or primary charge detecting anode between the ends. The segments are coupled together so that the primary charge detecting anode is connected to detection circuitry in anti-coincidence with the veto anodes. Background radiation detected by either of the veto anodes and the primary charge detecting anode is rejected and the sensitivity of the radiation counter device is increased.

  15. Projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The mouse precuneiform nucleus has been proposed as the midbrain locomotion center, a function ascribed to its caudal neighbor, cuneiform nucleus, in the rat, cat and other species. The present study investigated the projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse using retrograde tracer injections (fluoro-gold) into the precuneiform nucleus and anterograde tracer injections (biotinylated dextran amine) into the central amygdaloid nucleus. The entire central amygdaloid nucleus except the rostral pole had retrogradely labeled neurons, especially in the middle portion where labeled neurons were densely packed. Anterogradely labeled amygdaloid fibers approached the precuneiform nucleus from the area ventrolateral to it and terminated in the entire precuneiform nucleus. Labeled fibers were also found in laminae 5 and 6 in the upper cervical cord on the ipsilateral side. The present study is the first demonstration of projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus. This projection may underpin the role of the precuneiform nucleus in the modulation of the cardiovascular activity.

  16. Gamma heating measurements with proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.; Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J.

    1990-05-01

    A new data acquisition technique (the Continuously-varied Bias- voltage Acquisition mode) has been developed and tested for the low-flux broad-energy regime characteristic of existing fusion blanket mock-ups. This method of analysis allows for the acquisition of data spanning several orders of magnitude in energy with a single proportional counter. Utilizing this method, the gamma energy deposition in a mixed neutron and gamma field was measured. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  18. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  19. Brake for counter rotating bladed members

    SciTech Connect

    Cedoz, R.W.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a propulsion system including a gas turbine engine having an output shaft and a gear drive having a planetary gear set with a first element connected to the engine output shaft and a second element connected to a first bladed member and a third element connected to a second bladed member whereby the first and second bladed members are rotated in opposite directions by the output shaft. A brake is described comprising, a first transfer shaft supported on a stationary housing for rotation about an axis of the latter, a second transfer shaft supported on the stationary housing for rotation about the axis, gear means between one of the counter rotating bladed members and the first transfer shaft and gear means between the other of the counter rotating bladed members and the second transfer shaft. The brake also includes a selectively operable brake actuator on the housing movable between an extended position and a retracted position, and friction means between the brake actuator and each of first and second transfer shafts operative in the extended position of the brake actuator to simultaneously frictionally retard rotation of each of the first and the second transfer shafts whereby each of the counter rotating bladed members is simultaneously braked.

  20. The GlueX Start Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The GlueX experiment will study meson photoproduction with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 ns apart, and to provide accurate timing information which is used in the level-1 trigger of the experiment. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ / s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution < 350 ps so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets to within 99 % accuracy. Furthermore, the Start Counter detector will provide excellent solid angle coverage, ~ 90 % of 4 π hermeticity , and a high degree of segmentation for background rejection. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system. The physical properties of the Start Counter have been studied extensively. The results of theses studies are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts DE-AC05-06OR23177 & DE-FG02-99ER41065.

  1. The GlueX Start Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GlueX experiment will study meson photoproduction with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 ns apart, and to provide accurate timing information which is used in the level-1 trigger of the experiment. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ / s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution < 350ps so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets to within 99 % accuracy. Furthermore, the Start Counter detector will provide excellent solid angle coverage, ~ 90 % of 4 π hermeticity , and a high degree of segmentation for background rejection. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system. The physical properties of the Start Counter have been studied extensively. The results of theses studies are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts DE-AC05-06OR23177 & DE-FG02-99ER41065.

  2. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  3. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  4. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  5. Comparison between two Aitken counters and with cloud condensation nuclei counters at the 1980 International CCN Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Pollak and the TSI 3020 counters agreed to within about 10% at concentrations below 1000 cu cm, whereas above that concentration, substantial systematic differences were observed. When the test aerosol was monodisperse and the CCN counters were operated at supersaturations that should nucleate all the aerosol, the Pollak counter read about 6% to 20% lower than the CCN counter in the concentration range from 250/cu cm to 1800/cu cm. The TSI 3020 read about 20% lower than the CCN counter at concentrations less than 1000/cu cm, and a factor of about two higher at concentrations above 1000/cu cm.

  6. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  7. Self-regulating neutron coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Baron, N.

    1980-06-16

    A device for accurately measuring the mass of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in a sample having arbitrary moderation and mixed with various contaminants. The device utilizes a thermal neutron well counter which has two concentric rings of neutron detectors separated by a moderating material surrounding the well. Neutron spectroscopic information derived by the two rings of detectors is used to measure the quantity of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu in device which corrects for background radiation, deadtime losses of the detector and electronics and various other constants of the system.

  8. Test of lead glass shower counters

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabata, S.; Ogawa, K.; Sugahara, R.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Awaji, N.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.; Gearhart, R.A.; Miyamoto, A.

    1983-10-01

    Lead glass counters made of wedge shaped blocks of SF6 were tested with positrons at SLAC. The beam energy ranged from 2 to 17.5 GeV. Energy dependence and beam position dependence of pulse height and energy resolution were studied with lead glass blocks of various lengths. The effect of a BK-7 light guide on pulse height was clearly observed. Degradation of the energy resolution due to aluminum absorbers of various lengths was investigated. A mesh type photomultiplier was also tested.

  9. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  10. Structural tailoring of counter rotation propfans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kenneth W.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The STAT program was designed for the optimization of single rotation, tractor propfan designs. New propfan designs, however, generally consist of two counter rotating propfan rotors. STAT is constructed to contain two levels of analysis. An interior loop, consisting of accurate, efficient approximate analyses, is used to perform the primary propfan optimization. Once an optimum design has been obtained, a series of refined analyses are conducted. These analyses, while too computer time expensive for the optimization loop, are of sufficient accuracy to validate the optimized design. Should the design prove to be unacceptable, provisions are made for recalibration of the approximate analyses, for subsequent reoptimization.

  11. Counter-Revolutionary Warfare: Strategy Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    countering revolutionary war after it has broken out and suggests some ways to best aid our allies in revolutionary warfighting. 2 1,’ _ I’A.4J J- v g r...terms. This is the best way to avoid entanglement in alliances like the one we had in Iran where we were allied with the Shah and ignored his...of the support we provide changes character. The ratio of military to other forms of aid rises, perhaps dramatically. How can we best help an ally

  12. Taxing Junk Food to Counter Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity. PMID:24028245

  13. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity.

  14. Ice Nucleus Characteristics of Mount St. Helens Effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, R.C.; Pueschel, R.F.; Wellman, D.L.

    1982-12-20

    Aerosols were studied in situ and captured on membrane filters from an aircraft flown around Mount St. Helens during its phreatic period in April 1980. Bulk samples of volcanic ash were collected at ground level 120 km downwind on May 19, 1980 and reaerosolized in a laboratory in ash cloud simulation studies. The aerosol and/or ash samples were tested for ice nucleus (IN) activity using four different IN measurement systems (NCAR acoustical counter, bulk drop freezing, NCAR dynamic thermal diffusion chamber, and filter drop freezing). Although threshold IN activity was observed at -8/sup 0/C in bulk ash, in aerosols there were few IN active at temperatures warmer than -12/sup 0/C. At -12/sup 0/C, IN concentrations were less than 0.4 l/sup -1/ (400 m/sup -3/) even when the aerosol concentrations were as high as 3000 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. At aerosol concentrations of 500 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and less, the IN content of the ash was below background threshold temperatures of -18/sup 0/C.

  15. CPU Performance Counter-Based Problem Diagnosis for Software Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    that affects the entire system. Studies [31, 36] demonstrate that a wide variety of these sorts of failures occur in e-commerce applications. Failures...CPU Performance Counters Nearly any software that makes use of CPU performance counters uses some sort library and/or kernel API to access and control...processor’s counters. Most approaches that use a processor’s performance monitoring features do some sort of sta- tistical profiling. Anderson et al

  16. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance counter data.

  17. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio; Strange, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established.

  18. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  19. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  20. Differentiating neutrophils using the optical coulter counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    We present an optofluidic measurement system that quantifies cell volume, dry mass, and nuclear morphology of neutrophils in high-throughput. While current clinical hematology analyzers can differentiate neutrophils from a blood sample, they do not give other quantitative information beyond their count. In order to better understand the distribution of neutrophil phenotypes in a blood sample, we perform two distinct multivariate measurements. In both measurements, white blood cells are driven through a microfluidic channel and imaged while in flow onto a color camera using a single exposure. In the first measurement, we quantify cell volume, scattering strength, and cell dry mass by combining quantitative phase imaging with dye exclusion cell volumetric imaging. In the second measurement, we quantify cell volume and nuclear morphology using a nucleic acid fluorescent stain. In this way, we can correlate cell volume to other cellular characteristics, which would not be possible using an electrical coulter counter. Unlike phase imaging or cell scattering analysis, the optical coulter counter is capable of quantifying cell volume virtually independent of the cell's refractive index and unlike optical tomography, measurements are possible on quickly flowing cells, enabling high-throughput.

  1. Differentiating neutrophils using the optical coulter counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonbrun, E.; Di Caprio, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present an opto-fluidic measurement system that quantifies cell volume, dry mass and nuclear morphology of neutrophils in high-throughput. While current clinical hematology analyzers can differentiate neutrophils from a blood sample, they do not give other quantitative information beyond their count. In order to better understand the distribution of neutrophil phenotypes in a blood sample, we perform two distinct multivariate measurements. In both measurements, white blood cells are driven through a microfluidic channel and imaged while in flow onto a color camera using a single exposure. In the first measurement, we quantify cell volume, scattering strength, and cell dry mass by combining quantitative phase imaging with dye exclusion cell volumetric imaging. In the second measurement, we quantify cell volume and nuclear morphology using a nucleic acid fluorescent stain. In this way, we can correlate cell volume to other cellular characteristics, which would not be possible using an electrical coulter counter. Unlike phase imaging or cell scattering analysis, the optical coulter counter is capable of quantifying cell volume virtually independent of the cell's refractive index and unlike optical tomography, measurements are possible on quickly flowing cells, enabling high-throughput.

  2. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  3. The GlueX Start Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llodra, Anthony; Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GlueX experiment, which is online as of October of 2014, will study meson photo production with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target kept at a few degrees Kelvin. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 nanoseconds apart, and to provide accurate timing information. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ/s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution of less than 350 picoseconds so as to provide successful identification of the electron beam buckets. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. The EJ-200 scintillator is best suited for the Start Counter due to its fast decay time on the order of 2 nanoseconds and long attenuation length. Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system and are to be placed as close as possible, less than 300 micron, to the upstream end of each scintillator. The methods/details of the assembly and the optimization of the surface quality of scintillator paddles are discussed. This work was supported in part by DoE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER41065 and DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  4. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  5. Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Dispatch Office and counter, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  6. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  7. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  8. BFKL Pomeron calculus: solution to equations for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the saturation domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Carlos; Levin, Eugene; Meneses, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we solve the equation for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the BFKL Pomeron calculus, suggested by Braun [1-3]. We find these solutions analytically at high energies as well as numerically in the entire region of energies inside the saturation region. The semi-classical approximation is used to select out the infinite set of the parasite solutions. The nucleus-nucleus cross sections at high energy are estimated and compared with the Glauber-Gribov approach. It turns out that the exact formula gives the estimates that are very close to the ones based on Glauber-Gribov formula which is important for the practical applications.

  9. Dynamical evolution of comet nucleus rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Sidorenko, V. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.

    2001-11-01

    The rotational dynamics of outgassing cometary nuclei are investigated analytically using dynamical systems theory. We develop a general theory for the averaged evolution of a comet nucleus rotation state assuming that the nucleus is a spheroid (either prolate or oblate) and that the outgassing torques are a function of solar insolation and heliocentric distance. The resulting solutions are a function of the comet outgassing properties, its heliocentric orbit, and the assumed distribution of active regions on its surface. We find that the long-term evolution of the comet nucleus rotation is a strong function of the distribution of active regions over its surface. Specifically, we find that a comet nucleus with a uniformly active surface will tend towards a rotation state with a nutation angle of ~ 55 degrees and an angular momentum perpendicular to the sun-perihelion direction. Conversely, a comet nucleus with an isolated active region will tend towards a zero nutation angle with its symmetry axis and angular momentum aligned parallel to the sun-perihelion direction. For active surface regions between these extremes we find 4 qualitatively different dynamical outcomes. In all cases, the theory predicts that the comet nucleus angular momentum will have a secular increase, a phenomenon that could contribute to nucleus splitting of active comets. These results can be used to discriminate between competing theories of comet outgassing based on a nucelus' rotation state. They also allow for a range of plausible a priori constraints to be placed on a comet's rotation state to aid in the interpretation of its outgassing structure. This work was supported by the NASA JURRISS program under Grant NAG5-8715. AIN, AAV and VVS acknowledge support from Russian Foundation for Basic research via Grants 00-01-00538 and 00-01-0174 respectively. DJS acknowledges support from the PG&G program via Grant NAG5-9017.

  10. Fast-neutron coincidence-counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.L.; Lee, D.M.; Erkkila, B.; Marshall, R.S.; Morgan, A.; Shonrock, C.; Tippens, B.; Van Lyssel, T.

    1982-03-01

    The fast neutron counter (FNC) described in this report is a computer-based assay system employing fast-pulse counting instrumentation. It is installed below a glove box in the metal electrorefining area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed to assay plutonium salts and residues from this process and to verify the mass of electrorefined metal. Los Alamos National Laboratory Groups Q-1, Q-3, and CMB-11 carried out a joint test and evaluation plan of this instrument between May 1978 and May 1979. The results of that evaluation, a description of the FNC, and operating instructions for further use are given in this report.

  11. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  12. Actively suspended counter-rotating machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A counter-rotating machine, such as a positive displacement pump having a pair of meshed, non-contacting helical screws (10,12), subjects its rotating members to axial and radial thrust forces when used for such purposes as compression of liquid or gaseous phase fluids while transporting them through a pump cavity (11,13). Each helical screw (10,12) has a shaft (17,17') which is actively suspended at opposite ends (11a,11b) of the pump cavity by a servo-controlled magnetic bearing assembly (19) and a servo-controlled rotary drive motor (20). Both bearing assemblies and drive motors are mounted on the outside of the pump cavity (11,13). Opto-electric angular position sensors (250) provide synchronization between radial orientation of the drive motors. The bearing assemblies and drive motors conjugately provide axial stabilization and radial centering of the helical screws during volumetric compression of aspirated liquid or gaseous phase fluids.

  13. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  14. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  17. Using a PC as a Frequency Meter or a Counter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes hardware that enables the use of an IBM PC microcomputer as a frequency meter or a counter by using the parallel printer port. Eliminates the 16-bit time-day counter through the use of an external time base that can be conveniently set depending on the desired frequency range. (JRH)

  18. Analog Microcontroller Model for an Energy Harvesting Round Counter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-12012 Analog Microcontroller Model for an Energy Harvesting Round Counter Sara...YYYY) 06-06-2012 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analog Microcontroller Model for an Energy ... Microcontroller The greatest energy requirements of the round counter circuitry are associated with the Microchip PIC12LF1822 microcontroller [4]. An analog

  19. Automatic platelet counting with the Coulter particle counter

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R. E.; Green, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    A method for accurately counting platelets is described using the Coulter counter model B fitted with a standard 100μ aperture tube. This enables the counter to be used for red and white cell as well as platelet counts using the same aperture tube. The method uses standard equipment except for a small inexpensive electronic speed controller. PMID:5602990

  20. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220... § 864.5220 Automated differential cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated differential cell... have the capability to flag, count, or classify immature or abnormal hematopoietic cells of the...

  2. Drugs, Race, The Counter Culture and the Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, CO.

    This week long conference of senior and junior ranking military officers along with civilians dealt with military social work in the content areas of drugs and race. Theodore Roszak's concept of Counter Culture provided the unifying theme. The following papers were presented: 1) The Theme of the Counter-Culture; 2) Drugs, Race and the Counter…

  3. 11. Detail view of the original counter and builtin merchandise ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view of the original counter and built-in merchandise drawers along the store's east wall; open shelving for dry goods can be seen above the counter; looking northeast - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  4. Four pi-recoil proportional counter used as neutron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, E. F.

    1968-01-01

    Study considers problems encountered in using 4 pi-recoil counters for neutron spectra measurement. Emphasis is placed on calibration, shape discrimination, variation of W, the average energy loss per ion pair, and the effects of differentiation on the intrinsic counter resolution.

  5. High Resolution Radio Imaging of the Nucleus of NGC 1275

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, V.; Kellermann, K. I.; Romney, J. D.

    1995-03-01

    We have used the VLBA to observe the nucleus of NGC 1275 at 15 and 43 GHz with angular resolution of 1.0 and 0.3 milliarcsec, respectively. Our observations reveal a bright core and two-sided, more extended structure. The peak intensity of the more prominent, southward-extending jet is located at a distance from the core consistent with apparent subluminal motion at 0.58 c (for H_0 = 50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) ), continuing since this velocity was first measured (J. D. Romney, W. Alef, I. I. K. Pauliny-Toth, E. Preuss, & K. I. Kellermann 1982, in I. A. U. Symposium No. 97: Extragalactic Radio Sources, p. 291) from primitive maps made in 1979-81. The northward ``counter-jet'' extension is well detected at 15 GHz, with intensity relative to the core intermediate between the two observations at 8.4 GHz (R. C. Walker, J. D. Romney, & J. M. Benson 1994, ApJ, 430, L45) and at 22 GHz (R. C. Vermeulen, A. C. S. Readhead, & D. C. Backer 1994, ApJ, 430, L41) in which this feature was first discovered. In our observations at 43 GHz, the counter-jet is detected, but barely so. Both results are consistent with the model proposed by Vermeulen, Readhead, and Backer, in which the inverted spectrum of this component is a result of free-free absorption in a toroidal or disk-like region. Our 43-GHz observations resolve the core into two bright components separated by about 0.5 milliarcsec in a position angle close to the -9 degrees seen at 10-milliarcsec and indeed at much larger angular scales. A more diffuse structure extends about 1.1 milliarcsec at 45 degrees position angle from the more southerly of the two bright components, and then bends back to the original orientation. This structure is quite different from that seen previously at this frequency. Indications of large position-angle changes in the core on timescales of perhaps six months can be seen in our previous maps at 15, 10.7, and at 8.4 GHz as well.

  6. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  7. Organisation of the human dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Juergen K; Ashwell, Ken W; Paxinos, George

    2004-01-19

    This study used acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry to reveal the organization of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DM) in the human. Topographically, the human DM is similar to DM in the monkey and rat. It is wedged between the paraventricular nucleus, dorsally, and the ventromedial nucleus, ventrally. Laterally, DM borders the lateral hypothalamic area while medially it approaches the 3rd ventricle. The AChE staining distinguished two subcompartments of the human DM: the larger diffuse and the smaller compact DM. The subcompartmental organization of the human DM appears homologous to that found in the monkey and less complex than that reported in rats. Understanding of the organization of DM creates meaningful anatomical reference for physiological and pharmacological studies in the human hypothalamus.

  8. Nucleus model for periodic Comet Tempel 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    Observational data obtained primarily during 1988 are analyzed and synthesized to develop a comprehensive physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2, one of the best studied members of Jupiter's family of short-period comets. It is confirmed that a previous investigation provided reliable information on the comet's spin-axis orientation, which implies and obliquity of 54 degrees of the orbit plane to the equatorial plane and which appears to have varied little - if at all - with time. This conclusion is critical for fitting a triaxial ellipsoid to approximate the figure of the nucleus.

  9. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M.; Bosch, G. E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  10. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  11. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  12. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than

  13. Counter-Punishment, Communication, and Cooperation among Partners.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Brandts, Jordi; Conte, Rosaria; Sabater-Mir, Jordi; Solaz, Hector; Székely, Áron; Villatoro, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over 30 rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members' behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage, and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punish. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities.

  14. Counter-Punishment, Communication, and Cooperation among Partners

    PubMed Central

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Brandts, Jordi; Conte, Rosaria; Sabater-Mir, Jordi; Solaz, Hector; Székely, Áron; Villatoro, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over 30 rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members' behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage, and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punish. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities. PMID:27092065

  15. Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Servey, Jessica; Chang, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and OTC medications to develop risk categories for use in pregnancy. Most OTC medications taken during pregnancy are for allergy, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or skin conditions, as well as for general analgesia. Acetaminophen, which is used by about 65% of pregnant women, is generally considered safe during any trimester. Cold medications are also commonly used and are considered safe for short-term use outside of the first trimester. Many gastrointestinal medications are now available OTC. Histamine H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors have not demonstrated significant fetal effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally not recommended in pregnancy, especially during organogenesis and in the third trimester. There are even fewer data regarding use of individual herbal supplements. Ginger is considered safe and effective for treating nausea in pregnancy. Topical creams are considered safe based on small studies and previous practice. All OTC medication use should be discussed with patients, and the effects of the symptoms should be balanced with the risks and benefits of each medication. Because of the expanding OTC market, formalized studies are warranted for patients to make a safe and informed decision about OTC medication use during pregnancy.

  16. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  17. Countering GPS jamming and EW threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos M.; Rastegar, J.; McLain, Clifford E.; Alanson, T.; McMullan, Charles; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-09-01

    Efforts at the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny, New Jersey are focused on developing methods to counter GPS jamming and electronic warfare (EW) threat by eliminating GPS dependency entirely. In addition, the need for munitions cost reduction requires alternatives to expensive high-grade inertia components. Efforts at ARDEC include investigations of novel methods for onboard measurement of munitions full position and angular orientation independent of GPS signals or high-grade inertia components. Currently, two types of direct angular measurement sensors are being investigated. A first sensor, Radio Frequency Polarized Sensor (RFPS), uses an electromagnetic field as a reference. A second sensor is based on magnetometers, using the Earth magnetic field for orientation measurement. Magnetometers, however, can only provide two independent orientation measurements. The RFPS may also be used to make full object position and angular orientation measurement relative to a reference coordinate system, which may be moving or stationary. The potential applications of novel RFPS sensors is in providing highly effective inexpensive replacement for GPS, which could be used in a "Layered Navigation" scheme employing alternate referencing methods and reduce the current dependency on GPS as a primary reference for guided gun-fired munitions. Other potential applications of RFPSs is in UAVs, UGVs, and robotic platforms.

  18. Fermi-motion effect on the intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, G. W.; Kong, W. Y.; Han, T. F.; Li, X. C.; Ma, J. B.; Sheng, Z. Q.; Shi, G. Z.; Tian, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, C.

    2016-11-01

    The Glauber model is modified with the Fermi-motion effect in the calculation of elastic differential cross-sections and momentum distributions of a fragment from mother nucleus. Different reaction systems at low energies are calculated with the modified Glauber model. It is found that calculations including the Fermi-motion provide a better prescription relating the model to a proper nuclear density distribution by comparing with the experimental data. On the basis of the studies, the influence of the correction on the extracted nuclear radius is quantified. The results further confirm the importance of the Fermi-motion in the nucleus-nucleus collision reactions at low energies.

  19. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  20. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    The Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated extended standard model predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3 and that Nucleus is 2 dimensional. The CBM theory began with an insight into the structure of the He nucleus around the year 1989. Details of how this theory evolved which took many years, and is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references One independent check of this model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light (around the ``dn'' quark in the center of the proton) turns out to be exactly one de Broglie wavelength something determined after the mass and speed of the up quark were determined by other means. This theory explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments and this along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. When this theory was first presented at Argonne in 1996, it was the first time that anyone had predicted the quarks orbited inside the proton at relativistic speeds and it was met with skepticism.

  1. New developments in nucleus pulposus replacement technology.

    PubMed

    Carl, Allen; Ledet, Eric; Yuan, Hansen; Sharan, Alok

    2004-01-01

    Attempts to alleviate the pain attributed to degeneration of the nucleus pulposus using replacement or reinforcement techniques dating back to the 1950s are reviewed. The various materials and their insertion techniques are discussed as are results available from early clinical experiences. These techniques are in evolution and clinical outcomes will be necessary to establish the efficacy of these approaches.

  2. Nucleus-associated actin in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Berdieva, Mariia; Bogolyubov, Dmitry; Podlipaeva, Yuliya; Goodkov, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The presence, spatial distribution and forms of intranuclear and nucleus-associated cytoplasmic actin were studied in Amoeba proteus with immunocytochemical approaches. Labeling with different anti-actin antibodies and staining with TRITC-phalloidin and fluorescent deoxyribonuclease I were used. We showed that actin is abundant within the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of A. proteus cells. According to DNase I experiments, the predominant form of intranuclear actin is G-actin which is associated with chromatin strands. Besides, unpolymerized actin was shown to participate in organization of a prominent actin layer adjacent to the outer surface of nuclear envelope. No significant amount of F-actin was found in the nucleus. At the same time, the amoeba nucleus is enclosed in a basket-like structure formed by circumnuclear actin filaments and bundles connected with global cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton. A supposed architectural function of actin filaments was studied by treatment with actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin A. It disassembled the circumnuclear actin system, but did not affect the intranuclear chromatin structure. The results obtained for amoeba cells support the modern concept that actin is involved in fundamental nuclear processes that have evolved in the cells of multicellular organisms.

  3. Nucleon-nucleus interactions from JACEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on hadron-nucleus interactions from the Japanese-American Cooperation Emulsion Experiment experiment are presented. Angular distributions for charged particles, and angular and transverse momentum spectra for photons have been measured for a sample of events with sigma epsilon sub gamma. Results on central rapidity density and transverse energy flow are discussed.

  4. 16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOW IN NORTH WALL OVERLOOKING FRONT ENTRY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. Test-Aerosol Generator For Calibrating Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Adams, Alois J.; Schwindt, Christian J.; Hodge, Timothy R.; Mallow, Tim J.; Duong, Anh A.; Bukauskas, Vyto V.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus generates clean, stable aerosol stream for use in testing and calibrating laser-based aerosol-particle counter. Size and concentration of aerosol particles controlled to ensure accurate calibration. Cheap, widely available medical nebulizers used to generate aerosols.

  6. INTERIOR OF THE WORKSHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. (On the counter of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF THE WORKSHOP, LOOKING SOUTH. (On the counter of the workshop are instructions and supplies for artificially inseminating pigs.) - Jenne Farm, Workshop, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  7. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  8. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, James A.; Kopp, Manfred K.

    1981-01-01

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  9. Average transverse momentum and energy density in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Emulsion chambers were used to measure the transverse momenta of photons or pi(0) mesons produced in high-energy cosmic-ray nucleus-nucleus collisions. A group of events having large average transverse momenta has been found which apparently exceeds the expected limiting values. Analysis of the events at early interaction times, of the order of 1 fm/c, indicates that the observed transverse momentum increases with both rapidity density and energy density.

  10. Bathroom Buddies: Countering your Clockwise Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Stegman, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Which way does your bathtub, toilet, sink, or other favorite plumbing basin drain? Popular television shows perpetuate the fact that water spins the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere, and sometimes even explicitly point to the Coriolis effect (or Earth's rotation) as the cause. Skeptics disagree: "No way. Water doesn't obey your rules: it goes where it wants...like me, babe." [1]. Fact: Cyclones rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and hurricanes counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. But does your hemisphere also determine the direction water spirals down your toilet? In the ideal scenario of water draining out a sink (i.e. a defect-free, perfectly-leveled basin in which water has remained undisturbed for sufficient enough time to quiet any background motions or eddies) --- then yes, maybe it is possible. However, in everyday life, not even the most decadent of bathtubs provide us a large enough lengthscale to observe the Coriolis effect on the direction which water spirals towards the drain. Thus, we are left confronting the possibility that something heard on television isn't true. But is just "telling" students, friends, or strangers in bars enough to debunk this urban myth? Rather, we offer a practical demonstration involving a friend from the opposite hemisphere (if not one in existence, then find one on the internet!), a bathroom, a funnel, a bucket, some food coloring, a camera, a pitcher and some equations and scalings for extra credit and fun. 1) Simpson, B., "Bart vs. Australia", Season 6, Episode 119, 1995.

  11. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  12. A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter with krypton filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mano, R. D. P.; Barata, E. C. G. M.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter filled with pure krypton was studied. Energy resolution below 10% for 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained with this prototype. This value is much better than the energy resolution obtained with proportional counters or other MPGDs with krypton filling. The krypton electroluminescence scintillation and ionisation thresholds were found to be about 0.5 and 3.5 kV cm-1bar-1, respectively.

  13. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain.

  14. Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    experienced the same fits and starts as others in the region. There have been successes , including the reintegration of the M-19 (Movimiento del 19... REINTEGRATION AS COUNTER-INSURGENCY IN COLOMBIA Mr. GREGORY E. PHILLIPS, DOS COURSE 5601 and 5602 FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGIC LOGIC and THE NATURE OF...COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    TERRORISM : COUNTERING THE TERRORIST TRAINING SUBSYSTEM by Erdogan Celebi December 2006 Thesis Advisor: Nancy Roberts Second Reader...REPORT DATE December 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Systems Approach to Terrorism : Countering the...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT This study on terrorism training follows the logic that terrorism is a

  16. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-propagating Lasers in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = G. Shvets; A. Pukhov

    1998-05-01

    The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators.

  17. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  18. Evaluation of dual flow counter-current chromatography and intermittent counter-current extraction.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Hewitson, Peter; Mathews, Ben; Sutherland, Ian

    2011-09-09

    The aim of this research is to compare two continuous extraction technologies, intermittent counter-current extraction (ICcE) and dual flow counter-current chromatography (DFCCC), in terms of loading and throughput using the GUESSmix, and show the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. A model sample containing caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone, with a total load of 11.2 g, was employed with a hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:3:2:3) phase system to evaluate an ICcE method on a preparative (912 ml coil volume) DE-Midi instrument. While DFCCC was carried out on a specially designed preparative (561 ml coil volume) bobbin installed in a similar Midi instrument case. While similar throughputs of 7.8 g/h and 6.9 g/h were achieved for the ICcE and DFCCC methods respectively, ICcE was demonstrated to have a number of advantages over DFCCC.

  19. The Neutrophil Nucleus and Its Role in Neutrophilic Function.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo Olivieri; Aquino, Elaine Nascimento; Neves, Anne Caroline Dias; Fontes, Wagner

    2015-09-01

    The cell nucleus plays a key role in differentiation processes in eukaryotic cells. It is not the nucleus in particular, but the organization of the genes and their remodeling that provides the data for the adjustments to be made according to the medium. The neutrophil nucleus has a different morphology. It is a multi-lobed nucleus where some researchers argue no longer function. However, studies indicate that it is very probable the occurrence of chromatin remodeling during activation steps. It may be that the human neutrophil nucleus also contributes to the mobility of neutrophils through thin tissue spaces. Questions like these will be discussed in this small review. The topics include morphology of human neutrophil nucleus, maturation process and modifications of the neutrophil nucleus, neutrophil activation and chromatin modifications, causes and consequences of multi-lobulated segmented morphology, and importance of the nucleus in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

  20. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  1. A high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Biasotti, M.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Pizzigoni, G.; Rossella, M.; Shibata, N.; Siccardi, F.; Simonetta, M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-07-01

    The development of a Timing Counter detector designed for the MEGII upgrade of the MEG experiment, which strives to improve the sensitivity on the μ+ →e+ γ decay of an order of magnitude, is presented. It is based on two sets of counters (sectors) arranged on a semi-cylindrical structure; each sector consists of 256 counters. Each counter consists of tile of fast scintillator with a dual-side read-out based on SiPM arrays in series connection. The high granularity has two advantages: optimized size for achieving high resolution (75 ps) for the single counter, and a signal e+ crosses several counters, so that resolution improves by averaging multiple time measurements. A prototype has been built and tested both in BTF and PSI facilities in order to prove the multi-hit scheme in MEG-like beam conditions. A 35 ps resolution with eight hits has been obtained with a e+ beam at 100 kHz. The first sector will be tested in the MEG II pre-engineering run planned at the end of 2015.

  2. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.

  3. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  4. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  5. Collateral projections from the lateral parabrachial nucleus to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and the central amygdaloid nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shao-Hua; Yin, Jun-Bin; Sun, Yi; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Kai-Xiang; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu-Lin; Li, Yun-Qing

    2016-08-26

    Combined the retrograde double tracing with immunofluorescence histochemical staining, we examined the neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) sent collateral projections to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) and central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and their roles in the nociceptive transmission in the rat. After the injection of Fluoro-gold (FG) into the PVT and tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR) into the CeA, respectively, FG/TMR double-labeled neurons were observed in the LPB. The percentages of FG/TMR double-labeled neurons to the total number of FG- or TMR-labeled neurons were 6.18% and 9.09%, respectively. Almost all of the FG/TMR double-labeled neurons (95%) exhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity. In the condition of neuropathic pain, 94% of these neurons showed FOS immunoreactivity. The present data indicates that some of CGRP-expressing neurons in the LPB may transmit nociceptive information toward the PVT and CeA by way of axon collaterals.

  6. Ammonium nitrate evaporation and nitric acid condensation in DMT CCN counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big a fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles after entering but before particle activation in the DMT-CCN counter? (2) How much can the CCN activity be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? Both experimental and modelling results show that the evaporation of ammonia and nitric acid from ammonium nitrate particles causes a 10 to 15 nm decrease to the critical particle size in supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.7%. On the other hand, the modelling results also show that condensation of nitric acid or similar vapour can increase the CCN activity of nonvolatile aerosol particles, but a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) would be needed. Overall, it is more likely that the CCN activity of semivolatile aerosol is underestimated than overestimated in the measurements conducted in ambient conditions.

  7. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-01-01

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation. PMID:26689549

  8. Gustatory Reward and the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Norgren, R.; Hajnal, A.; Mungarndee, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of reward is central to psychology, but remains a cipher for neuroscience. Considerable evidence implicates dopamine in the process of reward and much of the data derives from the nucleus accumbens. Gustatory stimuli are widely used for animal studies of reward, but the connections between the taste and reward systems are unknown. In a series of experiments, our laboratory has addressed this issue using functional neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. First, using microdialysis probes, we demonstrated that sapid sucrose releases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The effect is dependent on oral stimulation and concentration. We subsequently determined that this response was independent of the thalamocortical gustatory system, but substantially blunted by damage to the parabrachial limbic taste projection. Further experiments using c-fos histochemistry confirmed that the limbic pathway was the prime carrier for the gustatory afferent activity that drives accumbens dopamine release. PMID:16822531

  9. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-12-22

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  10. Core-nucleus distortation in hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We are completing a study of the effects of the spherical distortion of the {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} nucleus by the {Lambda} in a hypernucleus. The response of the core was determined by an appropriately chosen energy-density functional which depends, in particular, on the nuclear compressibility. The forcing action of the A is determined by the nuclear density dependence of the {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter which is obtained from our work on the {Lambda} single-particle energies. Because of the strongly repulsive {Lambda}NN forces, this {Lambda} binding {open_quotes}saturates{close_quotes} at a density close to the central density of nuclei, and results in a reduced core-nucleus distortion much less than would otherwise be obtained. The effects of the core distortion then turn out to be very small even for quite light hypernuclei. This result justifies the assumption that spherical core nuclei are effectively undistorted in a hypernucleus.

  11. Finite nucleus effects on relativistic energy corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Faegri, Knut, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of using a finite nucleus model in quantum-chemical calculations is examined. Relativistic corrections from the first order Foldy-Wouthuysen terms are affected indirectly by the change in wavefunction, but also directly as a result of revised expressions for the Darwin and spin-orbit terms due to the change in nuclear potential. A calculation for the Rn atom indicates that the mass-velocity and Darwin corrections are much more sensitive to the finite nucleus than the non-relativistic total energy, but that the total contribution for these two terms is quite stable provided the revised form of the Darwin term is used. The spin-orbit interaction is not greatly affected by the choice of nuclear model.

  12. Physical Properties of Cometary Nucleus Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Hillman, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal we aim to study the physical properties of the Centaurs and the dead comets, these being the precursors to, and the remnants from, the active cometary nuclei. The nuclei themselves are very difficult to study, because of the contaminating effects of near-nucleus coma. Systematic investigation of the nuclei both before they enter the zone of strong sublimation and after they have depleted their near-surface volatiles should neatly bracket the properties of these objects, revealing evolutionary effects.

  13. Pygmy dipole response in 238U nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, Ekber; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Quliyev, Huseynqulu

    2017-02-01

    The presence of the El pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in the actinide nucleus 238U was shown via QRPA. Below the particle threshold energy, 24 excitation states were calculated. The calculations, is demonstrating the presence of a PDR with evidence for K splitting. The calculations further suggest that the PDR in 238U is predominantly K=0. The obtained results show universality of the PDR in atomic nuclei.

  14. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  15. How to build a yeast nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hua; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Zimmer, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Biological functions including gene expression and DNA repair are affected by the 3D architecture of the genome, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Notably, it remains unclear to what extent nuclear architecture is driven by generic physical properties of polymers or by specific factors such as proteins binding particular DNA sequences. The budding yeast nucleus has been intensely studied by imaging and biochemical techniques, resulting in a large quantitative data set on locus positions and DNA contact frequencies. We recently described a quantitative model of the interphase yeast nucleus in which chromosomes are represented as passively moving polymer chains. This model ignores the DNA sequence information except for specific constraints at the centromeres, telomeres, and the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Despite its simplicity, the model accounts for a large majority of experimental data, including absolute and relative locus positions and contact frequency patterns at chromosomal and subchromosomal scales. Here, we also illustrate the model's ability to reproduce observed features of chromatin movements. Our results strongly suggest that the dynamic large-scale architecture of the yeast nucleus is dominated by statistical properties of randomly moving polymers with a few sequence-specific constraints, rather than by a large number of DNA-specific factors or epigenetic modifications. In addition, we show that our model accounts for recently measured variations in homologous recombination efficiency, illustrating its potential for quantitatively understanding functional consequences of nuclear architecture.

  16. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  17. Theoretical predictions for the nucleus 296118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiczewski, A.

    2016-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for the α -decay chain of the nucleus 296118 are performed. The synthesis of this nucleus is being attempted in experiments running in Dubna. The α -decay energies Qα, and the α -decay and spontaneous-fission half-lives, Tα and Tsf, are studied. The analysis of the α decay is based on a phenomenological model using only three parameters. The calculations are performed in nine variants using masses obtained within nine nuclear-mass models describing masses of the heaviest nuclei. The experimental Qα energies, known from earlier experiments for the potential daughter, 292Lv, and grand-daughter, 288Fl, nuclei are reproduced with an average of the absolute values of the discrepancies: from 0.13 to 1.52 MeV within the considered variants. Measured half-lives Tα are reconstructed within average ratios: from 1.7 to 1054. Within all variants considered, the half-life Tα of the nucleus 296118 is obtained larger than needed (around 1 μ s ) for its observation.

  18. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  19. Dynamical evolution of comet nucleus rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Sidorenko, V. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.

    2002-09-01

    The rotational dynamics of outgassing cometary nuclei are investigated analytically. We develop a general theory for the evolution of a comet nucleus' rotation state using averaging theory and assuming that the outgassing torques are a function of solar insolation and heliocentric distance. The resulting solutions are a function of the nucleus inertia ellipsoid, its outgassing properties, its heliocentric orbit, and the assumed distribution of active regions on its surface. We find that the long-term evolution of the comet nucleus rotation is a strong function of the distribution of active regions over its surface. In particular, we find that nuclei with nearly axisymmetric inertia ellipsoids and a uniformly active surface will tend towards a rotation state that has a nutation angle of ~ 55 degrees and its angular momentum perpendicular to the sun-perihelion direction. If such a comet nucleus has only one isolated active region, it will tend towards a zero nutation angle with its approximate symmetry axis and rotational angular momentum aligned parallel to the sun-perihelion direction. In the general case for an inertia ellipsoid that is not close to being axisymmetric we find a much richer set of possible steady-state solutions that are stable, ranging from rotation about the maximum moment of the inertia axis, to SAM and LAM non-principal axis rotation states. The resulting stable rotation states are a strong function of outgassing activity distribution, which we show using a simplified model of the comet Halley nucleus. Also, we demonstrate that comet Borrely observations are consistent with a stable rotation state. Our results can be used to discriminate between competing theories of comet outgassing based on a nucelus' rotation state. They also allow for a range of plausible a priori constraints to be placed on a comet's rotation state to aid in the interpretation of its outgassing structure. This work was supported by the NASA JURRISS program under Grant NAG5

  20. Forward shower counters for diffractive physics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrow, Michael; Collins, Paula; Penzo, Aldo

    2014-11-01

    The LHC detectors have incomplete angular coverage in the forward direction, for example in the region 6 ≲ |η| ≲ 8, which can be improved with the addition of simple scintillation counters around the beam pipes about 50 m to 120 m from the intersection point. These counters detect showers created by particles hitting the beam pipes and nearby material. The absence of signals in these counters in low pileup conditions is an indication of a forward rapidity gap as a signature of diffraction. In addition, they can be used to detect hadrons from low mass diffractive excitations of the proton, not accompanied by a leading proton but adjacent to a rapidity gap over (e.g.) 3 ≲ |η| ≲ 6. Such a set of forward shower counters, originally used at CDF, was used in CMS (FSC) for high-β* running with TOTEM during LHC Run-1. During LS1 the CMS FSC system is being upgraded for future low pileup runs. A similar system, called HERSCHEL is being installed in LHCb. ALICE is implementing scintillation counters, ADA and ADC, with 4.5 ≲ |η| ≲ 6.4.

  1. Design and performances of the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Peerani, Paolo; Looman, Marc R.; Dechamp, Luc

    2007-05-01

    JRC has developed the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter (SNMC): an advanced neutron multiplicity counter for the verification of inhomogeneous Pu samples, such as scrap material in MOX fuel fabrication plants. The innovative features of this counter with respect to existing ones rely on two aspects: (i) an optimised design based on Monte Carlo calculations in order to select the most appropriate materials, geometry and detector disposition for maximum efficiency and (ii) novel electronics based on digital signal processing (DSP) reducing the system dead time. The paper recalls the design process, the electronics, the construction and assembly of the counter. Then the results of the first experimental tests will be reported. We will show the characterization of the main physical parameters of the counter, the calibration and the verification of a wide variety of plutonium bearing samples available in the PERLA laboratory at JRC Ispra. This will include pure homogeneous samples (Pu dioxide powders, metal Pu, MOX powders and pellets) and some tests on heterogeneous samples representative of scrap material.

  2. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-15

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R{sub rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of R{sub rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  3. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  4. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  5. Observation of direct hadronic pairs in nucleus-nucleus collisions in JACEE emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of high energy ( or = 1 TeV/amu) nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) emulsion chambers, nonrandom spatial association of produced charged particles, mostly hadronic pairs, are observed. Similar narrow pairs are observed in about 100 events at much low energy (20 to 60 GeV/amu). Analysis shows that 30 to 50% of Pair abundances are understood by the Hambury-Brown-Twiss effect, and the remainder seems to require other explanations.

  6. DMA shared byte counters in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-04-06

    A parallel computer system is constructed as a network of interconnected compute nodes. Each of the compute nodes includes at least one processor, a memory and a DMA engine. The DMA engine includes a processor interface for interfacing with the at least one processor, DMA logic, a memory interface for interfacing with the memory, a DMA network interface for interfacing with the network, injection and reception byte counters, injection and reception FIFO metadata, and status registers and control registers. The injection FIFOs maintain memory locations of the injection FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail, and the reception FIFOs maintain the reception FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail. The injection byte counters and reception byte counters may be shared between messages.

  7. Wingtip mounted, counter-rotating proprotor for tiltwing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, James K. (Inventor); Rutherford, John W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A tiltwing aircraft, capable of in-flight conversion between a hover and forward cruise mode, employs a counter-rotating proprotor arrangement which permits a significantly increased cruise efficiency without sacrificing either the size of the conversion envelope or the wing efficiency. A benefit in hover is also provided because of the lower effective disk loading for the counter-rotating proprotor, as opposed to a single rotation proprotor of the same diameter. At least one proprotor is provided on each wing section, preferably mounted on the wingtip, with each proprotor having two counter-rotating blade rows. Each blade row has a plurality of blades which are relatively stiff-in-plane and are mounted such that cyclic pitch adjustments may be made for hover control during flight.

  8. Development of a liquid scintillator neutron multiplicity counter (LSMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Katherine; Clay, Willam; Elmont, Tim; Esch, Ernst; Karpius, Peter; MacArthur, Duncan; McKigney, Edward; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Williams, Richard

    2007-08-01

    A new neutron multiplicity counter is being developed that utilizes the fast response of liquid scintillator detectors. The ability to detect fast (vs. moderated) fission neutrons makes possible a coincidence gate of the order of tens of nanoseconds (vs. tens of microseconds). A neutron counter with such a narrow gate will be virtually insensitive to accidental coincidences, making it possible to measure items with a high single neutron background to greater accuracy in less time. This includes impure Pu items with high (α, n) rates as well as items of low-mass HEU where a strong active interrogation source is needed. Liquid scintillator detectors also allow for energy discrimination between interrogation source neutrons and fission neutrons, allowing for even greater assay sensitivity. Designing and building a liquid scintillator multiplicity counter (LSMC) requires a symbiotic effort of simulation and experiment to optimize performance and mitigate hardware costs in the final product. We present preliminary Monte-Carlo studies using the GEANT toolkit.

  9. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2014-03-01

    The Lach Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated ESM predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3. The heaviest generation in the Extended Standard Model (ESM) has a t' quark of mass 65 GeV and a b' quark of 42.4 GeV. The lepton in this generation has a mass of 27 GeV. Part of this theory evolved because it appears that the quarks and lepton of each generation have masses related by the geometric mean. The Geometric mean of 65 and 27 is 42. Charge is conserved (+2/3 and -1 is -1/3). Details of how this theory evolved is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references [T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000); T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/] One independent check of this CB model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light around the ``dn'' quark in the center turns out to be exactly one DeBroglie wavelength. This explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments. This along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. One would expect a t'-anti t' meson of mass of about 130 GeV.

  10. Surface Photometric Variation of Comet Borrelly's Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; McFadden, L. A.

    2004-11-01

    Comet Borrelly was visited by Deep Space 1 in Sept. 2001 (Soderblom et al. 2004) The images of comet Borrelly's nucleus show large brightness variation over the surface even after the effect of shape is taken into account (Oberst et al. 2004, Kirk et al. 2004). It is not yet known whether this variation is caused by albedo variation (Oberst et al. 2004, Buratti et al. 2004) or the variation of other physical properties such as surface roughness (Kirk et al. 2004) or solar phase function. In our analysis, the disk-resolved images from the DS1 spacecraft (Soderblom et al. 2004) were used, coupled with the shape model of Borrelly's nucleus developed from stereo imaging (Oberst et al. 2004, Kirk et al. 2004), to fit the bidirectional reflectance as a function of local illumination and viewing geometry for individual terrains as defined by Britt et al. (2004). Results show that the surface reflectance variation is, contrary to previous interpretations, most likely due to the combination of albedo variation (a factor of 1.5) and the variation of the asymmetry factor (g) of the single-particle phase function. We find the roughness parameter (theta_bar) is <25o over the surface. The surface on Borrelly's nucleus can be highly back-scattering (g <= -0.7) for mottled terrain, and close to isotropic scattering (g -0.15) for smooth terrain, with single scattering albedo ranging from 0.05 to 0.07. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG04GA92G.

  11. Dust activity of Comet Halley's nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, H. U.; Delamere, W. A.; Huebner, W. F.; Reitsema, H.; Schmidt, H. U.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Whipple, Fred L.; Wilhelm, K.

    1986-01-01

    Images obtained by the Halley multicolor camera using the clear filter with a pass band from 300 to 1000 nm were used to study dust activity in the comet nucleus. Comparisons with ground based observations confirm that dust production towards the Sun increases in activity relative to the southern background source while the Giotto spacecraft was approaching. This is in agreement with the assumption that the sunward activity becomes stronger when the source rotates towards the Sun. Estimated dust column density is 90 billion/sqm, with optical thickness less than or = 0.3. Surface reflectivity is less than 1%, indicating a very rough surface with large fractions of shadowed areas.

  12. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  13. Radiosonde aerosol counter for vertical profiling of atmospheric dust layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    A low-cost, miniature aerosol particle counter has been developed, intended for use with balloon-borne meteorological radiosondes. It is particularly suitable for airborne mineral dust measurements. Ambient air is drawn into the counter using a diaphragm pump at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute. The counter detects particles in the airstream using a diode laser and a photodiode. Output from the photodiode is digitised into 5 size bins, with minimum particle diameters equivalent to 0.6, 1.4, 2.6, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers. The counter is interfaced to a Vaisala RS92 radiosonde, which transmits data from the counter together with meteorological parameters and GPS-derived position to a ground based receiver at 1 Hz rate. Statistically significant particle size distributions can be obtained once a second for number concentrations down to about 100,000 particle per litre (within the measured size range), or correspondingly less at lower temporal resolutions. At the same time, the counter is capable of measuring dust number concentrations exceeding a million per litre without incurring significant errors. Soundings during the DREAME campaign in Kuwait (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) and on Cape Verde Islands (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) provided dust concentration profiles with a typical vertical resolution of 4 m. Comparisons with integrated dust column size distribution measurements from AERONET sun photometers showed good agreement in two out of three cases where near-simultaneous retrievals were available. Optical thickness calculations based on the size distributions measured in Kuwait, with the assumption that the dust particles were prolate spheroids, agreed with the AERONET optical thickness at 675 nm to within 15%.

  14. A behaviour based cellular automaton model for pedestrian counter flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a behaviour based cellular automaton (CA) model for pedestrian counter flow. The behaviours of active slowing down and lane changing are considered to simulate the evolution of the pedestrian counter flow in a corridor with open boundaries. A concept of a dominant row is introduced to depict the pedestrian’s lane changing behaviour. The velocity profile has been investigated and two separation times have been studied, which quantify the evolution process of the lane formation. The simulation shows that steady separate lanes can form even in dense conditions. Therefore, the gridlock formation has been remarkably suppressed.

  15. Technology and benefits of aircraft counter rotation propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.; Knip, G.; Weisbrich, A. L.; Godston, J.; Bradley, E.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of a NASA sponsored analytical investigation into the merits of advanced counter rotation propellers for Mach 0.80 commercial transport application. Propeller and gearbox performance, acoustics, vibration characteristics, weight, cost and maintenance requirements for a variety of design parameters and special features were considered. Fuel savings in the neighborhood of 8 percent relative to single rotation configurations are feasible through swirl recovery and lighter gearboxes. This is the net gain which includes a 5 percent acoustic treatment weight penalty to offset the broader frequency spectrum noise produced by counter rotation blading.

  16. The assembly of the Belle II TOP counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boqun

    2014-12-01

    A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov counter, called TOP counter, has been developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment to run at the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan. The detector consists of 16 identical modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The assembly procedure for a TOP module is described. This procedure includes acceptance testing of the quartz mirror, prism, and quartz bar radiators. The acceptance tests include a chip search and measurements of bulk transmittance and total internal reflectance. The process for aligning and gluing the optical components together is described.

  17. Large area spark counter with fine time and position resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, A.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1984-03-01

    The key properties of spark counters include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. Some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector are reported. 14 references. (WHK)

  18. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Phuc, Nguyen Hoang; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-09-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic 12C+12C and 16O+12C scattering at the refractive energies, where the Airy structure of the nuclear rainbow has been well established. The RT was found to affect significantly the real nucleus-nucleus optical potential at small internuclear distances, giving a potential strength close to that implied by the realistic optical model description of the Airy oscillation.

  19. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Robert G.; Thompson, Roger C.; Starchville, Thomas F., Jr.; Adams, C.; Aldo, A.; Dobson, K.; Flotta, C.; Gagliardino, J.; Lear, M.; Mcmillan, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1991-92 academic year, the Pennsylvania State University has developed three sample return missions: one to the nucleus of comet Wild 2, one to the asteroid Eros, and one to three asteroids located in the Main Belt. The primary objective of the comet nucleus sample return mission is to rendezvous with a short period comet and acquire a 10 kg sample for return to Earth. Upon rendezvous with the comet, a tethered coring and sampler drill will contact the surface and extract a two-meter core sample from the target site. Before the spacecraft returns to Earth, a monitoring penetrator containing scientific instruments will be deployed for gathering long-term data about the comet. A single asteroid sample return mission to the asteroid 433 Eros (chosen for proximity and launch opportunities) will extract a sample from the asteroid surface for return to Earth. To limit overall mission cost, most of the mission design uses current technologies, except the sampler drill design. The multiple asteroid sample return mission could best be characterized through its use of future technology including an optical communications system, a nuclear power reactor, and a low-thrust propulsion system. A low-thrust trajectory optimization code (QuickTop 2) obtained from the NASA LeRC helped in planning the size of major subsystem components, as well as the trajectory between targets.

  20. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Thalamic Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Russo, Gary S.; Hashimoto, Takao; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective tool for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which STN DBS elicits its beneficial effect, however, remains unclear. We previously reported STN stimulation increased the rate and produced a more regular and periodic pattern of neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Here we extend our observations to neurons in the pallidal (ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)) and cerebellar (ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)) receiving areas of the motor thalamus during STN DBS. Stimulation parameters that produced improvement in rigidity and bradykinesia resulted in changes in the pattern and power of oscillatory activity of neuronal activity that were similar in both regions of the motor thalamus. Neurons in both VA/VLo and VPLo tended to become more periodic and regular with a shift in oscillatory activity from low to high frequencies. Burst activity was reduced in VA/VLo, but was not significantly changed in VPLo. There was also a significant shift in the population of VA/VLo neurons that were inhibited during STN DBS, while VPLo neurons tended to be activated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that STN DBS increases output from the nucleus and produces a change in the pattern and periodicity of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network, and that these changes include cerebellar pathways likely via activation of adjacent cerebello-thalamic fiber bundles. PMID:19005057

  1. On M31's Double Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, B. F.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The recent HST discovery of a double nucleus in M31 brings into prominence the question how long, a second core can survive within the nuclear regions of a galaxy. Physical conditions in the nuclear regions of a typical galaxy help a second core survive, so it can orbit for a long time. possibly for thousands of orbits. Given the nearly uniform mass density in a core, tidal forces within a core radius are compressive in all directions and help the core survive the buffeting it takes as it orbits near the center of the galaxy. We use numerical experiments to illustrate these physical principles. Our method allows the full power of the experiments to be concentrated on the nuclear regions. Spatial resolution of about 0.2 pc comfortably resolves detail within the 1.4 parsec core radius of the second, but brighter core (P1) in M31. We use these physical principles to discuss M31's double nucleus, but they apply to other galaxies as well. and in other astronomical situations such as dumbbell galaxies. galaxies orbiting near the center of a galaxy cluster, and subclustering in galaxy clusters. The experiments also illustrate that galaxy encounters and merging are quite sensitive to external tidal forces, such as those produced by the gravitational potential in a group or cluster of galaxies.

  2. Spectrin repeat proteins in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Young, Kevin G; Kothary, Rashmi

    2005-02-01

    Spectrin repeat sequences are among the more common repeat elements identified in proteins, typically occurring in large structural proteins. Examples of spectrin repeat-containing proteins include dystrophin, alpha-actinin and spectrin itself--all proteins with well-demonstrated roles of establishing and maintaining cell structure. Over the past decade, it has become clear that, although these proteins display a cytoplasmic and plasma membrane distribution, several are also found both at the nuclear envelope, and within the intranuclear space. In this review, we provide an overview of recent work regarding various spectrin repeat-containing structural proteins in the nucleus. As well, we hypothesize about the regulation of their nuclear localization and possible nuclear functions based on domain architecture, known interacting proteins and evolutionary relationships. Given their large size, and their potential for interacting with multiple proteins and with chromatin, spectrin repeat-containing proteins represent strong candidates for important organizational proteins within the nucleus. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the BioEssays website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/suppmat/index.html).

  3. GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.

    1963-07-23

    A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

  4. Experimental implementation of analog-to-digital converter based on the reversible ripple counter

    SciTech Connect

    Filippenko, L.V.; Kaplunenko, V.K.; Khabipov, M.I.; Vystavkin, A.N. ); Koshelets, V.P.; Likharev, K.K.; Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on A/D converter which includes a comparator, reversible binary counter with DC outputs designed, fabricated and tested. The comparator generates two trains of the SFQ pulses in response to increasing or decreasing of the input signal. The pulses are transferred through SFQ transmission lines to the adding and diminishing inputs of a reversible counter. The reversible counter has been realized by supplementing to the usual counter the SFQ transmission lines, splitters, and confluence elements for sending diminish pulses directly to each bit. Non-destructive read-out of the counter contents is carried out by SFQ/DC converters connected to each counter bit.

  5. Odyssey Comet Nucleus Orbiter: The Next Step in Cometary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.; Nilsen, E. N.; Smythe, W. D.; Marriott, J.; Reinert, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cometary nuclei are the most primitive bodies in the solar system, containing a cosmo-chemical record of the primordial solar nebula. Flyby missions to comets, such as those that encountered Comet Halley in 1986, provide a glimpse at this record. However, to study a cometary nucleus in detail requires a rendezvous mission, i.e., a nucleus orbiter. Only an orbiter provides the ability to map the entire nucleus surface at high resolution, to study the complex chemistry in the cometary coma and its variation with time, and to determine the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, key parameters in understanding how small bodies first formed in the solar nebula. A nucleus orbiter also provides the opportunity to sense the nucleus surface in preparation for more ambitious landing and sample return missions in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. A search for ϕ meson nucleus bound state using antiproton annihilation on nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Bühler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Hartmann, O.; Hicks, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Muto, R.; Naruki, M.; Niiyama, M.; Noumi, H.; Okada, S.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sawada, S.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    The mass shift of the vector mesons in nuclei is known to be a powerful tool for investigating the mechanism of generating hadron mass from the QCD vacuum. The mechanism is known to be the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In 2007, KEK-PS E325 experiment reported about 3.4 % mass reduction of the ϕ meson in medium-heavy nuclei (Cu). This result is possibly one of the indications of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei, however, unfortunately it is hard to make strong conclusions from the data. One of the ways to conclude the strength of the ϕ meson mass shift in nuclei will be by trying to produce only slowly moving ϕ mesons where the maximum nuclear matter effect can be probed. The observed mass reduction of the ϕ meson in the nucleus can be translated as the existence of an attractive force between ϕ meson and nucleus. Thus, one of the extreme conditions that can be achieved in the laboratory is indeed the formation of a ϕ-nucleus bound state, where the ϕ meson is "trapped" in the nucleus. The purpose of the experiment is to search for a ϕ-nucleus bound state and measure the binding energy of the system. We will demonstrate that a completely background-free missing-mass spectrum can be obtained efficiently by (bar{p}, φ) spectroscopy together with K + Λ tagging, using the primary reaction channel bar{p} p rightarrow φ φ. This paper gives an overview of the physics motivation and the detector concept, and explains the direction of the initial research and development effort.

  7. A search for ϕ meson nucleus bound state using antiproton annihilation on nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Bühler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Hartmann, O.; Hicks, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Muto, R.; Naruki, M.; Niiyama, M.; Noumi, H.; Okada, S.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sawada, S.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The mass shift of the vector mesons in nuclei is known to be a powerful tool for investigating the mechanism of generating hadron mass from the QCD vacuum. The mechanism is known to be the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In 2007, KEK-PS E325 experiment reported about 3.4 % mass reduction of the ϕ meson in medium-heavy nuclei (Cu). This result is possibly one of the indications of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei, however, unfortunately it is hard to make strong conclusions from the data. One of the ways to conclude the strength of the ϕ meson mass shift in nuclei will be by trying to produce only slowly moving ϕ mesons where the maximum nuclear matter effect can be probed. The observed mass reduction of the ϕ meson in the nucleus can be translated as the existence of an attractive force between ϕ meson and nucleus. Thus, one of the extreme conditions that can be achieved in the laboratory is indeed the formation of a ϕ-nucleus bound state, where the ϕ meson is "trapped" in the nucleus. The purpose of the experiment is to search for a ϕ-nucleus bound state and measure the binding energy of the system. We will demonstrate that a completely background-free missing-mass spectrum can be obtained efficiently by (bar{p}, φ) spectroscopy together with K + Λ tagging, using the primary reaction channel bar{p} p rightarrow φ φ. This paper gives an overview of the physics motivation and the detector concept, and explains the direction of the initial research and development effort.

  8. In vitro and in silico investigations of disc nucleus replacement.

    PubMed

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Bashkuev, Maxim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Gloria, Antonio; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2012-08-07

    Currently, numerous hydrogels are under examination as potential nucleus replacements. The clinical success, however, depends on how well the mechanical function of the host structure is restored. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to and mechanisms by which surgery for nucleus replacements influence the mechanical behaviour of the disc. The effects of an annulus defect with and without nucleus replacement on disc height and nucleus pressure were measured using 24 ovine motion segments. The following cases were considered: intact; annulus incision repaired by suture and glue; annulus incision with removal and re-implantation of nucleus tissue repaired by suture and glue or plug. To identify the likely mechanisms observed in vitro, a finite-element model of a human disc (L4-L5) was employed. Both studies were subjected to physiological cycles of compression and recovery. A repaired annulus defect did not influence the disc behaviour in vitro, whereas additional nucleus removal and replacement substantially decreased disc stiffness and nucleus pressure. Model predictions demonstrated the substantial effects of reductions in replaced nucleus water content, bulk modulus and osmotic potential on disc height loss and pressure, similar to measurements. In these events, the compression load transfer in the disc markedly altered by substantially increasing the load on the annulus when compared with the nucleus. The success of hydrogels for nucleus replacements is not only dependent on the implant material itself but also on the restoration of the environment perturbed during surgery. The substantial effects on the disc response of disruptions owing to nucleus replacements can be simulated by reduced nucleus water content, elastic modulus and osmotic potential.

  9. In vitro and in silico investigations of disc nucleus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Bashkuev, Maxim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Gloria, Antonio; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Currently, numerous hydrogels are under examination as potential nucleus replacements. The clinical success, however, depends on how well the mechanical function of the host structure is restored. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to and mechanisms by which surgery for nucleus replacements influence the mechanical behaviour of the disc. The effects of an annulus defect with and without nucleus replacement on disc height and nucleus pressure were measured using 24 ovine motion segments. The following cases were considered: intact; annulus incision repaired by suture and glue; annulus incision with removal and re-implantation of nucleus tissue repaired by suture and glue or plug. To identify the likely mechanisms observed in vitro, a finite-element model of a human disc (L4–L5) was employed. Both studies were subjected to physiological cycles of compression and recovery. A repaired annulus defect did not influence the disc behaviour in vitro, whereas additional nucleus removal and replacement substantially decreased disc stiffness and nucleus pressure. Model predictions demonstrated the substantial effects of reductions in replaced nucleus water content, bulk modulus and osmotic potential on disc height loss and pressure, similar to measurements. In these events, the compression load transfer in the disc markedly altered by substantially increasing the load on the annulus when compared with the nucleus. The success of hydrogels for nucleus replacements is not only dependent on the implant material itself but also on the restoration of the environment perturbed during surgery. The substantial effects on the disc response of disruptions owing to nucleus replacements can be simulated by reduced nucleus water content, elastic modulus and osmotic potential. PMID:22337630

  10. Counter Synthesis: A Critical Approach to Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harral, Harriet Briscoe

    Modern society is an ever-changing pattern of pressure and counter pressure. A social movement in conflict with the dominant society is labeled with easily identifiable stereotypes--bearded long hairs, bra burners, terrorists, bleeding hearts, uneducated rednecks. Traditional criticism has failed to say anything meaningful about social movements…

  11. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony...

  1. Parts Counter. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This instructor's guide is designed to accompany self-paced student training modules on the Parts Counter Trade. Introductory materials include an introduction to pre-apprenticeship training, and a course outline. Teaching outlines are then provided for the 11 modules that comprise this course. For each module some or all of this material may be…

  2. The Study of Damped Harmonic Oscillations Using an Electronic Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadhwa, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    We study damped harmonic oscillations in mechanical systems like the loaded spring and simple pendulum with the help of an oscillation measuring electronic counter. The experimental data are used in a software program that solves the differential equation for damped vibrations of any system and determines its position, velocity and acceleration as…

  3. Reevaluation of pollen quantitation by an automatic pollen counter.

    PubMed

    Muradil, Mutarifu; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yonekura, Syuji; Chazono, Hideaki; Hisamitsu, Minako; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Takahashi, Yukie; Yokota, Kunihiko; Okumura, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and detailed pollen monitoring is useful for selection of medication and for allergen avoidance in patients with allergic rhinitis. Burkard and Durham pollen samplers are commonly used, but are labor and time intensive. In contrast, automatic pollen counters allow simple real-time pollen counting; however, these instruments have difficulty in distinguishing pollen from small nonpollen airborne particles. Misidentification and underestimation rates for an automatic pollen counter were examined to improve the accuracy of the pollen count. The characteristics of the automatic pollen counter were determined in a chamber study with exposure to cedar pollens or soil grains. The cedar pollen counts were monitored in 2006 and 2007, and compared with those from a Durham sampler. The pollen counts from the automatic counter showed a good correlation (r > 0.7) with those from the Durham sampler when pollen dispersal was high, but a poor correlation (r < 0.5) when pollen dispersal was low. The new correction method, which took into account the misidentification and underestimation, improved this correlation to r > 0.7 during the pollen season. The accuracy of automatic pollen counting can be improved using a correction to include rates of underestimation and misidentification in a particular geographical area.

  4. A Simulation of Counter-Cyclical Intervention: Some Practical Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grawe, Nathan D.; Watts, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The author introduces a simulation of counter-cyclical interventions that highlights important issues surrounding the practice of government intervention. The simulation provides experiential insight as to why economists have long debated the degree of persistence exhibited by disequilibrating shocks and connects this debate to discussions about…

  5. New Education, Progressive Education and the Counter Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the themes of genesis, metamorphoses, continuity and change from a comparative perspective to show the links and relationships between the ideas of the New Educationists, progressive education and the counter culture of the late 1970s. The article discusses important educationists from different continents and different time…

  6. Counter gradient diffusion in a plane wall jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, O.; Dhamotharan, V.

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent wall-jets are important in a variety of applications such as the Coanda effect for boundary layer separation control, film-cooling applications in a jet engine etc., One of the important features of a wall jet is the existence of a region of counter gradient diffusion of momentum. The counter-gradient region is a sort of pathological situation for RANS based turbulence models as they would not be able to predict this region. In this study we show from our experiments in a wall jet the counter-gradient region of diffusion can be understood from simple structural models for a wall jet eddy. Towards this flow visualization and hotwire measurements have been performed. It is seen from the smoke flow visualizations that the outward portion of the flow is backward leaning i.e. in the upstream direction. This is consistent with the orientation of eddy structure obtained from two-point correlation measurements. A building block eddy of a wall jet is proposed that has aspects of a boundary layer eddy in the inner wall region and a jet eddy in the outer region. It is argued by a simple vortex dynamics model that the counter-gradient region occurs due to the influence of the jet eddies in the near-wall region.

  7. Insubordinate Spaces for Intemperate Times: Countering the Pedagogies of Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Lipsitz, George

    2013-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux argues that countering the disasters of neoliberalism requires facing "the challenge of developing a politics and pedagogy that can serve and actualize a democratic notion of the social" (2011). The authors suggest that Immanuel Wallerstein's notion of "middle-run" temporality (2008) and Stuart Hall's discussion of "middle-level"…

  8. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND STERNPOST KNEE (ON WHICH STICK RULE IS LYING). FRESH WATER TANKS APPEAR TO EITHER SIDE OF STERNPOST; SMALL TANK SUSPENDED FROM DECK IN CENTER OF VIEW IS AN AIR RESERVOIR FOR ENGINES' PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  9. Toxicoses from over-the-counter human drugs.

    PubMed

    Papich, M G

    1990-03-01

    This article describes the mechanisms, recognition, and management of toxicoses from human over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Drugs that have been included were chosen because of their potential for toxicosis and the incidence of exposure. Drug groups discussed are cough, cold, and allergy medications, laxatives and cathartics, antacids, antidiarrheal agents, topicals, and vitamin and iron supplements.

  10. Fabrication and testing of an airborne ice particle counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebabian, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    An optical ice particle counter was proposed as a companion instrument to the GSFC laser nephelometer. By counting ice particles and total cloud particles (both ice and liquid water), these two instruments may be used to study the balance between ice and water in clouds.

  11. Sixties Protest Music: The Key to Understanding the Counter Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Benjamin T.

    During the 1960s, protest music was expressed primarily through the folk tradition; it was the most important medium of the counter culture. The folk music tradition of the 1960s found its roots in the music of Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger. In their music, commercial success and professional standards were militantly opposed. Folk music raised…

  12. The 3 DLE instrument on ATS-5. [plasma electron counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforest, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    The performance and operation of the DLE plasma electron counter on board the ATS 5 are described. Two methods of data presentation, microfilm line plots and spectrograms, are discussed along with plasma dynamics, plasma flow velocity, electrostatic charging, and wave-particle interactions.

  13. Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Kaipainen, Kirsikka

    2016-10-01

    Background The home is one place where people can control what foods are available and how the environment is arranged. Given the impact of environments on health, the objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of foods on a person's kitchen counter are associated with their body mass index (BMI). Method In Study 1, a nationwide sample of 500 households was asked to inventory their kitchen and provide their height and weight. In Study 2, researchers photographed and catalogued 210 households in Syracuse, New York, and measured the occupants' height and weight. Main outcome measures for the study were BMI differences between households that had various foods visible on the counter compared with those that did not. Findings The presence of fruit on the counter was associated with lower BMI in both studies, but the presence of foods such as candy, cereal, soft drinks, and dried fruit were associated with weight differences that ranged from 9.4 to 14.4 kg. Interpretations Although correlational, the findings from these two studies suggest that when counseling patients regarding their weight, physicians also suggest they clear their kitchen counter of all food except a fruit bowl.

  14. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of soy skim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of carbon dioxide in a counter-current fractionation column was investigated as a means to remove residual fat from soy skim after enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. The stainless steel column was 1.2 meters long with an internal diameter of 1.75 cm and filled protruded stainles...

  15. Evolutionary expansion of a regulatory network by counter-silencing

    PubMed Central

    Will, William R.; Bale, Denise H.; Reid, Philip J.; Libby, Stephen J.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in bacterial evolution. Successful acquisition of new genes requires their incorporation into existing regulatory networks. This study compares the regulation of conserved genes in the PhoPQ regulon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with that of PhoPQ-regulated horizontally-acquired genes, which are silenced by the histone-like protein H-NS. We demonstrate that PhoP up-regulates conserved and horizontally-acquired genes by distinct mechanisms. Conserved genes are regulated by classical PhoP-mediated activation and are invariant in promoter architecture, whereas horizontally-acquired genes exhibit variable promoter architecture and are regulated by PhoP-mediated counter-silencing. Biochemical analyses show that a horizontally-acquired promoter adopts different structures in the silenced and counter-silenced states, implicating the remodeling of the H-NS nucleoprotein filament and the subsequent restoration of open complex formation as the central mechanism of counter-silencing. Our results indicate that counter-silencing is favored in the regulatory integration of newly-acquired genes because it is able to accommodate multiple promoter architectures. PMID:25348042

  16. University Movements as Laboratories of Counter-Hegemony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with a reading of Kant's "The Conflict of the Faculties" and then moving towards a tentative possible theorization of the University as a hegemonic apparatus this paper aims at discussing university movements in terms of (counter) hegemony. Recent struggles against austerity, neoliberalism and the erosion of democracy,…

  17. Transference, Counter-Transference, and Reflexivity in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the contributions psychoanalytic theory, particularly its concepts of "transference and counter-transference," can make to our understanding of reflexivity in intercultural education (IE). After the introduction, the article is organized into three parts. The first part is a psychoanalytic discussion that focuses on…

  18. Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.; Kaipainen, Kirsikka

    2016-01-01

    Background: The home is one place where people can control what foods are available and how the environment is arranged. Given the impact of environments on health, the objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of foods on a person's kitchen counter are associated with their body mass index (BMI). Method: In Study 1, a…

  19. Shift-register coincidence electronics system for thermal neutron counters

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.E.; Collinsworth, P.R.; Krick, M.S.

    1980-04-01

    An improved shift-register, coincidence-counting logic circuit, developed for use with thermal neutron well counters, is described in detail. A distinguishing feature of the circuit is its ability to operate usefully at neutron counting rates of several hundred kHz. A portable electronics package incorporating the new coincidence logic and support circuits is also described.

  20. Modelling boron-lined proportional counter response to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Shahri, A; Ghal-Eh, N; Etaati, G R

    2013-09-01

    The detailed Monte Carlo simulation of a boron-lined proportional counter response to a neutron source has been presented. The MCNP4C and experimental data on different source-moderator geometries have been given for comparison. The influence of different irradiation geometries and boron-lining thicknesses on the detector response has been studied.

  1. Autism as Metaphor: Narrative and Counter-Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Alicia A.; Ne'eman, Ari

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the significance of metaphor and dominant cultural narratives in current autism discourse. We briefly explore the history of metaphor in autism discourse, and outline the contemporary struggle between the culturally dominant metaphor of autism as disease and the emergent counter-narrative of autism within neurodiversity.…

  2. Antioxidant Micronutrients: Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-2-0007 1 Mar 2010 - 28 Feb 2011Annual01-03-2011 Antioxidant Micronutrients : Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical...Agents Kedar Prasad, Ph.D. Premier Micronutrient Corporation Novato, CA 94949 The results of the first phase of HD study suggested that exposure to

  3. Rapid Scan Humidified Growth Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Kok; Athanasios Nenes

    2013-03-13

    This research focused on enhancements to the streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei counter to support the rapid scan mode and to enhance the capability for aerosol humidified growth measurements. The research identified the needs for flow system modifications and range of capability for operating the conventional instrument in the rapid scan and humidified growth modes.

  4. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Scalable Analysis Techniques for Microprocessor Performance Counter Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H; Vetter, J S

    2002-07-24

    Contemporary microprocessors provide a rich set of integrated performance counters that allow application developers and system architects alike the opportunity to gather important information about workload behaviors. These counters can capture instruction, memory, and operating system behaviors. Current techniques for analyzing data produced from these counters use raw counts, ratios, and visualization techniques to help users make decisions about their application source code. While these techniques are appropriate for analyzing data from one process, they do not scale easily to new levels demanded by contemporary computing systems. Indeed, the amount of data generated by these experiments is on the order of tens of thousands of data points. Furthermore, if users execute multiple experiments, then we add yet another dimension to this already knotty picture. This flood of multidimensional data can swamp efforts to harvest important ideas from these valuable counters. Very simply, this paper addresses these concerns by evaluating several multivariate statistical techniques on these datasets. We find that several techniques, such as statistical clustering, can automatically extract important features from this data. These derived results can, in turn, be feed directly back to an application developer, or used as input to a more comprehensive performance analysis environment, such as a visualization or an expert system.

  6. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  7. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  8. Best Way to Take Your Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever? Seriously.

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to take your over-the-counter pain reliever? Seriously. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print (PDF version - 6MB) Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers/fever reducers (the kind you can buy without ...

  9. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1997-12-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  10. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  11. In situ hybridization of suprachiasmatic nucleus slices.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2007-01-01

    The progress in the understanding of the molecular machinery of mammalian circadian clocks, in combination with the well-established role of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as a master circadian clock, has provided an invaluable system for the study of the molecular basis of circadian rhythmicity. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques that label specific clock-gene mRNAs within the SCN, researchers can now elucidate the core molecular oscillatory mechanisms underlying specific circadian physiological and behavioral phenotypes. In this chapter, two methods for ISH within the SCN are described. The first method is based on the fluorescent labeling of mRNA and is suitable for confocal microscopy analysis and double labeling techniques. The second method is based on the radioactive labeling of mRNA and is more sensitive and more adequate for the relative quantification of mRNA species.

  12. The nucleus of the Cygnus A galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, M.; Barthel, P. D.

    1993-02-01

    New obtained high resolution optical images of the prototypical luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A (3C 405) indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of obscuring dust and, in combination with previous data, three types of radiation (stellar and blue featureless continuum as well as luminous line emission) in its central regions. The alleged double nucleus finds its origin in heavy obscuration coupled to excess line emission in the central regions of an otherwise normal giant elliptical galaxy. A strongly reddened nuclear component, coincident with the Cygnus A radio core, is found to emit faint but concentrated narrow line emission. All data appear consistent with identification of Cygnus A as a radio-loud quasar having its radio axis oriented at about 35 deg from the sky plane. The presumed dust torus obscuring the quasar continuum is inferred to be smaller than 800 parsec.

  13. Nature of multiple-nucleus cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, D.

    1984-05-01

    In models for the evolution of galaxy clusters which include dynamical friction with the dark binding matter, the distribution of galaxies becomes more concentrated to the cluster center with time. In a cluster like Coma, this evolution could increase by a factor of approximately 3 the probability of finding a galaxy very close to the cluster center, without decreasing the typical velocity of such a galaxy significantly below the cluster mean. Such an enhancement is roughly what is needed to explain the large number of first-ranked cluster galaxies which are observed to have extra ''nuclei''; it is also consistent with the high velocities typically measured for these ''nuclei.'' Unlike the cannibalism model, this model predicts that the majority of multiple-nucleus systems are transient phenomena, and not galaxies in the process of merging.

  14. Nucleus of Comet P/Arend-Rigaux

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, T.Y.; Knacke, R.F.

    1986-07-01

    Photometry data at 1-20 microns taken of Comet P/Arend-Rigaux are reported. The observations were carried out to test the possibility of observing the nuclei of low activity, nearly extinct comets at visible and IR wavelengths. The data were collected in February 1985 using the NASA 3 m IR telescope on Mauna Kea. The comet was at 1.67 AU heliocentric distance at the time. Attempts were made to detect rotation of the core on the bases of variations in the J, H and K light curves. The images obtained were those of a rotating nucleus with a radius of 4.0-6.2 km surrounded by a faint coma. The comet had a geometric albedo of 0.01-0.03 and a near-IR red slope that exhibited no evidence of the presence of ice. 32 references.

  15. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  16. Novel associated hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jonathan; Lowman, Anthony; Marcolongo, Michele

    2003-12-15

    Hydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) blends may provide a material suitable for replacement of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. This research examined the stability of these hydrogels under simulated physiological conditions. Polymer dissolution and stability were characterized over 120 days immersion, chemical surface analysis over 56 days immersion, and tensile mechanical behavior over 56 days immersion. Rubber elasticity theory was used by combining mechanical results with swelling data to calculate network characteristics such as the molecular weight between physical crosslinks and density of crosslinks. Properties were examined as a function of PVA/PVP composition as well as PVA molecular weight and PVP molecular weight. Results indicated that PVA/PVP blends prepared with moderate amounts of PVP (0.5-5%) resulted in a polymer network stabilized through interchain hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups on PVA chains and carbonyl groups on PVP chains. Most notably, a significant decrease in percentage of polymer mass loss was seen for blends prepared with 143K molecular weight PVA. Surface chemical analysis revealed that PVP unincorporated in the network structure suffered significant dissolution out of the polymer network and into solution. The molecular weight of PVA and PVP were shown to have a significant influence on the blends' network properties. Gels prepared with lower molecular weight PVA resulted in a more stable blend containing a higher density of crosslinks. However, blends prepared with a higher molecular weight PVA showed superior polymer network stability in dissolution studies. The blend that had the best combination of network stability under physiological conditions and a relatively tight, stable, and crosslinked network was prepared with 99% PVA (143K) and 1% PVP (40K). This material is proposed as an implant material for replacement of the degenerated nucleus pulposus.

  17. Nonlinear osmotic properties of the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Finan, John D.; Chalut, Kevin J.; Wax, Adam; Guilak, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the absence of active volume regulation processes, cell volume is inversely proportional to osmolarity, as predicted by the Boyle Van’t Hoff relation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nuclear volume has a similar relationship with extracellular osmolarity in articular chondrocytes, cells that are exposed to changes in the osmotic environment in vivo, and furthermore, we explored the mechanism of the relationships between osmolarity and nuclear size and shape. Nuclear size was quantified using two independent techniques, confocal laser scanning microscopy and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry. Nuclear volume was osmotically-sensitive but this relationship was not linear, showing a decline in the osmotic sensitivity in the hypo-osmotic range. Nuclear shape was also influenced by extracellular osmolarity, becoming smoother as the osmolarity decreased. The osmotically-induced changes in nuclear size paralleled the changes in nuclear shape, suggesting that shape and volume are interdependent. The osmotic sensitivity of shape and volume persisted after disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Isolated nuclei contracted in response to physiologic changes in macromolecule concentration but not in response to physiologic changes in ion concentration, suggesting solute size has an important influence on the osmotic pressurization of the nucleus. This finding in turn implies that the diffusion barrier that causes osmotic effects is not a semi-permeable membrane, but rather due to size constraints that prevent large solute molecules from entering small spaces in the nucleus. As nuclear morphology has been associated previously with cell phenotype, these findings may provide new insight into the role of mechanical and osmotic signals in regulating cell physiology. PMID:19107599

  18. Pedunculopontine nucleus evoked potentials from subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Bogdan; Tsang, Eric; Mazzella, Filomena; Hamani, Clement; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Chen, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on the pedunculopontine nucleus area (PPNR) evoked activities were examined in two patients with Parkinson's disease. The patients had previously undergone bilateral STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) and subsequently received unilateral DBS electrodes in the PPNR. Evoked potentials were recorded from the local field potentials (LFP) from the PPNR with STN stimulation at different frequencies and bipolar contacts. Ipsilateral and contralateral short latency (<2ms) PPNR responses were evoked from left but not from right STN stimulation. In both patients, STN stimulation evoked contralateral PPNR responses at medium latencies between 41 and 45ms. Cortical evoked potentials to single pulse STN stimulation were observed at latencies between 18 and 27ms. These results demonstrate a functional connection between the STN and the PPNR. It likely involves direct projections between the STN and PPNR or polysynaptic pathways with thalamic or cortical relays.

  19. Experimental evidence and the Landau-Zener promotion in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cindro, N.; Freeman, R.M.; Haas, F.

    1986-04-01

    Recent data from C+O collisions are analyzed in terms of the Landau-Zener promotion in nuclei. Evidence for the presence of this mechanism in nuclear collisions is of considerable interest, since it provides a signature of single-particle orbitals in molecular-type potentials and, at the same time, paves the way to a microscopic understanding of the collision dynamics, in particular of the energy dissipation rate. The analyzed data are of two types: integrated cross sections and angular distributions of inelastically scattered particles. The first set of data shows structure qualitatively consistent with recent calculations of the Landau-Zener effect; for this set of data no other reasonable explanation is presently available. The second set of data, while consistent with the presence of the Landau-Zener promotion, is examined in terms of other possible explanations too. The combined data show evidence favoring the presence of the Landau-Zener promotion in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  20. Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

  1. 21 CFR 862.2320 - Beta or gamma counter for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta or gamma counter for clinical use. 862.2320... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2320 Beta or gamma counter for clinical use. (a) Identification. A beta or gamma counter...

  2. Influence of higher valent ions on flexible polyelectrolyte stiffness and counter-ion distribution.

    PubMed

    Chremos, Alexandros; Douglas, Jack F

    2016-04-28

    We investigate the influence of counter-ion valency on the flexibility of highly charged flexible polymer chains using molecular dynamics simulations that include both salt and an explicit solvent. As observed experimentally, we find that divalent counter-ions greatly reduce the chain persistence length, lp, in comparison with monovalent counter-ions. On the other hand, polyelectrolyte chains having trivalent counter-ions adopt a much more compact conformation than polyelectrolytes having monovalent and divalent counter-ions. We demonstrate that the tendency of polyelectrolyte chains to become deformed by proximal high valence counter-ions is due to chain "coiling" around the counter-ions. In particular, we find that the number of contacts that the proximal counter-ions have with the polyelectrolyte dictates the extent of chain coiling. This ion-binding induced coiling mechanism influences not only the conformational properties of the polyelectrolyte, but also the counter-ion distribution around the chain. Specifically, we find that higher valent counter-ions lead both to a counter-ion enrichment in close proximity to the polyelectrolyte and to a significant reduction in the spatial extent of the diffuse counter-ion cloud around the polyelectrolyte.

  3. 78 FR 57623 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice of modification to the TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project... which the Department of Defense (DoD) evaluates allowing selected over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to...

  4. Coaxial anode for background suppression in X-ray proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Mccammon, D.; Vanderhill, M.; Williamson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme which permits the ends (near the anode seals) as well as the bottom and sides of an X-ray astronomy proportional counter to be protected by anticoincidence guard counters is described. A rocket-borne test showed that the non-X-ray background is reduced by an additional factor of about 30 when the end guard counter feature is added.

  5. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration.

  6. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  7. Mission CaMKIIγ: shuttle calmodulin from membrane to nucleus.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zulfiqar A; Stein, Ivar S; Navedo, Manuel F; Hell, Johannes W

    2014-10-09

    Neuronal plasticity depends on plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx, resulting in activity-dependent gene transcription. Calmodulin (CaM) activated by Ca(2+) initiates the nuclear events, but how CaM makes its way to the nucleus has remained elusive. Ma et al. now show that CaMKIIγ transports CaM from cell surface Ca(2+) channels to the nucleus.

  8. Cytotoxicity of nucleus-targeting fluorescent gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Mingxi; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-11-07

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential examinations were performed on different cell lines exposed to the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs. We found that the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs caused cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs was proposed as follows: the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs induce the production of ROS, resulting in the oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components, in turn leading to apoptosis via a mitochondrial damage pathway. This work facilitates a better understanding of the toxicity of AuNCs, especially nucleus-targeting AuNCs.

  9. Glutamatergic projection from the nucleus incertus to the septohippocampal system.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Rahmani, Yasamin; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Martínez-Ricós, Joana

    2012-05-31

    Recent findings support a relevant role of the nucleus incertus in the control of the hippocampal activity through the modulation of theta rhythm. Previous studies from our group have shown that this nucleus is a critical relay between reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum/diagonal band, regarded as the main activator and the pacemaker of the hippocampal oscillations, respectively. Besides, the nucleus incertus is highly linked to activated states related to the arousal response. The neurotransmission of the nucleus incertus, however, remains uncertain. Only GABA and the neuromodulator relaxin 3 are usually considered to be involved in its contribution to the septohippocampal system. In this work, we have analyzed the existence of an excitatory projection from the nucleus incertus to the medial septum. We have found a group of glutamatergic neurons in the nucleus incertus projecting to the medial septum. Moreover, we were able to describe a segregated distribution of calbindin and calretinin neurons. While calretinin expression was restricted to the nucleus incertus pars compacta, calbindin positive neurons where observed both in the pars dissipata and the pars compacta of the nucleus. The present work provides innovative data supporting an excitatory component in the pontoseptal pathway.

  10. Studies of Strangeness Production in proton-Nucleus Collision: preliminary results from E910 at BNL-AGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xihong

    1996-10-01

    Strange particle production has been viewed as an interesting probe of Heavy-Ion physics because it has the signature of QGP formation. Using the EOS TPC and downstream drift chambers for tracking and using TOF and Cerenkov counters for particle identification, experiment E910 provides a facility with large acceptance and high resolution for exclusive measurements of proton-nucleus collisions at AGS energy. Production of Λ in both 12.5 GeV/c and 18 GeV/c p+A (A = Au, Cu) from '96 run data has been analyzed. The initial reconstruction results of the Λ invariant mass distribution shows a mass resolution of 2.5MeV/c^2. The Λ yield for different beam energies and target masses has been analyzed and compared with the p+p data and E859 data. The transverse mass and rapidity distributions are also discussed here.

  11. Development of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Reimann, B.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Bingemer, H.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we present the setup and first tests of our new BIO IN detector. This detector was constructed to classify atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) for their biological content. It is designed to be coupled to the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH. If one particle acts as an ice nucleus, it will be at least partly covered with ice at the end of the development section of the FINCH chamber. The device combines an auto-fluorescence detector and a circular depolarization detector for simultaneous detection of biological material and discrimination between water droplets, ice crystals and non activated large aerosol particles. The excitation of biological material with UV light and analysis of auto-fluorescence is a common principle used for flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, spectroscopy and imaging. The detection of auto-fluorescence of airborne single particles demands some more experimental effort. However, expensive commercial sensors are available for special purposes, e.g. size distribution measurements. But these sensors will not fit the specifications needed for the FINCH IN counter (e.g. high sample flow of up 10 LPM). The newly developed -low cost- BIO IN sensor uses a single high-power UV LED for the electronic excitation instead of much more expensive UV lasers. Other key advantages of the new sensor are the low weight, compact size, and the little effect on the aerosol sample, which allows it to be coupled with other instruments for further analysis. The instrument will be flown on one of the first missions of the new German research aircraft "HALO" (High Altitude and LOng range).

  12. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  13. Aspirin and acetaminophen: should they be available over the counter?

    PubMed

    Brune, Kay; Hinz, Burkhard; Otterness, Ivan

    2009-02-01

    Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block cyclooxygenase (COX). They are the most widely used drugs for pain relief. They are indispensable for their effects but are condemned for their adverse drug reactions. Two COX inhibitors, acetaminophen and aspirin, are the most widely used over-the-counter drugs. They have low (but useful) therapeutic activity, but they are endowed with specific risks that are not seen with most other COX inhibitors. Both are lethal if taken in overdose. Each is stigmatized by severe adverse effects. Aspirin results in prolonged inhibition of blood coagulation, and acetaminophen can result in liver toxicity at normal dose and liver failure at higher dose. Both drugs cause many deaths every year. We recommend that the status of both drugs be changed to prescription only. Their continued availability over the counter poses an unacceptable risk to the general population.

  14. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  15. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Carter, D.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2012-08-04

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu,239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. We also used it to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ~2.4×108/s are described.

  16. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation: Effects of History and Lift Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, Ali

    2014-11-01

    This work is co-authored with my doctoral student Shujing Xu and is dedicated to the memory of my doctoral advisor Howard Brenner who enjoyed thought experiments related to rotating systems. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation refers to our theoretical discovery that within a liquid-filled container that rotates in an oscillatory manner about a fixed axis as a rigid body, a suspended particle can be made to migrate on average in the direction opposite to that of ordinary centrifugation. That is, a heavy (or light) particle can move toward (or away from) the rotation axis, when the frequency of oscillations is high enough. In this work we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Saffman lift force on particle trajectories and find that the counter-centrifugation phenomenon persists even when these forces are active.

  17. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  18. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  19. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Filter induced errors in laser anemometer measurements using counter processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberle, L. G.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems have focused primarily on noise studies or biasing errors. Another possible source of error is the choice of filter types and filter cutoff frequencies. Before it is applied to the counter portion of the signal processor, a Doppler burst is filtered to remove the pedestal and to reduce noise in the frequency bands outside the region in which the signal occurs. Filtering, however, introduces errors into the measurement of the frequency of the input signal which leads to inaccurate results. Errors caused by signal filtering in an LDA counter-processor data acquisition system are evaluated and filters for a specific application which will reduce these errors are chosen.

  1. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references.

  2. Transmission Line Properties of Nickel-Bodied Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of neutral current and charged current neutrino scattering events allowed the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to demonstrate definitively neutrino oscillation. The three phases of the SNO detector are distinguished by different techniques of detecting the neutrons produced by neutral current neutrino scattering. In the final phase, nickel-bodied proportional counters filled with ^3He were used as neutral current detectors (NCDs) by observing the charged particles produced by neutron capture on ^3He. If we can understand the electrical transmission properties of the NCDs, we can use the different pulse shapes produced by neutron captures compared to those of alphas to distinguish these events and gain more sensitivity to the neutral current events. We found that because of the ferromagnetism of the nickel, standard calculations provided for proportional counters are not accurate enough. To obtain a better calculation, we directly measured the electrical properties of the transmission line as a function of frequency. This is a presentation of our results.

  3. The design and performance of the research reactor fuel counter

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.; Holt, S.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the design features, hardware specifications, and performance characteristics of the Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) System. The system is an active mode neutron coincidence counter intended to assay material test reactor fuel assemblies under water. The RRFC contains 12 {sup 3}He tubes, each with its own preamplifier, and a single ion chamber. The neutron counting electronics are based on the Los Alamos Portable Shift Register (PSR) and the gamma readout is a manual-range pico-ammeter of Los Alamos design. The RRFC is connected to the surface by a 20-m-long cable bundle. The PSR is controlled by a portable IBM computer running a modified version of the Los Alamos neutron coincidence counting code also called RRFC. There is a manual that describes the RRFC software.

  4. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaki, M.; Kawano, T.; Isozumi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive 55Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH4 admixed dry air or N2. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 104) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O2 has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N2.

  5. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; ...

    2012-08-04

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu,239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. We also used it to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ~2.4×108/s are described.

  6. Observations of Counter-Streaming Ion Velocity Distributions in LLBL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Avanonv, L. A.; Smirnov, V. N.; Moore, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze ion velocity distributions observed by Interball-Tail at two LLBL crossings under southward and variable magnetosheath magnetic field. These magnetic conditions lead to highly structured LLBL. D-shape ion velocity distributions were observed within LLBL structures along with other reconnection signatures. Another type of the ion velocity distributions observed within LLBL structures consists of two counter-streaming magnetosheath-type components. We consider two possible scenarios that may lead to development of these counterstreaming ion components: reflection of transmitted magnetosheath ions from the ionosphere and creation of these velocity distributions during formation of the LLBL. We argue that observed counter-streaming component could not be due to ionospheric reflection. The observations of these ion velocity distributions are in favor of the multiple reconnections between magnetosheath and magnetospheric flux tubes.

  7. Development of portable long counter with two different moderator materials.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Y; Tsutsumi, M; Yoshizawa, M

    2014-10-01

    A portable, light-weight long counter (LC) with small dimensions was developed. This LC consists of a (3)He thermal neutron counter, a cylindrical moderator and outer shields. It was designed to have an almost flat response in a neutron energy range of 0.4 eV to 5 MeV. The portable LC has a radius of 11 cm and a length of 39 cm. Its weight was successfully reduced to 15 kg. Polystyrene was employed instead of polyethylene for the front part of the moderator in order to increase the sensitivity to low-energy neutrons. The response function calculated using the MCNP code was consistent with the results of experiments using monoenergetic neutron calibration fields.

  8. Plasma Emission by Counter-streaming Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Yoon, P. H.; Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  9. Targeting bacterial topoisomerases: how to counter mechanisms of resistance.

    PubMed

    Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2016-06-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are type IIA bacterial topoisomerases that are targeted by highly effective antibiotics. However, resistance via multiple mechanisms arises to limit the efficacies of these drugs. Continued research on type IIA bacterial topoisomerases has provided novel approaches to counter the most common resistance mechanism for utilization of these proven targets in antibacterial therapy. Bacterial topoisomerase I is being explored as an alternative target that is not expected to show cross-resistance. Dual targeting or combination therapy could be strategies for circumventing the development of resistance to topoisomerase-targeting antibiotics. Bacterial topoisomerases are high-value bactericidal targets that could continue to be exploited for antibacterial therapy, if new tactics to counter resistance can be adopted.

  10. Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Re-analysis of the Weizsacker-Williams method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic (EM) excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions were not definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allows definitive statements to be made concerning agreement or disagreement between WW theory and experiment.

  11. Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Doucet, J R; Ross, A T; Gillespie, M B; Ryugo, D K

    1999-06-14

    Certain distinct populations of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are inhibited by a neural source that is responsive to a wide range of acoustic frequencies. In this study, we examined the glycine immunoreactivity of two types of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons (planar and radiate) in the rat which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and thus, might be responsible for this inhibition. Previously, we proposed that planar neurons provided a tonotopic and narrowly tuned input to the DCN, whereas radiate neurons provided a broadly tuned input and thus, were strong candidates as the source of broadband inhibition (Doucet and Ryugo [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 385:245-264). We tested this idea by combining retrograde labeling and glycine immunohistochemical protocols. Planar and radiate neurons were first retrogradely labeled by injecting biotinylated dextran amine into a restricted region of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The labeled cells were visualized using streptavidin conjugated to indocarbocyanine (Cy3), a fluorescent marker. Sections that contained planar or radiate neurons were then processed for glycine immunocytochemistry using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. Immunostaining of planar neurons was light, comparable to that of excitatory neurons (pyramidal neurons in the DCN), whereas immunostaining of radiate neurons was dark, comparable to that of glycinergic neurons (cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and principal cells in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radiate neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus subserve the wideband inhibition observed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

  12. A complete database for the Einstein imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1991-01-01

    A complete database for the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) was completed. The original data that makes up the archive is described as well as the structure of the database, the Op-Ed analysis system, the technical advances achieved relative to the analysis of (IPC) data, the data products produced, and some uses to which the database has been put by scientists outside Columbia University over the past year.

  13. Automatic method to manufacture 2D Multiwire Proportional Counter frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, J. C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Fernández, F.; Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to manufacture anodes and cathodes for a Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is described. The solution consists of a semiautomatic winding machine and a soldering method by radiation. This method allows manufacturing one frame (electrode) in 3 h with a minimum human intervention. The machine can work with several types of frames and a great accuracy in the position and the stress of the wires can be achieved.

  14. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beißel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A. M.; Bernier, K.; Blüm, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J. M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; De Troy, J.; Drouhin, F.; Eberlé, H.; Flügge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J. M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M. R.; Kärcher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kräber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Müller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; von Dratzig, A. Schultz; Schunk, J. P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M. H.; Simonis, H. J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thümmel, W. H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Dyck, Ch.; Vanlaer, P.; Van Lancker, L.; Verdini, P. G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V.

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  15. Cloud characterization using a particle-counter dropsonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Kaye, Paul Henry; Hirst, Edwin; Wieser, Andreas; Stanley, Warren

    2015-04-01

    Routine meteorological data is obtained in the atmosphere using disposable radiosondes, giving temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed. Additional measurements are obtained from dropsondes, released from research aircraft. However, a crucial property not yet measured is the size and concentration of atmospheric particulates, including cloud particles or aerosols. Instead, indirect measurements are employed, relying on remote sensing. In addition, research aircraft can be used in situ, but airborne measurements are expensive, and aircraft use is restricted to near-horizontal profiling, which can be a limitation, as phenomena such convection develop in the vertical direction. The Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research at University of Hertfordshire develops light-scattering instruments for the characterization of aerosols and cloud particles. Recently a range of low-cost, miniature particle counters has been created, intended for use with systems such as disposable balloon-borne radiosondes, dropsondes, or in dense ground-based sensor networks. Versions for different particle size ranges exist. They have been used for vertical profiling of aerosols such as mineral dust or volcanic ash. However, a disadvantage of optical particle counters that sample through a narrow inlet is that they can become blocked, which can happen in a cloud, for example. Hence, a different counter version has been developed, which can have open-path geometry, as the sensing zone is defined optically rather than being delimited by the flow system. This counter is currently being used by the UK Met Office in a ground-based fog monitoring network. It has also been adapted for use with radiosondes or dropsondes. The dropsonde version has been successfully tested by launching it from research aircraft together with the so-called KITsonde, developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which determines standard meteorological variables and GPS position for transmission back

  16. Optimization of a uranyl nitrate passive neutron counter

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Eric Benton; Bracken, David; West, James; Freeman, Corey; Newell, Matthew R; Bourret, Steven C; Rothrock, Richard B; Ladd - Lively, Jennifer L; Schuh, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding natural uranium as it enters the fuel cycle has become a priority for the safeguards community in recent years. Uranyl nitrate is a material of interest in this endeavor because it is normally a step in the process from converting uranium ores to more concentrated forms like UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This paper will detail the improvements and design optimizations made for a uranyl nitrate neutron detector. The original design of the detector was based on standard neutron counter designs and featured 2 rings of He-3 tubes fully moderated and shielded from background. Several areas for enhancement were identified after months of testing in three different locations. An operating uranyl nitrate facility was included as one of the test locations. Three significant upgrades to the counter addressed in the redesign were: real time background detection, counter reliability improvements, and optimization of the detector design for the detection of neutrons emitted by the uranyl nitrate flowing through the monitored process pipe. The optimized detector design includes significant electronics upgrades, the ability to detect neutrons (background and signal) with 36 degree spatial resolution around the process pipe for signal and 45 degree spatial resolution for background, inner and outer rings of He-3 tubes for real time background corrections, and notably more reliable cabling. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) modeling was used to optimize the signal (neutrons from uranyl nitrate in the monitored process pipe) to noise (background neutrons from all sources) ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes. Additionally, MCNP modeling maximized noise to signal on the outer ring of He-3 tubes. Details of the detector optimization as well as all the additional detector enhancements will be discussed. The neutron counter will be field tested on the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  17. AGBT Advanced Counter-Rotating Gearbox Detailed Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; Mckibbon, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    An Advanced Counter-Rotating (CR) Gearbox was designed and fabricated to evaluate gearbox efficiency, durability and weight characteristics for emerging propfan-powered airplanes. Component scavenge tests showed that a constant volume collector had high scavenge effectiveness, which was uneffected by added airflow. Lubrication tests showed that gearbox losses could be reduced by controlling the air/oil mixture and by directing the oil jets radially, with a slight axial component, into the sun/planet gears.

  18. Atomic Interferometry with Detuned Counter-Propagating Electromagnetic Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Ming -Yee

    2014-09-05

    Atomic fountain interferometry uses atoms cooled with optical molasses to 1 μK, which are then launched in a fountain mode. The interferometer relies on the nonlinear Raman interaction of counter-propagating visible light pulses. We present models of these key transitions through a series of Hamiltonians. Our models, which have been verified against special cases with known solutions, allow us to incorporate the effects of non-ideal pulse shapes and realistic laser frequency or wavevector jitter.

  19. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-) filled proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Agrawal, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. Results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases are presented.

  20. Automated platelet counters: a comparative evaluation of latest instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, K; Chin, B; Magnes, J; Thaler, H T; Lotspeich, C; Baisley, A

    1980-08-01

    An extensive evaluation of performance characteristics and accuracy of clinical results for two automated multiparameter whole-blood cell counters (the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus and the Ortho ELT-8) and two single-parameter semiautomated platelet counters (the J. T. Baker MK-4/HC and the Clay-Adams Ultra-Flo 100) is described. Results of comparative assays performed on more than 1,200 clinical specimens are analyzed. These results are compared with manual determinations where appropriate. Particular attention is accorded to the accuracy of platelet counts, especially at abnormal levels below 70 X 10(3)/cu mm, where falsely elevated platelet counts may lead to serious clinical consequences. Both multiparameter instruments yielded accurate results, with the exception of low values reported by the ELT-8 for mean corpuscular volumes above 100 cu micrometer. Results for platelet counts were accurate for most specimens on all four instruments; the ELT-8 was the most reliable (P < 0.01), especially for the critically low counts. Although no instrument is infallible in determining platelet counts at all levels, the authors conclude that addition of platelet-counting capability represents a significant advancement over existing instrumentation.

  1. Morphological aspects of a new type of counter electrojet event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1999-02-01

    . The study describes the time and space morphologies of a rather new type of counter electrojet event on the basis of data from the excellent chain of magnetic and ionospheric observatories along the Indo-Russian longitude sector. Abnormally large westward currents are observed during almost the whole of the daytime hours on a series of days. These events do not form any vortices in the current system and do not apparently seem to be associated with tidal effects or any solar magnetosphere events or geomagnetic disturbances. The existence of a westward electric field over the equatorial ionosphere has been confirmed by the absence of an equatorial type of sporadic E in the ionograms at Thumba precisely during the periods when H at Trivandrum minus H at Alibag is negative. The equatorial F region anomaly was also absent on the counter electrojet day. Such counter electrojet events during the northern winter months of low solar activity years are suggested to be the result of the modified wind system in the ionosphere associated with stratospheric warming events.

  2. Effect of following strength on pedestrian counter flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hua; Li, Xing-Li; Wei, Yan-Fang; Song, Tao; Dai, Shi-Qiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a modified lattice gas model to simulate pedestrian counter flow by considering the effect of following strength which can lead to appropriate responses to some complicated situations. Periodic and open boundary conditions are adopted respectively. The simulation results show that the presented model can reproduce some essential features of pedestrian counter flows, e.g., the lane formation and segregation effect. The fundamental diagrams show that the complete jamming density is independent of the system size only when the width W and the length L are larger than some critical values respectively, and the larger asymmetrical conditions can better avoid the occurrence of deadlock phenomena. For the mixed pedestrian flow, it can be found that the jamming cluster is mainly caused by those walkers breaking the traffic rules, and the underlying mechanism is analysed. Furthermore, the comparison of simulation results and the experimental data is performed, it is shown that this modified model is reasonable and more realistic to simulate and analyse pedestrian counter flow.

  3. Imaging Gas Counters for X- and Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-filled detectors, such as proportional counters, have long been used in x-ray astronomy. They are robust, relatively easy to fabricate, and can provide large collecting areas with reasonable spatial and energy resolution. Despite coming of age in the 50's and 60's, their versatility is such that they are still planned for future missions. A vigorous development program, led mostly by the high energy physics community, has ensured continued improvements in proportional counter technology. These include multistep counters, microstrip technologies and optical avalanche chambers. High fill-gas pressures and the use of suitable converters permit operation up to 100s of GeV. The current status of imaging gas-filled detectors will be reviewed, concentrating on the lower energy region (less than 100 keV) but also briefly covering higher energy applications up to the GeV region. This review is not intended to be exhaustive and draws heavily on work currently in progress at MSFC.

  4. High-Speed Multipass Coulter Counter with Ultrahigh Resolution.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martin A; German, Sean R; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J; White, Henry S

    2015-12-22

    Coulter counters measure the size of particles in solution by passing them through an orifice and measuring a resistive pulse, i.e., a drop in the ionic current flowing between two electrodes placed on either side of the orifice. The magnitude of the pulse gives information on the size of the particle; however, resolution is limited by variability in the path of the translocation, due to the Brownian motion of the particle. We present a simple yet powerful modified Coulter counter that uses programmable data acquisition hardware to switch the voltage after sensing the resistive pulse of a nanoparticle passing through the orifice of a nanopipet. Switching the voltage reverses the direction of the driving force on the particle and, when this detect-switch cycle is repeated, allows us to pass an individual nanoparticle through the orifice thousands of times. By measuring individual particles more than 100 times per second we rapidly determine the distribution of the resistive pulses for each particle, which allows us to accurately determine the mean pulse amplitude and deliver considerably improved size resolution over a conventional Coulter counter. We show that single polystyrene nanoparticles can be shuttled back and forth and monitored for minutes, leading to a precisely determined mean blocking current equating to sub-angstrom size resolution.

  5. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function.

  6. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure. PMID:27044085

  7. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-04-04

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  8. Development of the human dentate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, P; Zecevic, N

    1986-01-01

    The developing human dentate nucleus (DN) was studied in a series of specimens of various pre- and postnatal ages ranging from 8 gestational weeks (gw) to 10 years, in Golgi-impregnated and Nissl-stained material. The DN emerges from the cerebellar white matter at around 16 gestational weeks (gw) as a thick band of cells (600-700 micron in width) that gradually attenuates to a final width of 150-250 micron as it undergoes extensive infolding beginning around 24 gw. The highly convoluted configuration of the adult DN is recognizable by 35 gw. Around 16 gw, two basic classes of DN neurons can be identified. Differentiation of these neurons is especially intensive during the mid-gestational period (20-25 gw). At this time the size of cell bodies increases, dendrites branch profusely and acquire spines. A second, slower phase of maturation consisting of addition of secondary and tertiary branches, continues into the postnatal period. At all prenatal ages examined, dentate neurons are morphologically more mature than the Purkinje cells in the overlying cortex. DN neurons of premature infants did not show cytomorphological differences when compared with babies born at term.

  9. Calretinin Neurons in the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert Y

    2016-08-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian pacemaker, is present in all mammalian brains. It has a complex organization of peptide-containing neurons that is similar among species, but calcium-binding proteins are expressed variably. Neurons containing calretinin have been described in the SCN in a number of species but not with association to circadian function. The objective of the present study is to characterize a calretinin neuron (CAR) group in the rat anterior hypothalamus anatomically and functionally with a detailed description of its location and a quantitative analysis of neuronal calretinin immunoreactivity at 3 times of day, 0600, 1400, and 1900 h, from animals in either light-dark or constant dark conditions. CAR neurons occupy a region in the dorsal and lateral SCN with a circadian rhythm in CAR immunoreactivity with a peak at 0600 h and a rhythm in cytoplasmic CAR distribution with a peak at 1400 h. CAR neurons should be viewed as an anatomical and functional component of the rat SCN that expands the definition from observations with cell stains. CAR neurons are likely to modulate temporal regulation of calcium in synaptic transmission.

  10. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  11. Opioids in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Stimulate Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Barson, Jessica R.; Carr, Ambrose J.; Soun, Jennifer E.; Sobhani, Nasim C.; Rada, Pedro; Leibowitz, Sarah F.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Specialized hypothalamic systems that increase food intake might also increase ethanol intake. To test this possibility, morphine and receptor-specific opioid agonists were microinjected in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats that had learned to drink ethanol. To cross-validate the results, naloxone methiodide (m-naloxone), an opioid antagonist, was microinjected with the expectation that it would have the opposite effect of morphine and the specific opioid agonists. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained, without sugar, to drink 4% or 7% ethanol and were then implanted with chronic brain cannulas aimed at the PVN. After recovery, those drinking 7% ethanol, with food and water available, were injected with two doses each of morphine or m-naloxone. To test for receptor specificity, two doses each of the μ-receptor agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO), δ-receptor agonist D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-NH2 (DALA), or k-receptor agonist U-50,488H were injected. DAMGO was also tested in rats drinking 4% ethanol without food or water available. As an anatomical control for drug reflux, injections were made 2 mm dorsal to the PVN. Results A main result was a significant increase in ethanol intake induced by PVN injection of morphine. The opposite effect was produced by m-naloxone. The effects of morphine and m-naloxone were exclusively on intake of ethanol, even though food and water were freely available. In the analysis with specific receptor agonists, PVN injection of the δ-agonist DALA significantly increased 7% ethanol intake without affecting food or water intake. This is in contrast to the k-agonist U-50,488H, which decreased ethanol intake, and the μ-agonist DAMGO, which had no effect on ethanol intake in the presence or absence of food and water. In the anatomical control location 2 mm dorsal to the PVN, no drug caused any significant changes in ethanol, food, or water intake, providing evidence that the active site was close to the

  12. Two New Water-Based Condensation Particle Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, S. V.; Quant, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    Described here are two new, thermally-diffusive, water-based condensation particle counters (WCPC) for determination of aerosol number concentrations. One of these, the TSI Model 3786 ultrafine WCPC, detects particles as small as 2.5 nm at an aerosol flow rate of 300 cm3/min. The second is a not-yet-commercialized, compact, 12-volt instrument (ME-WCPC) weighing 2.5 kg with a lower size limit of 5 nm, and an upper concentration limit in single-count mode of ~10E7cm-3. In contrast to the cold-walled condensers of the older butanol-based particle counters, these WCPCs use a warm, wet-walled "growth tube" that explicitly takes into account the high diffusivity of water vapor. Because the mass diffusivity of water vapor exceeds the thermal diffusivity of air, the flux of water vapor to the centerline is faster than the heat flux from the walls, thereby producing the supersaturation necessary for particle activation and growth (1). An obvious advantage of the WCPCs over the butanol-based particle counters is the elimination of odor, toxicity and waste disposal issues with the use of butanol. Reported is the field evaluation of the ultrafine- and ME-WCPCs, with comparison to the more well-established butanol-based TSI Model 3010 and 3025 counters. A passive flow system provided a 9:1 dilution of ambient air for the TSI 3010 in order to stay within an acceptable concentration range for that instrument. Equivalency of aerosol sampling rates for all instruments was evaluated through comparison of counting efficiency for near-monodisperse aerosols at with diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm. Over four weeks of measurements the ultrafine WCPC reported 6% higher concentrations than the ultrafine butanol Model 3025 counter, consistent with the slightly lower size cutoff of the ultrafine WCPC. Concentrations from the ME-WCPC units were higher than for the 10nm cutpoint TSI 3010, but lower than for the 3 nm cutpoint TSI 3025 ultrafine. For all comparisons, the correlation

  13. Development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve plays an integral part in the control of visceral function. The aim of the present study was to correlate structural and chemical changes in the developing nucleus with available data concerning functional maturation of human viscera and reflexes. The fetal development (ages 9 to 26 weeks) of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve has been examined with the aid of Nissl staining and immunocytochemistry for calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase. By 13 weeks, the dorsal vagal nucleus emerges as a distinct structure with at least two subnuclei visible in Nissl stained preparations. By 15 weeks, three subnuclei (dorsal intermediate, centrointermediate and ventrointermediate) were clearly discernible at the open medulla level with caudal and caudointermediate subnuclei visible at the level of the area postrema. All subnuclei known to exist in the adult were visible by 21 weeks and cytoarchitectonic differentiation of the nucleus was largely completed by 25 weeks. The adult distribution pattern of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons was also largely completed by 21 weeks, although morphological differentiation of labeled neurons continued until the last age examined (26 weeks). The structural development of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve appears to occur in parallel with functional maturation of the cardiovascular and gastric movements, which the nucleus controls.

  14. Did Struve observe the nucleus of Halley's comet in 1835?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Axel D.

    During its apparition in 1835 Halley's comet reached its minimum distance from the earth (0.187 au) on 13 October in the constellation of Ursa Major. Telescopic visual observations were made, e.g., by F.W. Bessel at Königsberg and by F.G.W. Struve at Dorpat (Tartu). In particular a drawing made by Struve on 8 October of what he calls the `nucleus' and describes as a small, slightly yellowish glowing piece of coal of elongated shape bears such a striking resemblance to the images of Halley's nucleus obtained in 1986 by the Giotto spacecraft that it merits further examination: Could Struve, who had been using a 24.4 cm refractor at 254-fold magnification, possibly have observed the real nucleus? Closer examination shows that neither Struve's maximum possible resolution (0.13 arc seconds or 23 km at the comet), nor his measured size of the nucleus (160 x 400 km), nor his verbal description of the nucleus (as a bright object) support this idea: It rather seems that the term `nucleus' was used at the time for the brightest, innermost part of the coma. It is concluded that, nevertheless, Struve quite correctly envisaged the structure of the innermost coma, and to a considerable degree of accuracy anticipated the correct shape and structure of the nucleus (elongated, 1:2) and its localized sources of outstreaming gas.

  15. Angiotensin receptor binding and pressor effects in cat subretrofacial nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.M.; Dampney, R.A.L.; Mendelsohn, F.A.O. Univ. of Sydney )

    1988-11-01

    Central administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) increases arterial blood pressure via increased sympathetic activity. The authors have examined the possibility that one site of action of ANG II is the subretrofacial (SRF) nucleus in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, since this nucleus is known to play a critical role in the tonic and phasic control of arterial pressure. In vitro autoradiography, employing {sup 125}I-labeled (Sar{sup 1}, Ile{sup 8})ANG II as radioligand, was used to localize binding sites for ANG-II in the cat ventrolateral medulla. A high density of ANG II-receptor binding sites was found confined to the SRF nucleus. In a second group of experiments in anesthetized cats, microinjections of ANG II, in doses ranging from 10 to 50 pmol, were made into histologically identified sites within and outside the SRF nucleus. Microinjections into the nucleus resulted in a dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure, which was abolished by systemic administration of the ganglion-blocking drug hexamethonium bromide. In contrast, microinjections just outside the SRF nucleus had no effect on arterial pressure. It is concluded that activation of ANG II-receptor binding sites within the SRF nucleus leads to an increase in arterial pressure via increased sympathetic efferent activity.

  16. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulates the Sensitivity of Arcuate Nucleus to Hypoglycemia in the Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Moro Chao, D; León-Mercado, L; Foppen, E; Guzmán-Ruiz, M; Basualdo, M C; Escobar, C; Buijs, R M

    2016-09-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) have reciprocal connections; catabolic metabolic information activates the ARC and inhibits SCN neuronal activity. Little is known about the influence of the SCN on the ARC. Here, we investigated whether the SCN modulated the sensitivity of the ARC to catabolic metabolic conditions. ARC neuronal activity, as determined by c-Fos immunoreactivity, was increased after a hypoglycemic stimulus by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The highest ARC neuronal activity after 2DG was found at the end of the light period (zeitgeber 11, ZT11) with a lower activity in the beginning of the light period (zeitgeber 2, ZT2), suggesting the involvement of the SCN. The higher activation of ARC neurons after 2DG at ZT11 was associated with higher 2DG induced blood glucose levels as compared with ZT2. Unilateral SCN-lesioned animals, gave a mainly ipsilateral activation of ARC neurons at the lesioned side, suggesting an inhibitory role of the SCN on ARC neurons. The 2DG-induced counterregulatory glucose response correlated with increased ARC neuronal activity and was significantly higher in unilateral SCN-lesioned animals. Finally, the ARC as site where 2DG may, at least partly, induce a counterregulatory response was confirmed by local microdialysis of 2DG. 2DG administration in the ARC produced a higher increase in circulating glucose compared with 2DG administration in surrounding areas such as the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). We conclude that the SCN uses neuronal pathways to the ARC to gate sensory metabolic information to the brain, regulating ARC glucose sensitivity and counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemic conditions.

  17. Multiple pion and kaon production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions: measurements versus specific models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guptaroy, P.; de, Bh.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The pion and kaon rapidity densities and the nature of kaon-pion ratios offer two very prominent and crucial physical observables on which modestly sufficient data for heavy nucleus collisions are available to date. In the light of two sets of models - one purely phenomenological and the other with a modest degree of a dynamical basis - we try to examine the state of agreement between calculations and experimental results obtainable from the past and the latest measurements. Impact and implications of all these would also finally be spelt out.

  18. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.  R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.  D.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H. -W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M.  J.

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  19. Determination of electron-nucleus collisions geometry with forward neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, L.; Aschenauer, E.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-29

    There are a large number of physics programs one can explore in electron-nucleus collisions at a future electron-ion collider. Collision geometry is very important in these studies, while the measurement for an event-by-event geometric control is rarely discussed in the prior deep-inelastic scattering experiments off a nucleus. This paper seeks to provide some detailed studies on the potential of tagging collision geometries through forward neutron multiplicity measurements with a zero degree calorimeter. As a result, this type of geometry handle, if achieved, can be extremely beneficial in constraining nuclear effects for the electron-nucleus program at an electron-ion collider.

  20. LOAC (Light Optical Particle Counter): a new small aerosol counter with particle characterization capabilities for surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Jégou, Fabrice; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jourdain, Line; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Thaury, Claire; Tonnelier, Thierry; Verdier, Nicolas; Charpentier, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols with conventional optical counters is difficult when different natures of particles are present (droplets, soot, mineral dust, secondary organic or mineral particles...). Also, a light and cheap aerosol counter that can be used at ground, onboard drones or launched under all kinds of atmospheric balloons can be very useful during specific events as volcanic plumes, desert dust transport or local pollution episodes. These goals can be achieved thanks to a new generation of aerosol counter, called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter). The instrument was developed in the frame of a cooperation between French scientific laboratories (CNRS), the Environnement-SA and MeteoModem companies and the French Space Agency (CNES). LOAC is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams, having a low electrical power consumption. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles. The first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.3-100 micrometerers. At such an angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are the least sensitive to the particle nature. The second angle is at 60°, where the scattered light is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the two angles is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the nature of the aerosol particles in the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, soil dust and soot. Since 2011, we have operated LOAC in various environments (Arctic, Mediterranean, urban and peri-urban…) under different kinds of balloons including zero pressure stratospheric, tethered, drifting tropospheric, and meteorological sounding balloons. For the last case, the total weight of the gondola

  1. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Agakishiev, H.; Tang, A.; et al.

    2011-04-24

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus ({sup 4}He), also known as the anti-{alpha} ({alpha}), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the {alpha}-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B < -1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of {sup 4}He, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 {sup 4}He counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in 10{sup 9} recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of {sup 4}He in cosmic radiation.

  2. Nucleus accumbens invulnerability to methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Donald M; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Thomas, David M

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages neurons and nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. Emerging studies of human Meth addicts using both postmortem analyses of brain tissue and noninvasive imaging studies of intact brains have confirmed that Meth causes persistent structural abnormalities. Animal and human studies have also defined a number of significant functional problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with long-term Meth abuse. This review summarizes the salient features of Meth-induced neurotoxicity with a focus on the dopamine (DA) neuronal system. DA nerve endings in the caudate-putamen (CPu) are damaged by Meth in a highly delimited manner. Even within the CPu, damage is remarkably heterogeneous, with ventral and lateral aspects showing the greatest deficits. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is largely spared the damage that accompanies binge Meth intoxication, but relatively subtle changes in the disposition of DA in its nerve endings can lead to dramatic increases in Meth-induced toxicity in the CPu and overcome the normal resistance of the NAc to damage. In contrast to the CPu, where DA neuronal deficiencies are persistent, alterations in the NAc show a partial recovery. Animal models have been indispensable in studies of the causes and consequences of Meth neurotoxicity and in the development of new therapies. This research has shown that increases in cytoplasmic DA dramatically broaden the neurotoxic profile of Meth to include brain structures not normally targeted for damage. The resistance of the NAc to Meth-induced neurotoxicity and its ability to recover reveal a fundamentally different neuroplasticity by comparison to the CPu. Recruitment of the NAc as a target of Meth neurotoxicity by alterations in DA homeostasis is significant in light of the numerous important roles played by this brain structure.

  3. Pion production at 180/sup 0/ in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Chessin, S.A.

    1983-05-01

    A survey experiment of pion production at 180/sup 0/ in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made.

  4. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  5. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe; Yi, Chun-Xia; van der Vliet, Jan; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Panula, Pertti; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; del Carmen Basualdo, María; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time estimation. Recent studies suggested the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) as the site for this food-entrained oscillator, which has led to considerable controversy in the literature. Herein we demonstrate by means of c-Fos immunohistochemistry that the neuronal activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which signals the rest phase in nocturnal animals, is reduced when animals anticipate the scheduled food and, simultaneously, neuronal activity within the DMH increases. Using retrograde tracing and confocal analysis, we show that inhibition of SCN neuronal activity is the consequence of activation of GABA-containing neurons in the DMH that project to the SCN. Next, we show that DMH lesions result in a loss or diminution of FAA, simultaneous with increased activity in the SCN. A subsequent lesion of the SCN restored FAA. We conclude that in intact animals, FAA may only occur when the DMH inhibits the activity of the SCN, thus permitting locomotor activity. As a result, FAA originates from a neuronal network comprising an interaction between the DMH and SCN. Moreover, this study shows that the DMH–SCN interaction may serve as an intrahypothalamic system to gate activity instead of rest overriding circadian predetermined temporal patterns. PMID:21402951

  6. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyüz-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions 16 O + 70 Ge and 28 Si + 100 Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data.

  7. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively removing SCN-arcuate nucleus (ARC) interconnectivity in Wistar rats result in a loss of rhythmicity in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels, and body temperature in constant dark (DD) conditions. Elimination of these reciprocal connections did not affect SCN clock gene rhythmicity but did cause the ARC to desynchronize. Moreover, unilateral SCN lesions with contralateral retrochiasmatic microcuts resulted in identical arrhythmicity, proving that for the expression of physiological rhythms this reciprocal SCN-ARC interaction is essential. The unaltered SCN c-Fos expression following glucose administration in disconnected animals as compared to a significant decrease in controls demonstrates the importance of the ARC as metabolic modulator of SCN neuronal activity. Together, these results indicate that the SCN is more than an autonomous clock, and forms an essential component of a larger network controlling homeostasis. The present novel findings illustrate how an imbalance between SCN and ARC communication through circadian disruption could be involved in the etiology of metabolic disorders. PMID:28374011

  8. Cytotoxicity of nucleus-targeting fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Mingxi; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential examinations were performed on different cell lines exposed to the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs. We found that the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs caused cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs was proposed as follows: the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs induce the production of ROS, resulting in the oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components, in turn leading to apoptosis via a mitochondrial damage pathway. This work facilitates a better understanding of the toxicity of AuNCs, especially nucleus-targeting AuNCs.Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell

  9. Low-energy antinucleon-nucleus interaction revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2015-08-01

    Annihilation cross sections of antiprotons and antineutrons on the proton between 50 and 400 MeV/c show Coulomb focusing below 200 MeV/c and almost no charge-dependence above 200 MeV/c. Similar comparisons for heavier targets are not possible for lack of overlap between nuclear targets studied with and beams. Interpolating between -nucleus annihilation cross sections with the help of an optical potential to compare with -nucleus annihilation cross sections reveal unexpected features of Coulomb interactions in the latter. Direct comparisons between -nucleus and -nucleus annihilations at very low energies could be possible if cross sections are measured on the same targets and at the same energies as the available cross sections for . Such measurements may be feasible in the foreseeable future.

  10. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line.

  11. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  12. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  13. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Belaadi, Néjma; Aureille, Julien; Guilluy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. PMID:27314389

  14. Truncal ataxia from infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Ryoo, Sookyung; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sand Won; Na, Duk L

    2012-08-01

    Truncal ataxia in medullary infarction may be caused by involvement of the lateral part of the medulla; however, truncal ataxia in infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has received comparatively little attention. We report a patient with truncal ataxia due to medial medullary infarction located in the ION. A lesion in the ION could produce a contralateral truncal ataxia due to increased inhibitory input to the contralesional vestibular nucleus from the contralesional flocculus.

  15. Radiometric observations of the nucleus of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, W. A.; Reitsema, H. J.; Huebner, W. F.; Schmidt, H. U.; Keller, H. U.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Wilhelm, K.; Whipple, Fred L.

    1986-01-01

    Images obtained by the Halley multicolor camera (HMC) were used to determine the surface brightness of the nucleus. Radiometric values of jet-free areas of the surface are presented and a range of possible surface brightness values are derived. These direct measures are compared with brightnesses derived from the size of the nucleus, as determined from HMC images, and ground-based observations obtained before the onset of coma activity.

  16. The Galactic nucleus: A unique region in the Galactic ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, Reinhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus is a unique region in the Galactic ecosystem. It is also superb laboratory of modern astrophysics where astronomers can study, at unprecedented spatial resolution and across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, physical processes that may also happen at the cores of other galaxies. Infrared observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory have made important contributions to unraveling the mysteries of the Galactic nucleus and this review highlights some of these measurements, as well as recent results regarding the central parsec.

  17. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  18. Investigation of hydrodynamic focusing in a microfluidic coulter counter device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muheng; Lian, Yongsheng; Harnett, Cindy; Brehob, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    The Coulter technique enables rapid analysis of particles or cells suspended in a fluid stream. In this technique, the cells are suspended in an electrically conductive solution, which is hydrodynamically focused by nonconducting sheath flows. The cells produce a characteristic voltage signal when they interrupt an electrical path. The population and size of the cells can be obtained through analyzing the voltage signal. In a microfluidic Coulter counter device, the hydrodynamic focusing technique is used to position the conducting sample stream and the cells and also to separate close cells to generate distinct signals for each cell and avoid signal jam. The performance of hydrodynamic focusing depends on the relative flow ratio between the sample stream and sheath stream. We use a numerical approach to study the hydrodynamic focusing in a microfluidic Coulter counter device. In this approach, the flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The sample stream concentration is modeled by an advection-diffusion equation. The motion of the cells is governed by the Newton-Euler equations of motion. Particle motion through the flow field is handled using an overlapping grid technique. A numerical model for studying a microfluidic Coulter counter has been validated. Using the model, the impact of relative flow rate on the performance of hydrodynamic focusing was studied. Our numerical results show that the position of the sample stream can be controlled by adjusting the relative flow rate. Our simulations also show that particles can be focused into the stream and initially close particles can be separated by the hydrodynamic focusing. From our study, we conclude that hydrodynamic focusing provides an effective way to control the position of the sample stream and cells and it also can be used to separate cells to avoid signal jam.

  19. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  20. A FIBER APPARATUS IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE YEAST CELL

    PubMed Central

    Robinow, C. F.; Marak, J.

    1966-01-01

    The structure and mode of division of the nucleus of budding yeast cells have been studied by phase-contrast microscopy during life and by ordinary microscopy after Helly fixation. The components of the nucleus were differentially stained by the Feulgen procedure, with Giemsa solution after hydrolysis, and with iron alum haematoxylin. New information was obtained in cells fixed in Helly's by directly staining them with 0.005% acid fuchsin in 1% acetic acid in water. Electron micrographs have been made of sections of cells that were first fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde, then divested of their walls with snail juice, and postfixed with osmium tetroxide. Light and electron microscopy have given concordant information about the organization of the yeast nucleus. A peripheral segment of the nucleus is occupied by relatively dense matter (the "peripheral cluster" of Mundkur) which is Feulgen negative. The greater part of the nucleus is filled with fine-grained Feulgen-positive matter of low density in which chromosomes could not be identified. Chromosomes become visible in this region under the light microscope at meiosis. In the chromatin lies a short fiber with strong affinity for acid fuchsin. The nucleus divides by elongation and constriction, and during this process the fiber becomes long and thin. Electron microscopy has resolved it into a bundle of dark-edged 150 to 180 A filaments which extends between "centriolar plaques" that are attached to the nuclear envelope. PMID:5331666

  1. Cytoarchitecture and saccular innervation of nucleus y in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, C J; Trune, D R

    1986-10-15

    The cytoarchitecture and saccular innervation of the mouse nucleus y were investigated by using Golgi, Nissl, and myelin stains and anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. Nucleus y was found to be a compact group of cells in a small fiber-free region dorsal to the restiform body. Qualitative and morphometric analyses showed that most (75%) of the nucleus y neurons could not be reliably subdivided into morphologic subgroups, but varied continuously in soma size (15-25 microns), shape (fusiform to stellate), and number of dendrites (two to four), and had sparsely branched dendrites with an average of 3 to 4 spines per 10 microns of length. Three groups of cells that were identified morphometrically accounted for 10% (type I: large stellate cells), 9% (type II: long-dendrite cells), and 6% (type III: elongated soma cells) of the y neurons. Vestibular nerve axons transporting horseradish peroxidase after injury at their origin in the saccular neuroepithelium were found to form a dense terminal meshwork that was virtually co-extensive with the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of nucleus y. Nucleus y was distinguished from the overlying infracerebellar nucleus on the basis of anatomical, cytoarchitectural, and hodological features.

  2. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptide Expression in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wamelen, Daniel J.; Aziz, N. Ahmad; Anink, Jasper J.; van Steenhoven, Robin; Angeloni, Debora; Fraschini, Franco; Jockers, Ralf; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To study whether sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) arise from dysfunction of the body's master clock, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Design: Postmortem cohort study. Patients: Eight patients with HD and eight control subjects matched for sex, age, clock time and month of death, postmortem delay, and fixation time of paraffin-embedded hypothalamic tissue. Measurements and Results: Using postmortem paraffin-embedded tissue, we assessed the functional integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in patients with HD and control subjects by determining the expression of two major regulatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin. Additionally, we studied melatonin 1 and 2 receptor expression. Compared with control subjects, the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained 85% fewer neurons immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and 33% fewer neurons for arginine vasopressin in patients with HD (P = 0.002 and P = 0.027). The total amount of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin messenger RNA was unchanged. No change was observed in the number of melatonin 1 or 2 receptor immunoreactive neurons. Conclusions: These findings indicate posttranscriptional neuropeptide changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of patients with HD, and suggest that sleep and circadian rhythm disorders in these patients may at least partly arise from suprachiasmatic nucleus dysfunction. Citation: van Wamelen DJ; Aziz NA; Anink JJ; van Steenhoven R; Angeloni D; Fraschini F; Jockers R; Roos RAC; Swaab DF. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neuropeptide expression in patients with Huntington's disease. SLEEP 2013;36(1):117–125. PMID:23288978

  3. Gas amplification factor in neon-nitrogen filled proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.

    1988-07-01

    The gas amplification factor in a cylindrical proportional counter filled with NeN 2 Penning mixtures has been measured (over the range 1 < A < 6.4 × 10 3) to verify the validity of the gas gain formulae of Rose and Korff, Khristov, Williams and Sara, Diethorn and Zastawny. This factor has been found to obey Zastawny's formula over the range of variables studied. The formula of Diethorn can be fitted only for small nitrogen concentrations (below 5 × 10 -4). Constants appropriate to the Zastawny and Diethorn formulae have been determined over a wide range of N 2 concentrations from spectroscopically pure Ne up to 11.1% N 2.

  4. Recent advances in counter PRNU based source attribution and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KaraküÒ«ük, Ahmet; Dirik, Ahmet E.; Sencar, Hüsrev T.; Memon, Nasir D.

    2015-03-01

    Photo response noise uniformity (PRNU) based source attribution has proven to be a powerful technique in multimedia forensics. The increasing prominence of this technique, combined with its introduction as evidence in the court, brought with it the need for it to withstand anti-forensics. Although robustness under common signal processing operations and geometrical transformations have been considered as potential attacks on this technique, new adversarial settings that curtail the performance of this technique are constantly being introduced. Starting with an overview of proposed approaches to counter PRNU based source attribution, this work introduces photographic panoramas as one such approach and discusses how to defend against it.

  5. A culturally responsive counter-narrative of effective teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gist, Conra D.

    2014-12-01

    How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide. Teacher observation tools are being piloted to develop a common language of effective instruction but often there is little attention given to sociocultural consciousness in these frameworks. This article develops a culturally responsive counter-narrative to explore the complexity of a teacher's racial consciousness during a teaching episode.

  6. Flow interaction and noise from a counter rotating propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jin-Deog; Walls, James L.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction between the forward and rear rotors in a counter rotating propeller (CRP) system, has been examined using a conditional sampling technique applied to three-dimensional thermal anemometer data. The technique effectively freezes the rotors in any desired relative position and provides the inter-rotor flow field. Axial, radial and circumferential mean flow between rotors is shown relative to the 'fixed' forward rotor for various 'fixed' aft rotor positions. Acoustic far field noise data have also been collected for the same operating conditions. The acoustic results are presented with emphasis on the blade passing frequencies and interaction tone of the CRP.

  7. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  8. Efficient counter-propagating wave acoustic micro-particle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinenko, A.; Ong, C. K.; Courtney, C. R. P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2012-12-01

    A simple acoustic system consisting of a pair of parallel singe layered piezoelectric transducers submerged in a fluid used to form standing waves by a superposition of two counter-propagating waves is reported. The nodal positions of the standing wave are controlled by applying a variable phase difference to the transducers. This system was used to manipulate polystyrene micro-beads trapped at the nodal positions of the standing wave. The demonstrated good manipulation capability of the system is based on a lowering of the reflection coefficient in a narrow frequency band near the through-thickness resonance of the transducer plates.

  9. Proportional counter windows for the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Bauer, J. M.; Canizares, C. R.; Isobe, T.; Nenonen, S.; O'Connor, J.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Flanagan, K. A.; Zombeck, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    A Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) using a gas flow proportional counter as its primary detector is among the instruments under development for AXAF. The BCS will employ windows of 1-micron-thick polyimide coated on both sides with 200 A of Al; this window composition, while X-ray transmitting, will leak gas at a lower rate than the polypropylene film-based windows formerly employed. Accounts are given of the results obtained with additional innovative X-ray window materials currently under development, including diamond and Si-enriched Si3N4.

  10. Time statistics of the photoelectron emission process in scintillation counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranucci, Gioacchino

    1993-10-01

    In this work the statistical time properties of the photoelectron emission process in scintillation counters are evaluated assuming that the total number of emitted photoelectrons is distributed according to a generic random distribution. Under this general assumption, the probability density function of the time of emission of the ith photoelectron is computed; it is also demonstrated that if the number of emitted photoelectrons is Poisson distributed, this probability density function reduces to the expression already published for this particular case. Finally the procedure adopted is extended to give the expressions predicting the performances of organic scintillators for the pulse shape discrimination of particles of different type.

  11. Cell-tower deployment of counter-sniper sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Michael T.

    2004-09-01

    Cellular telephone antenna towers are evaluated as sites for rapid, effective & efficient deployment of counter-sniper sensors, especially in urban environments. They are expected to offer a suitable density, excellent LOS, and a generally limited variety of known or readily-characterized mechanical interfaces. Their precise locations are easily mapped in advance of deployment, are easily accessible by ground and air, and are easily spotted by deployment teams in real-time. We survey issues of EMI & RFI, susceptibility to denial & ambush in military scenarios, and the impact of trends in cell tower design & construction.

  12. Counter sniper: a localization system based on dual thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuqing; Liu, Feihu; Wu, Zheng; Jin, Weiqi; Du, Benfang

    2010-11-01

    Sniper tactics is widely used in modern warfare, which puts forward the urgent requirement of counter sniper detection devices. This paper proposed the anti-sniper detection system based on a dual-thermal imaging system. Combining the infrared characteristics of the muzzle flash and bullet trajectory of binocular infrared images obtained by the dual-infrared imaging system, the exact location of the sniper was analyzed and calculated. This paper mainly focuses on the system design method, which includes the structure and parameter selection. It also analyzes the exact location calculation method based on the binocular stereo vision and image analysis, and give the fusion result as the sniper's position.

  13. Over-the-Counter Access to Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Making oral contraceptives (OCs) available over the counter (OTC) could help to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Surveys show widespread support for OTC access to OCs among US women. Studies indicate that women can accurately use checklists to identify contraindications to OCs. Continuation is as good or better among OTC users compared with women using OCs obtained by prescription. Women and clinicians have expressed concerns related to making OCs available OTC. These concerns can be addressed by existing data or through research required by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the application to make OCs available OTC.

  14. Filamentation instability in two counter-streaming laser plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dong, Quan-Li; Yuan, Da-Wei; Liu, Xun; Hua, Neng; Qiao, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Bao-Qiang; Zhu, Jian-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Bin; Du, Kai; Tang, Yong-Jian; Zhao, Gang; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    The filamentation instability was observed in the interaction of two counter-streaming laser ablated plasma flows, which were supersonic, collisionless, and also closely relevant to astrophysical conditions. The plasma flows were created by irradiating a pair of oppositely standing plastic (CH) foils with 1ns-pulsed laser beams of total energy of 1.7 kJ in two laser spots. With characteristics diagnosed in experiments, the calculated features of Weibel-type filaments are in good agreement with measurements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074297, 11674146, and 11220101002) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01500.

  15. Fabrication of solar cells with counter doping prevention

    DOEpatents

    Dennis, Timothy D; Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-02-19

    A solar cell fabrication process includes printing of dopant sources over a polysilicon layer over backside of a solar cell substrate. The dopant sources are cured to diffuse dopants from the dopant sources into the polysilicon layer to form diffusion regions, and to crosslink the dopant sources to make them resistant to a subsequently performed texturing process. To prevent counter doping, dopants from one of the dopant sources are prevented from outgassing and diffusing into the other dopant source. For example, phosphorus from an N-type dopant source is prevented from diffusing to a P-type dopant source comprising boron.

  16. 3200 Phaethon, Asteroid or Comet Nucleus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Benkhoff, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Physico-chemical modeling is central to understand the important physical processes in small solar system bodies. We have developed a computer simulation, SUISEI, that includes the physico-chemical processes relevant to comets within a global modeling framework. Our goals are to gain valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of cometary nuclei so we can better understand observations and in situ measurements. SUISEI includes a 3-D model of gas and heat transport in porous sub-surface layers in the interior of the nucleus.We present results on the application of SUISEI to the near-Sun object, Phaethon. Discovered in 1983 and classified as an asteroid, it has recently exhibited an active dust coma. Phaethon has long been associated as the source of the Geminids meteor shower so the dust activity provides a clear link to the meteor shower. The observed dust activity would traditionally lead to Phaethon being also classified as a comet (e.g., 2060-95P/Chiron, 133P/Elst-Pizarro). This is unusual since the orbit of Phaethon has a perihelion of 0.14 AU, resulting in surface temperatures of more than 1025K, much too hot for water ice or other volatiles to exist near the surface and drive the activity. This situation and others such as the “Active Asteroids” necessitates a revision of how we understand and classify these small asteroid-comet transition objects.We conclude the following for Phaethon:1. It is likely to contain relatively pristine volatiles in its interior despite repeated near perihelion passages of 0.14 AU during its history in its present orbit,2. Steady water gas fluxes at perihelion and throughout its orbit are insufficient to entrain the currently observed dust production,3. Thermal gradients into the surface as well as those caused by diurnal rotation are consistent with the mechanism of dust release due to thermal fracture,4. The initial large gas release during the first perihelion passage may be sufficient to produce enough dust to explain

  17. Real-time garbage collection for list processing using restructured cells for increased reference counter size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a list processing system, small reference counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as references to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional reference count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.

  18. 30-ps time resolution with segmented scintillation counter for MEG II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Y.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Nakao, M.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Pizzigoni, G.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2017-02-01

    A new timing detector has been developed to measure ∼50 MeV/c positrons with a time resolution of σt ≃ 30 ps in the MEG II experiment. The detector are segmented into 512 scintillation counters, each of which consists of 120 ×(40 or 50) × 5mm3 size BC-422 and two arrays of six AdvanSiD silicon photomultipliers. The single-counter resolutions are measured to be 70-80 ps. The counter layout is optimized to get the maximum number of hit counters (on average 9 for signal positrons). This multiple-counters measurement leads to a significant improvement in the time resolution down to 30 ps. Using the first one-fourth (128) counters, a pilot run was carried out using the MEG II beam of 7 ×107μ+ / s and the basic functionality was tested.

  19. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  20. Some morphological features of a visual thalamic nucleus in a reptile: observations on nucleus rotundus in Caiman crocodilus.

    PubMed

    Pritz, M B

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of nucleus rotundus, a visual thalamic nucleus, was investigated in one species of reptiles. Caiman crocodilus, using Nisst stained material in transverse, sagittal, and horizontal planes. The topographical location of nucleus rotundus and its relationship to surrounding thalamic nuclear groups are described. Nucleus rotundus in Caiman can be subdivided into three areas: (1) an outer shell; (2) an inner core; and (3) a cell poor zone located between the shell and core. Most rotundal core neurons were round, fusiform, triangular, pear-shaped, or elliptical. Core neurons were not distributed evenly throughout the nucleus but, in many instances, were arranged in clusters composed of two to ten neurons. Quantitative measurements of area, perimeter, and eccentricity (greatest width/greatest length), which served as an index of cell roundness, were made on rotundal core neuron profiles in transverse, sagittal, and horizontal planes of section. Qualitative and quantitative observations were not appreciably different regardless of the plane of orientation. Both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that relay cells located in the core of nucleus rotundus are not a homogeneous population of neurons but comprise several subtypes.

  1. The interfascicular trigeminal nucleus: a precerebellar nucleus in the mouse defined by retrograde neuronal tracing and genetic fate mapping.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuhong; Tvrdik, Petr; Makki, Nadja; Machold, Robert; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2013-02-15

    We have found a previously unreported precerebellar nucleus located among the emerging fibers of the motor root of the trigeminal nerve in the mouse, which we have called the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus (IF5). This nucleus had previously been named the tensor tympani part of the motor trigeminal nucleus (5TT) in rodent brain atlases, because it was thought to be a subset of small motor neurons of the motor trigeminal nucleus innervating the tensor tympani muscle. However, following injection of retrograde tracer in the cerebellum, the labeled neurons in IF5 were found to be choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) negative, indicating that they are not motor neurons. The cells of IF5 are strongly labeled in mice from Wnt1Cre and Atoh1 CreER lineage fate mapping, in common with the major precerebellar nuclei that arise from the rhombic lip and that issue mossy fibers. Analysis of sections from mouse Hoxa3, Hoxb1, and Egr2 Cre labeled lineages shows that the neurons of IF5 arise from rhombomeres caudal to rhombomere 4, most likely from rhombomeres 6-8. We conclude that IF5 is a significant precerebellar nucleus in the mouse that shares developmental gene expression characteristics with mossy fiber precerebellar nuclei that arise from the caudal rhombic lip.

  2. The turtle thalamic anterior entopeduncular nucleus shares connectional and neurochemical characteristics with the mammalian thalamic reticular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kenigfest, Natalia; Belekhova, Margarita; Repérant, Jacques; Rio, Jean Paul; Ward, Roger; Vesselkin, Nikolai

    2005-10-01

    Neurochemical and key connectional characteristics of the anterior entopeduncular nucleus (Enta) of the turtle (Testudo horsfieldi) were studied by axonal tracing techniques and immunohistochemistry of parvalbumin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). We showed that the Enta, which is located within the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle (Pedd), has roughly topographically organized reciprocal connections with the dorsal thalamic visual nuclei, the nucleus rotundus (Rot) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd). The Enta receives projections from visual telencephalic areas, the anterior dorsal ventricular ridge and dorsolateral cortex/pallial thickening. Most Enta neurons contained GABA and parvalbumin, and some of them were retrogradely labeled when the tracer was injected into the visual dorsal thalamic nuclei. Further experiments using double immunofluorescence revealed colocalization of GAD and parvalbumin in the vast majority of Enta neurons, and many of these cells showed retrograde labeling with Fluoro-gold injected into the Rot and/or GLd. According to these data, the Enta may be considered as a structural substrate for recurrent inhibition of the visual thalamic nuclei. Based on morphological and neurochemical similarity of the turtle Enta, caiman Pedd nucleus, the superior reticular nucleus in birds, and the thalamic reticular nucleus in mammals, we suggest that these structures represent a characteristic component which is common to the thalamic organization in amniotes.

  3. Organizing Chaos: Restructuring Counter-Piracy Forces Off the Coast of Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    Counter- Piracy Forces Off the Coast of Somalia 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LT M. Brian...personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT The counter- piracy efforts off the coast of...counter- piracy mission. It explains how consolidation of forces under the direction of a single operational commander will increase the efficiency of

  4. Secondary electron background produced by heavy nuclei in a multiwire proportional counter hodoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, S. H., Jr.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Schwille, H.; Pollvogt, U.

    1974-01-01

    The secondary electron background produced by heavy nuclei in a multiwire proportional counter hodoscope is calculated using both a simplified and a more complete Monte Carlo model. These results are compared with experimental data from a small multiwire proportional counter hodoscope operated in a 530 MeV/nucleon accelerator beam of nitrogen nuclei. Estimates of the secondary electron background produced by heavy relativistic nuclei are presented along with the detailed results from calculations of energy deposition in the hodoscope counter cells.

  5. A 45 PS Time-Interval Counter Board with a PCI Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    39th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting A 45 PS TIME-INTERVAL COUNTER BOARD WITH A PCI INTERFACE Ryszard Szplet...precise time-interval and frequency counter board with PCI interface. The counter utilizes two two-stage interpolators that provide 45 ps resolution...synthesis and for generation of the four -phase clock used in the first interpolation stage. The fast arithmetic carry chains are used as high

  6. LiF/ZnS Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Stave, Sean C.; Bliss, Mary; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2015-06-01

    Abstract: Alternatives to the use of 3He for the detection of thermal neutrons are being investigated. One of the most challenging applications for 3He alternatives is in neutron multiplicity counters. Neutron multiplicity counters are used to provide rapid assay of samples which contain an unknown amount of plutonium in a potentially unknown configuration. With appropriate detector design, the neutron single, double, and triple coincidence events can be used to extract information of three unknown parameters such as the 240Pu-effective mass, the sample self-multiplication, and the (α,n) rate. A project at PNNL has investigated replacing 3He-based tubes with LiF/ZnS neutron-scintillator sheets and wavelength shifting plastic for light pipes. A four-panel demonstrator module has been constructed, tested, and compared with detailed modeling results. The findings indicate that a full-scale system can be constructed with the same overall size as the most efficient 3He-based system and with improved performance. Remaining design challenges include electronics and robust neutron/gamma-ray discrimination based on pulse shape analysis at high rates. A review of the current effort and the most recent findings will be presented.

  7. Countering anti-forensics by means of data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, Marco; Bonchi, Alessandro; Piva, Alessandro; Barni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    In the last years many image forensic (IF) algorithms have been proposed to reveal traces of processing or tampering. On the other hand, Anti-Forensic (AF) tools have also been developed to help the forger in removing editing footprints. Inspired by the fact that it is much harder to commit a perfect crime when the forensic analyst uses a multi-clue investigation strategy, we analyse the possibility o ered by the adoption of a data fusion framework in a Counter-Anti-Forensic (CAF) scenario. We do so by adopting a theoretical framework, based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence, to synergically merge information provided by IF tools and CAF tools, whose goal is to reveal traces introduced by anti-forensic algorithms. The proposed system accounts for the non-trivial relationships between IF and CAF techniques; for example, in some cases the outputs from the former are expected to contradict the output from the latter. We evaluate the proposed method within a representative forensic task, that is splicing detection in JPEG images, with the forger trying to conceal traces using two di erent counter-forensic methods. Results show that decision fusion strongly limits the e ectiveness of AF methods.

  8. Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3°C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

  9. Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-28

    Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3 deg. C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

  10. The HERA-B ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, I.; Bastos, J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Carvalho, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Conde, P.; Davila, J.; Dujmić, D.; Eckmann, R.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Hamacher, T.; Gorišek, A.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Ispirian, M.; Karabekian, S.; Kim, M.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kupper, S.; Lau, K.; Maas, P.; McGill, J.; Miquel, R.; Murthy, N.; Peralta, D.; Pestotnik, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Ramachandran, S.; Reeves, K.; Rosen, J.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schwarz, A.; Schwitters, R. F.; Siero, X.; Starič, M.; Stanovnik, A.; Škrk, D.; Živko, T.

    2004-01-01

    The HERA-B RICH uses a radiation path length of 2.8 m in C 4F 10 gas and a large 24 m2 spherical mirror for imaging Cherenkov rings. The photon detector consists of 2240 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers with about 27 000 channels. A 2:1 reducing two-lens telescope in front of each photomultiplier tube increases the sensitive area at the expense of increased pixel size, resulting in a contribution to the resolution which roughly matches that of dispersion. The counter was completed in January of 1999, and its performance has been steady and reliable over the years it has been in operation. The design performance of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter was fully reached: the average number of detected photons in the RICH for a β=1 particle was found to be 33 with a single-hit resolution of 0.7 and 1 mrad in the fine and coarse granularity regions, respectively.

  11. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  12. Counter pumping debris excluder and separator. [gas turbine shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A dirt separator and excluder for removing entrained debris from gas turbine shaft seals is described. A helical groove pattern is constructed on the rotating shaft with the pumping pattern such that it tends to pump seal pressurizing gas toward the gas turbine seal. A second helical groove pattern is provided on the stationary housing or counter rotating member coaxial with the shaft, and this pattern is designed to provide pumping in the direction opposite from that of the groove pattern on the shaft. Gas with entrained debris entering this grooved area will be subjected to high centrifugal forces due to the swirl motion induced by the groove pattern and the rotation of the shaft. This debris is centrifuged outwardly into the outer groove pattern on the housing or counter rotating member. Because the outer groove pattern has a pumping direction opposite from that of the seal, dirt is pumped away from the seal and can be collected in a suitable debris trap remote from the seal location.

  13. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  14. Monolithic active pixel matrix with binary counters (MAMBO III) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  15. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  16. Dynamics of strange, charm and high momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassing, W.; Gallmeister, K.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Greiner, C.; Stöcker, H.

    2004-07-01

    We investigate hadron production and attenuation of hadrons with strange and charm quarks (or antiquarks) as well as high transverse momentum hadrons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions from 2 A GeV to 21.3 A TeV within two independent transport approaches (UrQMD and HSD). Both transport models are based on quark, diquark, string and hadronic degrees of freedom, but do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. From our dynamical calculations we find that both models do not describe the maximum in the K+/ π+ ratio at 20-30 A GeV in central Au+Au collisions found experimentally, though the excitation functions of strange mesons are reproduced well in HSD and UrQMD. Furthermore, the transport calculations show that the charmonium recreation by D+ D¯→J/Ψ+ meson reactions is comparable to the dissociation by ‘comoving’ mesons at RHIC energies contrary to SPS energies. This leads to the final result that the total J/ Ψ suppression as a function of centrality at RHIC should be less than the suppression seen at SPS energies where the ‘comover’ dissociation is substantial and the backward channels play no role. Furthermore, our transport calculations-in comparison to experimental data on transverse momentum spectra from pp, d+Au and Au+Au reactions-show that pre-hadronic effects are responsible for both the hardening of the hadron spectra for low transverse momenta (Cronin effect) as well as the suppression of high pT hadrons. The mutual interactions of formed hadrons are found to be negligible in central Au+Au collisions at s=200 GeV for p T≥6 GeV/c and the sizeable suppression seen experimentally is attributed to a large extent to the interactions of ‘leading’ pre-hadrons with the dense environment.

  17. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  18. Stochastic Event Counter for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issues of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). First, we develop a noble recursive procedure that updates active counter information state sequentially with available observations. In general, the cardinality of active counter information state is unbounded, which makes the exact recursion infeasible computationally. To overcome this difficulty, we develop an approximated recursive procedure that regulates and bounds the size of active counter information state. Using the approximated active counting information state, we give an approximated minimum mean square error (MMSE) counter. The developed algorithms are then applied to count special routing events in a material flow system.

  19. CoS-Graphene Composite Counter Electrode for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wu, Congcong; Tan, Yuan; Jin, Tetsuro; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2015-02-01

    CoS-graphene composite counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was prepared by coating hydrothermal synthesized CoS with graphene onto the FTO conductive glass. SEM shows that CoS particles are uniformly dispersed in the graphene. The result confirms that the prepared composite counter electrode is of highly electrocatalytic activity towards iodine reduction, which is even better than Pt electrode. And cyclic voltammetry measurement also shows that the composite counter electrode has good stability after 100 scan cycles. DSSC with CoS-graphene as composite counter electrode achieves a maximum power conversion efficiency of 6.31%, which is better than Pt electrode.

  20. Influence of Higher Valence Ions on Flexible Polyelectrolytes Stiffness and Counter-ion Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Douglas, Jack F.

    We investigate the influence of counter-ion valency on the flexibility of highly charged flexible polymer chains by molecular dynamics simulations that include both salt and an explicit solvent. A theoretical understanding of solutions of these molecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, and sulfonate polyestyrene) has been slow to develop due to the complex coupling between the polyelectrolyte conformation and the ionic species in solution due to their long range Coulomb interactions. As observed experimentally, we find that divalent counter-ions greatly reduce the chain persistence length, in comparison to monovalent counter-ions, an effect correlated with the tendency of the polyelectrolyte chain to become distorted by divalent counter-ions. We rationalize these results by with the substantial increase of counter-ion population at the interface with the polyelectrolyte, which not only leads to a more effective screening of the bare charge, but also leads to charge inversion in the trivalent counter-ion case. These conformational changes with counter-ion valency are also associated with a drastic increase of the number of contacts the counter-ions have at the interface with polyelectrolyte, an effect associated with polyelectrolyte chain ``coiling'' around the counter-ions. NIST Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  1. New cathode design boron lined proportional counters for neutron area monitoring application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Priyamvada M.

    2007-06-01

    A new cathode design boron lined proportional counter of 26 mm ID×100 mm sensitive length SS304 cathode has been developed with boron-coated baffles separated by 3 mm spacers inserted in the sensitive volume perpendicular to the axis. The baffles and the spacers were coated with indigenously available 27.7% enriched 10B. The introduction of baffles enhanced the boron coated surface area by a factor of 2.8. Tests in 120 nv thermal neutron flux show that the counter has 0.84 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity, which shows enhancement in the sensitivity by a factor of 2.78 due to baffle structure. For comparison standard cylindrical cathode geometry counter coated with 92% enriched 10B on its inner wall with a coating thickness of 0.8 mg/cm2 is developed with same outer dimensions for neutron area monitoring applications. The counter has 1 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity. Comparative tests carried out on counters with and without baffle structure show that the baffles enhance the neutron sensitivity and in 2 kR/h gamma background the effect of gamma pile up is similar on both the counters. The variation in cathode internal diameter due to baffle structure gives higher voltage plateau slope (2.8%/10 V) as compared to conventional cylindrical geometry counter (1.2%/10 V). The usability of boron lined counters for neutron area monitoring applications for the cylindrical geometry counter has been studied.

  2. The red nucleus and the rubrospinal projection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-04-01

    We studied the organization and spinal projection of the mouse red nucleus with a range of techniques (Nissl stain, immunofluorescence, retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord, anterograde tracer injections into the red nucleus, and in situ hybridization) and counted the number of neurons in the red nucleus (3,200.9 ± 230.8). We found that the rubrospinal neurons were mainly located in the parvicellular region of the red nucleus, more lateral in the rostral part and more medial in the caudal part. Labeled neurons were least common in the rostral and caudal most parts of the red nucleus. Neurons projecting to the cervical cord were predominantly dorsomedially placed and neurons projecting to the lumbar cord were predominantly ventrolaterally placed. Immunofluorescence staining with SMI-32 antibody showed that ~60% of SMI-32-positive neurons were cervical cord-projecting neurons and 24% were lumbar cord-projecting neurons. SMI-32-positive neurons were mainly located in the caudomedial part of the red nucleus. A study of vGluT2 expression showed that the number and location of glutamatergic neurons matched with those of the rubrospinal neurons. In the anterograde tracing experiments, rubrospinal fibers travelled in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus, between the lateral spinal nucleus and the calretinin-positive fibers of the lateral funiculus. Rubrospinal fibers terminated in contralateral laminae 5, 6, and the dorsal part of lamina 7 at all spinal cord levels. A few fibers could be seen next to the neurons in the dorsolateral part of lamina 9 at levels of C8-T1 (hand motor neurons) and L5-L6 (foot motor neurons), which is consistent with a view that rubrospinal fibers may play a role in distal limb movement in rodents.

  3. The subthalamic nucleus influences visuospatial attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmalbach, Barbara; Günther, Veronika; Raethjen, Jan; Wailke, Stefanie; Falk, Daniela; Deuschl, Günther; Witt, Karsten

    2014-03-01

    Spatial attention is a lateralized feature of the human brain. Whereas the role of cortical areas of the nondominant hemisphere on spatial attention has been investigated in detail, the impact of the BG, and more precisely the subthalamic nucleus, on signs and symptoms of spatial attention is not well understood. Here we used unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to reversibly, specifically, and intraindividually modify the neuronal BG outflow and its consequences on signs and symptoms of visuospatial attention in patients suffering from Parkinson disease. We tested 13 patients with Parkinson disease and chronic deep brain stimulation in three stimulation settings: unilateral right and left deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus as well as bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In all three stimulation settings, the patients viewed a set of pictures while an eye-tracker system recorded eye movements. During the exploration of the visual stimuli, we analyzed the time spent in each visual hemispace, as well as the number, duration, amplitude, peak velocity, acceleration peak, and speed of saccades. In the unilateral left-sided stimulation setting, patients show a shorter ipsilateral exploration time of the extrapersonal space, whereas number, duration, and speed of saccades did not differ between the different stimulation settings. These results demonstrated reduced visuospatial attention toward the side contralateral to the right subthalamic nucleus that was not being stimulated in a unilateral left-sided stimulation. Turning on the right stimulator, the reduced visuospatial attention vanished. These results support the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in modulating spatial attention. Therefore, the subthalamic nucleus is part of the subcortical network that subserves spatial attention.

  4. Calculated dynamical evolution of the nucleus of comet Hartley 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    The nucleus of comet Hartley 2 has a relatively regular dumbbell shape with unequal heads. The narrow part of elongated shape contains a relatively smooth region whose covering material is highly different in its shallow structure compared to other parts of this celestial body. The surface of crudely spherical parts of the nucleus is different from the surface of the "neck", which implies a hypothesis that the shape of the nucleus of Hartley 2 is indicative of destruction of this celestial body occurring in our days. The nucleus rotates around its axis passing through the center of mass, and centrifugal forces arise. This process is hindered by gravitation between parts of the nucleus and gradual slowing of rotation due to body lengthening because of the increase in the moment of inertia (proportional to R2) and due to friction losses in the neck material. We posed the task to determine centrifugal and gravitational forces in the neck (and, respectively, the strains of stretching and compression), the moment of inertia of the body and supply of its rotational energy E, the volume of the nucleus and its average density, and the position of the barycenter and center of rotation. It can be assumed that these forces cause slow but progressive lengthening of the neck which should eventually result in fragmentation of the nucleus. Centrifugal forces can be found as a result of summation of forces produced by parts of the body. According to the calculation model, the total stretching forces in the section passing through the narrowest cut of the neck are 1.21E6 N. The corresponding compression forces in the section passing through the narrow section are 1.04E6 N. The comparison of these values indicates a paradoxical result: stretching strains dominate in the neck, while compressions are dominant in the section passing through the common center of mass. The excess of stretching strains in the neck is 11%. The inference is as follows: the right part of the neck and the

  5. The midbrain precommand nucleus of the mormyrid electromotor network.

    PubMed

    von der Emde, G; Sena, L G; Niso, R; Grant, K

    2000-07-15

    The functional role of the midbrain precommand nucleus (PCN) of the electromotor system was explored in the weakly electric mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii, using extracellular recording of field potentials, single unit activity, and microstimulation in vivo. Electromotor-related field potentials in PCN are linked in a one-to-one manner and with a fixed time relationship to the electric organ discharge (EOD) command cycle, but occur later than EOD command activity in the medulla. It is suggested that PCN electromotor-related field potentials arise from two sources: (1) antidromically, by backpropagation across electrotonic synapses between PCN axons and command nucleus neurons, and (2) as corollary discharge-driven feedback arriving from the command nucleus indirectly, via multisynaptic pathways. PCN neurons can be activated by electrosensory input, but this does not necessarily activate the whole motor command chain. Microstimulation of PCN modulates the endogenous pattern of electromotor command in a way that can mimic the structure of certain stereotyped behavioral patterns. PCN activity is regulated, and to a certain extent synchronized, by corollary discharge feedback inhibition. However, PCN does not generally function as a synchronized pacemaker driving the electromotor command chain. We propose that PCN neurons integrate information of various origins and individually relay this to the command nucleus in the medulla. Some may also have intrinsic, although normally nonsynchronized, pacemaker properties. This descending activity, integrated in the electromotor command nucleus, will play an important modulatory role in the central pattern generator decision process.

  6. Development of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kristy M; Parker, Keith L; Tobet, Stuart

    2006-07-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important in the regulation of female sexual behavior, feeding, energy balance, and cardiovascular function. It is a highly conserved nucleus across species and a good model for studying neuronal organization into nuclei. Expression of various transcription factors, receptors, and neurotransmitters are important for the development of this nucleus and for mapping the position of identified cells within the nucleus. The VMH is subdivided into regions, all of which may project to specific locations to carry out various functions. For example, the ventrolateral quadrant contains a subset of neurons that highly express estrogen receptors. These neurons specifically are involved in the lordosis response pathway through projections to other estrogen receptor containing regions. In development, neurons that form the VMH generate from the proliferative zone surrounding the third ventricle. Neurons then migrate along radial glial fibers to final positions within the nucleus. Migration and positioning of neurons is an important step in setting up connections to and from the VMH and hence in its function. As compared to other developing brain regions, cell death may play a minor role in sculpting the VMH. We review the processes involved in forming a functional nuclear group and some of the factors known to be involved particularly focusing on the positioning of identified neurons within the VMH.

  7. Coordinated Dynamics of RNA Splicing Speckles in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Kota, Krishna P; Alam, Samer G; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-06-01

    Despite being densely packed with chromatin, nuclear bodies and a nucleoskeletal network, the nucleus is a remarkably dynamic organelle. Chromatin loops form and relax, RNA transcripts and transcription factors move diffusively, and nuclear bodies move. We show here that RNA splicing speckled domains (splicing speckles) fluctuate in constrained nuclear volumes and remodel their shapes. Small speckles move in a directed way toward larger speckles with which they fuse. This directed movement is reduced upon decreasing cellular ATP levels or inhibiting RNA polymerase II activity. The random movement of speckles is reduced upon decreasing cellular ATP levels, moderately reduced after inhibition of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling and modestly increased upon inhibiting RNA polymerase II activity. To define the paths through which speckles can translocate in the nucleus, we generated a pressure gradient to create flows in the nucleus. In response to the pressure gradient, speckles moved along curvilinear paths in the nucleus. Collectively, our results demonstrate a new type of ATP-dependent motion in the nucleus. We present a model where recycling splicing factors return as part of small sub-speckles from distal sites of RNA processing to larger splicing speckles by a directed ATP-driven mechanism through interchromatin spaces.

  8. Growth dynamics of the developing lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Williams, A L; Jeffery, G

    2001-02-12

    Segregated binocular maps in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) develop from stages where they initially completely overlap. Here, we show that segregation occurs at different rates across the depth of the nucleus and that the volume of the ipsilateral projection does not decrease significantly during this period, rather LGN volume expands markedly and its shape changes. Hence, we have examined the differential growth of the ferret LGN during the process of segregation by using novel shape modelling techniques. These have facilitated quantification of its three-dimensional structure at successive developmental stages as well as the definition of growth vectors which illustrate shape change. This has been undertaken in direct representations of the LGN and those normalised for size and orientation. Spatiotemporal aspects of shape change have then been compared with different measurements of its cellular population. Initial stages of segregation are associated with a large expansion of the rostrocaudal axis of the nucleus along which segregation takes place, and an expansion of caudal regions that will eventually contain the binocular representation. Later stages are associated with dorsoventral expansions and a consolidation of the rostrocaudal axis. The pace of shape change peaks toward the end of the period of segregation when the nucleus has adopted approximately 50% of its adult shape. After segregation, nuclear growth is mainly isotropic. The mature shape of the nucleus is achieved before it reaches its full size and while cell density and cell sizes are still changing.

  9. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    SciTech Connect

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-06-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references.

  10. The Potential Roles of Actin in The Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Banaei-Esfahani, Amir; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, actin’s presence in the nucleus has been demonstrated. Actin is a key protein necessary for different nuclear processes. Although actin is well known for its functional role in dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton, emerging studies are now highlighting new roles for actin. At the present time there is no doubt about the presence of actin in the nucleus. A number of studies have uncovered the functional involvement of actin in nuclear processes. Actin as one of the nuclear components has its own structured and functional rules, such as nuclear matrix association, chromatin remodeling, transcription by RNA polymerases I, II, III and mRNA processing. In this historical review, we attempt to provide an overview of our current understanding of the functions of actin in the nucleus. PMID:25870830

  11. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  12. Response Properties of Cochlear Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G. Linn; Recio, A.

    2009-01-01

    Much of what is known about how the cochlear nuclei participate in mammalian hearing comes from studies of non-primate mammalian species. To determine to what extent the cochlear nuclei of primates resemble those of other mammalian orders, we have recorded responses to sound in three primate species: marmosets, Cynomolgus macaques, and squirrel monkeys. These recordings show that the same types of temporal firing patterns are found in primates that have been described in other mammals. Responses to tones of neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus have similar tuning, latencies, post-stimulus time and interspike interval histograms as those recorded in non-primate cochlear nucleus neurons. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, too, responses were similar. From these results it is evident that insights gained from non-primate studies can be applied to the peripheral auditory system of primates. PMID:19531377

  13. Simulation research on pedestrian counter flow subconscious behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongxing; Jia, Hongfei; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yang, Lili

    Analyzing the pedestrian subconscious behavior and walking environment in the passage, right-moving preference subconscious strength and overtaking subconscious strength are introduced into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on lattice gas model. Two pedestrian subconscious behavior simulation models, which are distinguished by whether considering pedestrian flow ratio of two directions or not, are established respectively. With the platform of MATLAB software, the simulations of pedestrian counter flow subconscious behavior are realized. The simulations indicate that compared with the pedestrian subconscious behavior simulation model without considering the pedestrian flow ratio of two directions, the model that considers the pedestrian flow ratio of two directions is better in simulating the pedestrian subconscious behavior.

  14. Counter-forensics in machine learning based forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Francesco; Poggi, Giovanni; Roli, Fabio; Sansone, Carlo; Verdoliva, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    With the powerful image editing tools available today, it is very easy to create forgeries without leaving visible traces. Boundaries between host image and forgery can be concealed, illumination changed, and so on, in a naive form of counter-forensics. For this reason, most modern techniques for forgery detection rely on the statistical distribution of micro-patterns, enhanced through high-level filtering, and summarized in some image descriptor used for the final classification. In this work we propose a strategy to modify the forged image at the level of micro-patterns to fool a state-of-the-art forgery detector. Then, we investigate on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy as a function of the level of knowledge on the forgery detection algorithm. Experiments show this approach to be quite effective especially if a good prior knowledge on the detector is available.

  15. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  16. Cannibalism and contagion: framing syphilis in counter-reformation Italy.

    PubMed

    Eamon, W

    1998-02-01

    The outbreak of syphilis in Europe elicited a variety of responses concerning the disease's origins and cure. In this essay, I examine the theory of the origins of syphilis advanced by the 16th-century Italian surgeon Leonardo Fioravanti. According to Fioravanti, syphilis was not new but had always existed, although it was unknown to the ancients. The syphilis epidemic, he argued, was caused by cannibalism among the French and Italian armies during the siege of Naples in 1494. Fioravanti's strange and novel theory is connected with his view of disease as corruption of the body caused by eating improper foods. His theory of bodily pollution, a metaphor for the corruption of society, coincided with Counter-Reformation concepts about sin and the social order.

  17. Source Lines Counter (SLiC) Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, Erik W.; Smith, Kevin A.; Newport, Brian J.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Kandt, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Source Lines Counter (SLiC) is a software utility designed to measure software source code size using logical source statements and other common measures for 22 of the programming languages commonly used at NASA and the aerospace industry. Such metrics can be used in a wide variety of applications, from parametric cost estimation to software defect analysis. SLiC has a variety of unique features such as automatic code search, automatic file detection, hierarchical directory totals, and spreadsheet-compatible output. SLiC was written for extensibility; new programming language support can be added with minimal effort in a short amount of time. SLiC runs on a variety of platforms including UNIX, Windows, and Mac OSX. Its straightforward command-line interface allows for customization and incorporation into the software build process for tracking development metrics. T

  18. Counter tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertel, R.; Holm, M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the best design tube window and X-ray fluorescence analyzer for quantitative analysis of Venusian dust and condensates. The principal objective of the project was to develop the best counter tube window geometry for the sensing element of the instrument. This included formulation of a mathematical model of the window and optimization of its parameters. The proposed detector and instrument has several important features. The instrument will perform a near real-time analysis of dust in the Venusian atmosphere, and is capable of measuring dust layers less than 1 micron thick. In addition, wide dynamic measurement range will be provided to compensate for extreme variations in count rates. An integral pulse-height analyzer and memory accumulate data and read out spectra for detail computer analysis on the ground.

  19. Construction of a BioFluorescence Optical Particle Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaney, R.

    2009-04-01

    A bioaerosol fluorescence detection system is being constructed using an ellipsoid reflector based optical particle counter. The flux measuring device is to size submicron marine spray aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. It will simultaneously non-destructively excite and detect fluorescence from organic matter contained in the aerosol. Chlorophyll-a is the primary fluorophor target, used as a marker for detecting phytoplankton (or derivatives thereof) in the particles. Particles have been sized to 167 nm in diameter and fluorescence detection testing is underway. The device will aid the quantification and identification of this organic material contained in marine spray aerosols, providing improved inputs into climate models and air quality assessments.

  20. Over-the-counter cough medicines: New approaches.

    PubMed

    Morice, Alyn H

    2015-12-01

    The global market for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in the category cough/cold is enormous amounting to 5.77 billion euro in 2014 (source IMS). Despite this enormous healthcare investment, mainly by direct consumer purchase, evidence for efficacy is poor by modern standards. Because of a lack of new drug development existing OTC medicines are supported by trials of inadequate design. This has led to the claim that cough medicines are inefficacious. Recent developments in measuring cough support some existing agents but investment in modern studies to provide comprehensive proof of efficacy has not happened. The switch from prescription medicine to OTC which has occurred in other markets will not occur in antitussives since novel therapies have yet to be developed. One area, that of herbal derived medicines, has seen innovation because it is less hampered by regulatory constraints.

  1. Synthesis of energy-efficient counters implemented in PLD circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisz, Józef; Nawrot, Radosław; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a comparison of four methods of implementing sequential circuits in Programmable Logic Devices in respect of dissipated power. Objective of the research was to investigate influence of different methods of "disabling" the clock signal on the dynamic power consumed by the circuit. The comparison is carried out using simple counter circuits, i. e. circuits the algorithm of which is described by linear graphs. However, the presented considerations are general, and can be applied to any sequential circuit. Results of simulation tests show that the method based on clock gating is the most efficient one, and it leads to significant reduction of the dissipated dynamic power. The authors also propose a simple modification of global clock network structures, to facilitate clock gating.

  2. Drug interactions between prescribed and over-the-counter medication.

    PubMed

    Honig, P K; Gillespie, B K

    1995-11-01

    The use and availability of over-the-counter (OTC) medication is increasing. Although regulatory agencies take care to assure than nonprescription medications are safe and effective, these drugs still have the potential to have clinically significant interactions with prescription medicines. The major classes of OTC medication to be considered in this light include antacids, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, NSAIDs, cough and cold preparations and the antiasthma products. Healthcare providers and patients/consumers should be educated regarding possible drug interactions, patient drug regimens should be simplified where possible, and all therapeutic failures and adverse reactions should be investigated with regard to the potential contribution of OTC drug products. Regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical manufacturers should ensure that nonprescription drug labelling is complete and intelligible to meet these objectives. Consideration should be given to improving the postmarketing surveillance of OTC medications.

  3. Toxicity of over-the-counter cough and cold medications.

    PubMed

    Gunn, V L; Taha, S H; Liebelt, E L; Serwint, J R

    2001-09-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications are marketed widely for relief of common cold symptoms, and yet studies have failed to demonstrate a benefit of these medications for young children. In addition, OTC medications can be associated with significant morbidity and even mortality in both acute overdoses and when administered in correct doses for chronic periods of time. Physicians often do not inquire about OTC medication use, and parents (or other caregivers) often do not perceive OTCs as medications. We present 3 cases of adverse outcomes over a 13-month period-including 1 death-as a result of OTC cough and cold medication use. We explore the toxicities of OTC cough and cold medications, discuss mechanisms of dosing errors, and suggest why physicians should be more vigilant in specifically inquiring about OTCs when evaluating an ill child.

  4. Alpha Backgrounds in the SNO ^3He Proportional Counter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonehill, Laura

    2006-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently deployed an array of proportional counters known as Neutral Current Detectors (NCDs) to detect thermalized neutrons via the ^3He(n,p)^3H reaction. The primary physics background to the neutron-capture signal is alpha particle emission from uranium- and thorium-chain decays in the NCD walls. The expected capture rate of neutrons from the neutral-current neutrino reaction on deuterium is three per day and the intrinsic alpha background rate is approximately 250 alphas per day. Fewer than 10% of these alphas fall into the energy range where neutron-capture signals occur, and a substantial number of these can be eliminated by pulse-shape analysis. This talk will focus on measurements of the alpha backgrounds in the NCDs and the extent to which these alphas contaminate the neutron-capture signal region.

  5. A description of the UK Meteorological Office CCN counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchen, M.; Stirland, E.

    1981-01-01

    The chamber is a thermal gradient diffusion type with the upper plate at room temperature and the lower plate thermoelectrically cooled. The light from a 25W projector bulb is focused in a beam of approximations 1x3 mm in the central part of the chamber. The light scattered by drops is viewed in the forward direction (40 deg) by a microscope and a sensitive photodetector. Experiments were performed to relate the peak output from the photocell with the maximum number of drops in the beam recorded photographically. The microscope is used to check the calibration at low concentrations of CCN. The results of the experiments and the performance of the counter are reported.

  6. Surface micromachined counter-meshing gears discrimination device

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Allen, James J.

    2000-12-12

    A surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock. Each of two CMG has a first portion of its perimeter devoted to continuous driving teeth that mesh with respective pinion gears. Each EMG also has a second portion of its perimeter devoted to regularly spaced discrimination gear teeth that extend outwardly on at least one of three levels of the CMG. The discrimination gear teeth are designed so as to pass each other without interference only if the correct sequence of partial rotations of the CMG occurs in response to a coded series of rotations from the pinion gears. A 24 bit code is normally input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect.

  7. A multiwire proportional counter system for high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Deney, C. L.; Golden, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Resolution tests of multiwire proportional counter delay line readout systems are reported. The system is being developed at NASA/JSC for use in a large balloon borne magnet spectrometer. The system is ultimately intended for use in Space Shuttle missions. Tests of two different types of delay line and associated electronics carried out in minimum ionizing particle beams (accelerator and sea level cosmic ray) are reported. Resolution performance is shown to be strongly dependent on type of gas mixture and in the case of inclined events upon the propagation velocity of the delay line. The resolution performance achieved for magic gas chamber filling (100 um at normal incidence) is far superior to any other state of the art technique capable of being applied to large geometry factor systems.

  8. Evaluation of an over-the-counter medication program.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul Evan

    2004-07-01

    Nonprescription medication (i.e., "over-the-counter") programs have historically been popular at many military treatment facilities. These programs were developed to provide a mechanism through which active duty members could obtain certain nonprescription medications without seeing a health care provider. The goal of such programs was to reduce demand on health care provider appointments and operational costs associated with such visits. Coast Guard military treatment facilities are encouraged to provide the service. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate whether the nonprescription medication program offered at the Coast Guard Alameda pharmacy reduced demand on health care provider appointments for self-limiting conditions and reduced costs associated with such visits.

  9. Bacterial populations growth under co- and counter-flow condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesser, Francesca; Zeegers, Jos C. H.; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Toschi, Federico

    2014-11-01

    For organisms living in a liquid ecosystem, flow and flow gradients play a major role on the population level: the flow has a dual role as it transports the nutrient while dispersing the individuals. In absence of flow and under homogeneous conditions, the growth of a population towards an empty region is usually described by a reaction diffusion equation. The solution predicts the expansion as a wave front (Fisher wave) proceeding at constant speed, till the carrying capacity is reached everywhere. The effect of fluid flow, however, is not well understood and the interplay between transport of individuals and nutrient opens a wide scenario of possible behaviors. In this work, we experimentally observe non-motile E. coli bacteria spreading inside rectangular channels in a PDMS microfluidic device. By use of a fluorescent microscope we analyze the dynamics of the population density subjected to different co- and counter-flow conditions and shear rates.

  10. A Complete Public Archive for the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Consistent with our proposal to the Astrophysics Data Program in 1992, we have completed the design, construction, documentation, and distribution of a flexible and complete archive of the data collected by the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter. Along with software and data delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, we have compiled and, where appropriate, published catalogs of point sources, soft sources, hard sources, extended sources, and transient flares detected in the database along with extensive analyses of the instrument's backgrounds and other anomalies. We include in this document a brief summary of the archive's functionality, a description of the scientific catalogs and other results, a bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part under this contract, and a list of personnel whose pre- and post-doctoral education consisted in part in participation in this project.

  11. Calibration and optimization of proportional counter modules using Garfield

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kiwhan; Brockwell, Michael I; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Green, J Andrew; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark F; Mariam, Fesseha G; Morris, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Prototypes of radiation detector arrays used for charged-particle radiography require iniliol calibration to correlate the distribution of electron arrival time to the particle track locations. This step is crucial to obtaining the spatial resolution necessary to separate particle tracks traversing the individual proportional counters in the arrays. Our past attempts to use cosmic rays alone for the initial calibration have fallen short of obtaining the desired resolution due to the insufficient cosmic ray flux to provide the necessary number of particle tracks. A theoretical relation between electron drift time and radial drift distance is obtained with Garfield, a CERN gas detector simulation program. This relation is then used as an effective starting point for the initial calibration and results in a shorter calibration period and improved spatial resolution of the detectors.

  12. Surface micromachined counter-meshing gears discrimination device

    SciTech Connect

    Polosky, M.A.; Garcia, E.J.; Allen, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of a surface micromachined Counter-Meshing Gears (CMG) discrimination device which functions as a mechanically coded lock, A 24 bit code is input to unlock the device. Once unlocked, the device provides a path for an energy or information signal to pass through the device. The device is designed to immediately lock up if any portion of the 24 bit code is incorrect. The motivation for the development of this device is based on occurrences referred to as High Consequence Events, A High Consequence Event is an event where an inadvertent operation of a system could result in the catastrophic loss of life, property, or damage to the environment.

  13. [Health care consumers about over-the-counter drugs].

    PubMed

    Burger, David M

    2014-01-01

    Dutch consumers can now purchase 'over-the-counter drugs' (OTCs) at three distribution channels: (a) the pharmacy; (b) the chemist; (c) other sales outlets such as supermarkets and petrol stations. However, little is known about whether consumers consider themselves and others to have adequate knowledge to purchase OTCs in relative freedom. During a recent study, members of the Healthcare Consumer Panel of the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research completed a survey on freely available analgesics. These consumers were very confident of their personal skills in handling OTCs responsibly. However, they had less confidence in how others would deal with OTCs. Regarding the wider availability of OTCs, only 1-8% believed it would be preferable to have these drugs available in the supermarket or petrol station, depending on the type and frequency of side effects of the medication. The government would be wise in conducting this type of qualitative study before measures are taken for wider availability of medicines.

  14. Towards an Access-Control Framework for Countering Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Jason; Huth, Michael

    As insider threats pose very significant security risks to IT systems, we ask what policy-based approaches to access control can do for the detection, mitigation or countering of insider threats and insider attacks. Answering this question is difficult: little public data about insider-threat cases is available; there is not much consensus about what the insider problem actually is; and previous research in access control has by-and-large not dealt with this issue. We explore existing notions of insiderness in order to identify the relevant research issues. We then formulate a set of requirements for next-generation access-control systems, whose realization might form part of an overall strategy to address the insider problem.

  15. Phase distribution visualisation in continuous counter-current extraction.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Remco; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-05-08

    Flow visualisation is essential when trying to understand hydrodynamic equilibrium in continuous counter-current extraction (CCCE) (also known as dual-flow counter-current chromatography). The technique allows two immiscible liquid phases to be pumped through the spinning coil simultaneously in opposite directions. When this process was described previously it was assumed that the phases were evenly distributed throughout the coil. Visualisation studies by van den Heuvel and Sutherland in 2007 showed that this was not the case. A special centrifuge, where the coil is cantilevered so that the coil and the fluids inside the coil can be visualised, was used to study the distribution of the phases. Factorial experimental design was used to systematically study the effect of the starting conditions inside the coil on the phase distribution at equilibrium. For each experiment the eluted volumes and the volume of upper phase in the coil at the end of the experiment (at equilibrium) were recorded. In addition, two photographs were taken when the phases in the coil had reached equilibrium. One of these photographs was taken during the experiment when the phases were still being pumped through and one when the flow was stopped. The systematic experiments showed that the initial phase inside the coil has no effect on the phase distribution achieved at equilibrium. Statistical analysis also showed that the lower phase flow rate has double the effect on the phase distribution compared to the upper phase flow rate. From these visualisation studies, it can be concluded that the balance of the phases flowing through the coil at equilibrium is complex. The volumes of upper and lower phase and how they are distributed does influence the separation. It is important therefore to understand the relationship between respective flow rates and the phase distribution if peak elution is to be accurately predicted.

  16. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Varughese, T.; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2009-12-15

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20x10 cm{sup 2} and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  17. Underground muon counters as a tool for composition analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Allekotte, I.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Medina, M. C.

    2008-07-01

    The transition energy from galactic to extragalactic cosmic ray sources is still uncertain, but it should be associated either with the region of the spectrum known as the second knee or with the ankle. The baseline design of the Pierre Auger Observatory was optimized for the highest energies. The surface array is fully efficient above 3 × 10 18 eV and, even if the hybrid mode can extend this range below 10 18 eV, the second knee and a considerable portion of the wide ankle structure are left outside its operating range. Therefore, in order to encompass these spectral features and gain further insight into the cosmic ray composition variation along the transition region, enhancements to the surface and fluorescence components of the baseline design are being implemented that will lower the full efficiency regime of the Observatory down to ˜10 17 eV. The surface enhancements consist of a graded infilled area of standard Auger water Cherenkov detectors deployed in two triangular grids of 433 m and 750 m of spacing. Each surface station inside this area will have an associated muon counter detector. The fluorescence enhancement, on the other hand, consists of three additional fluorescence telescopes with higher elevation angle (30°-58°) than the ones in operation at present. The aim of this paper is threefold. We study the effect of the segmentation of the muon counters and find an analytical expression to correct for the under counting due to muon pile-up. We also present a detailed method to reconstruct the muon lateral distribution function for the 750 m spacing array. Finally, we study the mass discrimination potential of a new parameter, the number of muons at 600 m from the shower axis, obtained by fitting the muon data with the above mentioned reconstruction method.

  18. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  19. Preliminary calibration of the ACP safeguards neutron counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. H.; Kim, H. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Swinhoe, M.; Menlove, H. O.

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP), a kind of pyroprocess, has been developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since there is no IAEA safeguards criteria for this process, KAERI has developed a neutron coincidence counter to make it possible to perform a material control and accounting (MC&A) for its ACP materials for the purpose of a transparency in the peaceful uses of nuclear materials at KAERI. The test results of the ACP Safeguards Neutron Counter (ASNC) show a satisfactory performance for the Doubles count measurement with a low measurement error for its cylindrical sample cavity. The neutron detection efficiency is about 21% with an error of ±1.32% along the axial direction of the cavity. Using two 252Cf neutron sources, we obtained various parameters for the Singles and Doubles rates for the ASNC. The Singles, Doubles, and Triples rates for a 252Cf point source were obtained by using the MCNPX code and the results for the ft8 cap multiplicity tally option with the values of ɛ, fd, and ft measured with a strong source most closely match the measurement results to within a 1% error. A preliminary calibration curve for the ASNC was generated by using the point model equation relationship between 244Cm and 252Cf and the calibration coefficient for the non-multiplying sample is 2.78×10 5 (Doubles counts/s/g 244Cm). The preliminary calibration curves for the ACP samples were also obtained by using an MCNPX simulation. A neutron multiplication influence on an increase of the Doubles rate for a metal ingot and UO2 powder is clearly observed. These calibration curves will be modified and complemented, when hot calibration samples become available. To verify the validity of this calibration curve, a measurement of spent fuel standards for a known 244Cm mass will be performed in the near future.

  20. Single-ended counter-rotating radial turbine for space application

    DOEpatents

    Coomes, E.P.; Wilson, D.G.; Webb, B.J.; McCabe, S.J.

    1987-05-13

    A single-ended turbine with counter-rotating blades operating with sodium as the working fluid. The single-ended, counter-rotating feature of the turbine results in zero torque application to a space platform. Thus, maneuvering of the platform is not adversely affected by the turbine. 4 figs.

  1. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 3, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom... President by the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (subtitle D of title XII of Public...

  2. Who You Callin' White?! A Critical Counter-Story on Colouring White Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.

    2013-01-01

    This action research, which utilizes critical race theory's counter-storytelling, analyses a process of debunking White students' epistemology of ignorance in a history course at an urban public high school. After piloting a raced curriculum that deliberately re-centers marginalized counter-stories of students of colour, I document its…

  3. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  4. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  5. Multicultural Young Adult Literature as a Form of Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Counter-storytelling is defined by critical race theory scholars as a method of telling the stories of those people whose experiences are not often told, including people of color, the poor, and members of the LGBTQ community. This article discusses multicultural young adult literature as a form of counter-storytelling, with an emphasis on how…

  6. Challenging Colorblindness in Arizona: Latina/o Students' Counter-Narratives of Race and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammarota, Julio

    2014-01-01

    This essay reviews Latina/o students' counter-narratives challenging colorblindness. The author highlights the experiences of students from Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American Studies program. By examining student counter-narratives, the author also identifies race-related terms that are more suitable for dialogue among and with…

  7. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nucleus 139Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Căta-Danil, I.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Mihăilescu, L. C.; Rusu, C.; Suliman, G.

    2006-03-01

    Gamma-ray coincidence techniques are used to determine new level structures in the N = 81 nucleus 139Ce, at low spins and excitation energies with the 139La(p, nγ) reaction at 5.0 and 6.0MeV incident energy, and at high spins with the 130Te(12C, 3nγ) reaction at 50.5MeV, respectively. Lifetime determinations are also made in the (p, nγ) reaction with the centroid DSA method. The observed level structures are discussed by comparison with existing calculations and with those in the neighbouring nucleus 140Ce.

  8. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2009-04-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section. It is shown that at small x, the NC boson-nucleon cross section should exhibit the geometric scaling property that has important consequences for ultrahigh energy neutrino phenomenology.

  9. Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q'. 21Jul94 Last Look at the Q-nuclei First image - March 30, 1994. Two Q-nuclei and a split nucleus, P. Second image - July 20, 1994. at T - 10 hours. Both nuclei still show no sign of further fragmentation, although the coma near each is being stretched out along the direction of motion. Both images were taken with the WFPC2 Planetary Camera using a red filter. Credit: H. A. Weaver and T. E. Smith

  10. Morphology of multiple-nucleus brightest cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, T.R.

    1988-02-01

    The morphology of high SNR CCD images of 16 multiple-nucleus brightest cluster galaxies is studied using an algorithm that models images of the systems as the line-of-sight superposition of normal elliptical galaxies. The algorithm is applied initially to the classic multiple-nucleus cD galaxy in A2199. Evidence is found suggestive of deep interpenetrating high-speed encounters by its secondaries. The interactions effects studied include noncentric isophotes, brightness profile effects, excess light around primary galaxies, and dynamical friction wakes. The results show that in many cases multiple systems are interacting systems. 42 references.

  11. The morphology of multiple-nucleus brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    1988-01-01

    The morphology of high SNR CCD images of 16 multiple-nucleus brightest cluster galaxies is studied using an algorithm that models images of the systems as the line-of-sight superposition of normal elliptical galaxies. The algorithm is applied initially to the classic multiple-nucleus cD galaxy in A2199. Evidence is found suggestive of deep interpenetrating high-speed encounters by its secondaries. The interactions effects studied include noncentric isophotes, brightness profile effects, excess light around primary galaxies, and dynamical friction wakes. The results show that in many cases multiple systems are interacting systems.

  12. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  13. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  14. The Development of Hypertrophic Inferior Olivary Nucleus in Oculopalatal Tremor.

    PubMed

    Jun, Bokkwan

    2016-12-01

    Oculopalatal tremor is an acquired clinical condition resulting from the interruption of the dentato-rubro-olivary neuronal pathway. The signal change in inferior olivary nucleus and its hypertrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be observed prior to the development of symptomatic oculopalatal tremor. This is a case of the fourth cranial nerve palsy followed by oculopalatal tremor, and increased signal intensity in inferior olivary nucleus on MRI was observed in 7 months after damage to the dentate-rubro-olivary pathway and 5 months prior to the development of oscillopsia and oculopalatal tremor.

  15. Ice crystal and ice nucleus measurements in cap clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D. C.; Deshler, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ice nucleation in cap clouds over a mountain in Wyoming was examined with airborne instrumentation. Crosswind and wind parallel passes were made through the clouds, with data being taken on the ice crystal concentrations and sizes. A total of 141 penetrations of 26 separate days in temperatures ranging from -7 to -24 C were performed. Subsequent measurements were also made 100 km away from the mountain. The ice crystal concentrations measured showed good correlation with the ice nucleus content in winter time, midcontinental air masses in Wyoming. Further studies are recommended to determine if the variations in the ice nucleus population are the cause of the variability if ice crystal content.

  16. Analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples are described. Interstellar, chondritic and transitional organic components are discussed. Appropriate sampling procedures will be essential to the success of these analyses. It will be necessary to return samples that represent all the various regimes found in the nucleus, e.g., a complete core, volatile components (deep interior), and crustal components (surface minerals, rocks, processed organics such as macromolecular carbon and polymers). Furthermore, sampling, storage, return, and distribution of samples must be done under conditions that preclude contamination of the samples by terrestrial matter.

  17. Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown.

    PubMed

    Lum, Cynthia; Kennedy, Leslie W; Sherley, Alison

    2008-02-01

    Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown. One of the central concerns surrounding counter-terrorism interventions today, given the attention and money spent on them, is whether such interventions are effective. To explore this issue, we conducted a general review of terrorism literature as well as a Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism strategies. In this article, we summarize some of our findings from these works. Overall, we found an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies and conclude that counter-terrorism policy is not evidence-based. The findings of this review emphasise the need for government leaders, policy makers, researchers, and funding agencies to include and insist on evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs in their agendas.

  18. Investigation of structure of superconducting power transmission cables with LN2 counter-flow cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Higuchi, Noboru

    2003-04-01

    Establishment of long-distance cooling techniques and design of a compact cross section are required for development of HTC superconducting underground power cables. To save space of return coolant, a counter-flow cooling system appears promising. However, it is difficult to cool down long cables because of heat exchange between counter-flows due to high thermal conductivity of dielectric materials which separate both flows in range of liquid nitrogen temperature. We estimated temperature distributions analytically along model HTS power cables with counter-flow. Results of calculation showed that when liquid-nitrogen-impregnated polypropylene laminated paper was chosen for a dielectric material, great thickness was required to reduce heat exchange between counter-flows. We investigated various cable structures to optimize the counter-flow cooling system and cable size.

  19. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, D.; Evdokimov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Shchukin, A.; Vasilyev, I.

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  20. Hybrid gas scintillation proportional counter/phoswich detector for hard X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Manandhar, Raj P.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is presented for a balloon-borne imaging hybrid proportional counter/phoswich detector of medium to hard X-rays. The phoswich would be optically coupled to the exit window of the proportional counter, and both detectors would use a common position-sensitive readout. It is anticipated that such a detector could combine the good energy and position resolution and excellent background rejection ability of the proportional counter for incident photon energies less than 100 keV with the extended response of the phoswich for higher energies. The phoswich could also be used to reject Compton scattering events in the proportional counter. This detector concept is studied using numerical simulations of a 400 sq cm square prototype detector. Results from this simulation indicate that current levels of proportional counter and phoswich performance are attainable at small cost in quantum efficiency, compared to a bare phoswich detector.