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Sample records for nude mice model

  1. [Establishment of endometriosis subcutaneous model in immunodeficient nude mice].

    PubMed

    Ni, H J; Zhang, Z; Dai, Y D; Zhang, S Y

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To establish a model of endometriosis in immunodeficient nude mice and compare the outcome of the model construction between two different techniques. Methods: Eighteen nude mice were divided into 2 groups, with 9 mice in each group. All nude mice received a subcutaneous transplantation of endometrial fragments, followed by sutured the wounded skin (sutured group) or not (no-sutured group). Then the success rate of the model construction, inflammation of the wounds and the animal survival rate in the two groups were analyzed. Result: In no-sutured group, the survival rate of animal and the success rate of the model construction were 9/9 and 8/9 respectively, with 8/9 survival rate and 7/9 success rate in sutured group. No significant difference was found between the two groups. And no obvious inflammation was presented in the wounds for both groups. Conclusion: It is an effective method to establish animal model of endometriosis by subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice. After transplantation, it does not affect the outcome of the survival rate of the animal and the success rate of the model construction whether we suture the wounded skin. Considering the shorter operation time, we found it's a simpler and time saving method to establish endometriosis by subcutaneously transplanting endometrial fragments in nude mice with no skin-sutured. And this model is worth of promotion.

  2. NSG Mice Provide a Better Spontaneous Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis than Athymic (Nude) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puchalapalli, Madhavi; Zeng, Xianke; Mu, Liang; Anderson, Aubree; Hix Glickman, Laura; Zhang, Ming; Sayyad, Megan R.; Mosticone Wangensteen, Sierra; Clevenger, Charles V.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of mortality in breast cancer patients worldwide. To identify improved mouse models for breast cancer growth and spontaneous metastasis, we examined growth and metastasis of both estrogen receptor positive (T47D) and negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and CN34BrM) human breast cancer cells in nude and NSG mice. Both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastases were increased in NSG mice compared to nude mice. In addition, a pattern of metastasis similar to that observed in human breast cancer patients (metastases to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and lymph nodes) was found in NSG mice. Furthermore, there was an increase in the metastatic burden in NSG compared to nude mice that were injected with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in an intracardiac experimental metastasis model. This data demonstrates that NSG mice provide a better model for studying human breast cancer metastasis compared to the current nude mouse model. PMID:27662655

  3. [Preliminary establishment of transplanted human chronic myeloid leukemia model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Min; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Long-Zhen; Cen, Jian-Nong; Chen, Zi-Xing

    2011-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disease derived from hematopoietic stem cells. CML stem cells were thought to be the root which could lead disease development and ultimately rapid change. However, a stable animal model for studying the characteristics of CML stem cells is currently lacking. This study was aimed to establish a transplanted human CML nude-mice model to further explore the biological behavior of CML stem cells in vivo, and to enrich CML stem cells in nude mice by series transplantation. The 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by splenectomy (S), cytoxan intraperitoneal injection (C) and sublethal irradiation (I) were transplanted intravenously with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase. Alternatively, 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by lethal irradiation were transplanted intravenously with 5 × 10(6) homologous bone marrow cells of BALB/c nude mice together with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase simultaneously. The leukemic cells engrafted and infiltrated in organs and bone marrow of the mice were tracked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), plastic-embedded biopsy and flow cytometry. The results of these two methods were compared. The results showed that human CML cells engrafted and infiltrating into the bone marrow of two nude mice pretreated with SCI could be detected. In spite of the low successful rate, results suggested the feasibility of this method by using BALB/c nude mice as a human CML animal model. In contrast, in nude mice pretreated by the lethal dose irradiation, CML cells in the bone marrow could not be found. It is concluded that human bone marrow CML cells can results in leukemia in nude mice pretreated by SCI. Thus this study provides a new strategy for establishment of CML animal models which deserves further elaboration.

  4. Lethal graft-versus-host disease in nude mice. I. Establishment of model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuribayashi, K.; Masuda, T.; Hanaoka, M.

    1988-08-01

    We examined whether nude mice, which are deficient in T cell function, could be used as a model for induction of lethal graft-versus-host disease. Nude mice injected with MHC-disparate spleen cells exhibited only transient GVH reaction such as splenomegaly. Inoculation of B6 spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice produced high titers of alloantibodies to the donor cells. These alloantibodies eliminated host-MHC-reactive donor T cells from the host. After abolition by 400 rads irradiation of the capacity of nude mice to produce antibody, lethal GVHD could be induced by allogeneic spleen cell transfer and was mediated by donor T cells. This lethal GVHD was prevented by prior administration of antidonor alloantibody to the irradiated recipients at least 24 hr before donor-cell grafting. The role of alloantibody was substantiated in 2 other combinations in which little or no alloantibodies to donor spleen cells were produced. Engraftment of either MHC-identical but non-MHC disparate donor spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice or of parental spleen cells into F1 nude mice resulted in death mediated by T cells. In addition, irradiated BALB/c nude mice inoculated with non-MHC-incompatible B10.D2 spleen cells were much more sensitive to alloaggression by the donor cells than were nonirradiated hosts, indicating the presence of some radiation-sensitive component(s) acting in nude mice against GVHD induction by donor T cells. Thus the nude mouse is considered to be a useful recipient for clarifying the basic mechanisms involved in lethal GVHD.

  5. Establishment and characterization of a metastasis model of human gastric cancer in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Kesheng; Du, Huifen; Lian, Xiaowen; Chai, Dandan; Li, Xinwen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chunya

    2016-02-03

    A mouse model of metastasis of human gastric cancer is one of the most important tools for studying the biological mechanisms underlying human gastric cancer metastasis. In this paper, we established a mouse model of metastatic human gastric cancer in nude mice that has a higher rate of tumor formation and metastasis than existing models. To generate the mouse model of metastatic human gastric cancer, fresh tumor tissues from patients that have undergone surgery for gastric cancer were subcutaneously implanted in the right and left groins of nude mice. When the implanted tissue grew to 1 cubic centimeter, the mice were killed, and the tumor tissues were examined and resected. The tumor tissues were implanted into nude mice and subjected to pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, and real-time PCR for cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18), E-cadherin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The mice were also analyzed for metastasis in their peritoneum, abdominal cavity, and internal organs by histopathological examination. Tissues collected from these organs were examined for pathology. After ten generations of implantation, all mice developed tumor growth at the implanted position, 94% of the mice developed metastasis to the retroperitoneum and viscera. The implanted and metastatic tumor maintained the same histological features across all generations, and metastasis was observed in the esophagus, stomach, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal, intestine, and pancreas. These metastatic tumors revealed no detectable expression of CK8/18, E-cadherin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. This model will serve as valuable tool for understanding the metastatic process of human gastric cancer.

  6. [Establishment of a keloid model by transplanting human keloid onto the backs of nude mice].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Andrac-Meyer, L; Bruno, M; Magalon, G; Mordon, S

    2014-08-01

    Keloid scar is a proliferative healing dysfunction formed by an excessive build-up of collagen fibers on the dermis. It is responsible of aesthetic and functional disabilities. There is no ideal treatment and recurrence occurs very often. Keloid scars occur only to human, that's why animal model needs to be made to study this pathology and new treatments. Few models have been described using human keloid scars implanted into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice or rat. To allow study of topical and laser treatment we have developed a new animal model using human keloid scar fragment with epidermal and dermal tissue implanted into back of nude mice like a full thickness skin graft. Keloid fragments from five donors have been grafted onto 40 nudes mice. Macroscopic and microscopic studies have been made at day 28, 56, 84 and 112. We observed integration of the fragments in all cases. Hyalinized collagen bundles were observed in all implant biopsies confirming the stability of the keloid architecture within 112 days. This model is easily reproducible and allows the study of topical treatment and laser due to the accessibility of the keloid. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. [Establishment of subcutaneously transplanted and metastatic neuroblastoma models in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong-ting; Dong, Qian; Gao, Qiang; Hao, Xi-wei; Song, Hua; Zhao, Nan

    2010-04-01

    To establish a tumor-bearing nude mouse model of human neuroblastoma in order to study the mechanisms of neuroblastoma invasion and metastasis, and to investigate potential therapeutic modalities in the experimental animal models. A human neuroblastoma cell line was cultured in vitro. 1 x 10(7) cells undergoing exponential growth were collected in 0.1 ml of suspension and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank next to the forelimb in nude mice. The biological characteristics of the developed tumors were observed, and histopathological and DNA microarray analyses were performed. The expressions of NSE in the subcutaneous tumor, metastatic tumor and the primary neuroblastoma tumor tissues from a pediatric patient were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Tumors successfully grew in 36 out of 48 injected mice, with a total tumor-formation rate of 75.0%. Metastasis occurred in 10 cases, and the metastatic rate was 20.8%. Tumors in five injected mice grew locally without metastasis. These tumors had large volume and the tumor weight reached up to half of the body weight of the host animal. Four mice exhibited systemic metastasis without tumor growth at the primary inoculation site. There were six mice with locally growing tumor accompanied by metastasis. We have successfully established a human neuroblastoma xenograft model in nude mice with high tumor growth and metastatic rates. This model depicting the natural cell growth, local infiltration and distant metastasis characteristics of human neuroblastoma, providing an ideal animal model for in vivo studies of neuroblastoma. In addition, the results of this study indicate the heterogeneous nature of neuroblastoma, it may play an important role in metastasis of this tumor.

  8. Characterization of oral ulcer and pathological scar in nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Sukhitashvili, N; Imnadze, I; Tabaghua, G; Gogilashvili, Q; Amiranashvili, I

    2012-04-01

    Ulceration of mouth mucosa is frequently occurs after injuries in oral cavity. Oral ulcers are relatively common and these lesions cause strong pain and discomfort. Frequently, injury of the oral tissues results in abnormal fibroblast activation and keloid formation. This pathological scar formation is often associates with pain and malfunction of the organ. To understand these phenomena and develop effective treatment, reproducible animal models have to be introduced. Athymic nude mice where used to create animal models. 1% HCl acid solution was used for chemical damage of the mucosa tissue. Surgical operation was performed to create traumatic injury in the mouse oral cavity. Tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry methods. All of the HCl treated animals developed ulcers on the skin and mucosa of the oral cavity. Most of the mice on the place of surgical wound developed keloid tissue. Mice in which we induced pathological processes of the oral tissue, did not gain body weight. Moreover their mass had tendency to decrease. Hematoxilyn-eosin staining of the ulcerated mice tissues revealed extended coagulation necrosis - covering all tissue layers of the oral cavity. Strong local inflammatory cell infiltration and absence of proliferative cells has been demonstrated in these ulcerated and adjusted oral tissues. Morphological analysis of scar tissue revealed fibrotic hypertrophy of the injured oral tissues in these animals with the expressed infiltration of inflammatory cells. Our animal models reflect morphology of the specific injury and functionally imitate the disease.

  9. Immunological responses of `nude' mice

    PubMed Central

    Wortis, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the mutation nude which lack a thymus, were found to have a marked lymphopenia. They had a marked granulocytosis following administration of B. pertussis, but only slight lymphocytosis. Unlike littermates they failed to develop an increased cellularity of lymph nodes draining a local injection of PHA. They had reduced levels of immunoglobulin but produced some antibody to sheep-RBC. They accepted allografts. Cell cooperation experiments suggest that the immunological deficits of nu/nu mice can be explained by the absence of a thymusderived cell population. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:4929778

  10. Tumor lipids and liver lipid metabolism in the model human lung carcinoma/nude mice.

    PubMed

    de Antueno, R J; Niedfeld, G; De Tomás, M E; Mercuri, O F; Quintans, C

    1987-06-01

    Tumor lipids were studied in the experimental model Human Lung Carcinoma/nude mice as well as the effect of this human neoplasm on the host liver lipid metabolism. Fatty acid profiles from tumoral lipids revealed the loss of specificity for fatty acid composition in triglycerides. Host liver fatty acid composition and cholesterol metabolism were affected by the implanted human lung tissue. A noticeable increase ratio between saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed in host liver fatty acid phospholipids (1.17 +/- 0.17) in comparison to control liver (0.84 +/- 0.04). Cholesterol synthesis was assessed "in vivo" by means of [14C]acetate incorporation. The specific radioactivity of [14C] cholesterol was increased by a factor of about 6 in host liver as compared with control liver. This observation along with the marked decrease in the cholesterol content of host liver and the hypocholesterolemia detected in the host mice led us to suggest an increase in the liver cholesterol catabolism promoted by the presence of the tumor.

  11. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes.

  12. Experimental chemotherapy of human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-01

    Human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice offer the most realistic model for experimental chemotherapy of human neoplasms. Almost all the known human malignancies have been successfully transplanted in the nudes, although the rate of takes varies considerably between different tumor types. So far, a good correlation has been observed between the results obtained treating with the same drug the same tumor in the patient and in the nude mouse. Our experience in this field is, however, still too limited for the direct extrapolation of chemotherapeutic results obtained in the nudes to human tumors.

  13. Human hematopoietic tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, P P; Hansen, H; Jhanwar, S C; Beck, J; Lieberman, P; Helson, L

    1981-01-01

    Despite the difficulty in establishing human hematopoietic tumors in nude mice, four human lymphomas were successfully heterotransplanted and passaged serially in our laboratory. Additional immunosuppression with chemotherapy, whole-body radiation or splenectomy was not required for establishment of these tumors. All four of these tumors were of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma type. In each case the tumors in the nude mice were histologically identical to the biopsy specimens from the patient in whom they were derived. Attempts to transplant tumor from 17 patients with Hodgkin's disease or 4 patients with immunoblastic lymphadenopathy were unsuccessful. Tumors from 2 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and 1 with hairy cell leukemia could be grown in nude mice conditioned with whole-body radiation or cytosine arabinoside, but these tumors could not be passaged to other nude mice. Cell surface markers were determined on the four serially passaged lymphomas. These surface markers were similar to the markers on the original tumors, even after long periods of mouse-to-mouse passage. In 1 patient with fevers, night sweats and mediastinal mass in whom a diagnosis had not been made after several biopsies, examination of tumor tissue that had been transplanted from the patient to the nude mouse clearly established the diagnosis of lymphoma.

  14. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  15. [Influence of MSA on cell growth and spontaneousn metastasis of L9981-Luc lung cancer transplanted model in nude mice by bioluminescence imaging].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuanrong; Wang, Yuli; Liu, Hongyu; Yan, Huiqin; Chen, Jun; Hou, Mei; Li, Weimin; Fan, Yaguang; Zhou, Qinghua

    2013-02-01

    Methylseleninic acid (MSA) is an artificially developed selenium compound. It has been proven that MSA could inhibit growth and metastasis on many tumor cells. This study investigated whether MSA has an impact on the growth and metastasis of L9981-Luc lung cancer transplanted model in nude mice or not. A transplantated tumor model was established in nude mice. Fifteen nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: the control group treated with normal saline (0.2 mL/d), the MSA group treated with MSA solution (0.2 mL), and the cisplatin (DDP) group injected intraperitoneally with DDP (4 mg/kg/w). Inhibition of MSA on tumor growth and tumor metastasis was observed using the IVIS Imaging System 200 Series. A significant difference was obserced in the primary tumor bioluminescence among the three groups (P=0.002) on 21 days post-inoculation. Primary tumor bioluminescence in the DDP group (P=0.001) and in the MSA group (P=0.031) was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.001). No significant difference in the metastasis bioluminescence of the thoracic area was indicated among the three groups (P>0.05). MSA can inhibit the growth of planted tumor of transgenic lung cancer cell lines L9981-Luc in nude mice. MSA may also suppress the distant metastasis of the transplanted tumor of transgenic lung cancer cell lines L9981-Luc in nude mice.

  16. Establishment of an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice using a drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line with a high expression of c-Kit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cunjian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Liu, Xiangqiong; Ling, Shengrong; Zhang, Fayun; Liang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The resistance of ovarian cancer to platinum-based chemotherapy is a critical issue in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to establish animal models to replicate this clinical condition, as well as to investigate the resistance mechanisms of ovarian cancer. A cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, was screened, validated and injected subcutaneously into the neck of female nude mice. Following tumor establishment, the tumor was collected and cut into small sections, which were subsequently implanted into the ovaries of other nude mice. The growth of the orthotopic tumors was observed and the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed and dissected. The orthotopic and metastatic tumor tissues were collected, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed. In the present study, 16 nude mice underwent orthotopic transplantation surgery and a tumor model was successfully established in 14/16 of the mice, with an in situ tumor formation rate of 87.5%. Following euthanasia, a laparotomy demonstrated the tumor formation at the site of transplantation, as well as varying degrees of metastasis to additional organs and tissues. Therefore, the present study successfully established an orthotopic tumor transplantation model in nude mice using a c-Kit-positive DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line. This model may represent a useful tool for investigating the resistance mechanism of ovarian cancer, as well as evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic strategies.

  17. Altered schistosome granuloma formation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Byram, J E; von Lichtenberg, F

    1977-09-01

    Schistosome egg-induced lesions in congenitally athymic mice differed from those found in normal heterozygous controls. Heterozygote liver granulomas were chareacterized by poorly phagocytic epithelioid macrophages, and were rich in eosinophils and fibroblasts, with peripheral lymphocytes and plasma cells. Hepatic lesions in nude mice were much smaller and lacked epithelioid macrophages, with lesions about mature eggs, typically consisting of monocytes and macrophages filled with pigment, occasional neutrophils, and rarely one or more eosinophils or giant cells. While heterozygote granulomas damaged liver cells mainly by encroachment or by their vascular effects, in the nudes hepatocytes bordering the lesions showed microvesicular cytoplasmic damage and either hydropic degeneration or focal acidophilic necrosis of individual liver cells. In heterozygotes, immunofluorescent-stainable schistosome egg antigen (SEA) was concentrated in the granuloma center. In nude mice, SEA, was distributed throughout the infiltrates and in and around hepatocytes adjacent to egg lesions corresponding to the observed pattern of hepatocyte necrosis. We conclude that, in contrast to heterozygotes, nude mice lack hypersensitivity granulomas and fail to sequester toxic egg products, this resulting in zonal hepatocellular damage. Alternative explanations include the possibility of a latent hepatitis virus being activated by the schistosome infection; however, several cogent arguments are presented against that alternative.

  18. New model of in-situ xenograft lymphangiogenesis by a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Jun; Jing, Wei; Ni, Yan-Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Hai-Hua; Fan, Yue-Zu

    2012-01-01

    To explore a new model of in-situ xenograft lymphangiogenesis of human colonic adenocarcinomas in nude mice. On the basis of establishing subcutaneous xenograft lymphangiogenesis model of human colonic adenocarcinoms, in-situ xenografts were established through the in situ growth of the HT-29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line in nude mice. The numbers of lymphangiogenic microvessels, the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaloronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1), D2-40 and the lymphatic endothelial growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), -D (VEGF-D) and receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) were compared by immunohistochemical staining, Western bolt and quantitative RT-PCR in xenograft in-situ models. Some microlymphatics with thin walls, large and irregular or collapsed cavities and increased LMVD, with strong positive of LYVE-1, D2-40 in immunohistochemistry, were observed, identical with the morphological characteristics of lymphatic vessels and capillaries. Expression of LYVE-1 and D2-40 proteins and mRNAs were significantly higher in xenografts in-situ than in the negative control group (both P<0.01). Moreover, the expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 proteins and mRNAs were significantly higher in xenografts in-situ (both P<0.01), in conformity with the signal regulation of the VEGF-C,-D/VEGFR-3 axis of tumor lymphangiogenesis. In-situ xenografts of a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line demonstrate tumor lymphangiogenesis. This novel in-situ animal model should be useful for further studying mechanisms of lymph node metastasis, drug intervention and anti-metastasis therapy in colorectal cancer.

  19. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  20. A novel spontaneous metastasis model of human osteosarcoma developed using orthotopic transplantation of intact tumor tissue into tibia of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Crnalic, S; Häkansson, I; Boquist, L; Löfvenberg, R; Brostrom, L A

    1997-03-01

    Evaluation of potential new treatment strategies requires adequate experimental tumor models which resemble the clinical situation as closely as possible. The purpose of the present study was to establish a new human osteosarcoma spontaneous metastasis model using orthotopic transplantation of histologically intact tumor tissue into the tibia of nude mice. Intact tumor pieces, obtained from the 32nd serial passage of subcutaneously growing human osteosarcoma xenografts, were implanted into the proximal tibia in 31 nude mice. Animals were sacrificed and autopsied 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after transplantation and examined macroscopically and microscopically for local tumor growth and metastases. All mice developed local intratibial bone tumors that were radiographically and histologically similar to primary human osteosarcoma. Lung metastases were observed in all mice, local and distant lymph node metastases in 15 (48%), and liver metastases in 6 (19%) mice. The microscopic appearance of the metastases was similar to that observed in the donor patient's tumor, corresponding subcutaneous xenografts and orthotopically transplanted intratibial tumors. This spontaneous metastasis model of human osteosarcoma in nude mice may resemble a clinical situation and could thus be useful for studies on local tumor growth, metastasis formation and therapy.

  1. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  2. [99mTc-octreotide receptor scintigraphy in NCI-H446 small cell lung cancer nude mice model].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zuo, Shuyao; Wang, Xufu; Liu, Xinfeng; Wang, Guoming; Wu, Fengyu

    2015-01-01

    For highly aggressive small cell lung cancer (SCLC), early diagnosis is important for its prognosis, but the current inspection methods are more limited, with poor specificity of the traditional imaging methods, and the high cost of PET/CT, difficult to popularization and application. SCLC is kind of neuroendocrine tumors, high expression of somatostatin receptors, which is the cornerstone of its early molecular imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study is to observe the biodistribution and metabolism of 99mTc-octreotide in normal and the human SCLC bearing nude mice. Dynamic and static scintigraphy at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h were performed in both normal and tumor bearing nude mice after intravenous injection of 99mTc-octreotide. The technique of drawing region of interest (ROI) was used to obtain the averaged pixel counts and the activity-time (A-T) curve of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, tumor, respectively. ① The biodistribution study in normal nude mice showed highest uptake in kidney and liver, lower in lung and heart, lowest in brain. Most 99mTc-octreotide was excreted via kidney. ② All tumors were displayed clearly at 3 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide. The averaged T/N ratio at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide was 1.163 ± 0.03, 2.08 ± 0.12, 3.03 ± 0.23, 2.689 ± 0.31, respectively (F=51.69, P<0.000,1). The radioactivity of tumor was lower than liver, and similar with the lung. The curve of tumor showed a radioactivity peak at 2 min-3 min postinjection. 99mTc-octreotide receptor imaging on nude mice bearing SCLC shares high positive rate, especially at 3 h postinjection.

  3. Hair growth cycles and wave patterns in "nude" mice.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J

    1976-09-01

    Hair growth cycles and waves were studied through five generations of hair growth in C57BL/6Icr "nude" mice. One group of nudes received thymus grafts, a second group was composed of athymid nudes and a third consisted of heterozygous (nu/&) haired littermates. The results showed that hair growth cycles and wave patterns were essentially the same in thymus-restored nudes and athymic nudes which indicated that thymus did not play a role in these phenomena. The time interval between hair cycles was considerably shorter in both groups of nude mice as compared to heterozygotes (nu/&). Finally, the hair growth wave pattern in nude mice did not change throughout the generation of hair growth whereas profound changes in wave patterns were observed in heterozygous (nu/&) littermates.

  4. Novel intrapulmonary model for orthotopic propagation of human lung cancers in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    McLemore, T L; Liu, M C; Blacker, P C; Gregg, M; Alley, M C; Abbott, B J; Shoemaker, R H; Bohlman, M E; Litterst, C C; Hubbard, W C

    1987-10-01

    A major impediment to the study of human lung cancer pathophysiology, as well as to the discovery and development of new specific antitumor agents for the treatment of lung cancer, has been the lack of appropriate experimental animal models. This paper describes a new model for the propagation of human lung tumor cells in the bronchioalveolar regions of the right lungs of athymic NCr-nu/nu mice via an intrabronchial (i.b.) implantation procedure. Over 1000 i.b. implantations have been performed to date, each requiring 3 to 5 min for completion and having a surgery-related mortality of approximately 5%. The model was used successfully for the orthotopic propagation of four established human lung cancer cell lines including: an adenosquamous cell carcinoma (NCI-H125); an adenocarcinoma (A549); a large cell undifferentiated carcinoma (NCI-H460), and a bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma (NCI-H358). When each of the four cell lines was implanted i.b. using a 1.0 X 10(6) tumor cell inoculum, 100 +/- 0% (SD) tumor-related mortality was observed within 9 to 61 days. In contrast, when the conventional s.c. method for implantation was used at the same tumor cell inoculum, only minimal (2.5 +/- 5%) tumor-related mortality was observed within 140 days (P less than 0.001). Similarly, when a 1.0 X 10(5) or 1.0 X 10(4) cell inoculum was used, a dose-dependent, tumor-related mortality was observed when cells were implanted i.b. (56 +/- 24% or 25 +/- 17%) as compared with the s.c. method (5 +/- 5.7% or 0.0 +/- 0%) (P less than 0.02 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Most (greater than 90%) of the lung tumors propagated by i.b. implantation were localized to the right lung fields as documented by necropsy and/or high-resolution chest roentgenography techniques which were developed for these studies. The intrapulmonary model was also used for establishment and propagation of xenografts derived directly from enzymatically digested, fresh human lung tumor specimens obtained at the

  5. Effect of P144® (Anti-TGF-β) in an “In Vivo” Human Hypertrophic Scar Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shan Shan; Dotor, Javier; Hontanilla, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scars are one of the most important complications in surgery due to their cosmetic and functional impairments. Previous studies in tissue fibrotic disorders have shown promising results by inhibiting the biological activity effect of Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). The aim of the current study was to determine the clinical effect of the inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling in human hypertrophic scars implanted in nude mice by topical application of an inhibitor of TGF-β1 (P144®). Material and Methods A total of 30 human hypertrophic scars were implanted in 60 nude mice. The animals were divided in two groups, group A (placebo) and group B (treatment). Group C (basal) was considered as the preimplanted scar samples and they were not implanted in the nude mice. After the shedding period, topical application of a lipogel containing placebo (group A) or P144 (group B) was daily administered during two weeks. The animals were sacrificed upon completion of the study. Total area, thickness and collagen fibers area were measure and compared across all groups. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in order to quantify collagen type I and type III and elastic fiber expressions present in the dermis. Results Successful shedding was achieved in 83,3% of the xenografts. The mean time for shedding was 35±5.4 days. Statistically significant differences were found in the total area, collagen fibers area and thickness between the groups. Increased elastic fibers and decreased collagen I were found in the P144-treated group compared to the basal group. Conclusion Topical application of an inhibitor of TGF-β1 may promote scar maturation and clinical improvement of hypertrophic scar morphology features in an “in vivo” model in nude mice after two weeks of treatment. PMID:26720517

  6. Spontaneous hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in athymic nude BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, A; Tosco, C; Kumar, D; Slavin, B; Parker, J

    1982-09-01

    Basal plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were investigated in young and mature athymic nude BALB/c mice and in age-matched controls. Basal plasma glucose levels in male athymic nude mice were similar to those of controls at 1, 3, and 4 wk of age. At 6, 8, and 12 wk of age, male athymic nudes had significantly higher basal plasma glucose levels when compared with controls (P less than 0.01). Plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were similar in athymic nudes and controls at 1 wk of age, but at 3 wk of age and subsequently at 6, 8, and 12 wk athymic nude mice had significantly decreased insulin levels when compared with their age-matched controls (P less than 0.05). We found impaired glucose tolerance in male athymic nude mice at all age groups when compared with both female athymic nudes and control BALB/c mice. The discovery of a spontaneous diabetic syndrome (hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased insulin secretion) in a colony of athymic nude mice may provide an excellent model for studying the genetics and interactions between the immune and endocrine systems.

  7. Studies on the immune response of congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Jutila, J W; Reed, N D; Isaak, D D

    1975-01-01

    The central role of the thymus in immunity was assessed in nude mice. Nudes failed to reject allografts and xenografts and to respond to foreign erythrocytes but responded normally to endotoxin and pneumococcal polysaccharide. Thymus reconstitution was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro whereas reconstitution with thymic humoral factors or polyanions was not detected. Coliform overgrowth and depressed IgA levels in nudes appeared to contribute to wasting. These data emphasize the need for thymus participation in many immune phenomena.

  8. Growth and functional behavior neuroblastomas in man and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hata, J; Ueyama, Y; Tamaoki, N

    1983-12-01

    Nine human neuroblastoma were serially transplanted in nude mice. These tumor lines were established from the patients older than 1 year 10 month year old. None of the tumors taken from under the age of 1 year and 7 months grew in nude mice. All transplanted tumors produced catecholamines in varying degree. The growth of low catecholamines producing tumors was apparently aggressive compared with high catecholamines producing tumor lines. These results may indicate that tumor aggressiveness decreases with increased functional differentiation in human neuroblastoma in nude mice. The contents of catecholamine was closely correlated with the number and size of secretory granules in tumor cells. This human neuroblastoma/nude mice system may prove to be a useful tool for basic research on the biological behavior as well as on the cytological and functional differentiation of human neuroblastoma.

  9. Transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing fluorescent proteins for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In the adult mice, many organs brightly expressed GFP, including the spleen, heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum as well as the circulatory system. The liver expressed GFP at a lesser level. The red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, liver, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescence signals of all internal organs, which vary in intensity. The GFP, RFP, and CFP nude mice when transplanted with cancer cells of another color are powerful models for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) at the cellular level.

  10. Tumor development after polyoma infection in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Stutman

    1975-04-01

    Nude (nu/nu) mice in a CBA/H background show an age-dependent ssuceptibility to tumor development after polyoma virus infection (strain LID-1) when compared with nu/ + or CBA/H mice, which is apparent when 15- or 30-day-old mice are used: tumor incidence was 83 to 90% in nudes and 0 to 10% in controls. Latent perids for tumor development were also shortened in nudes. However, with increasing age nude mice become partially resistant and only 25% develop tumors when infected at 120 days of age. This partial resistance could be transferred with spleen cells to newborn mice. The cells in spleen responsible for this transfer can be eliminated by lysis with anti-Ig and complement or by pre-treatment of the donor with 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide and were not affected by treatment in vitro with anti-Thy.1.2 or procedures that remove adherent cells and/or macrophages. When the cells in 15-day-old nu/ + spleen were studied, both anti-Ig or anti-Thy.1.2 treatment eliminated tranfer of resistance to newborn. Virus replication in tissues of nude mice was increased 5 days after infection when compared with nu/ + but became comparable by day 15 after infection. Hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in serum of nude and nu/ + had comparable titers when measured early after infection but higher titers were observed in nu/ + later after infection.

  11. Curcumin Circumvents Chemoresistance in vitro and Potentiates the Effect of Thalidomide and Bortezomib against Human Multiple Myeloma in Nude Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Sethi, Gautam; Anand, Preetha; Guha, Sushovan; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown to inhibit the activation of NF-κB, a transcription factor closely linked to chemoresistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Whether curcumin can overcome chemoresistance and enhance the activity of thalidomide and bortezomib, used to treat patients with MM, was investigated in vitro and in xenograft model in nude mice. Our results show that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of human MM cells regardless of their sensitivity to dexamethasone, doxorubicin, or melphalan. Curcumin also potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib by downregulating the constitutive activation of NF-κB and Akt; and this correlated with the suppression of NF-κB-regulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, TRAF1, cIAP-1, XIAP, survivin, and VEGF. Furthermore, in a nude mice model, we found that curcumin potentiated the antitumor effects of bortezomib (P < 0.001, vehicle vs. bortezomib plus curcumin; P < 0.001, bortezomib vs. bortezomib plus curcumin), and this correlated with suppression of Ki-67 (P < 0.001 vs. control), CD31 (P < 0.001 vs. vehicle), and VEGF (P < 0.001 vs. vehicle) expression. Collectively, our results suggest that curcumin overcomes chemoresistance and sensitizes MM cells to thalidomide and bortezomib by downregulating NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene products. PMID:19372569

  12. Interleukin-15-transferred cytokine-induced killer cells elevated anti-tumor activity in a gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zheng; Liang, Wentao; Li, Zexue; Xu, Yingxin; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for gastric cancer is a novel therapy modality. However, the therapeutic effectiveness in vivo is still limited. The objective of this study was to assess the value of interleukin-15 (IL-15)-transferred cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in ACT for gastric cancer. IL-15-IRES-TK retroviral vector was constructed and transferred into the CIK cells. A gastric tumor-bearing nude mice model was constructed by subcutaneously injecting gastric cancer cells, BGC-823. Gastric tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into three groups (five mice each group) and injected with physiological saline, CIK cells, and IL-15-IRES-TK-transfected CIK cells for 2 weeks, respectively. IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells were prepared successfully and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that the transfection rate reached 85.7% after 5 days culture. In vivo experiment, we found that CIK cells retarded tumor growth by reducing tumor volume and tumor weight, as well as increasing tumor inhibition rate. Furthermore, IL-15-IRES-TK-transferred CIK cells showed a much stronger inhibition on tumor growth than CIK cells alone. Tumor morphology observation and growth indexes also showed that IL-15-transfected CIK cells had stronger cytotoxicity to tumor tissue than CIK cells. IL-15-IRES-TK transfection could elevate the effects of CIK cells to gastric carcinoma. The engineered CIK cells carrying IL-15-IRES-TK may be used in the ACT for gastric carcinoma, but prudent clinical trial is still indispensable.

  13. Improved developmental ability of porcine oocytes grown in nude mice after fusion with cytoplasmic fragments prepared by centrifugation: a model for utilization of primordial oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Primordial oocytes are a potential resource for medical and zoological application, but those of large animals have not yet been reported to show efficient embryonic development. In the present study, we established a pig model for production of blastocysts from primordial oocytes that had been grafted into nude mice and matured in vitro, in combination with fusion of cytoplasmic fragments. Neonatal porcine ovaries in which most follicles are at the primordial stage were minced and grafted into nude mice (Crlj:CD1-Foxn1(nu)). About 60 days after detection of vaginal opening, the mice were given 62.5 U/mL porcine FSH for 2 weeks by infusion to enhance follicular development. Developmentally competent oocytes collected from porcine ovaries (conventional oocytes) were matured in vitro and subjected to serial centrifugation to prepare cytoplasmic fragments without a metaphase plate (cytoplasts). Three cytoplasts were fused by electrostimulation to an oocyte retrieved from a host mouse (xenogeneic oocyte) and matured in vitro. Then these fused oocytes were fertilized and subsequently cultured in vitro. No blastocysts were generated from xenogeneic oocytes without fusion of cytoplasm. When xenogeneic oocytes had been fused with three cytoplasts, the blastocyst rate increased significantly to 14.3%, comparable to that for untreated conventional oocytes (20.0%). The numbers of cells in blastocysts for these fused oocytes (37.2 cells/blastocyst) were not significantly different from those for conventional oocytes (25.4 cells/blastocyst). Our findings show that it is possible to use primordial oocytes of large mammals in combination with xenografting of ovarian tissue and also ooplasmic fusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic Coccidioides immitis infection in nude and beige mice.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Leathers, C R; Lee, K W

    1985-01-01

    The course of experimental systemic Coccidioides immitis infection was assessed quantitatively and histologically in beige mice, congenitally athymic nude mice, and their respective normal counterparts. After intravenous inoculation with 50 arthroconidia, the number of viable C. immitis cultured from the spleens, livers, and lungs progressively increased throughout the assay in the organs of all mice. During the first 2 weeks of infection, significantly greater numbers of CFU were recovered from the spleens and livers, but not the lungs, of nude mice than from the respective organs of their phenotypically normal littermates. Significantly greater numbers of CFU were cultured from the lungs and spleens of beige mice compared with the number recovered from their functionally normal littermates. After intranasal inoculation, extrapulmonary dissemination of C. immitis occurred at an equal rate and resulted in similar organ burdens in nude mice and their normal littermates. Histological examination of infected tissues revealed a characteristic mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in euthymic mice; the response in nude mice was less severe, consisting predominantly, if not solely, of granulocytes. In addition, in tissue sections from nude mice, but not in those from their euthymic counterparts, mature spherules were frequently observed to be devoid of an associated inflammatory response. The inflammatory lesion in beige mice contained a predominance of mononuclear cells, whereas their littermates responded with a typical mixed granulomatous infiltrate. Collectively, these results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that resistance to C. immitis infection involves two primary cell populations, one under the direct influence of T-cells and the other independent of T-lymphocytes. Images PMID:3972455

  15. Cystic metacestodes of a rat-adapted Taenia taeniaeformis established in the peritoneal cavity of scid and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Ma, L; Sato, Y

    1997-08-01

    In vitro-hatched (but not activated) oncospheres of a rat-adapted strain of Taenia taeniaeformis intraperitoneally inoculated into severe combined immunodeficiency (scid), congenitally athymic (nude) and immunocompetent (normal) female BALB/c mice developed into cystic metacestodes in the peritoneal cavity (but not in the liver) of scid and nude mice exclusively. This suggests that cystic metacestodes of this parasite, usually harboured in the liver only, can establish in scid and nude mice provided that the oncospheres are inoculated into the peritoneal cavity. Immunodeficient mice, especially scid mice, may be a good experimental animal model for the intermediate host of any taeniid species, of human, domestic- or wild-animal origin.

  16. Vitamin D3 analogs stimulate hair growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vegesna, Vijaya; O'Kelly, James; Uskokovic, Milan; Said, Jonathan; Lemp, Nathan; Saitoh, Takayuki; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Binderup, Lise; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2002-11-01

    The active form of vitamin D3 can regulate epidermal keratinization by inducing terminal differentiation; and mice lacking the vitamin D receptor display defects leading to postnatal alopecia. These observations implicate the vitamin D3 pathway in regulation of hair growth. We tested the ability of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its synthetic analogs to stimulate hair growth in biege/nude/xid (BNX) nu/nu (nude) mice exhibiting congenital alopecia. Nude mice were treated with different vitamin D3 analogs at doses that we had previously found to be the highest dose without inducing toxicity (hypercalcemia). The mice were monitored for hair growth and were scored according to a defined scale. Skin samples were taken for histological observation of hair follicles and for extraction of RNA and protein. Vitamin D3 analogs dramatically stimulated the hair growth of nude mice, although parental 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 had no effect. Hair growth occurred in a cyclical pattern, accompanied by formation of normal hair follicles and increased expression of certain keratins (Ha7, Ha8, and Hb3). Vitamin D3 analogs seem to act on keratinocytes to initiate hair follicle cycling and stimulate hair growth in mice that otherwise do not grow hair.

  17. Heterotransplantation of human craniopharyngiomas in athymic "nude" mice.

    PubMed

    Bullard, D E; Bigner, D D

    1979-04-01

    Surgical biopsies from 2 human craniopharyngiomas were transplanted subcutaneously into 6 athymic "nude" mice. Morphologically characteristic craniopharyngiomas grew in 5 of these animals. In 4 animals growth was sufficient to allow transplantation into a second generation of animals. In all, 11 craniopharyngiomas were present at autopsy in the 14 animals into which the tumors had been transplanted. The tumors that grew in the animals had the same adamantinomatous architecture, epithelial nests, and keratinized nodules that were present in the original surgical sample and that are characteristic of human craniopharyngiomas. It may be possible to study growth characteristics and therapeutic sensitivities of human craniopharygniomas growing in "nude" mice.

  18. [Effects of baicalin on HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jian-Da; Huang, Yi; Chen, Ying-Yu; Li, Jing; Chen, Bu-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of baicalin on HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice in vivo and explore its mechanism. Xenograft tumor model of HL-60 cells in nude mice was established, which was divided randomly into 6 groups: negative control group (injection of 5% NaHCO(3)), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg baicalin groups, combination group (50 mg/kg baicalin + 2 mg/kg VP16) and positive control group (VP16 4 mg/kg). The nude mice with HL-60 cell xenografts were treated with drugs via intraperitoneal injection daily. After treatment for 14 days average weigh and inhibitory rate of transplanted tumor stripped from 5 nude mice in each group were calculated, and the ultrastructure change of xenografts cells were tested by transmission electron microscopy. Histopathologic examination was used to observed the change of main organs in nude mice. The expression of signaling molecular PI3K/Akt proteins extracted from xenografts was detected by Western blot. The effects of baicalin on overall survival time in nude mice with HL-60 cell xenografts were evaluated. The results showed that baicalin could inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors in dose-dependent manner. There were more necrotic and apoptotic cells in mice of baicalin-treated groups and combination group than that in mice of negative control group. Baicalin could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells in vivo by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, where the expressions of p-Akt, mTOR and p-mTOR proteins decreased compared with negative control group, and no significant difference of Akt expression was found between different groups. Compared with negative control group, the median survival time of mice in combination group was more prolongated (P < 0.05). It is concluded that baicalin can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice, and prolong median survival time of nude mice. The possible mechanisms may be related to inhibition of Akt activity and down

  19. Serial transplantation of a human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, M G; Arione, R; Foà, R; Pegoraro, L; Jemma, C; Forni, G

    1986-12-31

    A human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia line (PF-382) was serially transplanted into nude mice. No takes were observed in untreated nude mice, whereas solid tumors were observed in splenectomized and total body, sublethally irradiated mice. The minimal tumor-inducing dose and the latency time remained unchanged after the third and fifth serial transplants. Moreover, leukemic cells recovered from the 8th in vivo passages displayed the same differentiation antigens and chromosomal markers as the in vitro PF-382 cell line used for the first transplant. This stable and well-characterized experimental system could be a new model for T-lymphocyte differentiation and immune-reactivity against human leukemias.

  20. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group.

  1. Diethylcarbamazine-mediated clearance of Brugia pahangi microfilariae in immunodeficient nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Nayar, J K; Tamplin, M L

    1985-05-01

    Congenitally athymic nude C3H/HeN mice, microfilaremic with Brugia pahangi, were treated with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC). A single oral dose (100 mg/Kg body weight) of DEC resulted in the rapid reduction of numbers of circulating microfilariae in nude, thymus-grafted nude and complement-depleted nude mice. Antibodies of the IgM and IgG isotypes were not detected in the serum of microfilaremic nudes or on the microfilarial surface. These results suggest that DEC-mediated clearance of microfilariae from the circulation of nude mice is probably independent of thymus-dependent immunological mechanisms.

  2. Study of Camelpox Virus Pathogenesis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Duraffour, Sophie; Matthys, Patrick; van den Oord, Joost J.; De Schutter, Tim; Mitera, Tania; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Camelpox virus (CMLV) is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n.) CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c.) infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c+CD8α+ lymphoid and CD11c+CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog) was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral therapies in an

  3. [Transplantation and magnetic resonance imaging of transplantable human glioma tissue in the brain of nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Jun; Diao, Yi; Huang, Qiang; Shen, Jun-Kang; Lan, Qing

    2007-09-01

    In previous reports, orthotopic transplantation models of glioma were produced by injecting cell suspension into the brain of mice, which is complex, time-consuming, and nearly impossible to prepare in a large scale within a short period. This study was to establish human glioma orthotopic transplantation model in nude mice by transplanting tumor tissue in the brain, and investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the transplanted tumors. Human glioma cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to form human glioma. The transplantable human glioma tissues (2 mm3) were put into trocar and directly injected into the caudate nucleus of nude mice. Thirty days later, the tumors were detected by 1.5T superconduct MR machine with micro-23 coil and measured by Dicomworks (V1.35) software. Tumor morphology was observed under light microscope with HE staining. Tumor volume was measured under stereomicroscope. The feasibility of measuring tumor volume according to MRI data was evaluated. MRI showed that in the 15 nude mice received orthotopic transplantation in the caudate nucleus, 14 developed glioma. Under microscope, glioma tissues were found at the same sites as where MRI indicated. Tumor volume was (23.45+/-11.64) mm3 as measured by MRI and (23.19+/-10.18) mm3 as detected under stereomicroscope (P>0.05). The successful rate of tumor model preparation was 93% (14/15). The successful rate of tumor imaging by MRI was 100% (14/14). Tissue quantitative transplantation via trocar is simple, time-saving, and easy to construct tumor model in a large scale with high successful rate. The 1.5T MR machine with micro-23 coil can be used to observe tumor position and size of orthotopic transplantation models of human glioma in nude mice.

  4. Characteristics of Viruses Derived from Nude Mice with Persistent Measles Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Yuko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) isolates from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) differ from wild-type MV virologically. However, few animal models have reported viruses with characteristics of the SSPE virus. The MV Edmonston strain was inoculated into the subarachnoid space of nude mice. All nude mice displayed weight loss and required euthanasia, with a mean survival duration of 73.2 days. The viral load in the brain was 4- to 400-fold higher than the inoculated load, and brain infection was confirmed by immunostaining. Gene sequencing of the viruses revealed that amino acid mutations occurred more frequently in matrix proteins. The most common mutation was a uridine-to-cytosine transition. The virus exhibited lower free virus particle formation ability than the Edmonston strain. When nude mice were challenged with 2 × 102 PFU of the brain-derived virus, the mean survival duration was 34.7 days, which was significantly shorter than that of the mice challenged with 4 × 104 PFU of the Edmonston strain (P < 0.01). This study indicated that MV in a nude mouse model of persistent infection exhibited characteristics of the SSPE virus. This model may prove useful in elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of SSPE and developing potential therapeutics. PMID:23345518

  5. Infections of Brugia pahangi in conventional and nude (athymic) mice.

    PubMed

    Suswillo, R R; Owen, D G; Denham, D A

    1980-12-01

    AKR, BALB/c and CBA/Ca and T.O. mice were completely resistant to infection with third stage infective larvae of Brugia pahangi. Third, fourth and fifth stage worms transplanted from the peritoneal cavity of jirds into the peritoneal cavity of mice continued to develop. BALB/c mice were the most susceptible of the strains tested and adult worms were obtained after each type of transplanted infection. Congenitally athymic nude mice were much less resistant to transplanted worms and infective larvae developed to full maturity in most of them. Ten of 14 athymic mice infected by the intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of infective larvae had microfilariae in their blood or peritoneal cavities. At autopsy a percentage recovery of adult worms of 0-38% (mean 11.1%) was obtained. Microfilariae were only found in the blood of 2 of 6 athymic mice infected by subcutaneous (sc) infection and at autopsy 0-19.1% (mean 6.1%) recoveries were obtained. The thymic littermates of the nudes were more resistant than those most of the other strains used.

  6. Bone graft in the shape of human mandibular condyle reconstruction via seeding marrow-derived osteoblasts into porous coral in a nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fulin; Mao, Tianqiu; Tao, Kai; Chen, Shujun; Ding, Guicong; Gu, Xiaoming

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a tissue-engineered bone graft model in the shape of a human mandibular condyle. Natural coral with a pore size of 150 to 220 microm and porosity of about 36% was molded into the shape of a human mandibular condyle. Culture-expanded rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cells were induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2) to improve osteoblastic phenotype. Then marrow-derived osteoblasts were seeded into natural coral at a density of 2 x 10(8)/mL and incubated in vitro for 3 days before implantation. The cell-coral complexes were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of nude mice and incubated in vivo for 2 months before harvesting. Implantation of coral alone acted as control. The specimens were processed for gross inspection, radiographic examination, and histologic and scanning electronic microscopic observation. The results showed that new bone grafts in the shape of a human mandibular condyle were successfully developed 2 months after implantation and maintained the initial shape of the natural coral scaffold. New bone could be observed histologically on the surface and in the pores of natural coral in all specimens in the cell-seeding group (6 of 6), whereas in the control group there was no evidence of osteogenesis process (0 of 4). This study suggests the feasibility of using porous coral as scaffold material transplanted with marrow-derived osteoblasts to restore bone graft in the shape of human mandibular condyle and shows the potential of using this method for the reconstruction of bone defects. Copyright 2002 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  7. Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W. Elaine; Luo, Haitao; Chen, Yi C.; Carpenter, A. Betts; Lau, Jamie K.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays anti-proliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin potently suppressed the growth of H69 human SCLC tumors in vivo as ascertained by CAM assays and nude mice models. The second part of our study attempted to provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. We found that the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin is correlated with a decrease in the expression of E2F-responsive proliferative genes like cyclin E, thymidylate synthase, cdc25A and cdc6, both at mRNA and protein levels. The transcription factor E2F4 mediated the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. Ablation of E2F4 levels by siRNA methodology suppressed capsaicin-induced G1 arrest. ChIP assays demonstrated that capsaicin caused the recruitment of E2F4 and p130 on E2F-responsive proliferative promoters, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin could be useful in the therapy of human SCLCs. PMID:20421925

  8. Human cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of premature ovarian failure in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianhong; Jin, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Hu, Dian; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the potential of human cord blood mononuclear cell (HCMNC) transplantation as a treatment for premature ovarian failure (POF) in a nude mouse model. Methods: Female nude mice were randomly divided into three groups; a normal control group (n = 35), a POF group (POF plus vehicle, n = 35) and a POF plus cell transplantation group (HCMNCs were implanted into the ovaries, n = 35). HCMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and labeled with BrdU. Four weeks after transplantation, the nude mice were sacrificed to determine serum levels of E2, FSH and LH as indicators of ovarian function, and the ovaries were examined both histologically and immunochemically. Results: The transplanted HCMNCs survived in the transplantation group and were detected by BrdU. In the transplantation group, serum levels of E2 significantly increased while serum levels of FSH and LH significantly decreased compared to the POF control group. Additionally, the transplantation group had a recovery in follicle number. Conclusion: HCMNCs can be successfully transplanted into the ovaries of nude mice and can improve ovarian function in POF. PMID:26064319

  9. Spontaneous Hymenolepis nana infection in a breeding colony of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hauff, P; Arnold, W

    1990-01-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of a parasitic infection with the dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana is nude mice was observed under conventional conditions. Clinical, pathological and histological observations are described.

  10. Combination of 13-Cis Retinoic Acid and Lovastatin: Marked Antitumor Potential In Vivo in a Pheochromocytoma Allograft Model in Female Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  11. Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George; Grossman, Ashley; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  12. Non-invasive fluorescent-protein imaging of orthotopic pancreatic-cancer-patient tumorgraft progression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Katz, Matthew; Fleming, Jason; Truty, Mark; Thomas, Ryan; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    In order to individualize and therefore have more effective treatment for pancreatic cancer, we have developed a multicolor, imageable, orthotopic mouse model for individual patients with pancreatic cancer by passaging their tumors through transgenic nude mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP). The tumors acquired brightly fluorescent stroma from the transgenic host mice, which was stably associated with the tumors through multiple passages. In the present study, pancreatic cancer patient tumor specimens were initially established in NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NcrCrl (NOD/SCID) mice. The tumors were then passaged orthotopically into transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing GFP and subsequently to nude mice ubiquitously expressing RFP. The tumors, with very bright GFP and RFP stroma, were then orthotopically passaged to non-transgenic nude mice. It was possible to image the brightly fluorescent tumors non-invasively longitudinally as they progressed in the non-transgenic nude mice. This non-invasive imageable tumorgraft model will be valuable to screen for effective treatment options for individual patients with pancreatic cancer, as well as for the discovery of improved agents for this treatment-resistant disease.

  13. Color-Coded Imaging of Breast Cancer Metastatic Niche Formation in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Momiyama, Masashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    We report here a color-coded imaging model in which metastatic niches in the lung and liver of breast cancer can be identified. The transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing nude mouse was used as the host. The GFP nude mouse expresses GFP in all organs. However, GFP expression is dim in the liver parenchymal cells. Mouse mammary tumor cells (MMT 060562) (MMT), expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), were injected in the tail vein of GFP nude mice to produce experimental lung metastasis and in the spleen of GFP nude mice to establish a liver metastasis model. Niche formation in the lung and liver metastasis was observed using very high resolution imaging systems. In the lung, GFP host-mouse cells accumulated around as few as a single MMT-RFP cell. In addition, GFP host cells were observed to form circle-shaped niches in the lung even without RFP cancer cells, which was possibly a niche in which future metastasis could be formed. In the liver, as with the lung, GFP host cells could form circle-shaped niches. Liver and lung metastases were removed surgically and cultured in vitro. MMT-RFP cells and GFP host cells resembling cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed interacting, suggesting that CAFs could serve as a metastatic niche.

  14. Protein expression changes during human triple negative breast cancer cell line progression to lymph node metastasis in a xenografted model in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, María Paula; Arriaga, Juan Martín; Bianchini, Michele; Quintá, Héctor Ramiro; Bravo, Alicia Inés; Levy, Estrella Mariel; Mordoh, José; Barrio, María Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking hormone receptors and HER-2 amplification are very aggressive tumors. Since relevant differences between primary tumors and metastases could arise during tumor progression as evidenced by phenotypic discordances reported for hormonal receptors or HER-2 expression, in this analysis we studied changes that occurred in our TNBC model IIB-BR-G throughout the development of IIB-BR-G-MTS6 metastasis to the lymph nodes (LN) in nude mice, using an antibody-based protein array to characterize their expression profile. We also analyzed their growth kinetics, migration, invasiveness and cytoskeleton structure in vitro and in vivo. In vitro IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells grew slower but showed higher anchorage independent growth. In vivo IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors grew significantly faster and showed a 100% incidence of LN metastasis after s.c. inoculation, although no metastasis was observed for IIB-BR-G. CCL3, IL1β, CXCL1, CSF2, CSF3, IGFBP1, IL1α, IL6, IL8, CCL20, PLAUR, PlGF and VEGF were strongly upregulated in IIB-BR-G-MTS6 while CCL4, ICAM3, CXCL12, TNFRSF18, FIGF were the most downregulated proteins in the metastatic cell line. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 protein expression profile could reflect a higher NFκB activation in these cells. In vitro, IIB-BR-G displayed higher migration but IIB-BR-G-MTS6 had more elevated matrigel invasion ability. In agreement with that observation, IIB-BR-G-MTS6 had an upregulated expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, PLAUR and HGF. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors presented also higher local lymphatic invasion than IIB-BR-G but similar lymphatic vessel densities. VEGFC and VEGFA/B expression were higher both in vitro and in vivo for IIB-BR-G-MTS6. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 expressed more vimentin than IB-BR-G cells, which was mainly localized in the cellular extremities and both cell lines are E-cadherin negative. Our results suggest that IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells have acquired a pronounced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Protein

  15. Human Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Transplanted into Nude Mice: Growth Regulation by Estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaswaroop, P. G.; Zaino, R. J.; Mortel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for studying the growth of primary tumors of human endometrium and its regulation by 17β -estradiol has been developed in which ovariectomized nude mice are used as recipients. The receptors for sex steroids are maintained during serial transplantation of the tumor in this system. Although the rate of growth of receptor-negative endometrial tumors transplanted into ovariectomized nude mice is unaffected by the sustained presence or absence of estradiol, the growth of receptor-positive tumors is significantly increased by estradiol. Receptor-positive tumors treated with estradiol produced elevated concentrations of progesterone receptor. That the progesterone receptor is functional in this tumor is evident from the induction of estradiol 17β -dehydrogenase activity upon progestin administration. These findings are consistent with receptor-mediated regulation of growth of endometrial carcinoma.

  16. [Inhibition Function of Dominant-negative Mutant Gene Survivin-D53A to SPC-A1 Lung Adenocarcinoma Xenograft in Nude Mice Models].

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Peng, Xingchen; Lu, You; Huang, Meijuan

    2015-06-01

    Survivin-D53A (SVV-D53A) is a dominant-negative mutant survivin, which represents a potential promising target for cancer gene therapy. The present study was designed to determine whether SVV-D53A plasmid encapsuled by DOTAP: Chol liposome would have the anti-tumor activity against SPC-A1 lung adenocarcinoma, and to detect the possible mechanisms. In our experiment, SPC-A1 cells were transfected in vitro with SVV-D53A plasmid and examined for protein expression by Western blot, then flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis. SPC-A1 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts were established in vivo in the nude mice, which received the i. v. administrations of SVV-D53A plasmid/liposome complexes. After mice were sacrificed, the paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections were used for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Compared with the control group, the mice treated with SVV-D53A plasmid had an obviously reduced tumor volume, with high level of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in tumor tissue. The research results proved that the administration of SVV-D53A plasmid resulted in significant inhibition of SPC-A1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The functional mechanism is that the anti-tumor response causes and induces tumor cell apoptosis.

  17. [Targeting therapy of magnetic doxorubicin liposome in nude mice bearing colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping-hong; Yao, Li-qing; Qin, Xin-yu; Shen, Xi-zhong; Liu, Yi-shu; Lu, Wei-yue; Yao, Ming

    2003-12-10

    To investigate the effect of magnetic doxorubicin liposome (MDL) in the targeting treatment of nude mice bearing colon cancer. Human colon cancer line LoVo cells were implanted hypodermically into nude mouse. Two weeks after the mouse was killed and the tumor was taken out and cut into small pieces to be retransplanted into nude mice so as to establish an experimental model. MDL was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method. The particle size and structure of MDL were evaluated. Eighteen nude mice with colon cancer were divided into 3 groups of 3 mice: free DOX group, MDL (-) group (no magnetic field was added to the tumor surface), and MDL (+) group (magnetic field with the strength of 4,500 G was added). DOX of the dosage of 5 mg/kg was injected through the caudal vein in these 3 groups. Then the mice were killed 30 minutes after. Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to examine the concentrations of DOX in the tissues and plasma. Another 36 nude mice with colon cancer were divided into 6 groups of 6 mice: normal saline group (as controls), DOX group, blank liposome group, magnetic liposome group, MDL (-) group (non-magnetic alloy was implanted into the tumor), and MDL (+) group (rare earth magnet was implanted into the tumor). The body weight, longest diameter of tumor, and short diameter vertical to the longest diameter were calculated regularly. The mice were killed 11 days after. The tumors were taken out to undergo staining and light microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to examine the apoptosis of tumor cells. The particle size of MDL was 230 nm and the magnetic particles (Fe(3)O(4)) were evenly distributed within the liposome. The DOX concentration in tumor tissue of the MDL (+) group was remarkably higher than those of the DOX and MDL (-) groups (both P < 0.05). The DOX concentration in heart and kidney of the DOX group were higher than those of the other 2 groups, and the plasma DOX concentrations of the DOX group was significantly lower than those of

  18. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  19. Resveratrol attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in lymphoma nude mice by heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Song, Zhi-ping; Gui, Dong-mei; Hu, Wei; Chen, Yue-guang; Zhang, Da-dong

    2012-12-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) has been used in a variety of human malignancies for decades, in particular of lymphoma. But increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been implicated in its cardiotoxicity. Resveratrol (RES) generates cardiovascular protective effects by heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)-mediated mechanism. The present study was designed to determine whether RES protected cardiomyocyte against apoptosis through induction of HO-1 in lymphoma nude mouse in vivo. After being developed into lymphoma model, 40 male Balb/c nude mice were randomized to one of the following four treatments (10 mice per group): control, DOX, DOX + RES and DOX + RES + HO-1 inhibitor (zinc protoporphyrin IX, ZnPP). The results showed that DOX injection markedly decreased the body weight, the heart weight and the ratio of heart weight to body weight, but inversely increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the level of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Moreover, DOX injection attenuated HO-1 expression and enzymatic activity as well as increased P53 expression, modulated Bcl-2/Bax expression and enhanced caspase 3 activity. These cardiotoxic effects of DOX were ameliorated by its combination with RES. However, the protective effects of RES were reversed by the addition of ZnPP. Taken together, it is concluded that HO-1 plays a core role for protective action of RES in DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in lymphoma nude mice.

  20. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  1. Detection of Corynebacterium bovis infection in athymic nude mice from a research animal facility in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Kim, Dong-Su; Han, Ju-Hee; Chang, Seo-Na; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-12-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) bovis infection in nude mice causes hyperkeratosis and weight loss and has been reported worldwide but not in Korea. In 2011, nude mice from an animal facility in Korea were found to have white flakes on their dorsal skin. Histopathological testing revealed that the mice had hyperkeratosis and Gram-positive bacteria were found in the skin. We identified isolated bacteria from the skin lesions as C. bovis using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. bovis infection in nude mice from Korea.

  2. The Nude Mouse as Model for Liver Deficiency Study and Treatment and Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Isabelle; Richert, Lysiane

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at reviewing the various uses of Nude mouse for the development of liver deficiency models and evaluation of efficacy of hepatic cell xenotransplantation. The first part records the large range of liver deficiency models that can be developed in Nude mice: surgical partial hepatectomy, acute toxic liver deficiency, chronic cirrhosis, and transgenic liver injury. The second part tackles the outcome of rat hepatocyte as well as human cell transplantation, both mature hepatocyte and hepatic progenitor, into Nude mouse submitted to liver injury. Results are discussed and compared to other available immunodeficient mouse models. The issue of humanized liver creation is also addressed. Altogether, these results show that Nude mouse appears to be a suitable small animal model to expand our insight into liver cell engraftment and regeneration. PMID:23193481

  3. Lack of correlation between natural killer activity and tumor growth control in nude mice with different immune defects.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, O; Hansen, C T; Cannon, G B; Statham, C N; Lichtenstein, G R; Boyd, M R

    1984-10-01

    To elucidate the in vivo role of natural killer (NK) cells, the growth of several murine and human tumors was studied in four variants of athymic, nude mice with different levels of NK activity. Beige-nude mice, homozygous for both the beige and the nude genes, had very low levels of NK activity, and their response to the B-cell mitogen, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, was lower than that of high-NK, adult NIH nude mice. Young and adult NIH nudes had different NK levels and showed different response in assays for K-cell, T-cell, and B-cell activity. The B-cell-defective NIH-II mice had slightly lower NK levels than adult NIH animals, but much lower response in the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. No correlation was found between host NK activity and the s.c. growth of various human (LOX, CEM, K562) and murine (YAC-1) tumor cells. Low NK activity was not associated with increased lung colony formation in a metastasis model using i.v.-injected human (LOX) and murine (B16F10) melanoma cells. No relationship was found between host NK activity and the rate of elimination of i.v.-injected 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled LOX, B16F10, and YAC-1 cells from lungs, liver, or spleen. The results fail to support the view that NK cells exert significant direct effects on tumor cells in vivo.

  4. Ectopic osteogenesis of an injectable nHAC/CSH loaded with blood-acquired mesenchymal progenitor cells in a nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Wu, Xia; Liu, Hongchen; Wang, Dongsheng; E, Lingling; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    An injectable bone cement, nHAC/CSH, which consists of nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) and calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4.½H2O; CSH) was investigated as a tissue-engineered scaffold material with blood-acquired mesenchymal progenitor cells (BMPCs) as seeding cells. An in vitro study on the cytocompatability of nHAC/CSH and an in vivo study on the ectopic bone formation of nHAC/CSH loaded with dBMPCs were both conducted. The dBMPCs morphology, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis assays were conducted using the direct contact and extract method. The cells tests exhibited normal growth and bioactive function in vitro. Studies in vivo showed that this injectable tissue engineered bone (ITB) formed bone structure in the heterotopic site of nude mice. These findings indicate that the ITB composed of nHAC/CSH and dBMPCs may represent a useful strategy for clinical reconstruction of irregular bone defects.

  5. Effects of Per2 overexpression on growth inhibition and metastasis, and on MTA1, nm23-H1 and the autophagy-associated PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Li, Li; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Period2 (Per2) and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, in addition to evaluating the effect of this gene on the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in nude mice xenograft models. The detection of Per2 by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting methods at various stages of ovarian cancer in tumor tissue samples was conducted. Nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer were constructed using an ovarian cancer cell line and, using a gene transfection technique, exogenous infusion of the recombinant gene, Per2, was performed. To assess for the successful and stable expression of Per2 in the tumor tissue, levels of Per2 expression in the nude mice xenograft models were detected by RT‑qPCR. During the experimental period, the tumor volumes were measured every three days. Two weeks following treatment cessation, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumor weight and volume were measured. Furthermore, detection of the changes in expression levels of metastasis‑associated gene 1 (MTA‑1) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene, non‑metastasis protein 23‑H1 (nm23‑H1), and the expression change of autophagy‑associated signal transduction pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that with ovarian cancer stage development, the expression of Per2 gradually reduced or ceased. In addition, exogenous Per2 was successfully and stably expressed in nude mice tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, in the Per2 overexpression group, MTA‑1 protein expression was significantly reduced when compared with the phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) control and empty plasmid groups, while nm23‑H1 protein expression was significantly higher when compared with those two groups. The expression levels of PI3K and PKB kinase, which are marker proteins of the autophagy

  6. Effect of curcumin on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in nude mice prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiayi; Ning, Jianping; Peng, Linlin; He, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urinary system. Curcumin has curative effect on many kinds of cancers and can inhibit prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells proliferation. This study aimed to explore the curcumin induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously to the nude mice to establish the tumor model. The nude mice were randomly divided into group C (normal saline), group B (6% polyethylene glycol and 6% anhydrous ethanol), group H, M, L (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg curcumin). The tumor volume was measured every 6 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were killed at the 30(th) day after injection to weight the tumor. TUNEL assay was applied to determine cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The tumor volume and weight in group H, M, L were significantly lower than the control group (C, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate increased following the curcumin dose increase. Compared with the control group, Bcl-2 expression in group H, M, L gradually decreased, while Bax protein expression increased (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate showed no statistical difference between group B and C, while it increased in curcumin group H, M, and L (P<0.05). Curcumin could inhibit PC-3 growth, decrease tumor volume, reduce tumor weight, and induce cell apoptosis under the skin of nude mice by up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl-2.

  7. Effect of curcumin on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in nude mice prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiayi; Ning, Jianping; Peng, Linlin; He, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urinary system. Curcumin has curative effect on many kinds of cancers and can inhibit prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells proliferation. This study aimed to explore the curcumin induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously to the nude mice to establish the tumor model. The nude mice were randomly divided into group C (normal saline), group B (6% polyethylene glycol and 6% anhydrous ethanol), group H, M, L (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg curcumin). The tumor volume was measured every 6 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were killed at the 30th day after injection to weight the tumor. TUNEL assay was applied to determine cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The tumor volume and weight in group H, M, L were significantly lower than the control group (C, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate increased following the curcumin dose increase. Compared with the control group, Bcl-2 expression in group H, M, L gradually decreased, while Bax protein expression increased (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate showed no statistical difference between group B and C, while it increased in curcumin group H, M, and L (P<0.05). Curcumin could inhibit PC-3 growth, decrease tumor volume, reduce tumor weight, and induce cell apoptosis under the skin of nude mice by up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl-2. PMID:26464676

  8. miR-29c suppresses pancreatic cancer liver metastasis in an orthotopic implantation model in nude mice and affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yongkang; Li, Jianwei; Chen, Zhiyu; Li, Xiaowu; Zheng, Shuguo; Yi, Dong; Zhong, Ai; Chen, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We investigated mechanisms of pancreatic cancer metastasis and defined the biological role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer metastasis. After two rounds of cell selection in vivo, pancreatic cancer cells with various metastatic potentials derived from spontaneous liver metastases were used as a model of pancreatic cancer to determine the role of miR-29c in pancreatic cancer metastasis. Pancreatic cancer samples were analyzed for miRNA-29c expression, and these levels were associated with survival between groups. miR-29c suppresses cell migration and invasion by targeting the MMP2 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-29c suppresses pancreatic cancer liver metastasis in a nude mouse orthotopic implantation model. miR-29c expression was associated with metastasis and pancreatic cancer patient survival. miR-29c plays an important role in mediating pancreatic cancer metastasis to the liver by targeting MMP2. Therefore, miR-29c may serve as a novel marker of pancreatic cancer metastasis and possibly as a therapeutic target to treat pancreatic cancer liver metastasis.

  9. Anticancer effect of Jinlongshe granules on in situ-transplanted human MKN-45 gastric cancer in nude mice and xenografted sarcoma 180 in Kunming mice and its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi-Hong; Wei, Pin-Kang; Xu, Ling; Qin, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Jun

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect of Chinese compound Jinlongshe (JLS) granules on sarcoma 180 and MKN-45 human gastric cancer cell lines in vivo and its mechanism. METHODS: After establishment of S180 sarcoma (S180) and MKN-45 gastric cancer model of nude mice, the tumor-bearing mice were divided into 5 groups at random. Three experimental groups were respectively given the aqueous extract of JLS granules at doses of 120 g, 60 g and 20 g /(kg per 6/wk, i.g) for 3 wk in S180 and 6 wk in nude mice model. Positive control was given cyclophosphamide (Cy) at a dose of 50 mg/(kg per 3 /wk, i.g) for 3 wk in S180 models and 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) 20 mg/(kg per 3 /wk, i.g) for 3 wk in nude mice model. Negative control was given normal saline (NS) at a dose of 0.18 g/(kg per 6/wk, i.g) respectively. After 3 wk in mice bearing S180 tumor and 6 wk in nude mice model, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the masses of tumor were weighed, and the rates of tumor inhibition of each treated group were calculated respectively. To determine the antitumor mechanisms, the morphological changes, cell cycle and apoptosis were observed in MKN-45 nude mice model. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining FCM assay was used to further determine the live cells, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells and debris. RESULTS: The inhibitory rates of JLS granules at the doses of 20 g/kg, 60 g/kg and 120 g/kg were 50.31%, 55.94% and 68.13% (P < 0.01) in nude mice models and 40.90%, 50.32% and 58.46% (P < 0.01) in S180 model. The inhibitory rate of Cy was 85.22% in S180 models and the inhibitory rate of 5-FU was 53.43% in nude mice model (P < 0.01). Nuclear chromatin and margination were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The G0/G1 phase was arrested, typical apoptotic peak appeared, the apoptotic rate was 22.81%-38.54% in three JLS granule-treated groups. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining FCM assay showed that the apoptotic cells were 4.36%, 3.08%and 7.08% in three dosages, most

  10. [Effect of valproic acid against angiogenesis of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Cui-Min; Zhao, Li-Shuang; Hao, Chang-Lai

    2013-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on angiogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia in vivo and vitro, and to explore its molecular mechanism. Human t (8;21) AML cell line Kasumi-1 cells were treated with VPA at different concentration for 3 d, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1 and Ang2 were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Nude mice model with xenograft Kasumi-1 tumor was established by subcutaneous inoculation of Kasumi-1 cells. The CD34, Ang1 and Ang2 protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry method. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that in vitro, VPA at 3 mmol/L downregulated the Ang mRNA relative expression level for Ang1 from 0.360 ± 0.116 to 0.040 ± 0.008, Ang2 from 0.540 ± 0.049 to 0.146 ± 0.038. The animal experiment further verified that VPA 500 mg/kg, ip, for 14 d, reduced the relative expression of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF mRNA and proteins in Kasumi-1 tumor of nude mice, and reduced microvascular density in xenograft tumor of nude mice (8.470 ± 0.300 vs 2.600 ± 0.200). It is concluded that VPA significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis through the regulation of angiopoietins, thereby inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of leukemia cells.

  11. [Reversal of multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR in nude mice by grape seed polyphenol].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Juan; Zhou, Geng-Yin; Li, Li; Ma, Li-Li; Gao, Peng; Li, Hong

    2004-07-07

    To study the reversing effect of Grape seed polyphenol (GSP) on multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cell in vivo. The transplantable breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7/ADR model was established in BALB/C-nu/nu mice by subcutaneous implantation. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to investigate the changes of Pgp expression and apoptosis rate after different drug treatment. GSP has some effect on inhibition of tumor growth (the rate of inhibition was 18.35%), and combined with adriamycin can significantly inhibit tumor growth in nude mice, 20 mg/kg GSP can effectively reverse the resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR in vivo, and the rate of inhibition was 54.64%. FCM results showed that the expression of Pgp was significantly decreased (32.03 +/- 2.09) After administration of GSP and ADR, there was distinct difference between it and control (55.13 +/- 2.12). The mean rate of apoptosis was 15.12% +/- 1.04%, and was significantly increased compared with control (9.07% +/- 0.43%), P < 0.05. GSP can effectively reversed the resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells in nude mice, the mechanism may be correlated with inhibition of Pgp expression and apoptosis.

  12. Different patterns of macrophage infiltration into allogeneic-murine and xenogeneic-human neoplasms growing in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bucana, C. D.; Fabra, A.; Sanchez, R.; Fidler, I. J.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined the distribution pattern of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in murine and human neoplasms growing subcutaneously in nude mice. Seven different human neoplasms (cancers of the breast, kidney, colon, prostate, lung, and skin, and a melanoma) and five different murine neoplasms (carcinomas of the lung, colon, and kidney, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma) were injected into nude mice. The murine tumors also were injected into syngeneic mice. Tumor-associated macrophages in small and large tumors were studied immunohistochemically by the use of several antibodies, including the macrophage-specific F4/80. The pattern of TAM distribution differed between mouse and human tumors. Regardless of histologic classification, TAM were uniformly distributed throughout all the murine neoplasms growing in syngeneic or nude mice. In the human neoplasms, TAM were found on the periphery of the lesions and in association with fibrous septae. The distribution of TAM in murine and human tumors was associated with a pattern of vascularization as determined by antibodies to basement membrane collagen type IV. Because the pattern of TAM distribution in neoplasms influences their antitumor activity, the data question the validity of the nude mouse model for the study of macrophage infiltration into human neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1443054

  13. Beware of contaminating mouse cells in human xenografts from nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Liu, A; Dougherty, C; Chen, X; Guzman, R; Nandi, S

    2000-01-01

    Human tumor xenografts in nude mice are widely utilized model system for the transplantation of human surgical specimens and human established cell lines. Gene expression studies are often carried out in these model systems. With an increasing use of PCR based analyses, the extreme sensitivity of this technique poses a serious challenge with regards to the extent of contaminating host mouse cells in the human tumor xenografts. These xenografts are never free of host cell contamination. We detected mouse estrogen receptor expression in several human tumor xenografts using RT-PCR demonstrating that precaution is necessary when utilizing PCR based analyses in human tumor xenografts. A cytologically based methodology which distinguishes human versus mouse cells will be more suitable for ER expression studies using human xenograft models. Both (1) in situ hybridization using human probe and (2) immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against human cytokeratin have been used successfully to distinguish human cells versus host mouse cells in human xenografts in nude mice. Immunostaining of ER can then be utilized to determine the expression pattern of ER in the transplanted human cells.

  14. Therapeutic efficacy of astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab on radioresistant SKOV-3 tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Palm, Stig; Bäck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Danielsson, Anna; Elgqvist, Jörgen; Frost, Sofia; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of astatine-211 (211At)-labeled trastuzumab for the treatment of HER-2-positive, radioresistant ovarian carcinoma. Four-week-old nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 . 10(6) SKOV-3 cells in 0.4 mL saline on Day 0. The endpoint was the total tumor weight in each mouse on Day 63. Three experiments were performed in which the response to single-dose and fractionated treatment with unlabeled and 211At-labeled antibody was evaluated. Experiment 1 showed, for the same total amount of trastuzumab, a dose-response relationship between 211At activity (0-400 kBq on Day 7) and therapeutic efficacy (p = 0.001). The effect of varying the amount of unlabeled trastuzumab was studied in Experiment 2. All mice, except for the controls, received 400 kBq 211At-trastuzumab, and different groups received 5, 50, or 500 microg trastuzumab on Day 7. The increase from 5 to 50 microg trastuzumab reduced the tumors by 78% in weight. No tumors were present in mice given 500 microg trastuzumab. In Experiment 3, the effect of a fractionated treatment regimen was studied. Mice that received 100 kBq 211At-trastuzumab on Days 7 and 8 had a 42% smaller tumor burden than did controls. Groups of mice injected with 200 + 100 kBq on Days 7 and 21 and mice injected with 100 kBq on Days 7, 8, and 21 both had 24% less tumor weight than the corresponding controls. The combination of 500 microg trastuzumab and 400 kBq 211At-trastuzumab had the greatest effect, with complete eradication of the tumors in this nude mouse model.

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Astatine-211-Labeled Trastuzumab on Radioresistant SKOV-3 Tumors in Nude Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, Stig Baeck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Danielsson, Anna; Elgqvist, Joergen; Frost, Sofia; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential use of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At)-labeled trastuzumab for the treatment of HER-2-positive, radioresistant ovarian carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Four-week-old nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 . 10{sup 6} SKOV-3 cells in 0.4 mL saline on Day 0. The endpoint was the total tumor weight in each mouse on Day 63. Three experiments were performed in which the response to single-dose and fractionated treatment with unlabeled and {sup 211}At-labeled antibody was evaluated. Results: Experiment 1 showed, for the same total amount of trastuzumab, a dose-response relationship between {sup 211}At activity (0-400 kBq on Day 7) and therapeutic efficacy (p = 0.001). The effect of varying the amount of unlabeled trastuzumab was studied in Experiment 2. All mice, except for the controls, received 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab, and different groups received 5, 50, or 500 {mu}g trastuzumab on Day 7. The increase from 5 to 50 {mu}g trastuzumab reduced the tumors by 78% in weight. No tumors were present in mice given 500 {mu}g trastuzumab. In Experiment 3, the effect of a fractionated treatment regimen was studied. Mice that received 100 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab on Days 7 and 8 had a 42% smaller tumor burden than did controls. Groups of mice injected with 200 + 100 kBq on Days 7 and 21 and mice injected with 100 kBq on Days 7, 8, and 21 both had 24% less tumor weight than the corresponding controls. Conclusion: The combination of 500 {mu}g trastuzumab and 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab had the greatest effect, with complete eradication of the tumors in this nude mouse model.

  16. Enhancing the survival of aspirated human fat injected into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Y; Hyams, M; Ramon, Y; Beach, D; Peled, I J; Lindenbaum, E S

    1998-06-01

    Injection of aspirated fat is now the most commonly used technique for the filling of depressed areas. Partial absorption of the injected fat is the main limitation of this procedure. Cariel T.M. is an enriched serum-free cell culture medium, its ability to enhance the survival of human aspirated fat grafts was investigated in the nude mouse model. A volume of 0.75-cc Cariel preprocessed fat was injected under the scalp skin of 16 nude mice in the experimental group, and the same volume of saline preprocessed fat was injected to 15 control group of mice. Significant maintenance of the weight, 46 percent in the experimental group compared with 29 percent in the control group (p < 0.008), and the volume, 44 percent in the experimental group compared with 31 percent in the control group (p < 0.026), was observed, after 15 weeks, in this newly used model. It seems that addition of the nutrients enriched with anabolic hormones enabled the survival and take of more adipose cells in the graft.

  17. Thermoneutral housing is a critical factor for immune function and diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Stemmer, K; Kotzbeck, P; Zani, F; Bauer, M; Neff, C; Müller, TD; Pfluger, PT; Seeley, RJ; Divanovic, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity-related cancers represent public health burdens of the first order. Nevertheless, suitable mouse models to unravel molecular mechanisms linking obesity to human cancer are still not available. One translational model is the immunocompromised Foxn1 (winged-helix/forkead transcription factor) nude mouse transplanted with human tumor xenografts. However, most xenograft studies are conducted in nude mice on an in-bred BALB/c background that entails protection from diet-induced obesity. To overcome such resistance to obesity and its sequelae, we here propose the dual strategy of utilizing Foxn1 nude mice on a C57BL/6 background and housing them at their thermoneutral zone. METHODS C57BL/6 nude and corresponding wild-type mice, housed at 23 or 33 °C, were subjected to either low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body core temperature, respiratory quotient as well as food and water intake were analyzed using indirect calorimetry. Immune function at different housing temperatures was assessed by using an in vivo cytokine capture assay. RESULTS Our data clearly demonstrate that conventional housing protects C57BL/6 nude mice from HFD-induced obesity, potentially via increased energy expenditure. In contrast, HFD-fed C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutral conditions develop adiposity, increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Moreover, increased circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-driven cytokines suggest a greatly enhanced immune response in C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutrality. CONCLUSION Our data reveals mild cold stress as a major modulator for energy and body weight homeostasis as well as immune function in C57BL/6 nude mice. Adjusting housing temperatures to the thermoneutral zone may ultimately be key to successfully study growth and progression of human tumors in a diet-induced obese environment. PMID:25349057

  18. Thermoneutral housing is a critical factor for immune function and diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 nude mice.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, K; Kotzbeck, P; Zani, F; Bauer, M; Neff, C; Müller, T D; Pfluger, P T; Seeley, R J; Divanovic, S

    2015-05-01

    Obesity-related cancers represent public health burdens of the first order. Nevertheless, suitable mouse models to unravel molecular mechanisms linking obesity to human cancer are still not available. One translational model is the immunocompromised Foxn1 (winged-helix/forkead transcription factor) nude mouse transplanted with human tumor xenografts. However, most xenograft studies are conducted in nude mice on an in-bred BALB/c background that entails protection from diet-induced obesity. To overcome such resistance to obesity and its sequelae, we here propose the dual strategy of utilizing Foxn1 nude mice on a C57BL/6 background and housing them at their thermoneutral zone. C57BL/6 nude and corresponding wild-type mice, housed at 23 or 33 °C, were subjected to either low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body core temperature, respiratory quotient as well as food and water intake were analyzed using indirect calorimetry. Immune function at different housing temperatures was assessed by using an in vivo cytokine capture assay. Our data clearly demonstrate that conventional housing protects C57BL/6 nude mice from HFD-induced obesity, potentially via increased energy expenditure. In contrast, HFD-fed C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutral conditions develop adiposity, increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Moreover, increased circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-driven cytokines suggest a greatly enhanced immune response in C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutrality. Our data reveals mild cold stress as a major modulator for energy and body weight homeostasis as well as immune function in C57BL/6 nude mice. Adjusting housing temperatures to the thermoneutral zone may ultimately be key to successfully study growth and progression of human tumors in a diet-induced obese environment.

  19. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. II. The growth of the oocyte and follicle.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1975-01-01

    Congenitally athymic mice homozygous for the Mendelian recessive mutation "nude" develop well defined morphological and quantitative changes in the ovarian follicle population. A decline in follicle numbers at 2 months of age is preceded by a retardation in follicle growth at 1 month of age. The growth of the oocyte and its nucleus are not affected by the nude mutation. However, the rate of growth and maximum size of the oocyte nucleolus are reduced in nudes. These developmental events are discussed in relation to the genetic activity of the oocyte, the role of pituitary gonadotrophins in follicular and oocyte growth and the possible role of the thymus gland in these processes.

  20. Intravenously Administered Alphavirus Vector VA7 Eradicates Orthotopic Human Glioma Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Janne J.; Martikainen, Miika W.; Stanford, Marianne M.; McCart, J. Andrea; Bell, John C.; Hinkkanen, Ari E.

    2010-01-01

    Background VA7 is a neurotropic alphavirus vector based on an attenuated strain of Semliki Forest virus. We have previously shown that VA7 exhibits oncolytic activity against human melanoma xenografts in immunodeficient mice. The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenously administered VA7 would be effective against human glioma. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro, U87, U251, and A172 human glioma cells were infected and killed by VA7-EGFP. In vivo, antiglioma activity of VA7 was tested in Balb/c nude mice using U87 cells stably expressing firefly luciferase in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. Intravenously administered VA7-EGFP completely eradicated 100% of small and 50% of large subcutaneous U87Fluc tumors. A single intravenous injection of either VA7-EGFP or VA7 expressing Renilla luciferase (VA7-Rluc) into mice bearing orthotopic U87Fluc tumors caused a complete quenching of intracranial firefly bioluminescence and long-term survival in total 16 of 17 animals. In tumor-bearing mice injected with VA7-Rluc, transient intracranial and peripheral Renilla bioluminescence was observed. Virus was well tolerated and no damage to heart, liver, spleen, or brain was observed upon pathological assessment at three and ninety days post injection, despite detectable virus titers in these organs during the earlier time point. Conclusion VA7 vector is apathogenic and can enter and destroy brain tumors in nude mice when administered systemically. This study warrants further elucidation of the mechanism of tumor destruction and attenuation of the VA7 virus. PMID:20066051

  1. Rapid deposition of amyloid in human islets transplanted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Westermark, P; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-05-01

    Human islets of Langerhans were transplanted to the subcapsular space of the kidneys of nude mice which were either normoglycaemic or made diabetic with alloxan. After 2 weeks, the transplants were processed for light and electron microscopical analyses. In all transplants, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)-positive cells were found with highest frequency in normoglycaemic animals. IAPP-positive amyloid was seen in 16 out of 22 transplants (73%), either by polarisation microscopy after Congo red staining or by immune electron microscopy. At variance with previous findings of amyloid deposits exclusively in the extracellular space of islets of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, the grafted islets contained intracellular amyloid deposits as well. There was no clear difference in occurrence of amyloid between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. The present study indicates that human islets transplanted into nude mice very soon present IAPP-positive amyloid deposits. This technique may provide a valuable model for studies of the pathogenesis of islet amyloid and its impact on islet cell function.

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro. However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It was identified that 3-BrPA exhibited strong inhibitory effects upon xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, the antitumor function of 3-BrPA exhibited a dose-effect association, which was similar to that of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, 3-BrPA exhibited low toxicity in the blood, liver and kidneys of the nude mice. The present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA is achieved through the inhibition of hexokinase activity, which leads to the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein expression and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that 3-BrPA may be a novel therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  3. The growth of glioblastoma orthotopic xenografts in nude mice is directly correlated with impaired object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska-Sampaio, Ana Paula; Santos, Tiago G; Lopes, Marilene Hohmuth; Cammarota, Martin; Martins, Vilma Regina

    2014-01-17

    Cognitive dysfunction is found in patients with brain tumors and there is a need to determine whether it can be replicated in an experimental model. In the present study, the object recognition (OR) paradigm was used to investigate cognitive performance in nude mice, which represent one of the most important animal models available to study human tumors in vivo. Mice with orthotopic xenografts of the human U87MG glioblastoma cell line were trained at 9, 14, and 18days (D9, D14, and D18, respectively) after implantation of 5×10(5) cells. At D9, the mice showed normal behavior when tested 90min or 24h after training and compared to control nude mice. Animals at D14 were still able to discriminate between familiar and novel objects, but exhibited a lower performance than animals at D9. Total impairment in the OR memory was observed when animals were evaluated on D18. These alterations were detected earlier than any other clinical symptoms, which were observed only 22-24days after tumor implantation. There was a significant correlation between the discrimination index (d2) and time after tumor implantation as well as between d2 and tumor volume. These data indicate that the OR task is a robust test to identify early behavior alterations caused by glioblastoma in nude mice. In addition, these results suggest that OR task can be a reliable tool to test the efficacy of new therapies against these tumors.

  4. Neonatal Thymulin Gene Therapy Prevents Ovarian Dysgenesis and Attenuates Reproductive Derangements in Nude Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Paula C.; Barbeito, Claudio G.; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O.; Cónsole, Gloria M.; Flamini, Alicia M.; Dardenne, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70–71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:22700775

  5. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy prevents ovarian dysgenesis and attenuates reproductive derangements in nude female mice.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Paula C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O; Cónsole, Gloria M; Flamini, Alicia M; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2012-08-01

    Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70-71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  6. Strategies to prevent, treat, and provoke Corynebacterium-associated hyperkeratosis in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Holly N; Lipman, Neil S; White, Julie R; Zheng, Junting; Wolf, Felix R

    2011-05-01

    Athymic nude mice infected with Corynebacterium bovis typically exhibit transient hyperkeratotic dermatitis. Our vivarium experienced an increased incidence of disease characterized by persistent skin lesions and increased mortality, leading to this study. For detection of infection, skin and buccal swab methods showed comparable sensitivities in nude mice. Various prevention, treatment, and eradication strategies were evaluated through clinical assessment, microbiology, and histopathology. In experimentally naïve athymic nude mice, a 2-wk course of prophylactic amoxicillin-containing diet (1200 ppm amoxicillin; effective dose, 200 mg/kg) was ineffective at preventing infection or disease. There was also no significant difference in disease duration or severity in athymic nude mice that received amoxicillin diet or penicillin-streptomycin topical spray (penicillin, 2500 U/mL; streptomycin, 2500 μg/mL). Prolonged treatment with 4 or 8 wk of amoxicillin diet cleared only a small number of athymic nude mice that had subclinical C. bovis infections. Antibiotic sensitivity of C. bovis isolates demonstrated a small colony isolate with less susceptibility to all antibiotics compared with a large colony isolate. Resistance did not appear to develop after prolonged treatment with amoxicillin. Provocation testing by administration of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg i.p. every 48 to 72 h for 90 d) to subclinically infected athymic nude mice resulted in prolonged clinical disease that waxed and waned without progression to severe disease. Our findings suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of clinical disease in experimentally naïve mice is unrewarding, eradication of bacterial infection is difficult, and severe disease associated with C. bovis is likely multifactorial.

  7. Strategies to Prevent, Treat, and Provoke Corynebacterium-Associated Hyperkeratosis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Holly N; Lipman, Neil S; White, Julie R; Zheng, Junting; Wolf, Felix R

    2011-01-01

    Athymic nude mice infected with Corynebacterium bovis typically exhibit transient hyperkeratotic dermatitis. Our vivarium experienced an increased incidence of disease characterized by persistent skin lesions and increased mortality, leading to this study. For detection of infection, skin and buccal swab methods showed comparable sensitivities in nude mice. Various prevention, treatment, and eradication strategies were evaluated through clinical assessment, microbiology, and histopathology. In experimentally naïve athymic nude mice, a 2-wk course of prophylactic amoxicillin-containing diet (1200 ppm amoxicillin; effective dose, 200 mg/kg) was ineffective at preventing infection or disease. There was also no significant difference in disease duration or severity in athymic nude mice that received amoxicillin diet or penicillin–streptomycin topical spray (penicillin, 2500 U/mL; streptomycin, 2500 µg/mL). Prolonged treatment with 4 or 8 wk of amoxicillin diet cleared only a small number of athymic nude mice that had subclinical C. bovis infections. Antibiotic sensitivity of C. bovis isolates demonstrated a small colony isolate with less susceptibility to all antibiotics compared with a large colony isolate. Resistance did not appear to develop after prolonged treatment with amoxicillin. Provocation testing by administration of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg IP every 48 to 72 h for 90 d) to subclinically infected athymic nude mice resulted in prolonged clinical disease that waxed and waned without progression to severe disease. Our findings suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of clinical disease in experimentally naïve mice is unrewarding, eradication of bacterial infection is difficult, and severe disease associated with C. bovis is likely multifactorial. PMID:21640035

  8. Therapeutic effect of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody on human ovarian cancer xenograft in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1989-03-01

    The therapeutic value of 131I-OC125, a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody directed against a human ovarian tumor associated antigen CA125, was examined in an ascites forming intraperitoneal human ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. Nude mice were injected intraperitoneally with NIH:OVCAR3 cells. Twenty-one days after tumor transplantation, groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally as follows: Group 1 with 200 microCi of 131I-OC125 (n = 20), Group 2 with 200 microCi of 131I (n = 17), Group 3 with 200 microCi of 131I-IgG (n = 21), Group 4 with 60 micrograms of OC125 (n = 18), and Group 5 was left untreated (n = 21). Survival of the tumor-bearing animals was used as the endpoint of the experiment. Mean survivals were found to be 52 +/- 18 days for the 131I-OC125 group, 53 +/- 16 days for the 131I-IgG group, 49 +/- 13 days for the 131I group, 47 +/- 24 days for the OC125 group, and 47 +/- 15 days for the untreated control. These results would indicate no therapeutic advantage of 131I-OC125 over controls in this animal model. However, other approaches using single as well as multiple radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies need to be tested in this model in order to definitely establish the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  9. [Chemotherapy of yolk sac tumor heterotransplanted to nude mice (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sawada, M; Hayakawa, K; Matsui, Y; Nishiura, H; Okudaira, Y

    1980-10-01

    Chemotherapy of yolk sac tumor heterotransplanted to nude mice was studied. 1. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary taken from a 38-year -old woman was transplanted to BALB/c female nude mice. The transplantable tumor cells produce a solid tumor, designated as YST-1 tumor. The YST-1 tumor cells preserve the histological appearance of a human yolk sac tumor and produce x-fetoprotein. The tumors on passage 8 were used for experimental chemotherapy. 2. Anticancer drugs clinically known to be effective for ovarian cancer, such as Adriamycin, Carbazilquinone, 5-Fluorouracil, Cyclophosphamide, Mitomycin C, Chromomycin A3, Vinblastine and Bleomycin were administered intraperitoneally to tumor-bearing nude mice. Tumor size was measured two or three times a week during the course of experiments. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by tumor size and relative tumor size before and after experiments. Among these drugs, Vinblastine and Bleomycin combination showed the significant effect arresting the growth of YST-1 tumor.

  10. Athymic (nude) mice fail to delete functional self-reactive helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, M J; Stanko, D; Isaak, D D

    1993-09-01

    We have examined the thymic requirement for the antibody response to a foreign antigen coupled to self erythrocytes. We find that self erythrocytes mediate thymus-independent, carrier specific help for the antibody response to the pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide antigen, PnC. Thus, athymic nude mice gave a high primary antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to PnC-mouse RBC but a low response to PnC coupled to sheep or burro RBC. The meager response to PnC coupled to foreign RBCs could not be attributed to antigenic competition since the response to the carrier (burro RBC) was < 100 PFC per spleen. Reconstitution of nude mice with splenic T cells from euthymic mice enhanced rather than suppressed the antibody response to PnC-mouse RBC. The results document that in the absence of thymic deletion, functional self-reactive helper cells persist in the nude mouse.

  11. Effect of immune reconstitution on resistance to Brugia pahangi in congenitally athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L; Sodeman, W A

    1983-06-01

    The dichotomy of resistance to Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) between nonsusceptible, euthymic C3H/HeN mice, heterozygotic for the "nu" gene (+/nu), and susceptible, congenitally-athymic "nude" (nu/nu) C3H/HeN mice, suggests that resistance is thymus-dependent. To test this hypothesis, the effect of syngeneic neonatal thymus grafts and neonatal thymus cell suspensions on recovery of worms at day 40 PI, and responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) were examined in reconstituted nudes. Nude recipients of a thymus graft 7 or 14 wk before subcutaneous inoculation with 50 infective larvae (L3) yielded no worms and responded strongly to Con A. Serum from these mice reacted in two lines of identity with serum from similarly-infected heterozygotes by double radial immunodiffusion against an adult worm saline extract. Nude recipients of a thymus 2 days or 3 wk before inoculation harbored an average of three or two worms, respectively. Intravenous injection of nude recipients with 10(7) or 10(8) neonatal thymus cells seven weeks before inoculation was less effective in conferring resistance to B. pahangi and responsiveness to Con A. Complete resistance to B. pahangi could be adoptively transferred to nude mice by 10(8) spleen cells obtained from infection-primed heterozygotes and injected intravenously on the day of larval inoculation. The same numbers of worms were significantly reduced. less effective when injected 3 wk before inoculation, although numbers of worms were significantly reduced. Passive transfer of primed heterozygote serum, containing high titers of antibodies to adult worm and larval antigens, failed to protect nude recipients against a larval inoculum in the absence of cellular reconstitution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Induction of lymphomas on implantation of human oral squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Teni, T R; Saranath, D; Mahale, A M; Pai, S A; Ahire, S D; Ingle, A D

    2001-02-01

    Cancer cells from five oral cancer patients and pleomorphic adenoma cells from one individual were inoculated as single cell suspension into subcutis of 30 Swiss nude mice and tail vein of additional 30 mice. Further, tumor tissue pieces from three oral cancer patients were xenografted s.c. in 18 nude mice, and 10 mice were kept as controls. In animals implanted with tumor pieces, 7/18 (39%) mice, developed squamous cell carcinoma at the site of inoculation within 8-15 days, while tumors were not observed in mice inoculated with single cell suspension, up to 60/90 days. In 8/68 (12%) mice, white foci were observed in several tissues, with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly noted in 27/68 (39%) mice. Histopathological examination of various tissues revealed presence of large cell lymphoma in several organs in 14/68 (21%) mice. No regional or distant metastasis of the implanted oral tumor cells was detected. Mice injected with cells from pleomorphic adenoma, also demonstrated large cell lymphoma in 2/10 (20%) mice, whereas none of the 10 control animals showed any gross abnormalities or microscopic abnormalities in several organs. 2/16 (12%) lymphomas exhibited positive reaction with mouse B cell antibodies illustrating the murine origin of the lymphomas, and these were immunophenotyed as B cell lymphomas. The lymphomas were also examined with mouse T cell antibodies and none reacted positively with the mouse T cell antibodies. The lymphomas also failed to react with human T cell, B cell and human Leucocyte common antigen (LCA) antibodies, indicating that the induced lymphomas were not of human origin. The tumor specimens from seven of eight oral cancer patients and the pleomorphic adenoma patient induced lymphomas in nude mice. Thus it appears that xenografting oral tumor cells into nude mice may cause induction of the murine lymphomas, and this needs further investigation.

  13. Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Tumor in Nude Mice after Intraperitoneal Injection of Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ze-Xue; Li, Xiang; Liu, Wei-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Wu, Su-Jia; Hu, Xiao-Hui

    2016-05-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, on angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma of nude mice. Twenty-one nude mice were inoculated with red fluorescent protein (RFP)-labeled human osteosarcoma cell line 143B-RFP, that is, clones that expressed RFP in the cytoplasm, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: G1 (Control group, injected with saline solution); G2 (intraperitoneal bevacizumab 2 mg/kg twice per week) and G3 (intraperitoneal bevacizumab 5 mg/kg, twice per week). The tumor-bearing mice were examined in a fluorescence light box that was illuminated periodically. The primary tumors were measured by fluorescence imaging weekly and their volumes calculated. The mean tumor volumes were significantly smaller in the G3 (186.4 ± 100.8 mm(3) ) than the control group (587.0 ± 406.8 mm(3) ) (P < 0.05) on Day 31, and again significantly smaller in the G3 (677.3 ± 461.9 mm(3) ) than the control group (3162.6 ± 1529.2 mm(3) ) on Day 38 (P < 0.01). The average tumor volume in the G2 group was 493.5 ± 425.4 mm(3) on Day 31 and 1870.1 ± 1524.8 mm(3) on Day 38. The effect on tumor volume was greater in the G3 than the G2 group. Three mice in the G2 group, four in the G3 group and four in the control group developed lung metastases that were confirmed by pathological examination; these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Bevacizumab exhibits strong antiangiogenesis activity in experimental osteosarcoma in a nude mouse model but does not influence the incidence of lung metastasis. Our findings may have considerable potential for the treatment of osteosarcoma. © 2016 The Authors. Orthopaedic Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and Chinese Orthopaedic Association.

  14. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A

    1985-04-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent.

  15. Thymus dependency of induced immune responses against Hymenolepis nana (cestode) using congenitally athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, A

    1985-01-01

    Anti-parasite antibody responses were compared among several strains of mice experimentally infected with the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana. The antibody titres were highly variable among the mouse strains in addition to variation in worm fecundity and longevity. The influence of the thymus on both infection and anti-parasite antibody production (especially of IgE isotype) was studied by the use of congenitally athymic (nu/nu) nude and their phenotypically normal (nu/+) CD-1(ICR) mice infected with H. nana. All nude (nu/nu) mice harboured fully mature 70 day old adult tapeworms of the first generation derived from eggs initially given on day 0. In addition, they contained (a) younger second generation adults derived from autoinfection and present in the intestinal lumen, (b) a number of abnormally large (about 1-2 mm in diameter) balloon like, fluid filled cysticercoids in not only the intestinal tissue but also parenteral tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and lung, and (c) normal cysticercoids derived from challenging eggs in the intestinal tissue. Infected nude mice produced no antibodies detectable by PCA (IgE) and double diffusion (IgG) tests. In contrast, normal (nu/+) mice and nude mice reconstituted with thymocytes expelled almost all luminal adults of the primary infection by day 70 and produced antibodies to extracts of adult H. nana. Neither autoinfection nor reinfection following egg challenge occurred in any of these normal (nu/+) and reconstituted nude mice. Therefore, acquired immune responses against H. nana (as assessed by resistance not only to the tissue phase measured by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery from egg challenge, but also to the lumen phase assessed by the failure of autoinfection adult recovery and 'worm expulsion' of the initially established adults) are all thymus-dependent in mice. The antibody responses examined are also thymus-dependent. PMID:4006301

  16. Induction of IgG in young nude mice by lipid A or thymus grafts

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Postnatal serum concentrations of IgG2a of paternal allotype, measured in congenitally thymusless nude mice, increase with kinetics and titers comparable to their normal congeneic counterparts. Lipid A, the mitogenic part of LPS, stimulates IgG synthesis in nude mice when it is given 7 days after birth. IgG concentrations at 15 days of age are 6- to 8-fold higher than in untreated control nudes; this is considerably lower, however, than in normal mice, which show up to 45-fold higher IgG2ab levels after lipid A treatment. A thymus graft from nearly congeneic donors of the same age, transplanted at 4 days after birth, also stimulates long-lasting IgG synthesis in the nude recipients. If the grafted nudes are injected with lipid A 3 days later, IgG synthesis is further stimulated 8- to 16-fold. The data are discussed in relation to the thymus dependency of IgG production and the conditions for lipid A stimulation. PMID:978133

  17. Induction of IgG in young nude mice by lipid A or thymus grafts.

    PubMed

    Kolb, C; Di Pauli, R; Weiler, E

    1976-10-01

    Postnatal serum concentrations of IgG2a of paternal allotype, measured in congenitally thymusless nude mice, increase with kinetics and titers comparable to their normal congeneic counterparts. Lipid A, the mitogenic part of LPS, stimulates IgG synthesis in nude mice when it is given 7 days after birth. IgG concentrations at 15 days of age are 6- to 8-fold higher than in untreated control nudes; this is considerably lower, however, than in normal mice, which show up to 45-fold higher IgG2ab levels after lipid A treatment. A thymus graft from nearly congeneic donors of the same age, transplanted at 4 days after birth, also stimulates long-lasting IgG synthesis in the nude recipients. If the grafted nudes are injected with lipid A 3 days later, IgG synthesis is further stimulated 8- to 16-fold. The data are discussed in relation to the thymus dependency of IgG production and the conditions for lipid A stimulation.

  18. Topical cyclosporin induces hair growth in human split skin grafted onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Etzioni, A; Moscona, R

    1991-01-01

    Previously we observed that systemic CyA induces hair growth in an experimental model of human scalp skin graft transplanted onto nude mice. In the present study we investigated the role of topical CyA in the murine transplantation model, using human split-thickness skin grafts (HSTSG). Ten mice grafted with 1-mm-thick skin and another 10 mice grafted with 0.4-mm-thick skin were treated topically with CyA in olive oil. Ten other mice, treated with olive oil only, served as a control group. At the end of the study we observed hair growth only on the grafted skin of the CyA-treated group. Four out of 10 grafts showed hair growth in each of the groups. Quantitative analysis of transverse sections of cylindrical punch biopsy specimens of HSTSG before transplantation revealed anagen follicles, including small ones and telogen/catagen follicles, whereas specimens after skin transplantation showed terminal follicles mostly in the anagen phase. The present study provides further support to previous observations regarding the beneficial effect of CyA on hair growth.

  19. RNA interference of pax2 inhibits growth of transplanted human endometrial cancer cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Cheng, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The development of human endometrial carcinoma (HEC) is a complex pathologic process involves several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The full-length paired-box gene 2 (pax2), a recently discovered Oncogene, promotes cell proliferation and growth and inhibits apoptosis of HEC cells. Here, we examined the effect of pax2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the growth of transplanted HEC cells in nude mice. The expression of Pax2 in 21 cases of normal endometrium and 38 cases of HEC was examined by immohistochemistry (IHC). HEC models were developed by subcutaneously transferring HEC cells into nude mice, followed by treatment with empty lentivirus vector, lentivirus vector-based pax2 siRNA, and phosphate buffered saline, respectively. Four weeks later, tumor size was measured, tumor inhibition rate was calculated, and histological analyses were conducted after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Pax2 and Bcl-2 was detected by Western blot; proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected by IHC. Significant differences were observed in the positive rate of Pax2 between normal endometrium and HEC (14.2% vs. 60.5%, P < 0.01). The expression index of Pax2 in well differentiated tumors was 1.88 ± 1.68, much lower than that in tumors of moderate (3.07 ± 1.96, P < 0.05) or poor differentiation (5.45 ± 2.76, P < 0.01). Tumor necrosis increased, nuclear basophilia stain decreased, tumor growth was inhibited, and PCNA, Pax2, and Bcl-2 expression was reduced in HEC models treated with pax2 siRNA. These results indicate that Pax2 expression is related to HEC tumor biology with the increased expression of Pax2 correlated to malignancy. pax2 siRNA down-regulates Pax2 expression and inhibits tumorigenesis of HEC in nude mice, possibly due to cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor proliferation induced by down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:21627862

  20. POOR MOBILIZATION IN T CELL-DEFICIENT NUDE MICE IS EXPLAINED BY DEFECTVE ACTIVATION OF GRANULOCYTES AND MONOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Adamiak, Mateusz; Suszynska, Malwina; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that both SCID mice and SCID patients mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) poorly in response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This defect has been proposed to result from a lack of naturally occurring IgM immunoglobulins to trigger activation of the complement cascade (ComC) and release of C5 cleavage fragments crucial in the mobilization process. However, SCID individuals also have T cell deficiency, and T cells have been shown to modulate trafficking of HSPCs. To learn more about the role of T lymphocytes, we performed mobilization studies in T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and found that these mice respond poorly to G-CSF and zymosan but are normal mobilizers in response to AMD3100. Since nude mice have normal levels of IgM immunoglobulins in peripheral blood and may activate the ComC, we focused on the potential involvement of Gr1+ granulocytes and monocytes, which show defective maturation in these animals. Using a nude mouse mobilization model, we found further support for the proposition that proper function of Gr1+ cells is crucial for optimal mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:27436627

  1. Intradermal injection of human adipose-derived stem cells accelerates skin wound healing in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jonathan; Boucher, Fabien; Lequeux, Charlotte; Josset-Lamaugarny, Audrey; Rouyer, Ondine; Ardisson, Orianne; Rutschi, Héléna; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique; Damour, Odile; Mojallal, Ali

    2015-12-08

    The use of stem cells from adipose tissue or adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine could be an interesting alternative to bone marrow stem cells because they are easily accessible and available in large quantities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of ASCs on the healing of 12 mm diameter-excisional wounds (around 110 mm(2)) in nude mice. Thirty nude mice underwent surgery to create one 12-mm excisional wound per mouse (spontaneous healing, n = 6; Cytocare® 532, n = 12; ASCs, n = 12). The Galiano wound model was chosen to avoid shrinkage and thus slow the spontaneous healing (SH) of mouse skin, making it closer to the physiology of human skin healing. Transparent dressings were used to enable daily healing time measurements to be taken. Immunohistochemistry, histological and blood perfusion analysis were carried out on the healed skin. The in vivo results showed the effectiveness of using ASCs on reducing the time needed for complete healing to 21.2 days for SH, 17.4 days for vehicle alone (Cytocare® 532) and 14.6 days with the addition of ASCs (p < 0.001). Moreover, cutaneous perfusion of the healed wound was significantly improved in ASC-treated mice compared to SH group, as shown by laser Doppler flowmetry and the quantitation of blood vessels using immunohistochemistry of αsmooth muscle actin. The tolerance and efficacy of cryopreserved ASCs to accelerate the complete closure of the wound by increasing the maturation of the skin and its blood perfusion, shows their therapeutic benefit in the wound healing context.

  2. Analysis of Stroma Labeling During Multiple Passage of a Sarcoma Imageable Patient-derived Orthotopic Xenograft (iPDOX) in Red Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiyuna, Tasuku; Murakami, Takashi; Tome, Yasunori; Kawaguchi, Kei; Igarashi, Kentaro; Miyake, Kentaro; Kanaya, Fuminori; Singh, Arun; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-16

    A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) was previously established that acquired red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing stroma by growth in an RFP transgenic nude mouse. In the present study, an imageable PDOX model (iPDOX) of UPS was established by orthotopic implantation in the biceps femoris of transgenic RFP nude mice. After the tumors grew to a diameter of 10 mm, they were harvested and the brightest portion of the tumors were subsequently orthotopically transplanted to both RFP and non-colored nude mice. The UPS PDOX tumor was again transplanted to RFP transgenic and non-colored nude mice and finally a 3(rd) passage was made in the same manner. Five UPS tumors from each passage in both RFP and non-colored mouse models were harvested. The FV1000 confocal microscope was used to visualize and quantitate the RFP area of the resected tumors. The average percent fluorescent area in the first passage of RFP mice was 34 ± 22%; in the second passage, 34 ± 20%; and 36 ± 11% in the third passage of RFP transgenic nude mice. The average tumor RFP area in the first passage from RFP mice to non-colored mice was 20 ± 7%; in the second passage, 28 ± 11%; in the third passage was 27 ± 13%. The present results demonstrate the extensive and stable acquisition of stroma by the UPS-tumor growing orthotopically in transgenic RFP nude mice (iPDOX). This model can be used for screening for effective drugs for individual patients and drug discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumorigenesis and spontaneous metastasis by luciferase-labeled human xenograft osteosarcoma cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Xu, Wen-ting; Fan, Qi-ming; Tu, Bing; Shen, Yang; Yan, Wei; Tang, Ting-ting; Wang, You

    2012-11-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone. Mouse models of human OS can invariably provide greater insight into the complex mechanisms that underlie the development and pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor. Bioluminescence technology favored tracing cancer cells in vivo. In this study, an OS model was described and evaluated using human OS cell line, Saos2, labeled with luciferase (Saos2-luc). Saos2 cells were infected by lentivirus loading a firefly luciferase gene. Luciferase expression of Saos2-luc cells was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Specific biologic and oncologic features of Saos2-luc cells were analyzed. The OS was established as orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Both orthotopic tumors and spontaneous lung metastasis were analyzed. Tumorigenesis and spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice could be monitored in vivo through in vivo imaging system. The enhancement in proliferation, migration and invasion abilities and the attenuation in adhesion ability were observed in Saos2-luc cells compared with Saos2 cells. Furthermore, there were the up-regulation of Osteocalcin, CCR10, CXCR1 and ID1 and the down-regulation of ALP, collagen I, CCR1, CCR3, CXCR3, NID and N-cadherin in Saos2-luc cells compare to Saos2 cells. The rate of spontaneous lung metastasis in Saos2-luc cells was higher than that in Saos2 cells, although without significant difference. Lentivirus transfection may cause alteration of gene expression profiles and further biological functions. This model can be used in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the screening of new therapeutic agents.

  4. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  5. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  6. Optoacoustic system for 3D functional and molecular imaging in nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Stein, Alan; Herzog, Don; Thompson, Scott; Liopo, Anton; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Motamedi, Massoud; Ermilov, Sergey; Conjusteau, Andre; Gharieb, Reda; Lacewell, Ron; Miller, Tom; Mehta, Ketan; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional laser optoacoustic imaging system was developed, which combines the advantages of optical spectroscopy and high resolution ultrasonic detection, to produce high contrast maps of optical absorbance in tissues. This system was tested in a nude mouse model of breast cancer and produced tissue images of tumors and vasculature. The imaging can utilize either optical properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, which are the main endogenous tissue chromophores in the red and near-infrared spectral ranges, or exogenous contrast agent based on gold nanorods. Visualization of tissue molecules targeted by the contrast agent provides molecular information. Visulization of blood at multiple colors of light provides functional information on blood concentration and oxygen saturation. Optoacoustic imaging, using two or more laser illumination wavelengths, permits an assessment of the angiogenesis-related microvasculature, and thereby, an evaluation of the tumor stage and its metastatic potential. The optoacoustic imaging system was also used to generate molecular images of the malignancy-related receptors induced by the xenografts of BT474 mammary adenocarcinoma cells in nude mice. The development of the latter images was facilitated by the use of an optoacoustic contrast agent that utilizes gold nanorods conjugated to monoclonal antibody raised against HER2/neu antigens. These nanorods possess a very strong optical absorption peak that can be tuned in the near-infrared by changing their aspect ratio. The effective conversion of the optical energy into heat by the gold nanorods, followed by the thermal expansion of the surrounding water, makes these nanoparticles an effective optoacoustic contrast agent. Optical scattering methods and x-ray tomography may also benefit from the application of this contrast agent. Administration of the gold nanorod bioconjugates to mice resulted in an enhanced contrast of breast tumors relative the background of normal tissues

  7. Effect of dietary selenium on T cell immunity and cancer xenograft in nude mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium is known to regulate carcinogenesis and immunity at nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides one of the main body defenses against cancer, we asked whether T cell immunity can modulate selenium chemoprevention. Twenty-four homozygous NU/J nude mice were fe...

  8. Antimetastatic Efficacy of the Combination of Caffeine and Valproic Acid on an Orthotopic Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line Model in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Murakami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported that caffeine can enhance chemotherapy efficacy of bone and soft tissue sarcoma via cell-cycle perturbation. Valproic acid has histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity. We have also reported the anti-tumor efficacy of combination treatment with caffeine and valproic acid against osteosarcoma primary tumors in a cell-line orthotopic mouse model. In this study, we performed combination treatment of caffeine and valproic acid on osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro and in spontaneous and experimental lung metastasis mouse models of osteosarcoma. Survival of 143B-RFP human osteosarcoma cells after exposure to caffeine and valproic acid for 72 hours was determined using the WST-8 assay. IC50 values and combination indices were calculated. Mouse models of primary osteosarcoma and spontaneous lung metastasis were obtained by orthotopic intra-tibial injection of 143B-RFP cells. Valproic acid, caffeine, and combination of both drugs were administered from day 7, five times a week, for four weeks. Six weeks after orthotopic injection, lung samples were excised and observed with a fluorescence imaging system. A mouse model of experimental lung metastasis was obtained by tail vein injection of 143B-RFP cells. The mice were treated with these agents from day 0, five times a week for four weeks. Both caffeine and valproic acid caused concentration-dependent cell kill in vitro. Synergistic efficacy of the combination treatment was observed. In the spontaneous lung-metastasis model, the number of lung metastasis was 9.0±2.6 in the untreated group (G1); 10.8±2.9 in the caffeine group (G2); 10.0±3.1 in the valproic-acid group (G3); and 3.0±1.1 in the combination group (G4); (p=6.78E-5 control vs. combination; p=0.006 valproic acid vs. combination; p=0.003 caffeine vs. combination). In the experimental lung-metastasis model, the combination group significantly reduced lung metastases and improved overall survival (p=0.0005). Efficacy of the

  9. High-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and synovial sarcoma display similar angiogenic profiles: a nude mice xenograft study

    PubMed Central

    Giner, Francisco; Machado, Isidro; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Mayordomo-Aranda, Empar; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common primary mesenchymal tumour of the gastrointestinal tract. Spindle cell monophasic synovial sarcoma (SS) can be morphologically similar. Angiogenesis is a major factor for tumour growth and metastasis. Our aim was to compare the angiogenic expression profiles of high-risk GIST and spindle cell monophasic SS by histological, immunohistochemical and molecular characterisation of the neovascularisation established between xenotransplanted tumours and the host during the initial phases of growth in nude mice. Methods The angiogenic profile of two xenotransplanted human soft-tissue tumours were evaluated in 15 passages in nude mice using tissue microarrays (TMA). Tumour pieces were also implanted subcutaneously on the backs of 14 athymic Balb-c nude mice. The animals were sacrificed at 24, 48, and 96 h; and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after implantation to perform histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies (neovascularisation experiments). Results Morphological similarities were apparent in the early stages of neoplastic growth of these two soft-tissue tumours throughout the passages in nude mice and in the two neovascularisation experiments. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated overexpression of pro-angiogenic factors between 24 h and 96 h after xenotransplantation in both tumours. Additionally, neoplastic cells coexpressed chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, GRO, and CXCL12) and their receptors in both tumours. Molecular studies showed two expression profiles, revealing an early and a late phase in the angiogenic process. Conclusion This model could provide information on the early stages of the angiogenic process in monophasic spindle cell SS and high-risk GIST and offers an excellent way to study possible tumour response to antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:28386296

  10. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Nanomicellar TGX221 blocks xenograft tumor growth of prostate cancer in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibao; Zhao, Yunqi; Huang, Yan; Yang, Qiuhong; Zeng, Xing; Jiang, Wencong; Liu, Jihong; Thrasher, J. Brantley; Forrest, M. Laird; Li, Benyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Combination of androgen ablation along with early detection and surgery has made prostate cancer highly treatable at the initial stage. However, this cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among American men due to castration-resistant progression, suggesting that novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this life-threaten condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110β is a major cellular signaling molecule and has been identified as a critical factor in prostate cancer progression. In a recent report, we established a nanomicelle-based strategy to deliver p110β-specific inhibitor TGX221 to prostate cancer cells by conjugating the surface of nanomicelles with a RNA aptamer against prostate membrane specific antigen (PSMA) present in all clinical prostate cancers. In this study, we tested this nanomicellar TGX221 for its in vivo anti-tumor effect in mouse xenograft models. Methods Prostate cancer cell lines LAPC-4, LNCaP, C4-2 and 22RV1 were used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in immunohistochemistry assays to detect AKT phosphorylation, cell proliferation marker Ki67 and PCNA, as well as BrdU incorporation. Quantitative PCR assay was conducted to determine PSA gene expression in xenograft tumors. Results Although systemic delivery of unconjugated TGX221 significantly reduced xenograft tumor growth in nude mice compared to solvent control, the nanomicellar TGX221 conjugates completely blocked tumor growth of xenografts derived from multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Further analyses revealed that AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation indexes were dramatically reduced in xenograft tumors received nanomicellar TGX221 compared to xenograft tumors received unconjugated TGX221 treatment. There was no noticeable side effect by gross observation or at microscopic level of organ tissue section. Conclusion These data strongly suggest that prostate

  12. ‘Obligate’ anaerobic Salmonella strain YB1 suppresses liver tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Xian; Yu, Bin; Shi, Lei; Geng, Wei; Lin, Qiu-Bin; Ling, Chang-Chun; Yang, Mei; Ng, Kevin T. P.; Huang, Jian-Dong; Man, Kwan

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor properties of bacteria have been demonstrated over the past decades. However, the efficacy is limited and unclear. Furthermore, systemic infection remains a serious concern in bacteria treatment. In this study, the effect of YB1, a rationally designed ‘obligate’ anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium strain, on liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mouse orthotopic liver tumor model was investigated. The orthotopic liver tumor model was established in nude mice using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97L. Two weeks after orthotopic liver tumor implantation, YB1, SL7207 and saline were respectively administered through the tail vein of the mice. Longitudinal monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis was performed using Xenogen IVIS, and direct measurements of tumor volume were taken 3 weeks after treatment. In vitro, MHCC-97L and PLC cells were incubated with YB1 or SL7207 under anaerobic conditions. YB1 was observed to invade tumor cells and induce tumor cell apoptosis and death. The results revealed that all mice in the YB1 group were alive 3 weeks after YB1 injection while all mice in the SL7207 group died within 11 days of the SL7207 injection. The body weight decreased by ~9% on day 1 after YB1 injection and but subsequently recovered. Liver tumor growth and metastases were significantly inhibited following YB1 treatment. By contrast to the control group, a large number of Gr1-positive cells were detected on days 1 to 21 following YB1 treatment. Furthermore, YB1 also effectively invaded tumor cells and induced tumor cell apoptosis and death. In conclusion, YB1 suppressed liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mice liver tumor model. The potential mechanism may be through enhancing innate immune response and inducing tumor cell apoptosis and cell death. PMID:28123538

  13. Thyrotropin dependent and independent thyroid cell lines selected from FRTL-5 derived tumors grown in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ossendorp, F.A.; Bruning, P.F.; Schuuring, E.M.; Van Den Brink, J.A.; van der Heide, D.; De Vijlder, J.J.; De Bruin, T.W. )

    1990-07-01

    FRTL-5 cells were used to set up a thyroid tumor model system in C3H nu/nu mice. FRTL-5 tumors could be grown in nude mice provided serum TSH levels were elevated. Persistent TSH elevation was obtained by administration of Na131I, rendering the mice hypothyroid. After 4 weeks FRTL-5 cells were injected sc resulting in tumor growth within 2 weeks in eight out of eight mice. Although the tumors showed an apparently undifferentiated histology, lacking normal follicular structures, they were functional since the tumors were capable of concentrating (131)iodine, as demonstrated by nuclear imaging. From one of the tumors a new cell line was isolated (FRTL-5/T) that, like the parental FRTL-5 cell line, was TSH dependent for growth. In a control group of six euthyroid nude mice FRTL-5 tumor growth could not be obtained with one exception. After 3 months one animal developed a small tumor that grew rapidly thereafter. This tumor was easily transplantable in other euthyroid nude mice, showed an undifferentiated histology, and was nonfunctional, as it could not concentrate (131)iodine. From this tumor two cell lines were derived: one cultured in the presence of TSH (FRTL-5/TP) and one in the absence of TSH (FRTL-5/TA). The cell lines were analyzed for TSH responsive functions and TSH receptor expression. Responsiveness to TSH in FRTL-5/T and the parental FRTL-5 cell line were similar for most thyroid specific functions tested. However, FRTL-5/T was less sensitive than FRTL-5 for TSH induced (3H)thymidine incorporation. Both cell lines had two classes of TSH binding sites with high and low affinity respectively. FRTL-5/TP and FRTL-5/TA were both able to grow in TSH free medium and were nonresponsive to TSH in vitro, as tested for (3H)thymidine and (3H)uridine incorporation, iodine uptake, thyroglobulin iodination, and thyroglobulin secretion.

  14. Visualization and body distribution of [¹³¹I]-herceptin in nude mice with BT-474 breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z X; Cao, H; Xing, C G; Wei, S H; Jiang, G Q; Liu, Z L

    2014-08-29

    The study aimed to investigate the bio-distribution and radio-immuno-imaging features of [(131)I]-herceptin in nude mice with BT-474 breast carcinoma. [(131)I]-Herceptin was administrated by tail intravenous injection to the nude mice with BT-474 breast carcinoma. Radiocounting was performed at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h after administration. The activity ratio in the tumor tissue and non-tumor tissue (T/NT) and the radiocounting percentage per gram tissue to the injected dose (%ID/g) were calculated. The nude mice with BT-474 breast carcinoma were also visualized continuously by single photon emission computed tomography at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h after the injection of [(131)I]-herceptin. Nude mice with MDA-MB-231 used as the control group were subjected to the same analyses. Clear tumor images were obtained after the injection of [(131)I]-herceptin in nude mice with BT-474 breast carcinoma. The images were the clearest at 24 h after the injection and remained clear even at 96 h. The T/NT ratio and %ID/g in the tumor tissues of nude mice with BT-474 were both significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01). [(131)I]-Herceptin displays tumors clearly in the nude mice with BT-474 and accumulates well in the tumor tissues.

  15. Utilization of an antibody specific for human dystrophin to follow myoblast transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Huard, J; Tremblay, G; Verreault, S; Labrecque, C; Tremblay, J P

    1993-01-01

    Human myoblasts were transplanted in nude mice. The efficacy of these transplantations was analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (NCLDys3) specific for human dystrophin. This antibody did not reveal any dystrophin in nude mice that did not receive a human myoblast transplantation. However, about 30 days after a human myoblast transplantation, dystrophin-positive muscle fibers were observed. They were not abundant, and were present either in small clusters or isolated. This technique follows the fate of myoblast transplantation in animals that already have dystrophin, and distinguishes between new dystrophin-positive fibers due to the transplantation and the revertant fibers in mdx mice. Moreover, this technique does not require any labelling of the myoblasts before transplantation. It can also be used to detect dystrophin produced following the fusion of myoblasts transfected with the human dystrophin gene.

  16. In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  17. Human islet oxygen consumption rate and DNA measurements predict diabetes reversal in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Papas, K K; Colton, C K; Nelson, R A; Rozak, P R; Avgoustiniatos, E S; Scott, W E; Wildey, G M; Pisania, A; Weir, G C; Hering, B J

    2007-03-01

    There is a need for simple, quantitative and prospective assays for islet quality assessment that are predictive of islet transplantation outcome. The current state-of-the-art athymic nude mouse bioassay is costly, technically challenging and retrospective. In this study, we report on the ability of 2 parameters characterizing human islet quality: (1) oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measure of viable volume; and (2) OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability, to predict diabetes reversal in nude mice. Results demonstrate that the probability for diabetes reversal increases as the graft's OCR/DNA and total OCR increase. For a given transplanted OCR dose, diabetes reversal is strongly dependent on OCR/DNA. The OCR and OCR/DNA (the 'OCR test') data exhibit 89% sensitivity and 77% specificity in predicting diabetes reversal in nude mice (n = 86). We conclude that the prospective OCR test can effectively replace the retrospective athymic nude mouse bioassay in assessing human islet quality prior to islet transplantation.

  18. Immunofluorescence studies of a possible prethymic T-cell differentiation in congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Loor, F; Roelants, G E

    1975-06-30

    A rabbit antimouse brain theta reagent was made specific for cells of the T lineage by absorption in vivo in nude mice. When used in double fluorescence together with an antimouse immunoglobulin reagent, four types of cells were found in spleen and lymph nodes of both normal and nude mice: Ig+thetaBr-, Ig-thetaBr+, Ig-thetaBr-, and Ig+thetaBr+. The data show that about 20% of nude mouse spleen lymphocytes are definitely of T lineage (Ig-thetaBr+). On these cells, the detection of the "thetaBr" determinant, which is identical or very close to the "theta" determinant, depends on the large amplification produced by indirect immunofluorescence, which suggests a low density of theta antigen. Similar experiments suggest the presence of cells that express some TL antigen in the spleen of nudes made congenic to a TL+ strain (BALB/c). It is proposed that the T-cell precursor that will further differentiate in the thymus already expresses a low density of theta and, in TL+ strains, TL antigen.

  19. Hiwi knockdown inhibits the growth of lung cancer in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Dong, Min; Hu, Lin-Jie; Fang, Ze-Hui; Xu, Xia; Shi, En-Hui; Yang, Yi-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hiwi, a human homologue of the Piwi family, plays an important role in stem cell self-renewal and is overexpressed in various human tumors. This study aimed to determine whether an RNA interference-based strategy to suppress Hiwi expression could inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. A rare population of SSCloAldebr cells was isolated and identified as lung cancer stem cells in our previous study. Plasmids containing U6 promoter-driven shRNAs against Hiwi or control plasmids were successfully established. The xenograft tumor model was generated by subcutaneously inoculating with lung cancer stem cell SSCloAldebr cells. After the tumor size reached about 8 mm in diameter, shRNA plasmids were injected into the mice via the tail vein three times a week for two weeks, then xenograft tumor growth was assessed. In nude mice, intravenously delivery of Hiwi shRNA plasmids significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to treatment with control scrambled shRNA plasmids or the vehicle PBS. No mice died during the experiment and no adverse events were observed in mice administered the plasmids. Moreover, delivery of Hiwi shRNA plasmids resulted in a significant suppressed expression of Hiwi and ALDH-1 in xenograft tumor samples, based on immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, shRNA-mediated Hiwi gene silencing in lung cancer stem cells by an effective in vivo gene delivery strategy appeared to be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer, and may provide some useful clues for RNAi gene therapy in solid cancers.

  20. Simvastatin protects against the development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Osteen, Kevin G; Duleba, Antoni J

    2009-07-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition associated with infertility and pelvic pain in women. Recent in vitro studies have shown that statins decrease proliferation of endometrial stroma (ES) and inhibit angiogenesis. The aim was to evaluate effects of simvastatin on development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model. Proliferative phase human endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy donors and established as organ cultures or used to isolate ES cells. To establish endometriosis in the nude mouse, endometrial tissues were maintained in 1 nm estradiol (E) for 24 h and subsequently injected into ovariectomized nude mice. Mice (n = 37) were treated with E (8 mg, SILASTIC capsule implants; made in author laboratory) alone or with E plus simvastatin (5 or 25 mg/kg x d) for 10 d beginning 1 d after tissue injection (from three donors). Mice were killed and examined for disease. Effects of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were evaluated in cultures of ES cells. The number and size of endometriotic implants were measured. Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease of the number and size of endometrial implants in mice. At the highest dose of simvastatin, the number of endometrial implants decreased by 87%, and the volume by 98%. Simvastatin also induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MMP-3 in the absence and presence of inflammatory challenge (using IL-1alpha). Simvastatin exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the development of endometriosis in the nude mouse. Mechanisms of action of simvastatin may include inhibition of MMP-3. The present findings may lead to the development of novel treatments of endometriosis involving statins.

  1. Simvastatin Protects against the Development of Endometriosis in a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Duleba, Antoni J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Endometriosis is a common condition associated with infertility and pelvic pain in women. Recent in vitro studies have shown that statins decrease proliferation of endometrial stroma (ES) and inhibit angiogenesis. Objective: The aim was to evaluate effects of simvastatin on development of endometriosis in a nude mouse model. Methods: Proliferative phase human endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy donors and established as organ cultures or used to isolate ES cells. To establish endometriosis in the nude mouse, endometrial tissues were maintained in 1 nm estradiol (E) for 24 h and subsequently injected into ovariectomized nude mice. Mice (n = 37) were treated with E (8 mg, SILASTIC capsule implants; made in author laboratory) alone or with E plus simvastatin (5 or 25 mg/kg · d) for 10 d beginning 1 d after tissue injection (from three donors). Mice were killed and examined for disease. Effects of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) were evaluated in cultures of ES cells. Primary Outcome: The number and size of endometriotic implants were measured. Results: Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease of the number and size of endometrial implants in mice. At the highest dose of simvastatin, the number of endometrial implants decreased by 87%, and the volume by 98%. Simvastatin also induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MMP-3 in the absence and presence of inflammatory challenge (using IL-1α). Conclusions: Simvastatin exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the development of endometriosis in the nude mouse. Mechanisms of action of simvastatin may include inhibition of MMP-3. The present findings may lead to the development of novel treatments of endometriosis involving statins. PMID:19366846

  2. Inhibition of SRC tyrosine kinase as treatment for human pancreatic cancer growing orthotopically in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yezhelyev, Maksim V; Koehl, Gudrun; Guba, Markus; Brabletz, Thomas; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Ryan, Anderson; Barge, Alan; Green, Tim; Fennell, Michael; Bruns, Christiane J

    2004-12-01

    The Src family comprises a family of nonreceptor intracellular tyrosine kinases that mediate a variety of cellular pathways. Src kinases are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including cancer of the colon, breast, and pancreas, and they are an integral part of tumor cell signaling pathways associated with migration, proliferation, adhesion, and angiogenesis. We investigated whether the blockade of Src kinase by daily oral administration of the novel Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZM475271 [kindly provided by AstraZeneca (Macclesfield, United Kingdom)], alone or in combination with intraperitoneal gemcitabine, can inhibit growth and metastasis of orthotopically implanted human pancreatic carcinoma cells in nude mice. Treatment with AZM475271 alone reduced the primary pancreatic tumor volume by approximately 40%, whereas AZM475271 plus gemcitabine reduced tumor volume by 90%. Furthermore, treatment with AZM475271 and gemcitabine significantly reduced metastasis: none of eight animals who received the combination treatment had lymph node or liver metastases, compared with five of five and three of five animals, respectively, in the control group (P = 0.001). Src inhibition by AZM475271 (alone or with gemcitabine) was associated with significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation, decreased tumor microvessel density, and increased apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, these effects were all significantly increased when gemcitabine was combined with AZM475271 compared with gemcitabine alone. Src inhibition by AZM475271, either alone or in combination with gemcitabine, demonstrated significant antitumor and antimetastatic activity in an orthotopic nude mouse model for human pancreatic cancer. The combination of AZM475271 with gemcitabine sensitized tumor cells to the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine.

  3. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E. )

    1990-08-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-(125I)odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies.

  4. Effect of ambient temperature on phenotype and functions of professional phagocytes of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vetvicka, V; Holub, M; Houstek, J

    1993-02-01

    Cytofluorometric analysis of surface marker expression was performed on myeloid cells isolated from bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes of nude mice and nu/+ and +/+ mice (haired controls) exposed for various time periods to ambient temperature of 22 degrees C or 28 degrees C. A rise in the proportion of cells bearing macrophage markers (MAC-1, MAC-3 and F4/80) in the spleen and of FcR+ cells in all tissues tested was found in 22 degrees C-exposed nudes with high nonshivering thermogenesis. Numbers of MAC-1+ macrophages and actively phagocytic cells increased also in peritoneal exudates. There was a conspicuous predominance of large macrophages in the exudates and the specific markers decreased in density on their surface. Ia expression declined in all tissues tested with the length of exposure to cold. In the granulocytic series (BP-2+ cells), there was a decrease in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and an increase in the spleen and circulation, which suggested an enhanced mobilization and increased production at extramedullary sites in cold-exposed nude mice. The changes in haired mice were negligible.

  5. Immunity to Brugia pahangi in athymic nude and normal mice: eosinophilia, antibody and hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L

    1984-11-01

    Congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, immunologically reconstituted by thymus grafting before inoculation with infective larvae, and mice heterozygous for the nu gene (nu/+), mounted potent protective humoral and cellular immune responses to Brugia pahangi. Although responses were not identical, both groups of mice produced IgM, IgG and IgE antibodies specific for adult worm antigen (S-Ag) present in a crude aqueous extract, made immediate and delayed hypersensitivity footpad swelling responses when challenged with S-Ag and eliminated their infection in the early larval stages. Heterozygotes also exhibited a marked eosinophilia which peaked coincident with larval killing. In contrast, thymus grafting of patent nudes had no effect upon microfilaraemias or adult worm burdens and did not completely protect against a challenge larval inoculum although antibodies specific for S-Ag were produced. With the occasional exceptions of moderate immediate footpad swelling and very low titres of IgM specific for S-Ag, no specific immune responses to B. pahangi were found in ungrafted nude mice which allowed full development of adult worms and supported patent infections.

  6. Chronopharmacodynamics and mechanisms of antitumor effect induced by erlotinib in xenograft-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pingping; An, Fengmei; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Liang; Liu, Ning; Wang, Peipei; Liu, Jiao; Wang, Le; Li, Mingchun

    2015-05-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases, mediators of a variety of critical cellular functions, contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of mammalian cells. Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva) can inhibit the intracellular phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases. To investigate the influence of dosing time on the ability of erlotinib to inhibit tumor growth and the underlying molecular mechanisms via the PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK pathway, we established nude mice HCC827 tumor xenografts models. The tumor-bearing mice were housed 3-4 per cage under standardized light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 07:00 h, off at 19:00 h) with food and water ad libitum. The mice were randomly divided into erlotinib treated groups and control groups, gavaged with erlotinib and vehicle respectively at 6 different time points for 21 days. To draw tumor growth curves, the tumor volume was measured every three days. After the mice were sacrificed, the tumor masses of each group were removed and weighed. The relative protein expression levels of p-EGFR, p-AKT and p-MAPK were assayed at 4 h after erlotinib or vehicle gavage by Western blot analysis. The antitumor effect of erlotinib presented diurnal rhythmicity. The growth of HCC827 xenograft was more potently inhibited by erlotinib in the early light phase than in the early dark phase (p < 0.05). The inhibitory effect of erlotinib on phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and MAPK varied with its administration time. The results indicate that the antitumor effect of erlotinib is more potent when the drug was administered when the activities of EGFR and its downstream factors increased. Our findings may provide a clue to optimize the dosing schedule of erlotinib. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overexpression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 inhibits the growth of transplanted colorectal tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Bao; Qiao, Li-Na; Sun, Xue-Jun; Qi, Jie; Ren, Hai-Liang; Wei, Guang-Bing; Zhou, Pei-Hua; Yao, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Li; Jia, Peng-Bo

    2015-09-01

    Caudal‑related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) is a transcription factor, which is specifically expressed in the adult intestine. It is essential for the development and homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium and its functions as a tumor suppressor have been demonstrated in the adult colon. The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of the overexpression of CDX2 on subcutaneously‑transplanted tumors, derived from LoVo colon cancer cells, in nude mice, and to provide experimental evidence for the biotherapy of colon cancer. A pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into the LoVo cells via lipofection, and LoVo cells stably‑expressing CDX2 (pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 cells) were obtained using G418 selection. A nude mouse subcutaneously‑transplanted tumor model was established by inoculating the nude mice with the pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 cells, and the effects of overexpression of CDX2 on transplanted tumor growth in the LoVo cells were observed. Western blotting results demonstrated that the protein expression of CDX2 in the LoVo cells was higher in the pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 cell group, compared with that in the pEGFP‑C1 cell group and the untreated cell group. At 20 days post‑inoculation with either pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 or pEGFP‑C1, the transplanted tumor masses were significantly lower in the pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 group, compared with those in the pEGFP‑C1 and untreated groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression levels of CDX2 and matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) were detected in each group, and the protein expression of CDX2 was increased in the tumor tissues from the nude mice in the pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 group. However the expression of MMP‑2 was downregulated in the tumor tissues of the nude mice in the pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 group. Taken together, these data suggested that pEGFP‑C1‑CDX2 cells exhibited suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Overexpression of CDX2 was observed in transplanted tumors in the p

  8. Human endodermal sinus tumour in nude mice and its markers for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, T; Nakayasu, M; Hirohashi, S; Kameya, T; Kaneko, M; Yokomori, K; Tsuchida, Y

    1979-01-01

    Two human endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumours) were transplanted successfully into nude mice. The transplanted tumours maintained not only morphological characters, such as Schiller-Duval bodies, but also the ability to synthesise alpha-fetoprotein, lactic dehydrogenase 1, liver and bone type alkaline phosphatase, and some human serum proteins. Since these tumours produced lactic dehydrogenase 1 but not the other four isozymes of lactic dehydrogenase, this isozyme, like alpha-fetoprotein, seems to be a good marker for the diagnosis and management of cases of endodermal sinus tumour. One of the two tumours produced another fetal antigen or carcinoembryonic antigen in addition to alpha-fetoprotein. These two endodermal sinus tumours, with their various markers in nude mice, will be useful in studies on diagnostic markers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:91627

  9. Mode of transmission and histology of M. leprae infection in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott-Lancaster, R. D.; McDougall, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    Athymic (nude) mice were experimentally infected with Mycobacterium leprae via the alimentary and respiratory tracts and through the skin. Animals were allowed to inhale aerosols of M. leprae or had bacilli instilled into the nostrils or directly into the lungs. Others were fed M. leprae by gastric tube or had bacilli placed on the tongue. Attempts were also made to transmit M. leprae from infected footpads by Aedes aegyptii mosquitoes. The most successful infections resulted from nasal instillations and from bacilli inoculated onto the tongue surface: in these cases heavy systemic infections occurred. M. leprae was also shown to survive passage through the alimentary tract and bacilli recovered from the faeces were capable of causing infection in recipient nude mice. The possible epidemiological significance of these findings for the transmission of leprosy in man is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2206990

  10. Survival of human parathyroid tissue xenotransplanted in nude mice after 9 to 55 months' cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Smeds, S; Trulsson, L; Garovoy, M; Gumbert, M; Clark, O H

    1999-04-01

    Survival of human parathyroid tissue xenotransplanted after cryopreservation was studied. Peroperative biopsies from 26 patients were cryopreserved and xenotransplanted into nude mice after 9 to 55 months. At 8 to 12 weeks after transplantation, the morphology of the transplanted tissue was compared to that of the original tissue after thawing and before transplantation. Morphologically viable tissue was observed in 20 out of 26 nude mice (77%). Based on the morphological appearance, the parathyroid transplants were arranged into four "quality" groups. No correlation existed between the quality of the transplants and duration of storage, or between the age and sex of the patients. There was no correlation between initial clinical diagnosis or histopathological patterns (primary, secondary and tertiary hyperplasia [n=16], adenoma [n=9], one case undetermined) and transplant survival. After thawing and transplantation, all parathyroid grafts, except one, were morphologically either of the same or somewhat lower quality.

  11. Association of tumor growth on nude mice and poor clinical outcome in soft tissue sarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Budach, W; Budach, V

    2001-09-01

    Permanent growth in nude mice (PGNM) may be associated with poor clinical outcome. We tested this hypothesis in a group of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. Small chunks from fresh tumor biopsies of 81 patients with STS were transplanted subcutaneously into NMRI-nu/nu nude mice. Tumor cell lines exhibiting growth in nude mice for more than three tumor passages were considered as permanently established. Clinical outcome of all patients was monitored with a median follow-up of 38 months. 39/81 (48%) STSs exhibited PGNM. High grade, high S-phase proportion, and aneuploidy were significant predictors of PGNM. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 21% (+7% standard error of median) for STS patients with PGNM and 53% (+/-8%) for patients without PGNM (P<0.01). Considering only patients without distant metastasis at the time of biopsy (n = 49), 3-year-OS was 25% (+/-10%) and 71% (+/-9%) for STS with PGNM and without PGNM, respectively (P<0.01). In the univariate analysis, PGNM, aneuploidy high S-phase proportion, tumor location at the trunk, high tumor grade, and non-liposarcoma histology were associated with reduced survival time. In the multivariate analysis, aneuploidy and tumor location at the trunk were the only independent predictors of overall survival. Permanent growth of STS on nude mice is associated with poor clinical outcome in the univariate analysis, but is not an independent predictor of survival in the multivariate analysis due to a strong co-correlation to other known adverse prognostic factors.

  12. Tumorigenicity assays in nude mice: analysis of an implanted gelatin-sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, P.M.; Travis, G.L.; Saunders, G.C.; Ray, F.A.; Stevenson, A.P.; Bame, K.; Cram, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Gelatin sponges, preimplanted in nude mice for 10 days, were used for an improved assay for tumorigenicity of cultured cells. Cells inoculated through the skin into such sponges yielded tumors more rapidly and with greater frequency than with newly implanted sponges or into subcutaneous tissue. However, an unexpected loss of cells occurred in the first few days after implantation. This loss may be an important aspect of tumorigenicity assays of all kinds, and is readily studied with the sponge methods described.

  13. A new childhood T-cell lymphoma established in nude mice and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arione, R; Jemma, C; Forni, M; Marchese, C; Benetton, G; Giubellino, C; Modesti, A; Martinotti, M G; di Montezemolo, L C; Musso, T

    1988-03-01

    A T-lymphoma cell line was established from a lymph node biopsy of a boy currently alive in complete remission. Neoplastic cells from this biopsy did not grow in vitro, whereas they formed a progressively growing s.c. tumor in splenectomized and sublethally irradiated nude mice and became serially transplantable in splenectomized and sublethally irradiated nude mice with a stable latency time. After the fourth transplant, cells were stored in liquid nitrogen and referred to as ST-4 cells. ST-4 cells display a membrane phenotype and a karyotype similar to that of the biopsy cells. After thawing, ST-4 cells grow both in splenectomized and sublethally irradiated nude mice and in vitro. They do not secrete interferon or interleukin 2, do not have natural killer activity, and do not respond to mitogen or alloantigen stimulation. The stable features of these T-lymphoma cells and the availability of normal autologous lymphocytes from the patient make this in vivo system quite unique and of importance for studies in tumor immunotherapy.

  14. Bone formation in vitro and in nude mice by human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ogose, A; Motoyama, T; Hotta, T; Watanabe, H; Takahashi, H E

    1995-01-01

    Osteosarcomas contain variable amounts of bony tissue, but the mechanism of bone formation by osteosarcoma is not well understood. While a number of cultured human osteosarcoma cell lines have been established, they are maintained by different media and differ qualitatively with regard to bone formation. We examined different media for their ability to support bone formation in vitro and found the alpha-modification of Eagle's minimal essential medium supplemented with beta glycerophosphate was best for this purpose, because it contained the proper calcium and phosphate concentrations. Subsequently, we compared seven human osteosarcoma cell lines under the same experimental conditions to clarify their ability to induce bone formation. NOS-1 cells most frequently exhibited features of bone formation in vitro and in nude mice. Collagen synthesis by tumour cells themselves seemed to be the most important factor for bone volume. However, even HuO9 cells, which lacked collagen synthesis and failed to form bone in vitro, successfully formed tumours containing bone in nude mice. Histological analysis of HuO9 cells in diffusion chambers implanted in nude mice and the findings of polymerase chain reaction indicated that the phenomenon was probably due to bone morphogenetic protein.

  15. Relationship between age of allogeneic thymus donor and immunological restoration of athymic ('nude") mice.

    PubMed

    Radov, L A; Sussdorf, D H; McCann, R L

    1975-12-01

    In nude mice back-crossed a minimum of five times to BALB/c, solid thymus grafts from C57Bl donors 3 days of age or younger restored both the humoral immune response against sheep erythrocytes and cellular immunity as tested by rejection of CBA skin grafts. Donor thymus placed under the renal capsule at a dose of 0-5 mg/g of recipient resulted in normal humoral immunity, while a minimum dose of 1-5 mg/g was required to reconstitute cellular competence. None of the various amounts of allogeneic thymus tissue transplanted affected the immunological status of nude recipients when grafts were obtained from donors 4 days of age or older. Histological findings correlated with the humoral and cellular responses observed. In nudes grafted with neonatal tissue, the thymus implant proliferated and developed normal architecture. The density of lymphocytes in thymus-dependent regions of peripheral lymphoid organs was near normal. On the other hand, most grafts from older (3-week-old) donors were resorbed by 90 days after implantation. In a number of cases, however, Russell bodies and numerous blast and plasma cells were seen in the graft site. Our observations suggest a possible cytotoxic rejection of implants from older allogeneic donors, while the survival and restorative capacity of transplants from 3-day-old or younger donors may have been due to a tolerogenic effect of the graft on the nude recipient.

  16. Relationship between age of allogeneic thymus donor and immunological restoration of athymic ('nude") mice.

    PubMed Central

    Radov, L A; Sussdorf, D H; McCann, R L

    1975-01-01

    In nude mice back-crossed a minimum of five times to BALB/c, solid thymus grafts from C57Bl donors 3 days of age or younger restored both the humoral immune response against sheep erythrocytes and cellular immunity as tested by rejection of CBA skin grafts. Donor thymus placed under the renal capsule at a dose of 0-5 mg/g of recipient resulted in normal humoral immunity, while a minimum dose of 1-5 mg/g was required to reconstitute cellular competence. None of the various amounts of allogeneic thymus tissue transplanted affected the immunological status of nude recipients when grafts were obtained from donors 4 days of age or older. Histological findings correlated with the humoral and cellular responses observed. In nudes grafted with neonatal tissue, the thymus implant proliferated and developed normal architecture. The density of lymphocytes in thymus-dependent regions of peripheral lymphoid organs was near normal. On the other hand, most grafts from older (3-week-old) donors were resorbed by 90 days after implantation. In a number of cases, however, Russell bodies and numerous blast and plasma cells were seen in the graft site. Our observations suggest a possible cytotoxic rejection of implants from older allogeneic donors, while the survival and restorative capacity of transplants from 3-day-old or younger donors may have been due to a tolerogenic effect of the graft on the nude recipient. PMID:1193689

  17. Scarless skin wound healing in FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice is associated with distinctive matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Similar to mammalian fetuses FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice are able to restore the structure and integrity of injured skin in a scarless healing process by mechanisms independent of the genetic background. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required for regular skin wound healing and the distinctive pattern of their expression has been implicated to promote scarless healing. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of these molecules during the incisional skin wounds in adult nude mice. Macroscopic and histological analyses of skin wounds revealed an accelerated wound healing process, minimal granulation tissue formation and markedly diminished scarring in nude mice. Quantitative RT-PCR (Mmp-2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -12, -13, -14 and Timp-1, -2, -3), Western blots (MMP-13) and gelatin zymography (MMP-9) revealed that MMP-9 and MMP-13 showed a unique, bimodal pattern of up-regulation during the early and late phases of wound healing in nude mice. Immunohistochemically MMP-9 and MMP-13 were generally detected in epidermis during the early phase and in dermis during the late (remodeling) phase. Consistent with these in vivo observations, dermal fibroblasts cultured from nude mice expressed higher levels of types I and III collagen, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNA levels and higher MMP enzyme activity than wild type controls. Collectively, these finding suggest that the bimodal pattern of MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression during skin repair process in nude mice could be a major component of their ability for scarless healing.

  18. SCARLESS SKIN WOUND HEALING IN FOXN1 DEFICIENT (NUDE) MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH DISTINCTIVE MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Similar to mammalian fetuses FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice are able to restore the structure and integrity of injured skin in a scarless healing process by mechanisms independent of the genetic background. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required for regular skin wound healing and the distinctive pattern of their expression has been implicated to promote scarless healing. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of these molecules during the incisional skin wounds in adult nude mice. Macroscopic and histological analyses of skin wounds revealed an accelerated wound healing process, minimal granulation tissue formation and markedly diminished scarring in nude mice. Quantitative RT-PCR (Mmp-2,-3,-8,-9,-10,-12,-13,-14 and Timp-1, -2, -3), Western blots (MMP-13) and gelatin zymography (MMP-9) revealed that MMP-9 and MMP-13 showed a unique, bimodal pattern of up-regulation during the early and late phases of wound healing in nude mice. Immunohistochemically MMP-9 and MMP-13 were generally detected in epidermis during the early phase and in dermis during the late (remodeling) phase. Consistent with these in vivo observations, dermal fibroblasts cultured from nude mice expressed higher levels of type I and III collagen, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNA levels and higher MMP enzyme activity than wild type controls. Collectively, these finding suggest that the bimodal pattern of MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression during skin repair process in nude mice could be a major component of their ability for scarless healing. PMID:21539913

  19. Human cancer xenografts in outbred nude mice can be confounded by polymorphisms in a modifier of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeineldin, Maged; Jensen, Derek; Paranjape, Smita R; Parelkar, Nikhil K; Jokar, Iman; Vielhauer, George A; Neufeld, Kristi L

    2014-08-01

    Tumorigenicity studies often employ outbred nude mice, in the absence of direct evidence that this mixed genetic background will negatively affect experimental outcome. Here we show that outbred nude mice carry two different alleles of Pla2g2a, a genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Here, we identify previous unreported linked polymorphisms in the promoter, noncoding and coding sequences of Pla2g2a and show that outbred nude mice from different commercial providers are heterogeneous for this polymorphic Pla2g2a allele. This heterogeneity even extends to mice obtained from a single commercial provider, which display mixed Pla2g2a genotypes. Notably, we demonstrated that the polymorphic Pla2g2a allele affects orthotopic xenograft establishment of human colon cancer cells in outbred nude mice. This finding establishes a non-cell-autonomous role for Pla2g2a in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis. Using in vitro reporter assays and pharmacological inhibitors, we show promoter polymorphisms and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) as underlying mechanisms that lead to low Pla2g2a mRNA levels in tumor-sensitive mice. Together, this study provides mechanistic insight regarding Pla2g2a polymorphisms and demonstrates a non-cell-autonomous role for Pla2g2a in suppressing tumors. Moreover, our direct demonstration that mixed genetic backgrounds of outbred nude mice can significantly affect baseline tumorigenicity cautions against future use of outbred mice for tumor xenograft studies.

  20. Nutritional and supranutritional levels of selenate differentially suppress prostate tumor growth in adult but not young nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrom, Alexandra; Wu, Ryan T Y; Zeng, Huawei; Lei, K Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2012-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of oral methylseleninic acid or methylselenocysteine administration on cancer cell xenograft development in nude mice is well characterized; however, less is known about the efficacy of selenate and age on selenium chemoprevention. In this study, we tested whether selenate and duration on diets would regulate prostate cancer xenograft in nude mice. Thirty-nine homozygous NU/J nude mice were fed a selenium-deficient, Torula yeast basal diet alone (Se-) or supplemented with 0.15 (Se) or 1.0 (Se+) mg selenium/kg (as Na₂SeO₄) for 6 months in Experiment 1 and for 4 weeks in Experiment 2, followed by a 47-day PC-3 prostate cancer cell xenograft on the designated diet. In Experiment 1, the Se- diet enhanced the initial tumor development on days 11-17, whereas the Se+ diet suppressed tumor growth on days 35-47 in adult nude mice. Tumors grown in Se- mice were loosely packed and showed increased necrosis and inflammation as compared to those in Se and Se+ mice. In Experiment 2, dietary selenium did not affect tumor development or histopathology throughout the time course. In both experiments, postmortem plasma selenium concentrations in Se and Se+ mice were comparable and were twofold greater than those in Se- mice. Taken together, dietary selenate at nutritional and supranutritional levels differentially inhibit tumor development in adult, but not young, nude mice engrafted with PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

  1. Human Cancer Xenografts in Outbred Nude Mice Can Be Confounded by Polymorphisms in a Modifier of Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zeineldin, Maged; Jensen, Derek; Paranjape, Smita R.; Parelkar, Nikhil K.; Jokar, Iman; Vielhauer, George A.; Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenicity studies often employ outbred nude mice, in the absence of direct evidence that this mixed genetic background will negatively affect experimental outcome. Here we show that outbred nude mice carry two different alleles of Pla2g2a, a genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Here, we identify previous unreported linked polymorphisms in the promoter, noncoding and coding sequences of Pla2g2a and show that outbred nude mice from different commercial providers are heterogeneous for this polymorphic Pla2g2a allele. This heterogeneity even extends to mice obtained from a single commercial provider, which display mixed Pla2g2a genotypes. Notably, we demonstrated that the polymorphic Pla2g2a allele affects orthotopic xenograft establishment of human colon cancer cells in outbred nude mice. This finding establishes a non-cell-autonomous role for Pla2g2a in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis. Using in vitro reporter assays and pharmacological inhibitors, we show promoter polymorphisms and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) as underlying mechanisms that lead to low Pla2g2a mRNA levels in tumor-sensitive mice. Together, this study provides mechanistic insight regarding Pla2g2a polymorphisms and demonstrates a non-cell-autonomous role for Pla2g2a in suppressing tumors. Moreover, our direct demonstration that mixed genetic backgrounds of outbred nude mice can significantly affect baseline tumorigenicity cautions against future use of outbred mice for tumor xenograft studies. PMID:24913681

  2. Suppression of matrix metalloproteinases inhibits establishment of ectopic lesions by human endometrium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bruner, K L; Matrisian, L M; Rodgers, W H; Gorstein, F; Osteen, K G

    1997-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases of the stromelysin family are expressed in the human endometrium as a consequence of cellular events during the menstrual cycle that require extracellular matrix remodeling. We have recently documented the presence of these enzymes in lesions of endometriosis, a benign disease that presents as persistent ectopic sites of endometrial tissue, usually within the peritoneal cavity. Endometriosis can develop after retrograde menstruation of endometrial tissue fragments, and establishment of ectopic sites within the peritoneal cavity requires breakdown of extracellular matrix. To examine whether matrix metalloproteinases might contribute to the steroid-dependent epidemiology and cellular pathophysiology of endometriosis, we have developed an experimental model of endometriosis using athymic nude mice as recipients of human endometrial tissue. Our results demonstrate that estrogen treatment of human endometrial tissue in organ culture maintains secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and promotes establishment of ectopic peritoneal lesions when injected into recipient animals. In contrast, suppressing metalloproteinase secretion in vitro with progesterone treatment, or blocking enzyme activity with a natural inhibitor of metalloproteinases, inhibits the formation of ectopic lesions in this experimental model.

  3. siRNA blocking the RAS signalling pathway and inhibits the growth of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjie; Zheng, Yuling; Fan, Qingxia; Zhang, Xudong; Shi, Yonggang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to study RAS-siRNA blocking RAS pathway and suppressing cell growth in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. The methods in this study was to construct RAS-siRNA expression vector, establish 40 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft animal models and divided them into five groups: control group, siRNA control group, RAS-siRNA group, paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA and paclitaxel group. We observed tumour growth in nude mice, studied histology by HE staining, tumour growth inhibition by TUNEL assay and detected the RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot. We have obtained the following results: (i) successfully established animal models; (ii) nude mice in each group after treatment inhibited tumour volume was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p < 0.05); (iii) compared with the control group, the number of apoptotic cells were significantly increased in the siRNA control group and the RAS-siRNA group, and the number of apoptosis cells in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group is significantly most than the paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA group (p < 0.05); and (iv) after treatment, RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 expression in five groups was decreasing gradually. After adding paclitaxel, the protein expression in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group was significantly lower than that of paclitaxel group, negative control and paclitaxel group (p < 0.05). We therefore conclude that RAS-siRNA can block the RAS signal transduction pathway, reduce the activity of tumour cells, arrest tumour cell cycle, promote apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and increase tumour cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.

  4. Hair Follicle Generation by Injections of Adult Human Follicular Epithelial and Dermal Papilla Cells into Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Rahimi Jameh, Elham; Jaffary, Fariba; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Keshtmand, Gelavizh; Zarkob, Hajar; Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Aghdami, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Dermal papilla and hair epithelial stem cells regulate hair formation and the growth cycle. Damage to or loss of these cells can cause hair loss. Although several studies claim to reconstitute hairs using rodent cells in an animal model, additional research is needed to develop a stable human hair follicle reconstitution protocol. In this study, we have evaluated hair induction by injecting adult cultured human dermal papilla cells and a mixture of hair epithelial and dermal papilla cells in a mouse model. In this experimental study, discarded human scalp skins were used to obtain dermal papilla and hair epithelial cells. After separation, cells were cultured and assessed for their characteristics. We randomly allocated 15 C57BL/6 nude mice into three groups that received injections in their dorsal skin. The first group received cultured dermal papilla cells, the second group received a mixture of cultured epithelial and dermal papilla cells, and the third group (control) received a placebo [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-)]. Histopathologic examination of the injection sites showed evidence of hair growth in samples that received cells compared with the control group. However, the group that received epithelial and dermal papilla cells had visible evidence of hair growth. PKH tracing confirmed the presence of transplanted cells in the new hair. Our data showed that injection of a combination of adult human cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce hair growth in nude mice. This study emphasized that the combination of human adult cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce new hair in nude mice.

  5. Hair Follicle Generation by Injections of Adult Human Follicular Epithelial and Dermal Papilla Cells into Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Rahimi Jameh, Elham; Jaffary, Fariba; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Keshtmand, Gelavizh; Zarkob, Hajar; Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Aghdami, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dermal papilla and hair epithelial stem cells regulate hair formation and the growth cycle. Damage to or loss of these cells can cause hair loss. Although several studies claim to reconstitute hairs using rodent cells in an animal model, additional research is needed to develop a stable human hair follicle reconstitution protocol. In this study, we have evaluated hair induction by injecting adult cultured human dermal papilla cells and a mixture of hair epithelial and dermal papilla cells in a mouse model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, discarded human scalp skins were used to obtain dermal papilla and hair epithelial cells. After separation, cells were cultured and assessed for their characteristics. We randomly allocated 15 C57BL/6 nude mice into three groups that received injections in their dorsal skin. The first group received cultured dermal papilla cells, the second group received a mixture of cultured epithelial and dermal papilla cells, and the third group (control) received a placebo [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-)]. Results Histopathologic examination of the injection sites showed evidence of hair growth in samples that received cells compared with the control group. However, the group that received epithelial and dermal papilla cells had visible evidence of hair growth. PKH tracing confirmed the presence of transplanted cells in the new hair. Conclusion Our data showed that injection of a combination of adult human cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce hair growth in nude mice. This study emphasized that the combination of human adult cultured dermal papilla and epithelial cells could induce new hair in nude mice. PMID:28670518

  6. Ultrasound images of implanted tumors in nude mice using Sono-CT correlated with MRI appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Sarcone, Anita; Pirollo, Kathleen F.; Lin, Chin-Shoou; Chang, Esther

    2001-05-01

    Monitoring the effect of novel cancer chemotherapeutic agents in nude mice is now commonly done by external direct measurement and by autopsy. The development of small animal imaging has focused on micro-MRI, micro-CT and micro-PET -- each a highly expensive and highly valuable method. Far less work has been done with ultrasound imaging. We wish to demonstrate a new method of ultrasound imaging of living mice named Sono-CTR, Sono-CTR provides a compound image by combining the images obtained by electronically directing the transducer to scan from multiple angles.

  7. Apoptin induces apoptosis in nude mice allograft model of human bladder cancer by altering multiple bladder tumor-associated gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Wenju; Wang, Jiansong; Zhan, Hui; Jiang, Lihong; Yan, Ruping; Hou, Zongliu; Zhu, Huirong; Yu, Lirui; Shi, Yunqiang; Ding, Mingxia; Ke, Changxing

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common human malignancies that account for major death in the world. Apoptin that is derived from chicken anemia virus (CAV) has displayed tumor-specific cytotoxic activity in a variety of human carcinomas. However, the magical function of apoptin in bladder carcinoma cell lines has not been identified yet. In our study, we delivered apoptin into bladder-originating T24, EJ, and HCV29 cell lines by adenovirus system. The selective cytotoxic effect of apoptin was determined by cell viability assay, active caspase-3 measurement, and annexin V/PI double staining. Importantly, we have examined the differential expression patterns of tumor-associated genes including Ki67, C-erbB-2, Rb, and nm23 by flow cytometry and western blot in vitro. In an animal study, apoptin was infused into animal models by AAV system, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were employed to validate results in vivo. The results indicated that apoptin could selectively induce apoptosis in bladder tumorigenic cells coupled with tumor-specific nucleus accumulation in vitro. Interestingly, apoptin could downregulate expression levels of Ki67 and C-erbB-2 and upregulate the expression of Rb both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the animal models treated with AAV-apoptin have shown smaller tumor volumes and displayed better prognosis than controls. In conclusion, apoptin could selectively induce apoptosis in bladder tumor cells through altering expression profiles of tumor-associated genes.

  8. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Cui, Xiao-Xu; Liang, Pei-Fen; Dou, Jin-Xia; Liu, Zi-Yan; Sun, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects and safety of immunotherapy using different methods to load DC-CIK cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells. Methods: A breast cancer model was established in BALB/c nude mice using breast cancer stem cells. All mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group had three nude mice: the blank control group, the DC-CIK group (group D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC whole-cell lysate DC-CIK group (group L-D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC RNA DC-CIK group (group R-D), the THP DC-CIK group (group T-D) and group THP. Nude mice in groups D, L-D, R-D and T-D were injected with CSCs; 4 days later, the mice were inoculated with 1 × 106 DC-CIK cells via the tail vein. This injection was repeated 2 times a week for three weeks. The mice in groups THP and T-D were injected with a 5 mg/Kg dose of THP chemotherapeutic agents via the tail vein the day before DC-CIK injection, which was repeated one time a week for three weeks. Nude mice in the blank control group were injected with normal saline. The weights and sizes of the tumors were measured after the mice were euthanized. The expression of c-Myc, a key proto-oncogene associated with the Akt signaling pathway, was detected with RT-PCR. Results: The tumor growth rates in each group were as follows: group L-D < group R-D < group D < group T-D < blank control group < group THP. The nude mice in groups L-D, R-D and D were normal, active and had a healthy appetite. The mice in groups T-D and THP were lethargic, less active and showed loss of appetite, and their caudal vein was easy to stimulate. The mice in the blank control group were sacrificed during the third week or when their tumors developed ulceration. Compared with the blank control group, c-Myc gene expression was reduced in the tumors of the five experimental groups. Conclusion: The results showed that DC-CIK cells stimulated by different methods were highly effect against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice in all groups

  9. Effect of dietary selenium and cancer cell xenograft on peripheral T and B lymphocytes in adult nude mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Holmstrom, Alexandra; Li, Xiangdong; Wu, Ryan T Y; Zeng, Huawei; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2012-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate tumorigenesis and immunity at the nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, we investigated whether B and T cell maturation could be modulated by dietary Se and by tumorigenesis in nude mice. Fifteen homozygous nude mice were fed a Se-deficient, Torula yeast basal diet alone (Se-) or supplemented with 0.15 (Se+) or 1.0 (Se++) mg Se/kg (as Na(2)SeO(4)) for 6 months, followed by a 7-week time course of PC-3 prostate cancer cell xenograft (2 × 10(6) cells/site, 2 sites/mouse). Here, we show that peripheral B cell levels decreased in nude mice fed the Se -  or Se++ diet and the CD4(+) T cell levels increased in mice fed the Se++ diet. During the PC-3 cell tumorigenesis, dietary Se status did not affect peripheral CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in nude mice whereas mice fed with the Se++ diet appeared to exhibit greater peripheral CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells on day 9. Dietary Se status did not affect spleen weight in nude mice 7 weeks after the xenograft. Spleen weight was associated with frequency of peripheral CD4(+), but not CD8(+) T cells. Taken together, dietary Se at the nutritional and supranutritional levels regulates peripheral B and T cells in adult nude mice before and after xenograft with PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

  10. [Microsurgical transplantation of bone tumors of uncertain prognosis in athymic nude mice].

    PubMed

    Duprez, A; Féry, A; Sommelet, J

    1986-01-01

    Eight cases of human bone or soft tissue tumours were transplanted to nude mice. After such transplants to nude mice which are immunologically deficient, the malignant tumors developed like benign tumours, but maintaining malignant cytological characteristics. The transplants of normal human tissues or of benign tumours decreased in size or remained stable. The technique allowed a change of an original diagnosis of osteosarcoma to a final diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. It made it possible to diagnose a benign osteoblastoma, the diagnosis of which was doubtful before the transplant between osteosarcoma and chondroblastoma. It was possible to diagnose the malignancy of a haemangiopericytoma of muscle. Two aggressive tumours--a non-ossifying fibroma and a giant-cell tumour--were rated as benign after transplantation. This technique also allowed a more precise diagnosis of the grade of one chondrosarcoma and one osteosarcoma. Finally, transplantation also made it possible to test the efficacy of chemotherapy. In a patient so treated, the extreme cell proliferation after transplantation to the nude mouse led to a change in the drugs administered.

  11. Inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; He, X J; Xu, H Q; Chen, Z W; Fan, H H

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1 and its mechanism. For this study, athymic nude mice were injected with either normal pituitary tumor RC-4B/C cells or LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells. We then calculated the volume inhibition rate of the tumors, as well as the apoptosis index of tumor cells and the expression of Ras, Raf, AKt, and ERK mRNA in tumor cells. Tumor cell morphological and structural changes were also observed under electron microscope. Our data showed that subcutaneous tumor growth was slowed or even halted in LRIG1-transfected tumors. The tumor volumes were significantly different between the two groups of mice (χ2 = 2.14, P < 0.05). The tumor apoptosis index was found to be 8.72% in the control group and 39.7% in LRIG1-transfected mice (χ2 = 7.59, P < 0.05). The levels of Ras, Raf, and AKt mRNA in LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells were significantly reduced after transfection (P < 0.01). Transfected subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be in early or late apoptosis under an electron microscope, while only a few subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be undergoing apoptosis in the control group. In conclusion, the LRIG1 gene is able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumors in nude mice. The mechanism of LRIG1 may involve the inhibition of the PI3K/ Akt and Ras/Raf/ERK signal transduction pathways.

  12. T-cell lymphoma induction by radiation leukemia virus in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    We report the development of extrathymic lymphoblastic lymphomas in RadLV-inoculated congenitally athymic nude mice. Thus, a leukemogenic virus which appears to require the presence of a thymus for its replication in normothymic mice can infect and transform target cells in the absence of this organ in the athymic host. The cells of one of these lymphomas have been established in vitro as a permanent cell line, BALB/Nu1. This cell line as well as a lymphoma induced in NIH/Swiss nude mice exhibit several T-cell markers, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity, Thy-1.2, and Ly-2.2, but not Ly- 1.2 nor TL. Ig determinants were not detected. The characteristics of the tumor cells support the view that cells with T-cell markers may normally exist in nude mice and undergo neoplastic transformation and clonal expansion after infection with a leukemogenic virus. The alternative possibility that virus-induced differentiation of prothymocytes may lead to the expression of Thy-1.2 and Ly-2.2 antigens is also considered. BALB/Nu1 cells release large numbers of type C viral particles. The virus, designated radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)/Nu1, has RTase activity and the protein profile characteristic of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). In radioimmunoassays, it cross-reacts completely with RadLV/VL3, a virus obtained from RadLV-induced C57BL/Ka thymic lymphoma cells in culture, and slightly with a xenotropic virus (BALB:virus-2) and with AKR MuLV. On inoculation into C57BL/Ka mice it has thymotropic and leukemogenic activity. In vitro it is B-tropic, poorly fibrotropic, and has limited xenotropic activity. Thus, RadLV/Nu1 appears to be biologically and serologically similar or identical to its parent virus, RadLV. PMID:214507

  13. Photodynamic activity of BAM-SiPc, an unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine, in tumour-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S C H; Lo, P-C; Ng, D K P; Liu, W-K; Fung, K-P; Fong, W-P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Ever since the discovery of photodynamic therapy, there has been a continuous search for more potent photosensitizers. Towards that end, we have synthesized a number of novel phthalocyanine derivatives. The unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine BAM-SiPc is one of the most potent compounds. In in vitro cell culture, it exhibits high phototoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. Experimental approach In the present investigation, the in vivo effect of BAM-SiPc was studied in the tumour-bearing nude mice model. The biodistribution of BAM-SiPc was followed to evaluate its tumour selectivity and rate of clearance. The tumour volume in the hepatocarcinoma HepG2- and the colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29-bearing nude mice was measured after photodynamic therapy. The level of intrinsic toxicity induced was also investigated. Finally, the metabolism of BAM-SiPc in the ‘normal' WRL68 liver cells and the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was compared. Key results The results not only showed significant tumour regression of HepG2 and growth inhibition of HT29 in the tumour-bearing nude mice, but also no apparent hepatic or cardiac injury with the protocol used. Histological analyses showed that apoptosis was induced in the solid tumour. BAM-SiPc could be metabolized by WRL68 liver cells but not by the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Unfortunately, BAM-SiPc did not show any specific targeting towards the tumour tissue. Conclusions and implications The efficiency of BAM-SiPc in inhibiting tumour growth makes it a good candidate for further evaluation. Enhancement of its uptake in tumour tissue by conjugation with biomolecules is currently under investigation. PMID:18332853

  14. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  15. Fluorescence-Guided Surgery Improves Outcome in an Orthotopic Osteosarcoma Nude-Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Shinji; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Yano, Shuya; Zhang, Yong; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a model for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS), 143B human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) cells were injected into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia in nude mice. The fluorescent area of residual tumors after bright-light surgery (BLS) and FGS was 10.2 ± 2.4 mm2 and 0.1 ± 0.1 mm2, respectively (p < 0.001). The BLS-treated mice and BLS+cisplatinum (CDDP)-treated mice had significant recurrence. In contrast, the FGS mice and FGS+CDDP mice had very little recurring tumor growth. Disease-free survival (DFS) in the BLS-, BLS+CDDP-, FGS-, and FGS+CDDP-treated mice were 12.5%, 37.5%, 75.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. The FGS-treated mice had a significantly higher DFS rate than the BLS-treated mice (p = 0.021). The FGS+CDDP-treated mice had significantly higher DFS rate than the BLS+CDDP-treated mice (p = 0.043). Although chemotherapy significantly reduced multiple metastases (p = 0.033), there was no significant correlation between FGS and lung metastasis. FGS significantly reduced the recurrence of the tumor but did not reduce lung metastasis. The combination of FGS and adjuvant CDDP reduced tumor recurrence and prevented multiple metastases. FGS and adjuvant chemotherapy should be performed as early as possible in the disease to prevent both recurrence and metastatic development. PMID:25138581

  16. Growth inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of crotoxin treatment in esophageal Eca-109 cells and transplanted tumors in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing-kang; Wu, Xiang-sheng; Wang, Yan; Han, Rong; Qin, Zheng-hong; Xie, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antitumor actions of the Crotalus durissus neurotoxin (crotoxin) on human esophageal carcinoma (Eca-109) cells in vitro and transplanted esophageal Eca-109 tumors in nude mice. Methods: The growth-inhibitory effect was analyzed in Eca-109 cells using MTT assay. Cell morphology changes in nuclei were observed using Hoechst 33342 staining, while apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by flow cytometry. RT-PCR was used to measure the Bcl-2, p15, and caspase-3 p17 gene expression levels. A tumor transplantation model was established by inoculation of Eca-109 cells were into female Balb/c nude mice. Crotoxin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the transplanted tumors every 2 d for a total of 10 injections. Tumor size and weight were measured. Bcl-2, p15, and caspase-3 p17 protein expression in transplanted tumors was analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Crotoxin (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) inhibited the growth of Eca-109 cells in a dose-dependent manner with inhibition rates of 22.9%, 35.8%, and 57.2%, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining revealed apoptotic cells with pyknotic nuclear chromatin after crotoxin treatment. In Eca-109 cells, crotoxin induced apoptosis and G1 block, significantly upregulated the expression of p15 and caspase-3 p17 genes and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 gene. Furthermore, crotoxin inhibited the growth of Eca-109 tumors in nude mice in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that crotoxin increased p15 and caspase-3 p17 protein levels and reduced Bcl-2 protein level in tumor specimens. Conclusion: Crotoxin inhibits the growth of Eca-109 cells in vitro via apoptosis induction and G1 block. Local administration of crotoxin inhibits the growth of subcutaneously transplanted Eca-109 cells in nude mice, possibly via increasing p15 and caspase-3 p17 protein expression and reducing Bcl-2 protein expression. PMID:23202800

  17. Surveillance of systemic trafficking of macrophages induced by UHMWPE particles in nude mice by noninvasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ren, Pei-Gen; Huang, Zhinong; Ma, Ting; Biswal, Sandip; Smith, Robert L; Goodman, Stuart B

    2010-09-01

    Macrophages constitute a major part of the cell response to wear particles produced at articulating and nonarticulating interfaces of joint replacements. This foreign body reaction can result in periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening. We demonstrate that ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles induce systemic trafficking of macrophages by noninvasive in vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. The distal femora of nude mice were injected with 60 mg/mL UHMWPE suspension or saline alone. Reporter RAW264.7 macrophages that stably expressed the bioluminescent reporter gene and the fluorescence reporter gene were injected intravenously. Bioluminescence imaging was performed using an in vivo imaging system immediately after macrophage injection and at 2-day intervals. Compared with the nonoperated contralateral femora, at day 4, 6, and 8, the bioluminescent signal of femora containing UHMWPE suspension increased 1.30 +/- 0.09-, 2.36 +/- 0.92-, and 10.32 +/- 7.61-fold, respectively. The values at same time points for saline-injected control group were 1.08 +/- 0.07-, 1.14 +/- 0.27-, and 1.14 +/- 0.35-fold, respectively. The relative bioluminescence of the UHMWPE group was higher at all postinjection days and significantly greater than the saline group at day 8 (p < 0.05). Histological analysis confirmed the presence of reporter macrophages within the medullary canal of mice with implanted UHMWPE particles. The presence of UHMWPE particles induced enhanced bone remodeling activity. Clinically relevant UHMWPE particles stimulated the systemic recruitment of macrophages during an early time course using the murine femoral implant model. Interference with systemic macrophage trafficking may potentially mitigate UHMWPE particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis.

  18. Photodynamic therapy of human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Megerian, C A; Zaidi, S I; Sprecher, R C; Setrakian, S; Stepnick, D W; Oleinick, N L; Mukhtar, H

    1993-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is an experimental tumor therapy which is based on the combined use of a systematically administered photosensitizer to a tumor-bearing host and local illumination of the lesion by a high-intensity visible light source, typically a tunable argon dye laser. Human squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) is the most frequently encountered malignancy of the head and neck. In this study, responses of HSCC cells to PDT were examined in in vitro and in vivo systems. In in vitro studies, the HSCC cells showed a positive photodynamic response with Photofrin-II (Pf-II), chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS), and a newly synthesized silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc IV). Single cell suspension of HSCC injected subcutaneously on the back of athymic nude mice resulted in a well-circumscribed tumor mass. The animals required a low tumor dose for the successful establishment of a tumor. The tumor was minimally immunogenic and showed neither macroscopic signs of early metastasis to lung, kidney, liver, or spleen nor evidence of surrounding erythema, fluctuation, or tenderness until the late stages of necrosis. Intraperitoneal administration of AlPcTS or SiPc IV to tumor-bearing mice resulted in rapid uptake of the photosensitizers in liver, skin, and tumor tissue. Twenty-four hours following the intraperitoneal administration of AlPcTS or SiPc IV to tumor-bearing animals, the tumor to normal skin ratio of the photosensitizer was 1.6 or 1.5, respectively. Administration of Pf-II (5 mg/kg) to tumor-bearing animals followed 24 hours later by irradiation of the tumor (135 J/cm2, 630 nm light from an argon pumped-dye laser) resulted in greater than 80% ablation in tumor volume 24 hours post-PDT. These characteristics make this tumor model system suitable for PDT studies of human tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo.

  19. [Establishment and characterization of dual-color fluorescence nude mouse models of glioma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshi; Lu, Zhaohui; Fei, Xifeng; Dai, Xingliang; Wu, Jinding; Wan, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Aidong; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    To establish red-green dual-color fluorescence glioma model in nude mice and to explore its practical values. CM-DiI-stained rat glioma C6 cells (C6-CM- DiI cells) expressing red fluorescence were inoculated into the brain of athymic nude mice expressing green fluorescence protein (NC-C57BL/6J-EGFP). Then the whole-body dual-color fluorescence imaging was detected dynamically. Finally whole brains of the tumor-bearing mice were removed and 5 µm thick serial frozen slices were made. Light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to observe the transplanted tumor tissue structure and fluorescent cells. Tumor mass with red fluorescence increased gradually under continuous in-vivo fluorescence imaging monitoring. Under the fluorescence microscope, cells with red, green and yellow fluorescence were observed in the frozen sections of transplanted tumor tissue and the mutual structural relationship among them could be defined. The tumor cells migration, implantation and cell fusion between transplanted tumor cells and host cells could be observed. It could be distinguished according to the fluorescence, that blood vessels of tumor-origin displayed red fluorescence, blood vessels of host-origin displayed green fluorescence and mosaic blood vessels appeared yellow fluorescence. It was depicted that host innate astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the microenvironment at the tumor periphery could be activated and dedifferentiated into nestin-positive cells. In contrast to traditional animal model, the dual-color fluorescence imaging of nude mouse models of glioma possesses enormous advantages in investigating tumor mass in-vivo fluorescence imaging, tumor cells migration and metastasis, tumor angiogenesis and reactive activation of host innate cells in the microenvironment at tumor periphery, thus, has highly practical application value.

  20. Pulmonary metastases of the A549-derived lung adenocarcinoma tumors growing in nude mice. A multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Monika; Sniegocka, Martyna; Podgórska, Ewa; Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Urbanska, Krystyna; Susz, Anna; Fiedor, Leszek; Pyka, Janusz; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2013-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is a leading human malignancy with fatal prognosis. Ninety percent of the deaths, however, are caused by metastases. The model of subcutaneous tumor xenograft in nude mice was adopted to study the growth of control and photodynamically treated tumors derived from the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. As a side-result of the primary studies, observations on the metastasis of these tumors to the murine lungs were collected, and reported in the present paper. The metastasizing primary tumors were drained by a prominent number of lymphatic vessels. The metastatic tissue revealed the morphology of well-differentiated or trans-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further histological and histochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of golden-brown granules in the metastatic tissue, similar to these found in the tumor tissue. In contrast to the primary tumors, the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed no nitric oxide - hemoglobin complexes (a source of intense paramagnetic signals), in the metastases. No metastases were found in other murine organs; however, white infarctions were identified in a single liver. Taken together, the A549-derived tumors growing subcutaneously in nude mice can metastasize and grow on site in the pulmonary tissue. Thus, they can represent an alternative for the model of induced metastatic nodule formation, following intravenous administration of the cancerous cells.

  1. Inhibitory effects of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice mediated by low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, ZHI-YONG; SHEN, E.; DIAO, XUE-HONG; BAI, WEN-KUN; ZENG, MIN-XIA; LUAN, YAN YAN; NAN, SHU-LIANG; LIN, YAN-DUAN; WEI, CONG; CHEN, LI; SUN, DI; HU, BING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sonication effects of 21-kHz ultrasound (US) with microbubbles (MBs) on the subcutaneous prostate tumors of nude mice. In total, 15 tumor-bearing nude mice were divided into three groups: The control group, the low-frequency US group and the US+MB group. The MBs used were from US contrast agent SonoVue. The parameters of the US were as follows: 21 kHz, 26 mW/cm2 and a 40% duty cycle (2 sec on, 3 sec off) for 3 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. Color Doppler flow imaging, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunoblotting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the results. Following 2 weeks of treatment, the blood flow signal disappeared in the US+MB group only, and the tumor size was smaller when compared with the control and US groups. For the immunoblotting, the intensity of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+MB group was lower compared with the other two groups. Tumor necrosis was present and the nucleus disappeared upon HE staining in the US+MB group. Upon TEM analysis, increased cytoplasmic vacuolation and dilatation of the perinuclear cisternae of the tumor cells were found in the US+MB group. In the control and US groups, the tumors had intact vascular endothelia and vessel lumens. However, lumen occlusion of the vessels was observed in the US+MB group. In conclusion, 21-kHz low-intensity US with MBs may result in vessel occlusion and growth inhibitory effects in the subcutaneous tumors of nude mice. PMID:24765142

  2. Safety assessment of ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation in nude mice bearing human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gen-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Tan; Yang, Zhao-Xin; Cai, Jun-Hong; Chen, Chun-Ying; Yao, Mao-Zhong; Hong, Lan; He, Guo-Li; Yang, Shu-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Nude mice with orthotopic transplantation of human ovarian epithelial cancer were used to investigate screening criteria for paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissue and the security of the freezing and thawing for ovarian tissue transplantation. Expression of CK-7, CA125, P53, survivin, MMP-2/TIMP- 2 in paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissues were detected by RT-PCR as well as immunohistochemistry. The tissues of the groups with all negative indicators of RT-PCR, all negative indicators of immunohistochemistry, negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, cancer tissues and normal ovarian tissues of nude mice were used for freezing and thawing transplantation, to analyze overt and occult carcinogenesis rates after transplantation. When all indicators or the main indicators, CK-7, CA125 and survivin, were negative, tumorigenesis did not occur after transplantation. In addition the occult carcinogenesis rate was lower than in the group with positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin (P<0.01). After subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissues, rates did not change (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance among rates after transplantation of ovarian tissues which were obtained under different severity conditions (P>0.05). Negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin can be treated as screening criteria for security of ovarian tissues for transplantation. Immunohistochemical methods can be used as the primary detection approach. Both subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation are safe. The initial severity does not affect the carcinogenesis rate after tissue transplantation. Freezing and thawing ovarian tissue transplantation in nude mice with human epithelial ovarian carcinoma is feasible and safe.

  3. Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin on Tumor Growth and Cellular Signaling in Cervical Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Changtam, Chatchawan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a stable metabolite of curcumin (CUR) in physiological systems. The mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of THC is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of THC on tumor growth and cellular signaling in cervical cancer xenografts in nude mice. Cervical cancer cells (CaSki) were subcutaneously injected in nude mice to establish tumors. One month after the injection, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. Relative tumor volume (RTV) was measured every 3-4 days. COX-2, EGFR, p-ERK1&2, p-AKT, and Ki-67 expressions were measured by immunohistochemistry whereas cell apoptosis was detected by TUNELS method. THC treatments at the doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg statistically retarded the RTV by 70.40%, 76.41%, and 77.93%, respectively. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased COX-2, EGFR, p-ERK1&2, and p-AKT; however they were attenuated by all treatments with THC. Ki-67 overexpression and a decreasing of cell apoptosis were found in CaSki + vehicle group, but these findings were reversed after the THC treatments. PMID:26881213

  4. Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin on Tumor Growth and Cellular Signaling in Cervical Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Changtam, Chatchawan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a stable metabolite of curcumin (CUR) in physiological systems. The mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of THC is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of THC on tumor growth and cellular signaling in cervical cancer xenografts in nude mice. Cervical cancer cells (CaSki) were subcutaneously injected in nude mice to establish tumors. One month after the injection, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. Relative tumor volume (RTV) was measured every 3-4 days. COX-2, EGFR, p-ERK1&2, p-AKT, and Ki-67 expressions were measured by immunohistochemistry whereas cell apoptosis was detected by TUNELS method. THC treatments at the doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg statistically retarded the RTV by 70.40%, 76.41%, and 77.93%, respectively. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased COX-2, EGFR, p-ERK1&2, and p-AKT; however they were attenuated by all treatments with THC. Ki-67 overexpression and a decreasing of cell apoptosis were found in CaSki + vehicle group, but these findings were reversed after the THC treatments.

  5. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. PMID:26716690

  6. Gallbladder small cell carcinoma Xenograft established by serial transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nishime, Chiyoko; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Tamaoki, Norikazu; Suematsu, Makoto; Oida, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Ueyama, Yoshito; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The GB-04-JCK xenograft line of human gallbladder small cell carcinoma was established in nude mice by serial transplantation. The xenotransplantability has been maintained for more than 20 years. The carcinoma cells grew in a solid-sheet pattern and were found to have hyperchromatic nuclei, finely dispersed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli in the primary gallbladder tumor, as well as in the established xenograft GB-04-JCK The carcinoma cells also had Grimelius argyrophil granules, electron-dense neuroendocrine granules bounded by a single membrane. The xenograft line retained histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the primary gallbladder tumor and is the first reported xenotransplantable tumor of human gallbladder small cell carcinoma.

  7. Accretion of biopsy specimens of vaginal adenosis from patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, when transplanted to athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, M M; Mann, L C; Rosloniec, E F; Welsch, C W

    1979-03-01

    Vaginal adenosis biopsy specimens from 10 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were transplanted for 30 days into athymic (nude) mice. Almost all grafts were recovered, and they had morphologic features closely resembling those of the original biopsy specimens, i.e., cystic, complex, and simple occult glands covered mainly with an endocervical type of epithelium showing extensive squamous metaplasia. Autoradiographic analysis of these grafts after pulse administration of [3H]thymidine into the mice revealed extensive labeling of epithelial cells. These results imply that female athymic (nude) mice are compatible hosts for accretion of the human adenosis.

  8. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng . E-mail: Dongfeng_pan@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10{sup 9} PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases.

  9. Receptor FGFRL1 acts as a tumor suppressor in nude mice when overexpressed in HEK 293 Tet-On cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Lei; Steinberg, Florian; Trueb, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with heparin and FGF ligands. In contrast to the classical FGF receptors, FGFR1 to FGFR4, it does not appear to affect cell growth and proliferation. In the present study, an inducible gene expression system was utilized in combination with a xenograft tumor model to investigate the effects of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion and tumor formation. It was determined that recombinant FGFRL1 promotes the adhesion of HEK 293 Tet-On® cells in vitro. Moreover, when such cells are induced to express FGFRL1ΔC they aggregate into huge clusters. If injected into nude mice, the cells form large tumors. Notably, this tumor growth is completely inhibited when the expression of FGFRL1 is induced. The forced expression of FGFRL1 in the tumor tissue may restore contact inhibition, thereby preventing growth of the cells in nude mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that FGFRL1 acts as a tumor suppressor similar to numerous other cell adhesion proteins. It is therefore likely that FGFRL1 functions as a regular cell-cell adhesion protein. PMID:28101211

  10. The nude mouse model for the study of human skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Etzioni, A

    1994-01-01

    Normal human skin grafted onto the nude mouse can be maintained without any signs of rejection throughout the life-span of the animal. Indeed, the nude mouse model is a powerful tool for understanding the pathological process of the skin. Until now many skin diseases such as psoriasis, cutaneous lupus, pemphigus and vitiligo have been looked at using the nude mouse model, which has helped to clarify the role of the various factors involved.

  11. Nature of the thymus dependency of mucosal mast cells. III. Mucosal mast cells in nude mice and nude rats, in B rats and in a child with the Di George syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, G; Bazin, H

    1981-01-01

    Mucosal mast cells have been examined in the small intestinal mucosae of nude mice and nude rats, B rats and a child with the DiGeorge syndrome. In all three species, mast cells were present in normal numbers despite the athymic status of the nude mice and nude rats, the vestigial nature of the thymus in the child, and the functionally T lymphocyte-deprived status of the B rats. Connective tissue mast cells were also plentiful in skins and tongues of the nude mice and the child with thymic aplasia. It is concluded that normally neither population of mast cells has a obligatory dependence on the thymus or T lymphocytes for its differentiation, but that mucosal mast cells, under certain conditions of rapid hyperplasia, require an inductive influence provided by T lymphocytes.

  12. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy in nude mice: Effects on the morphology of the pituitary corticotrope population.

    PubMed

    Martines, Eliana; Reggiani, Paula C; Schwerdt, José I; Goya, Rodolfo G; Cónsole, Gloria

    2011-04-01

    The integrity of the thymus during early life is necessary for a proper maturation of the neuroendocrine system, including the adrenal axis. The thymic metallopeptide thymulin seems to be a central physiologic mediator of thymus-pituitary communication. Furthermore, neonatal thymulin gene therapy has been shown to prevent the typical alterations of gonadotrophic cell number and morphology and serum gonadotropin levels in nude female mice. In the present study we assessed the impact of athymia and the effect of neonatal thymulin gene therapy on the corticotropic cell population in nude mice. The effect of thymulin administration to adult nudes on their hypothalamic content of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the adrenal content of corticosterone was also determined. We used an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for the thymic peptide thymulin (metFTS) termed RAd-FTS. On postnatal day 1 or 2, heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pups of both sexes received a single bilateral i.m. injection of RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP, a control vector. On postnatal day 71, mice were bled and sacrificed, and their pituitaries were immediately dissected, fixed and immunostained for corticotropin. Morphometry was performed by means of an image-analysis system. The following parameters were calculated: volume density (VD: Σ cell area/reference area), cell density (CD: number of cells/reference area), and cell surface (CS: expressed in μm²). Serum thymulin levels were measured by a bioassay, and CRH as well as corticosterone were determined by IRMA and RIA, respectively. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy in the athymic mice restored their serum thymulin levels and increased corticotrope CD, VD and CS in both control and athymic mice. Athymic mice showed only a marginal reduction in corticotrope CD, VD and CS. In these mutants hypothalamic CRH content was slightly increased, whereas adrenal corticosterone tended to be lower. Thymulin administration to adult mice tended

  13. Abnormal blood vessels formed by human liver cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells in nude mice are suitable for drug evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-jian; Wu, Lian-qiu; Liu, Hong-lin; Ye, Li-ya; Xin, Yu-ling; Grau, Georges E; Lou, Jin-ning

    2009-12-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is vascular malformation with developmental aberrations. It was assumed that the abnormality of endothelial cells contributed greatly to the occurrence of cavernous hemangioma. In our previous study, we have found distinct characteristics of endothelial cells derived from human liver cavernous hemangioma (HCHEC). Here, we reported the abnormal vascular vessels formed by primary HCHEC in nude mice and that the drug podophyllotoxin can destroy HCHEC in vitro and in vivo. HCHEC was isolated from a human liver cavernous hemangioma specimen, and the HCHEC generated a red hemangioma-like mass 7 days after subcutaneously co-inoculating HCHEC and human liver cancer cells (Bel-7402) in nude mice. Lentiviral expression of GFP and immunohistochemistry for human CD31 was used to confirm that the HCHEC formed the blood vessels in nude mice. And the pathological features of vascular vessels formed by HCHEC were very similar to clinical cavernous hemangioma. In addition, by MTT assay, the drug podophyllotoxin was found inhibiting HCHEC viability, and by TUNEL and DNA ladder assays, podophyllotoxin was found inducing apoptosis of HCHEC. Moreover, podophyllotoxin was also effective for destroying the abnormal vascular vessels in the hemangioma-like mass in nude mice. In summary, the HCHEC can form abnormal blood vessels in nude mice, and we can evaluate drugs for cavernous hemangioma by using HCHEC in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Antibody repertoire against HIV-1 gp120 triggered in nude and normal mice by GM-CSF/gp120 immunization.

    PubMed

    del Real, G; Llorente, M; Lucas, P; Kremer, L; Torán, J L; Martínez-A, C

    1999-08-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates the induction of primary immune responses by activating and recruiting antigen-presenting cells (APC), which efficiently present antigen determinants to Th cells. We have derived a functional GM-CSF/gp120 chimeric protein that, following immunization in soluble, adjuvant-independent form in normal mice, triggers highly specific, high affinity anti-gp120 antibodies. In contrast, nude mice respond with mutated, polyreactive, low affinity antibodies that mature further and increase in affinity in T cell-reconstituted nude mice. Anti-gp120 antibody production in nude mice is mediated principally by GM-CSF/gp120-triggered IL-4 production, since neutralizing anti-IL-4 abrogates the in vivo response. The anti-gp120 antibody response in normal, nude and T cell-reconstituted nude mice is encoded at a remarkably high frequency by the VH81X and VH7183 genes, a family used notably during fetal life and, when expressed at the adult stage, associated with autoimmune disease. We conclude that HIV gp120 binds and selects a subpopulation of developing B cells expressing a set of VH genes associated with immunodeficiency and autoimmunity.

  15. Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

  16. Conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibits transplanted tumor growth via membrane lipid peroxidation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Miki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-05-01

    Both conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have an antitumor effect. Hence, we hypothesized that a combination of conjugated double bonds and an (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acid would produce stronger bioactivity. To verify the antitumor effect of conjugated EPA (CEPA), we transplanted DLD-1 human colon tumor cells into nude mice, and compared the tumor growth between CEPA-fed mice and CLA- and EPA-fed mice. After tumor cell inoculation, mice were assigned to 1 of 4 groups (control, CLA, EPA, and CEPA) consisting of 10 mice each. The control group received only safflower oil fatty acids, whereas the remaining groups received a mixture of safflower oil fatty acids and 20 g/100 g of total fatty acids as CLA, EPA, or CEPA. Mice were fed once every 2 d for 4 wk at a dose of 50 mg/mouse at each feeding. After 4 wk, tumor growth in CEPA-fed mice was significantly suppressed, compared with that in CLA- (P < 0.005) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001). DNA fragmentation in the tumor tissues of the CEPA-fed mice occurred more frequently than in the CLA- (P < 0.001) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001), suggesting that CEPA induced apoptosis in the tumor tissues. To further investigate the mechanism, the level of oxidative stress in the tumor tissues was determined. The CEPA-fed mice showed significant lipid peroxidation, compared with the CLA- (P < 0.001) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001). Therefore, we verified that CEPA has a stronger in vivo antitumor effect than EPA and CLA, and that CEPA acts through induction of apoptosis via lipid peroxidation.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell-based NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yin; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Zhen; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Luo, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Kun-He; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as promising delivery vehicles for gene therapy of tumors. Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, and novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. NK4 is an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor receptors (Met) which are often aberrantly activated in gastric cancer and thus represent a useful candidate for targeted therapies. This study investigated MSC-delivered NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying NK4 complementary DNA or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). Such transduction did not change the phenotype of MSCs. Gastric cancer xenografts were established in BALB/C nude mice, and the mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4. The tropism of MSCs toward gastric cancer cells was determined by an in vitro migration assay using MKN45 cells, GES-1 cells and human fibroblasts and their presence in tumor xenografts. Tumor growth, tumor cell apoptosis and intratumoral microvessel density of tumor tissue were measured in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts treated with PBS, MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4 via tail vein injection. The results showed that MSCs migrated preferably to gastric cancer cells in vitro. Systemic MSCs-NK4 injection significantly suppressed the growth of gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs-NK4 migrated and accumulated in tumor tissues after systemic injection. The microvessel density of tumor xenografts was decreased, and tumor cellular apoptosis was significantly induced in the mice treated with MSCs-NK4 compared to control mice. These findings demonstrate that MSC-based NK4 gene therapy can obviously inhibit the growth of gastric cancer xenografts, and MSCs are a better vehicle for NK4 gene therapy than lentiviral vectors. Further studies are warranted to explore the efficacy and safety of the MSC-based NK4 gene therapy in

  18. Partial prevention of hepatic lipid alterations in nude mice by neonatal thymulin gene therapy.

    PubMed

    García de Bravo, Margarita M; Polo, Mónica P; Reggiani, Paula C; Rimoldi, Omar J; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2006-08-01

    During adult life athymic (nude) male mice display not only a severe T-cell-related immunodeficiency but also endocrine imbalances and a moderate hyperglycemia. We studied the impact of congenital athymia on hepatic lipid composition and also assessed the ability of neonatal thymulin gene therapy to prevent the effects of athymia. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector, RAd-metFTS, expressing a synthetic DNA sequence encoding met-FTS, an analog of the thymic peptide facteur thymique sérique (FTS), whose Zn-bound biologically active form is known as thymulin. On postnatal day 1-2 homozygous (nu/nu) nude and heterozygous (nu/+) mice were injected with 10(8) pfu of RAd-metFTS or RAd-betagal (control vector) intramuscularly. The animals were processed at 52 d of age. Serum thymulin, glycemia, hepatic phospholipid FA composition and free and esterified cholesterol were determined. Adult homozygous male nudes were significantly (P < 0.01) hyperglycemic when compared with their heterozygous counterparts (2.04 vs. 1.40 g/L, respectively). The relative percentage of 16:0, 18:1 n-9, and 18:1n-7 FA was lower, whereas that of 18:0, 20:4n-6, and 22:6n-3 FA was higher, in hepatic phospholipid (PL) of nu/nu animals as compared with their nu/+ counterparts. Some of these alterations, such as that in the relative content of 22:6n-3 in liver PL and the unsaturation index, were completely or partially prevented by neonatal thymulin gene therapy. We conclude that the thymus influences lipid metabolism and that thymulin is involved in this modulatory activity.

  19. Morphological restoration of gonadotrope population by thymulin gene therapy in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Paula; Martines, Eliana; Ferese, Celia; Goya, Rodolfo; Cónsole, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Summary The integrity of the thymus during the first week of life is necessary for a proper maturation of the pituitary-gonadal axis as revealed by the significantly reduced levels of circulating gonadotropins in congenitally athymic (nude) mice. In the present work we studied the impact of athymia and the effect of neonatal thymulin gene therapy on the pituitaries of adult nude mice. Also circulating thymulin and gonadotropin levels were evaluated. We used an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for the thymic peptide thymulin (metFTS) termed RAd-FTS. On postnatal day 1, each experimental heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pup of both sexes received a single bilateral i.m. injection of RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP/TK, a control vector expressing green fluorescent protein. On postnatal days 51-52, mice were bled and sacrificed, their pituitaries were immediately dissected, fixed and immunostained. Morphometry was performed by means of an image analysis system. The following parameters were calculated: volume density (VD: cell area/reference area), cell density (CD: number of cells/reference area), and cell size (expressed in μm2). Serum thymulin levels were measured by a bioassay and gonadotropin levels were assayed by RIA. It was observed that neonatal thymulin gene therapy in the athymic mice restored their serum thymulin levels and prevented the reduction in circulating gonadotropin levels. The histometrical analysis revealed that the treatment prevented the reduction in gonadotrope CD and the VD in athymic mice. Our data suggest that thymulin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to approach reproductive deficits associated with endocrine thymus dysfunction. PMID:19337971

  20. Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Cervical Cancer Cell-Induced Angiogenesis in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future. PMID:25789317

  1. Effects of tetrahydrocurcumin on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cervical cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future.

  2. [Changes of metastatic potential of residual hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice after in vivo chemotherapy and the corresponding mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Zhao-you; Ren, Zheng-gang; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-quan

    2012-11-01

    To explore the changes of metastatic potential of residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after in vivo chemotherapy and its mechanism. Nude mouse models of orthotopic HCC in the nude mouse livers was established using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC97L cells. Oxaliplatin (10 mg/kg, once per week) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice in the trial group. Mice in the control group received 0.2 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride on the same days. On day 7 after the third injection, all mice were sacrificed and tumor fragments of equal volume (2 mm×2 mm×2 mm) from each mouse of the oxaliplatin-treated and untreated groups were reinoculated into the livers of each new recipient mouse correspondingly. The growth, metastasis and molecular phenotype of the reinoculated tumors in both groups were determined. In the new recipient mice, compared with untreated tumors, oxaliplatin pre-treated tumors grew significantly slower [(2624.59 ± 491.60) mm(3) vs. (3849.72 ± 827.09) mm(3), P < 0.001], but gave more spontaneous metastasis to the lung (10/12 vs. 3/12, P = 0.012). A decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and transcription factor Snail were detected in the oxaliplatin pre-treated tumors by immunohistochemistry, which provided the evidence of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these tumors. Residual hepatocellular carcinomas after in vivo chemotherapy grow slower but gain enhanced metastatic potential to the lung, associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  3. Syzygium campanulatum korth methanolic extract inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract. Methods Betulinic acid was isolated from methanolic extract by crystallization and chromatography techniques. S.C. methanolic extract was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, LC-MS, and HPLC. Antiangiogenic effect was studied on rat aortic rings, matrigel tube formation, cell proliferation and migration, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Antitumor effect was studied using a subcutaneous tumor model of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells established in nude mice. Results Analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and FTIR confirm presence of betulinic acid in S.C. methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis by HPLC indicates presence of betulinic acid in S.C. extract at 5.42 ± 0.09% (w/w). Antiangiogenesis study showed potent inhibition of microvessels outgrowth in rat aortic rings, and studies on normal and cancer cells did not show any significant cytotoxic effect. Antiangiogenic effect was further confirmed by inhibition of tube formation on matrigel matrix that involves human endothelial cells (IC50 = 17.6 ± 2.9 μg/ml). S.C. extract also inhibited migration of endothelial cells and suppressed expression of VEGF. In vivo antiangiogenic study showed inhibition of new blood vessels in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and in vivo antitumor study showed significant inhibition of tumor growth due to reduction of intratumor blood vessels and induction of cell death. Conclusion Collectively, our results indicate S. campanulatum as antiangiogenic and antitumor candidate, and a new source of betulinic acid. PMID:23842450

  4. Syzygium campanulatum korth methanolic extract inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Ismail, Zhari; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Siddiqui, Jamshed M; Ghafar, Gheniya; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah

    2013-07-11

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract. Betulinic acid was isolated from methanolic extract by crystallization and chromatography techniques. S.C. methanolic extract was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, LC-MS, and HPLC. Antiangiogenic effect was studied on rat aortic rings, matrigel tube formation, cell proliferation and migration, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Antitumor effect was studied using a subcutaneous tumor model of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells established in nude mice. Analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and FTIR confirm presence of betulinic acid in S.C. methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis by HPLC indicates presence of betulinic acid in S.C. extract at 5.42 ± 0.09% (w/w). Antiangiogenesis study showed potent inhibition of microvessels outgrowth in rat aortic rings, and studies on normal and cancer cells did not show any significant cytotoxic effect. Antiangiogenic effect was further confirmed by inhibition of tube formation on matrigel matrix that involves human endothelial cells (IC50 = 17.6 ± 2.9 μg/ml). S.C. extract also inhibited migration of endothelial cells and suppressed expression of VEGF. In vivo antiangiogenic study showed inhibition of new blood vessels in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and in vivo antitumor study showed significant inhibition of tumor growth due to reduction of intratumor blood vessels and induction of cell death. Collectively, our results indicate S. campanulatum as antiangiogenic and antitumor candidate, and a new source of betulinic acid.

  5. Optimized protocols for Mycobacterium leprae strain management: frozen stock preservation and maintenance in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Trombone, Ana Paula Fávaro; Pedrini, Sílvia Cristina Barbosa; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Belone, Andréa de Faria Fernandes; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vicenzi; do Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco

    2014-03-23

    Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important infectious disease that is still endemic in many countries around the world, including Brazil. There are currently no known methods for growing M. leprae in vitro, presenting a major obstacle in the study of this pathogen in the laboratory. Therefore, the maintenance and growth of M. leprae strains are preferably performed in athymic nude mice (NU-Foxn1(nu)). The laboratory conditions for using mice are readily available, easy to perform, and allow standardization and development of protocols for achieving reproducible results. In the present report, we describe a simple protocol for purification of bacilli from nude mouse footpads using trypsin, which yields a suspension with minimum cell debris and with high bacterial viability index, as determined by fluorescent microscopy. A modification to the standard method for bacillary counting by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and light microscopy is also demonstrated. Additionally, we describe a protocol for freezing and thawing bacillary stocks as an alternative protocol for maintenance and storage of M. leprae strains.

  6. ACTIVITY OF HOST-DERIVED T CELLS WHICH DIFFERENTIATE IN NUDE MICE GRAFTED WITH CO-ISOGENIC OR ALLOGENEIC THYMUSES

    PubMed Central

    Kindred, Berenice; Loor, Francis

    1974-01-01

    If nude mice are grafted with a neonatal thymus, host type precursor cells develop within the graft thymus and after about 6 wk the T-cell population of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes is of host type. However, immunological responsiveness produced in nude mice in this manner is incomplete: (a) the ability to react to T-cell mitogens in vitro is greater than in untreated nudes but lower than in normal mice; (b) the response to T-cell dependent antigens is less than normal; and (c) the rejection of skin grafts is slower than in normal animals. Whether host precursor cells which differentiate in an allogeneic thymus are able to reject skin grafts from thymus donor strain appears to depend on the strain combination used. PMID:4596513

  7. Activity of host-derived T cells which differentiate in nude mice grafted with co-isogenic or allogeneic thymuses.

    PubMed

    Kindred, B; Loor, F

    1974-05-01

    If nude mice are grafted with a neonatal thymus, host type precursor cells develop within the graft thymus and after about 6 wk the T-cell population of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes is of host type. However, immunological responsiveness produced in nude mice in this manner is incomplete: (a) the ability to react to T-cell mitogens in vitro is greater than in untreated nudes but lower than in normal mice; (b) the response to T-cell dependent antigens is less than normal; and (c) the rejection of skin grafts is slower than in normal animals. Whether host precursor cells which differentiate in an allogeneic thymus are able to reject skin grafts from thymus donor strain appears to depend on the strain combination used.

  8. Anticancer activity of resveratrol on implanted human primary gastric carcinoma cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Bo; Chen, Juan-Juan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Cai, Jian-Ting; Du, Qin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptosis of implanted primary gastric cancer cells in nude mice induced by resveratrol and the relation between this apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 and bax. METHODS: A transplanted tumor model was established by injecting human primary gastric cancer cells into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. Resveratrol (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg) was directly injected beside tumor body 6 times at an interval of 2 d. Then changes of tumor volume were measured continuously and tumor inhibition rate of each group was calculated. We observed the morphologic alterations by electron microscope, measured the apoptotic rate by TUNEL staining method, detected the expression of apoptosis-regulated genes bcl-2 and bax by immunohistoch-emical staining and PT-PCR. RESULTS: Resveratrol could significantly inhibit carcinoma growth when it was injected near the carcinoma. An inhibitory effect was observed in all therapeutic groups and the inhibition rate of resveratrol at the dose of 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg was 10.58%, 29.68% and 39.14%, respectively. Resveratrol induced implanted tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation. The inhibition rate of 0.2 mL of normal saline solution, 1 500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and 1500 mg/kg resveratrol was 13.68±0.37%, 13.8±0.43%, 48.7±1.07%, 56.44±1.39% and 67±0.96%, respectively. The positive rate of bcl-2 protein of each group was 29.48±0.51%, 27.56±1.40%, 11.86±0.97%, 5.7±0.84% and 3.92±0.85%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The positive rate of bax protein of each group was 19.34±0.35%, 20.88±0.91%, 40.02±1.20%, 45.72±0.88% and 52.3±1.54%, respectively by immunohistochemical staining. The density of bcl-2 mRNA in 0.2 mL normal saline solution, 1500 mg/kg DMSO, 500 mg/kg resveratrol, 1000 mg/kg resveratrol, and

  9. Sustained and therapeutic delivery of factor IX in nude haemophilia B mice by encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts: concurrent tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hortelano, G; Wang, L; Xu, N; Ofosu, F A

    2001-03-01

    This study reports the generation of an immunodeficient murine model for haemophilia B, obtained by breeding factor IX-deficient mice with an immunodeficient mouse strain, and use of this mouse model to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a gene therapy strategy for treating haemophilia B. Nude haemophilic mice were implanted with biocompatible microcapsules enclosing recombinant myoblasts secreting human factor IX. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of plasma of mice thus treated was invariably shortened 3 weeks after microcapsule implantation, and remained shortened for at least 77 days. Shortening of the APTT of the haemophilia mice coincided with the appearance of human factor IX in mice plasmas (up to 600 ng mL(-1) on day 77), and normalization of the tail-bleeding time. Thus, the microencapsulated myoblasts reversed the clinical phenotype of haemophilia B. In contrast, plasmas of immunocompetent haemophilic mice similarly implanted with microcapsules only showed a transient shortening of APTT, and coincident transient delivery of human factor IX antigen. Rapid disappearance of human factor IX from plasmas of immunocompetent mice also coincided with production of antibodies to the human transgene. Significantly, 86% of the nude haemophilia mice developed tumours of myoblast origin. Thus, while this study revealed the feasibility of this gene therapy approach to treat severe haemophilia B, it also highlights the importance of using safer cell lines to prevent tumour development.

  10. Astaxanthin Inhibits PC-3 Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaofeng; Yu, Haining; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shen, Shengrong

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common malignancy in men, is a major cause of cancer deaths. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor initiation and progression may identify actionable targets to improve treatment of this patient group. As a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against inflammation, cardiovascular disease, oxidative damage, or different cancer sites. This study used intragastric administration of astaxanthin to detect its role on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) overexpression, and microbacteria composition change by establishing androgen-independent PCa cell PC-3 xenograft nude mice. Nude mice were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. The intervention was started when tumors reached 0.5–0.6 cm in diameter. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (HA), 25 mg/kg astaxanthin (LA), or olive oil (TC). The results showed that 100 mg/kg astaxanthin significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the TC group, with an inhibitory rate of 41.7%. A decrease of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as an increase of cleaved caspase-3 were observed in HA-treated tumors, along with increasing apoptotic cells, obtained by TUNEL assay. The HA significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressors miR-375 and miR-487b in tumor tissues and the amount of Lactobacillus sp. and Lachnospiraceae in mice stools, while there was no significant difference between LA and TC groups. These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect in a dietary supplement manner. PMID:28282880

  11. Antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of curcumin in cervical cancer xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen-Chintana, Pornphrom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of curcumin (CUR) on tumor progression and angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and on the angiogenic biomarkers: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). CaSki cells were subcutaneously injected in nude mice to establish subcutaneous tumors. One month after injection, mice were orally administered vehicle or 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg/kg of CUR daily × 30 consecutive days. Tumor volume was measured every 3-4 days. At the end of the study, tumor microvasculature was observed under confocal microscope, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to detect CD31, VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR. CUR at the doses of 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg showed significant tumor growth retardation (21.03% and 35.57%) versus CaSki + vehicle group. The microvascular density (MVD) in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased versus Control + vehicle group and significantly reduced by CUR (1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg). VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expressions were upregulated in CaSki + vehicle group and attenuated significantly by CUR (1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg). In conclusion, high dose CUR inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted mice probably mediated by the downregulation of VEGF, COX-2 and EGFR. CUR may have a role in treating human cervical cancer and should be explored further.

  12. Astaxanthin Inhibits PC-3 Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaofeng; Yu, Haining; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shen, Shengrong

    2017-03-08

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common malignancy in men, is a major cause of cancer deaths. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor initiation and progression may identify actionable targets to improve treatment of this patient group. As a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against inflammation, cardiovascular disease, oxidative damage, or different cancer sites. This study used intragastric administration of astaxanthin to detect its role on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) overexpression, and microbacteria composition change by establishing androgen-independent PCa cell PC-3 xenograft nude mice. Nude mice were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. The intervention was started when tumors reached 0.5-0.6 cm in diameter. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (HA), 25 mg/kg astaxanthin (LA), or olive oil (TC). The results showed that 100 mg/kg astaxanthin significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the TC group, with an inhibitory rate of 41.7%. A decrease of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as an increase of cleaved caspase-3 were observed in HA-treated tumors, along with increasing apoptotic cells, obtained by TUNEL assay. The HA significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressors miR-375 and miR-487b in tumor tissues and the amount of Lactobacillus sp. and Lachnospiraceae in mice stools, while there was no significant difference between LA and TC groups. These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect in a dietary supplement manner.

  13. Synthetic progestins induce growth and metastasis of BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yayun; Benakanakere, Indira; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Hyder, Ryyan S; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Hyder, Salman M

    2010-01-01

    Objective Previous studies showed that sequential exposure to estrogen and progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) stimulates vascularization and promotes the progression of BT-474 and T47-D human breast cancer cell xenografts in nude mice (Liang et al, Cancer Res 2007, 67:9929). In this follow-up study, the effects of progesterone, MPA, norgestrel (N-EL) and norethindrone (N-ONE) on BT-474 xenograft tumors were compared in the context of several different hormonal environments. N-EL and N-ONE were included in the study since synthetic progestins vary considerably in their biological effects and the effects of these two progestins on the growth of human tumor xenografts are not known. Methods Estradiol-supplemented intact and ovariectomized Immunodeficient mice were implanted with BT-474 cells. Progestin pellets were implanted either simultaneously with estradiol pellets 2-days prior to tumor cell injection (i.e. combined), or 5-days following tumor cell injections (i.e. sequentially). Results Progestins stimulated the growth of BT-474 xenograft tumors independent of exposure timing and protocol, MPA stimulated the growth of BT-474 xenograft tumors in ovariectomized mice and progestins stimulated VEGF elaboration and increased tumor vascularity. Progestins also increased lymph node metastasis of BT-474 cells. Therefore, progestins, including N-EL and N-ONE, induce the progression of breast cancer xenografts in nude mice and promote tumor metastasis. Conclusions These observations suggests that women who ingest progestins for HT or oral contraception could be more at risk for developing breast cancer as a result of proliferation of existing latent tumor cells. Such risks should be considered in the clinical setting. PMID:20461021

  14. Localization of the defect in skin diseases analyzed in the human skin graft-nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Briggaman, R A

    1980-01-01

    Human skin can be grown away from its donor for prolonged periods as grafts on congenitally athymic "nude" mice. This system has been used to analyze the defect in several skin diseases, specifically to localize the site of the defect to the skin itself or to the epidermal or dermal components of the skin. In order to validate the use of the nude mouse human skin graft system in the analysis of skin defects, we have demonstrated that a systemic metabolic defect which involves the skin, namely essential fatty acid deficiency, can be differentiated from a defect residing primarily in the skin itself. Skin-marker systems have been developed for use with the nude mouse-human skin graft model to document the identity of human skin grafts and epidermal and dermal components of the grafts after prolonged periods of growth on the nude athymic mice. Y-body, a small fluorescent segment of the Y-chromosome seen in interphase cells, is used as a sex marker and serves to distinguish sex differences between the graft and the mouse recipient or between skin components of the graft. The ABH "blood-group" antigens are present on differentiated epidermal cell surfaces and identify the grafted epidermis according to the blood groups of the donor. In previous studies, lamellar ichthyosis was shown to be well maintained after prolonged periods of growth on nude athymic mice, indicating that the defect in this disease resides in the skin itself. Recombinant grafts composed of normal and lamellar ichthyosis epidermis and dermis further localize the defect to lamellar ichthyosis epidermis. Psoriasis is well maintained on the nude mouse-skin graft model. The epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferative epidermal cell kinetics of psoriasis are manifested in the grafts of active psoriasis maintained for prolonged periods on the nude mice, but the inflammatory component of psoriasis is absent. Recombinant graft studies utilizing normal and psoriatic epidermis and dermis demonstrate psoriasis

  15. A Novel Nude Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Scratched Full Thickness Human Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Alrobaiea, Saad M.; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Tredget, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorder that develops following deep skin injury. HTS can cause deformities, functional disabilities, and aesthetic disfigurements. The pathophysiology of HTS is not understood due to, in part, the lack of an ideal animal model. We hypothesize that human skin with deep dermal wounds grafted onto athymic nude mice will develop a scar similar to HTS. Our aim is to develop a representative animal model of human HTS. Approach: Thirty-six nude mice were grafted with full thickness human skin with deep dermal scratch wound before or 2 weeks after grafting or without scratch. The scratch on the human skin grafts was made using a specially designed jig that creates a wound >0.6 mm in depth. The xenografts were morphologically analyzed by digital photography. Mice were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: The mice developed raised and firm scars in the scratched xenografts with more contraction, increased infiltration of macrophage, and myofibroblasts compared to the xenografts without deep dermal scratch wound. Scar thickness and collagen bundle orientation and morphology resembled HTS. The fibrotic scars in the wounded human skin were morphologically and histologically similar to HTS, and human skin epithelial cells persisted in the remodeling tissues for 1 year postengraftment. Innovation and Conclusions: Deep dermal injury in human skin retains its profibrotic nature after transplantation, affording a novel model for the assessment of therapies for the treatment of human fibroproliferative disorders of the skin. PMID:27366591

  16. [Combination of phenylbutyrate and 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine inhibits human Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Hao, Chang-lai; Lin, Dong; Wang, Li-hong; Xing, Hai-yan; Wang, Min; Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the tumor suppression efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitor, phenylbutyrate (PB), in combination with DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) in the treatment of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor in nude mice and its mechanism. The nude mice model of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor was established by subcutaneous inoculation. Latency of tumor formation, the ability of Kasumi-1 cells pre treated with PB to form the xenograft tumor, and the tumor suppression activity of PB and 5-Aza-CdR by intraperitoneal injection in xenografted mice model were detected. Cell differentiation and cell cycle parameters of the tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry analysis, apoptosis by TUNEL in situ hybridization, and tumor microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry study. The latency of tumor formation in mice with or without previous lienectomy was 17 approximately 23 and 40 approximately 50 days, respectively. Tumor cells xenografted could not be found in other tissues than in inoculation area, and still harbored the specific t(8;21) and AML1-ETO fusion gene. When the xenografted mice models treated with PB, 5-Aza-CdR, or both, the tumor growth inhibition rates were 49.07%, 25.69% and 87.46% (P < 0.05), the apoptosis indexes (AI) of tumor cells were (2.25 +/- 0.85)%, (1.32 +/- 0.68)%, and (5.41 +/- 1.56)% (P < 0.05), and the microvessel densities (MVD) were 21.69 +/- 6.25, 28.34 +/- 4.24 and 9.48 +/- 3.21 (P < 0.01), respectively. All the data above were significantly different from that in control (P < 0.05). The expression of CD11b and CD13 antigen of the tumor cells was increased in xenografted mice model treated with PB when compared with the control \\[(12.08 +/- 1.02)% and (54.91 +/- 2.72)%\\], respectively (P < 0.01), and tumor cells showed a cell cycle arrest with increased G(0)/G(1)-phase cells and decreased S-phase cells. PB inhibited the growth of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and differentiation, and

  17. Structure, growth and cell proliferation of human osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma xenografts in serial transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Broström, L A; Crnalic, S; Löfvenberg, R; Stenling, R; Boquist, L

    1996-11-01

    Tumour specimens from one patient with osteosarcoma and one with malignant fibrous histiocytoma were transplanted in serial passages in nude mice. Structure, growth and cell kinetics of the xenografts were studied in order to assess the validity of the two tumour models. Cell proliferation was analysed using in vivo labelling with the thymidine analogue iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and the IdUrd labelling index (LI) was determined by immunohistochemistry. The DNA index (DI) was examined by flow cytometry. The c-myc oncoprotein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. More intense proliferation was observed in the peripheral parts of the tumours. There was no correlation between tumour growth and cell proliferation in the two tumour groups. Stability of the tumour models was indicated by low intrapassage and interpassage variations of DI, LI, and volume doubling time, and also by retained histopathological characteristics and c-myc staining patterns of donor patients' tumours during serial transplantation.

  18. Hymenolepis nana: worm recovery from congenitally athymic nude and phenotypically normal rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1984-10-01

    When eggs or mouse-derived cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana were inoculated into previously uninfected congenitally athymic nude (rnu/rnu) rats of an outbred Rowett strain, they failed to mature in the intestinal lumen. They also failed to mature in phenotypically normal (rnu/+) littermates, except when these hosts were treated with cortisone acetate from the beginning of the lumen phase. The Rowett rat, either thymus-deficient or not, was susceptible to tissue cysticercoids but resistant to luminal adults. It is therefore considered to be an unnatural host, at least for mouse-derived H. nana. There was little or no difference in susceptibility to initial tissue cysticercoids between these nude rats and phenotypically normal ones. The normal rats became completely resistant to reinfection with eggs and no secondary cysticercoids developed in their intestinal tissue, whereas the nude rats showed unaltered susceptibility to secondary tissue cysticercoids. Thus, acquired resistance to egg challenge, assessed by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery, was thymus-dependent. However, innate resistance to both a primary egg dose, assessed by the low recovery rates of tissue cysticercoids, and to a primary cysticercoid dose, assessed by the failure of luminal adult recovery, were thymus-independent. The effect of cortisone acetate to initiate maturation of H. nana appeared to be unrelated to thymus function. In contrast, all mice, either thymus-deficient or not, were highly susceptible to both phases. The number of worms recovered was more than 10 times greater than that of cysticercoids established in the rat's intestinal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. STAT3 Knockdown Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasiveness and Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Expression in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke jian; Wu, Wei dong; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jun; Feng, Zhen zhong; Qiu, Zheng jun

    2011-01-01

    Aims Transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) plays an important role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STAT3 knockdown in nude mouse xenografts of pancreatic cancer cells and underlying gene expression. Methods A STAT3 shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed and infected into SW1990 cells. qRT-PCR and western immunoblot were performed to detect gene expression. Nude mouse xenograft assays were used to assess changes in phenotypes of these stable cells in vivo. HE staining was utilized to evaluate tumor cell invasion and immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze gene expression. Results STAT3 shRNA successfully silenced expression of STAT3 mRNA and protein in SW1990 cells compared to control cells. Growth rate of the STAT3-silenced tumor cells in nude mice was significantly reduced compared to in the control vector tumors and parental cells-generated tumors. Tumor invasion into the vessel and muscle were also suppressed in the STAT3-silenced tumors compared to controls. Collagen IV expression was complete and continuous surrounding the tumors of STAT3-silenced SW1990 cells, whereas collagen IV expression was incomplete and discontinuous surrounding the control tumors. Moreover, microvessel density was significantly lower in STAT3-silenced tumors than parental or control tumors of SW1990 cells. In addition, MMP-7 expression was reduced in STAT3-silenced tumors compared to parental SW1990 xenografts and controls. In contrast, expression of IL-1β and IgT7α was not altered. Conclusion These data clearly demonstrate that STAT3 plays an important role in regulation of tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis, which could be act by reducing MMP-7 expression in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:21991388

  20. [Immunoscintigraphy of anti-type IV collagenase monoclonal antibody in nude mice bearing human lung cancer xenograft].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Du, Jin; Shang, Bo-Yang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2003-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)play the important role in many steps of tumor growth and metastasis. Type IV collagenase, which is a key member of MMPs family, has been viewed as a promising target in tumor study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor-specific distribution of the anti-type IV collagenase monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3G11 by radioimaging in tumor-bearing nude mice. MAb 3G11 purified by affinity chromatography was labeled with either 131- or 125- iodide by the Iodogen method. Immunoreactivity of mAb 3G11 was determined by ELISA. (131)I-labeled 3G11 was incubated in three different media at 37 Celsius degree and its in vitro stability was tested. Normal BALB/c mice were injected intravenously with 388.5 kBq per mouse of (125)I-labeled 3G11 to explore the pharmacokinetic patterns. The scintigraphic images of human lung carcinoma PG xenografts grown subcutaneously in BALB/c nude mice were made after intravenously administrating of 6.44 MBq per mouse of (131)I-labeled 3G11. MAb 3G11 was more than 98% in purity via affinity purification. The immunoreactivity of mAb 3G11 decreased by approximately 10%-20% after cold iodination. Patterns of blood clearance of mAb 3G11 was defined as two-compartment model, with T(1/2alpha) and T(1/2beta) calculated to be 7.2 h and 345.2 h, respectively. (131)I-labeled 3G11 was almost stable in vitro for 72 h. A clear image of the xenografted tumor was obtained at 72 h, and it further improved at 120 h. MAb 3G11 showed high specificity and affinity with tumor tissue through scintiscanning.

  1. Alendronate decreases orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumor growth and metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuomela, Johanna M; Valta, Maija P; Väänänen, Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko L

    2008-01-01

    Background Metastatic prostate cancer is associated with a high morbidity and mortality but the spreading mechanisms are still poorly understood. The aminobisphosphonate alendronate, used to reduce bone loss, has also been shown to inhibit the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. We used a modified orthotopic PC-3 nude mouse tumor model of human prostate cancer to study whether alendronate affects prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Methods PC-3 cells (5 × 105) were implanted in the prostates of nude mice and the mice were treated with alendronate (0.5 mg/kg/day in PBS, s.c.) or vehicle for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, the sizes of tumor-bearing prostates were measured and the tumors and prostate-draining regional iliac and sacral lymph nodes were excised for studies on markers of proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results Tumor occurrence in the prostate was 73% in the alendronate-treated group and 81% in the control group. Mean tumor size (218 mm3, range: 96–485 mm3, n = 11) in the alendronate-treated mice was 41% of that in the control mice (513 mm3, range: 209–1350 mm3, n = 13) (p < 0.05). In the iliac and sacral lymph nodes of alendronate-treated mice, the proportion of metastatic area was only about 10% of that in control mice (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining of tumor sections showed that alendronate treatment caused a marked decrease in the number of CD34-positive endothelial cells in tumors (p < 0.001) and an increase in that of ISEL positive apoptotic cells in tumors as well as in lymph node metastases (p < 0.05) compared with those in the vehicle-treated mice. The density of m-LYVE-1-stained lymphatic capillaries was not changed. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that alendronate treatment opposes growth of orthotopic PC-3 tumors and decreases tumor metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes. This effect could be at least partly explained by

  2. Primary tumorectomy promotes angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Jiong; Gao, You-Shui; Ni, Ming; Yao, Bin

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of primary tumorectomy on angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. Osteosarcoma was introduced to nude mice via subcutaneous injection of MG-63 cells. One hundred and eighty osteosarcoma-bearing mice were used equally in 3 parallel experiments. The effect of tumorectomy (TR) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin was investigated by ELISA. Meanwhile, the effect on angiogenesis was evaluated by Matrigel plug assay, and pulmonary metastasis assessed by calculating the metastatic foci. Sham-operation (SO) and untreated (UT) groups served as controls. The VEGF (TR: 79.55 ± 7.82 pg/mL vs. SO: 110.01 ± 5.69 pg/mL, UT: 123.50 ± 10.41 pg/mL; p < 0.01) and endostatin (TR: 47.09 ± 6.22 ng/mL vs. SO: 117.64 ± 7.39 ng/mL, UT: 126.73 ± 6.55 ng/mL; p<0.01) were down-regulated significantly after tumorectomy, and angiogenesis was significantly promoted simultaneously. The incidence of pulmonary metastatic foci was 80.0% in the TR group, 40.0% in the SO group and 35.0% in the UT group. Primary tumorectomy can down-regulate the expression of VEGF and endostatin and promote angiogenesis which leads to the acceleration of pulmonary metastasis. These findings imply that anti-angiogenic treatment can be considered after primary tumorectomy.

  3. Clonal dominance between subpopulations of mixed small cell lung cancer xenografts implanted ectopically in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Aabo, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1995-01-01

    Clonal evolution of neoplastic cells during solid tumour growth leads to the emergence of new tumour cell subpopulations with diverging phenotypic characteristics which may alter the behaviour of a malignant disease. Cellular interaction was studied in mixed xenografts in nude mice and during in vitro growth of two sets of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subpopulations (54A, 54B and NYH, NYH2). The tumour cell lines differed in cellular DNA content enabling flow cytometric DNA analysis (FCM) to be used to monitor changes in the fractional composition of the mixed cell populations. The progeny clone 54B was found to dominate the parent 54A clone when grown as mixed subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice, whereas no dominance was exerted during in vitro growth. The in vivo dominance could not be explained by differences in growth kinetics between the two tumour cell lines, and the interaction was not dependent on 54B being in excess in mixed tumours. The dominance was dependent on close in vivo contact as no remote effect on the growth of 54A was found when the dominating 54B cells were growing in the opposite flank of tumour-bearing mice. Irradiation inactivated 54B cells were unable to exert the dominating effect, indicating that the interaction required viable and proliferating cells. Clonal dominance was not found in mixed NYH-NYH2 tumours indicating that the dominance mechanism(s) may not always be operational between subpopulations in heterogeneous tumours. Recognition of interaction between tumour cell populations may result in a better understanding of the behaviour of heterogeneous human malignancies.

  4. Alleviation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in nude mice by stem cells derived from human first trimester umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Cao, M; Zhang, J B; Dong, D D; Mou, Y; Li, K; Fang, J; Wang, Z Y; Chen, C; Zhao, J; Yie, S M

    2015-10-16

    Cells isolated from human first trimester umbilical cord perivascular layer (hFTM-PV) tissues display the pluripotent characteristics of stem cells. In this study, we examined whether hFTM-PV cells can differentiate into islet-like clusters (ILCs) in vitro, and whether transplantation of the hFTM-PV cells with and without differentiation in vitro can alleviate diabetes in nude mice. The hFTM-PV cells were differentiated into ILCs in vitro through a simple stepwise culture protocol. To examine the in vivo effects of the cells, the hFTM-PV cells with and without differentiation in vitro were transplanted into the abdominal cavity of nude mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Blood glucose levels, body weight, and the survival probability of the diabetic nude mice were then statistically analyzed. The hFTM-PV cells were successfully induced into ILCs that could release insulin in response to elevated concentrations of glucose in vitro. In transplantation experiments, we observed that mice transplanted with the undifferentiated hFTM-PV cells, embryonic body-like cell aggregations, or ILCs all demonstrated normalized hyperglycemia and showed improved survival rate compared with those without cell transplantation. The hFTM-PV cells have the ability to differentiate into ILCs in vitro and transplantations of undifferentiated and differentiated cells can alleviate STZ-induced diabetes in nude mice. This may offer a potential cell source for stem cell-based therapy for treating diabetes in the future.

  5. Fluorescence-guided surgery improves outcome in an orthotopic osteosarcoma nude-mouse model.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Yano, Shuya; Zhang, Yong; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Bouvet, Michael; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In order to develop a model for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS), 143B human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia in nude mice. The fluorescent areas of residual tumors after bright-light surgery (BLS) and FGS were 10.2 ± 2.4 mm(2) and 0.1 ± 0.1 mm(2) , respectively (p<0.001). The BLS-treated mice and BLS+cisplatinum (CDDP)-treated mice had significant recurrence. In contrast, the FGS mice and FGS+CDDP mice had very little recurring tumor growth. Disease-free survival (DFS) in the BLS-, BLS+CDDP-, FGS-, and FGS+CDDP-treated mice was 12.5%, 37.5%, 75.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. The FGS-treated mice had a significantly higher DFS rate than the BLS-treated mice (p=0.021). The FGS+CDDP-treated mice had significantly higher DFS rate than the BLS+CDDP-treated mice (p=0.043). Although chemotherapy significantly reduced multiple metastases (p=0.033), there was no significant correlation between FGS and lung metastasis. FGS significantly reduced the recurrence of the primary tumor but did not reduce lung metastasis. The combination of FGS and adjuvant CDDP reduced tumor recurrence and prevented multiple metastases. FGS and adjuvant chemotherapy should be performed as early as possible in the disease to prevent both recurrence and metastatic development. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of antidepressants on body weight, ethology and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Shang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yu-Yuan

    2008-07-21

    To investigate the effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine, representatives of the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant respectively, on body weight, ingestive behavior, locomotor activity and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. A subcutaneous xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was established in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into mirtazapine group (10 mg/kg per day), fluoxetine group (10 mg/kg per day) and control group (an equivalent normal saline solution) (7 mice in each group). Doses of all drugs were administered orally, once a day for 42 d. Tumor volume and body weight were measured biweekly. Food intake was recorded once a week. Locomotor activity was detected weekly using an open field test (OFT). Compared to the fluoxetine, mirtazapine significantly increased food intake from d 14 to 42 and attenuated the rate of weight loss from d 28 to 42 (t = 4.38, P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, food intake was significantly suppressed from d 21 to 42 and weight loss was promoted from d 35 to 42 in the fluoxetine group (t = 2.52, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in body weight of the mice after removal of tumors among the three groups. The body weight of mice was the heaviest (13.66 +/- 1.55 g) in the mirtazapine group and the lightest (11.39 +/- 1.45 g) in the fluoxetine group (F( (2,12) ) = 11.43, P < 0.01). The behavioral test on d 7 showed that the horizontal and vertical activities were significantly increased in the mirtazapine group compared with the fluoxetine and control groups (F( (2,18) ) = 10.89, P < 0.01). These effects disappeared in the mirtazapine and fluoxetine groups during 2-6 wk. The grooming activity was higher in the mirtazapine group than in the fluoxetine group (10.1 +/- 2.1 vs 7.1 +/- 1.9 ) (t = 2.40, P < 0.05) in the second week. There was no

  7. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  8. Growth and fertilization of porcine fetal oocytes grafted under the renal capsules of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Junko

    2016-10-15

    The fetal ovary contains a larger pool of oocytes than the adult ovary, but utilization of the fetal oocytes of large animals has hardly been examined. In this study, we investigated the developmental competence of oocytes grown in host mice harboring ovarian grafts obtained from fetal pigs. Ovarian fragments from fetuses at 55, 70, and 90 days postartificial insemination (dpi) were grafted into ovariectomized nude mice (Crlj:CD1-Foxn1(nu); 55-, 70- and 90-dpi groups, respectively). For comparison, ovarian fragments from 20-day postpartum (dpp) piglets were also grafted (20-dpp group). About 60 days after detection of vaginal opening, the mice were given 62.5 U/mL porcine FSH for 13 days by infusion to enhance their follicular development. In the fetal ovaries before grafting, the percentage of germ cells in primordial follicles (termed primordial oocytes) relative to the total number of germ cells was 0.06% at 55 dpi, 2.4% at 70 dpi, and 7.2% at 90 dpi, but the majority was contained within egg nests. At 20 dpp, primordial oocytes accounted for 91.7% of the total number of germ cells and the rest were mostly in primary follicles. After FSH stimulation of host mice, formation of antral follicles was promoted in the grafts of the 70- and 90-dpi groups as well as the 20-dpp group, but a very small number of antral follicles developed in the 55-dpi group consistent with the lowest (P < 0.05) levels of circulating inhibin in that group. The mean number of full-sized oocytes with meiotic competence recovered per mouse was 6.0 in the 70-dpi, 18.0 in the 90-dpi, and 21.2 in the 20-dpp groups, whereas virtually no oocytes were recovered from mice in the 55-dpi group. Moreover, the mature oocytes in the 70- and 90-dpi groups were fertilized in vitro, as shown by formation of male and female pronuclei, but the percentage of oocytes penetrated by sperm was low in the 70- (49%) and 90-dpi (29%) groups as compared with the 20-dpp group (88%). These results clearly

  9. [History for animal model of Hansen's disease and characteristics of leprosy in hypertensive nude rat].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Yasuko; Fujimura, Takao; Suzuki, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    The long search of an animal model for leprosy were carried out as many researchers since the Mycobacterium leprae discovery by Dr. Hansen in 1874. The remarkable results were left after the development of the foot-pad method by Dr. Shepard in 1960. The introduction of the T-R mouse and athymic (nude) mouse for leprosy research, alsospontaneity examples of Hansen's disease was reported to armadillo, chimpanzee and mangabay monkey, and it was confirmed that Hansen's disease was the zoonosis. Although, We have established a congenic hypertensive nude rat, SHR/NCrj-rnu (SHR.F344-Foxn(rnu)), carrying nude (rnu) and hypertension genes. SHR/NCrj-rnu rats obtained showed high susceptibility to M. leprae and showed a characteristic disease with a progressive pattern of leproma formation. Also this hypertensive nude rat strain produce high level of IL-10. Therefore, congenic hypertensive nude rat may be useful for an animal model to leprosy.

  10. Transplantation of a cell line derived from a canine benign mixed mammary tumour into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Priosoeryanto, B P; Tateyama, S; Yamaguchi, R; Uchida, K

    1995-11-01

    The MCM-B2 canine mammary cell line was serially transplanted into nude mice. The tumour masses consisted of elongated pleomorphic cells of varying size in the first to third passages; oval cells, becoming rounder, in the sixth to eighth passages; and cord-like, glandular and duct-like structures with compact radiating projections in the ninth and tenth passages. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination of round cells confirmed their epithelial cell nature, but the morphology of the elongated and oval cells was identical with that of the original cell line. The findings suggest that the MCM-B2 cell line is a multipotential stem cell or is derived from glandular differentiation of mammary gland.

  11. Effect of dietary selenium and cancer cell xenograft on peripheral T and B lymphocytes in adult nude mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate tumorigenesis and immunity at nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, we asked whether B and ...

  12. Knockdown of RhoA expression alters ovarian cancer biological behavior in vitro and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Wenyan; Kang, Jiali; Liu, Qicai; Nie, Miaoling

    2015-08-01

    RhoA regulates cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and gene expression. Altered RhoA activity contributes to cancer progression. The present study investigated the effects of RhoA knockdown on the regulation of ovarian cancer biological behavior in vitro and in nude mice. The expression of RhoA was knocked down using a lentivirus carrying RhoA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in ovarian cancer cells and was confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. The altered ovarian cancer biological behaviors were assayed by cell viability, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), migration, invasion, and nude mice tumorigenicity assays, while the altered gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that lentivirus-carrying RhoA shRNA significantly suppressed RhoA expression in ovarian cancer cells, which suppressed tumor cell viability, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro. RhoA silencing also inhibited the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells in nude mice, which was characterized by the suppression of tumor xenograft formation and growth and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of RhoA expression had a significant antitumor effect on ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice, suggesting that RhoA may be a target for the development of a novel therapeutic strategy in the control of ovarian cancer.

  13. Nutritional and supranutritional levels of selenate differentially suppress prostate tumor growth in adult but not young nude mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate carcinogenesis and immunity at nutritional and 26 supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against 27 cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop 28 CD8+ and CD4+ T cells extrathymicall...

  14. Radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice using monoclonal antibodies to osteogenic sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Koizumi, M.; Ohta, H.; Kunimatsu, M.; Torizuka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kotoura, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have developed several monoclonal antibodies against human osteogenic sarcoma, one of which; OST7 (IgGl) selectively localized in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice. In the present study, F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment was compared with whole IgG and those labeled with In-111 as well as I-131 were used as a radiotracer for the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. IgC and F(ab')/sub 2/ were labeled with I-131 using chloramine-T method and injected into nude mice bearing human osteogenic sarcoma. Scintigrams at day 2 clearly delineated the site of tumors with almost no radioactivity in other organs with F(ab')/sub 2/, which yielded much better images than whole IgG. Tumor-to-blood ratio of 6.09-27.87 was obtained at day 2 using F(ab')/sub 2/, whereas it was 0.76-1.12 at day 2 and 2.05-3.27 at day 7 with IgG. I-131 labeled nonspecific F(ab')/sub 2/ or IgG resulted in no or very low tumor uptake with tumor-to-blood ratio of 0.94-1.18 at day 2 for F(ab')/sub 2/ and 0.67-0.76 at day 7 for IgG, respectively. In-111 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7, which was prepared using DTPA as a bifunctional chelate, also showed a high tumor accumulation with tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.67-17.54 at day 2, but higher background activity in the liver and kidney was observed than I-131 labeled one. These results indicate that F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7 labeled with either I-131 or In-111, has a great potential for the radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of silibinin on human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Gu, Fan; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo effects and mechanisms of silibinin on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenografts in nude mice. METHODS: Nude mice bearing HuH7 xenografts were used to assess the anti-HCC effects and mechanisms of silibinin. RESULTS: Silibinin resulted in a potent dose-dependent reduction of HuH7 xenografts in association with a significant decrease in Ki-67 and α-fetoprotein production, nuclear NF-κB content, polo-like kinase 1, Rb phosphorylation, and E2F1/DP1 complex, but increased p27/CDK4 complex and checkpoint kinase 1 expression, suggesting that the in vivo effects of silibinin are mediated by inhibiting G1-S transition of the cell cycle. Silibinin-induced apoptosis of HuH7 xenografts was associated with inhibited survivin phosphorylation. Silibinin-reduced growth of HuH7 xenografts was associated with decreased p-ERK, increased PTEN expression and the activity of silibinin was correlated with decreased p-Akt production, indicating involvement of PTEN/PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways in its in vivo anti-HCC effects. Silibinin-reduced growth of HuH7 xenografts was also associated with a significant increase in AC-H3 and AC-H4 expression and the production of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1. CONCLUSION: Silibinin reduces HCC xenograft growth through the inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and PTEN/P-Akt and ERK signaling, inducing cell apoptosis, and increasing histone acetylation and SOD-1 expression. PMID:19399925

  16. Effects of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl on tumor angiogenesis and on tumor growth in nude mice implanted with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mahasiripanth, Taksanee; Hokputsa, Sanya; Niruthisard, Somchai; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the crude extract of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl (AE) on tumor growth and angiogenesis by utilizing a tumor model in which nude mice were implanted with cervical cancer cells containing human papillomavirus 16 DNA (HPV-16 DNA). Materials and methods The growth-inhibitory effect of AE was investigated in four different cell types: CaSki (HPV-16 positive), HeLa (HPV-18 positive), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs). The cell viabilities and IC50 values of AE were determined in cells incubated with AE for different lengths of time. To conduct studies in vivo, female BALB/c nude mice (aged 6–7 weeks, weighing 20–25 g) were used. A cervical cancer-derived cell line (CaSki) with integrated HPV-16 DNA was injected subcutaneously (1 × 107 cells/200 μL) in the middle dorsum of each animal (HPV group). One week after injection, mice were fed orally with AE crude extract at either 300 or 3000 mg/kg body weight/day for 14 or 28 days (HPV-AE groups). Tumor microvasculature and capillary vascularity were determined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Tumor tissue was collected from each mouse to evaluate tumor histology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunostaining. Results The time-response curves of AE and the dose-dependent effect of AE on growth inhibition were determined. After a 48-hour incubation period, the IC50 of AE in CaSki was discovered to be significantly different from that of HDFs (P < 0.05). A microvascular network was observed around the tumor area in the HPV group on days 21 and 35. Tumor capillary vascularity in the HPV group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). High-dose treatment of AE extract (HPV-3000AE group) significantly attenuated the increase in VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis in mice that received either the 14- or 28-day treatment period (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our novel

  17. Preferential radiation sensitization of prostate cancer in nude mice by nutraceutical antioxidant gamma-tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Sree; Raghavan, Mythili; Hieber, Kevin; Ege, Christine; Mog, Steven; Parra, Nannette; Hildabrand, Annette; Singh, Vijay; Srinivasan, V; Toles, Raymond; Karikari, Patience; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Seed, Thomas; Srivastava, Shiv; Papas, Andreas

    2006-03-27

    Gamma-tocotrienol (GT) is a member of the vitamin E family. Our preliminary studies indicated that it protected mice from lethal irradiation, so we hypothesized that GT might be a radiation sensitizing agent for tumors. To test this, we induced prostate tumors by injecting PC3 cells into nude BALB/c mice. When the tumors were about 5 mm in diameter, mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg gamma-tocotrienol and irradiated 24 h later at the site of the tumor with a dose of 12 Gy (60)Cobalt. Tumor size was monitored for 24 days after radiation. Tumor tissues as well as normal tissues like rectum, kidney, and liver were monitored for lipid peroxidation on day 4 and day 24 after radiation. The results indicated that the size of the tumors was reduced by almost 40%, but only in GT-treated and irradiated mice. In unstimulated and Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation groups, lipid peroxidation in the tumors from irradiated mice increased to 135% and 150%, respectively, four days after irradiation and 33% and 66% in the same groups, respectively, 24 days after irradiation. In general, lipid peroxidation in the rectum did not increase in GT-treated and irradiated mice, although there was a slight increase in Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation (29%) four days after irradiation. Unexpectedly, the kidneys were as equally sensitized to lipid peroxidation as the tumors. Liver tissue was protected in the short-term from radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. These studies indicate that the radiotherapy efficacy of prostate cancer can be increased with GT and a pro-oxidant if the kidneys can be shielded.

  18. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi Hyang; Kim, Seong Jin; Han, Jong Kwon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms associated with significant morbidity. Herbal formulas capable of restoring yin-yang balance by dispersing blood stasis may be useful for managing fibroid symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antitumor properties of three herbs viz., Trogopterus xanthipes Milen-Edwards, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Ulmus davidiana Planch were evaluated in nude mice injected intravenously with human malignant myomas. Tumor fragments were xenografted subcutaneously through a flank incision in female mice. The mice entered the study for 8 weeks when their tumors reached the threshold volume (260 mm3). The mice were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous injections of normal saline (Group 1; negative control), P. lactiflora Pallas (Group 2), U. davidiana Planch (Group 3), T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards (Group 4), and intravenous injections of paclitaxel (Group 5; positive control). The weight and tumor volume were measured, followed by histopathology. Results: A few cases of abdominal distention and death were observed in the negative control group. Furthermore, a considerable enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in the negative control group at autopsy with a gradual increase in body weight during the experiment. The mean tumor volume which increased in negative control mice reduced in mice treated with herbal remedies or paclitaxel from day 14 onwards (P < 0.05). The degree of necrosis and apoptosis induction from herbal treatments was similar to that of paclitaxel. Conclusion: Collectively, three herbs viz., T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards, P. lactiflora Pallas, and U. davidiana Planch were able to induce necrosis and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, proving antitumor properties against uterine fibroids. PMID:27757274

  19. In vivo regulation of murine hair growth: insights from grafting defined cell populations onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lichti, U; Weinberg, W C; Goodman, L; Ledbetter, S; Dooley, T; Morgan, D; Yuspa, S H

    1993-07-01

    The nude mouse graft model for testing the hair-forming ability of selected cell populations has considerable potential for providing insights into factors that are important for hair follicle development and proper hair formation. We have developed a minimal component system consisting of immature hair follicle buds from newborn pigmented C57BL/6 mice and adenovirus E1A-immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells. Hair follicle buds contribute to formation of hairless skin when grafted alone or with Swiss 3T3 cells, but produce densely haired skin when grafted with a fresh dermal cell preparation. The fresh dermal cell preparation represents the single cell fraction after hair follicles have been removed from a collagenase digest of newborn mouse dermis. It provides dermal papilla cells, fibroblasts, and possibly other important growth factor-producing cell types. Rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells supported dense hair growth at early passage in culture but progressively lost this potential during repeated passage in culture. Of 19 E1A-immortalized, clonally derived rat vibrissa dermal papilla cell lines, the four most positive clones supported hair growth to the extent of approximately 200 to 300 hairs per 1-2 cm2 graft area. The remaining clones were moderately positive (five clones), weakly positive (three clones), or negative (seven clones). Swiss 3T3 cells prevented contraction of the graft area but did not appear to affect the number of hairs in the graft site produced by dermal papilla cells plus hair follicle buds alone. The relatively low hair density (estimated 1-5% of normal) resulting from grafts of hair follicle buds with the most positive of the immortalized dermal papilla cell clones compared to fresh dermal cells suggests that optimal reconstitution of hair growth requires some function of dermal papilla cells partially lost during the immortalization process and possibly the contribution of other cell types present in the fresh dermal cell

  20. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of dexamethasone in nude mice plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yin; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Jian; Ye, Suofu; Ji, Xiwei; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tianyan; Lu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive and rapid analytical method for the determination of dexamethasone was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in nude mice. Using testosterone as an internal standard, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach after one-step precipitation with acetonitrile was validated and used to determine the concentrations of dexamethasone in nude mice plasma. The method utilized a simple isocratic reverse phase separation over a Dionex C18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v). The analyte was detected by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer via electrospray and multiple reaction monitoring was employed to select both dexamethasone at m/z 393.0/147.1 and testosterone at m/z 289.5/97.3 in the positive ion mode. The calibration curves were linear (r >0.99) ranging from 2.5 to 500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation ranged from 1.69 to 9.22% while the relative error ranged from -1.92 to -8.46%. This method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of dexamethasone and its pharmacokinetics was characterized by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption in female nude mice.

  1. Photoimmunotherapy lowers recurrence after pancreatic cancer surgery in orthotopic nude mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Luiken, George A.; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is based on the use of a monoclonal antibody specific to cancer epitopes conjugated to a photosensitizer near-infrared (NIR) phthalocyanine dye (IR700). In this study, PIT with IR700 conjugated to anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used as an adjunct to surgery in orthotopically-implanted human pancreatic cancer in a nude mouse model in order to eliminate microscopic disease in the tumor bed and prevent local as well as metastatic recurrence. Materials & Methods Athymic nude mice were orthotopically implanted with the human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: bright light surgery (BLS) + anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser (PIT) and BLS only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg) was administered to the treatment group via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were resected and the surgical bed was treated with intraoperative phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Mice were imaged non-invasively for 8 weeks using an OV-100 small animal fluorescence imager. Results BLS+PIT reduced local recurrence to 1/7 mice to 7/7 mice with BLS-only (p=0.001) and metastatic recurrence to 2/7 mice compared to 6/7 mice with BLS-only (p=0.03). Local tumor growth continued at a rapid rate after BLS only compared to BLS+PIT where almost no local growth occurred. There was a significant difference in tumor size between mice in the BLS+PIT (2.14 mm2, 95% CI [6.34, −2.06] and BLS-only groups (115.2 mm2, 95% CI [141.6, 88.8]) (p<0.001) at 6 weeks after surgery. There was also a significant difference in tumor weight between the BLS+PIT group (6.65 mg, 95% CI [19.65, −6.35] and BLS-only group (1100 mg, 95% CI [1406, 794] at 8 weeks (p<0.001) after surgery. Conclusions PIT holds promise in the treatment of pancreatic cancer and may serve as a useful adjunct to surgery in the eradication of microscopic residual disease that

  2. Xenotransplantation of testicular tissue into nude mice can be used for detecting leukemic cell contamination.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mi; Andersson, Margareta; Eksborg, Staffan; Söder, Olle; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2007-07-01

    Xeno-grafting of testicular tissue may allow viable gamete maturation. This would be beneficial for prepubertal cancer patients in that it may allow restoration of fertility without the risk of a cancer relapse. However it is unknown whether cancer cells in the testicular graft can transmit the malignancy into the host animal and also if gametes can be retrieved from testicular grafts that are contaminated with malignant cells. Rat T-cell leukemia was employed as the source of leukemic lymphoblasts and testicular tissue. This was injected i.p. (lymphoblasts) or grafted s.c. (fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue) into the back skin of intact nude mice. To simulate clinical autografting, testicular tissue was also transplanted into healthy piebald variegated (PVG) rats. 50-70% of the mice, receiving 200 or 6000 leukemic lymphoblasts, developed terminal leukemia. All mice, grafted with either fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue from leukemic donor, developed generalized leukemia and/or local tumors. All syngenic PVG rats, treated in the same manner, died of generalized leukemia. In all of the retrieved leukemic grafts, rat spermatogenesis was destroyed and only leukemic infiltration was detected. Grafting testicular tissue contaminated with leukemic cells led to tumor growth at the injection site without potential to differentiate germline stem cells into gametes. Xenografting could provide a novel functional strategy for simultaneous detection of malignant cell contamination and spermatogonial potential in testicular xenografts collected for fertility preservation.

  3. Self-recognition specificity expressed by T cells from nude mice. Absence of detectable Ia-restricted T cells in nude mice that do exhibit self-K/D-restricted T cell responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Davis, M.L.; Matis, L.A.; Longo, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    The presence in athymic nude mice of precursor T cells with self-recognition specificity for either H-2 K/D or H-2 I region determinants was investigated. Chimeras were constructed of lethally irradiated parental mice receiving a mixture of F1 nude mouse (6-8 wk old) spleen and bone marrow cells. The donor inoculum was deliberately not subjected to any T cell depletion procedure, so that any potential major histocompatibility complex-committed precursor T cells were allowed to differentiate and expand in the normal parental recipients. 3 mo after reconstitution, the chimeras were immunized with several protein antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant in the footpads and their purified draining lymph node T cells tested 10 d later for ability to recognize antigen on antigen-presenting cells of either parental haplotype. Also, their spleen and lymph node cells were tested for ability to generate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. It was demonstrated that T cell proliferative responses of these F1(nude)----parent chimeras were restricted solely to recognizing parental host I region determinants as self and expressed the Ir gene phenotype of the host. In contrast, CTL responses could be generated (in the presence of interleukin 2) to TNP-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. Thus these results indicate that nude mice which do have CTL with self-specificity for K/D region determinants lack proliferating T cells with self-specificity for I region determinants. These results provide evidence for the concepts that development of the I region-restricted T cell repertoire is strictly an intrathymically determined event and that young nude mice lack the unique thymic elements responsible for edu

  4. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. III. The effect of PMSG and oestradiol upon the size and composition of the ovarian follicle population.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The response of 1 month old congenitally athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates to exogenous pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol-17beta has been tested. An equal increase in the number of growing follicles was detected in both nudes and controls in response to PMSG. A specific increase occurred in the number of unilaminar follicles in the initial growth stages in addition to the increase in the number of multilaminar and vesicular follicles. Oestradiol depressed follicular growth equally in both nudes and controls. The contracted appearance of growing follicles in nudes disappeared under the influence of PMSG and was induced in ovaries of control mice treated with oestradiol. We conclude that the ability of the mouse ovary to respond to exogenous PMSG and the oestradiol is not impaired by congenital athymia as expressed in the nude genotype. The data suggest that the retardation of follicular growth already reported in 1 month old nudes arises from a deficiency of gonadotrophin.

  5. Avidin chase reduces side effects of radioimmunotherapy in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Ping; Wang, Yong-Xian; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chun-Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of avidin chase on the side effects of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma and therapeutic outcome. METHODS: Purified anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb) was biotinylated with NHS-biotin, and then radiolabeled with 188Re by the direct method. 188Re-labeled biotinylated anti-CEA McAb (188Re-CEA McAb-Bt) was intravenously injected followed by intravenous injection of avidin after 24 h. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were performed at 28-48 h after the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt. Three groups of nude mice subcutaneously grafted with human colon carcinoma were treated 7 d after the graft. Mice in the avidin chase group received intravenous injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg) followed by intravenous injection of cold avidin (80 μg) after 24 h. Mice in the control group (treated group without avidin chase) only received the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg), another control group (non-treated group) only received 0.1 mL normal saline solution. Toxicity was evaluated on the basis of change of body weight and peripheral WBC counts, and therapy effects were determined by variation in tumor volume. Histological analysis of tumors was also performed. RESULTS: Avidin chase markedly accelerated the clearance of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt from the blood and normal tissues. The tumor uptakes of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt at 28 h were 5.90 and 6.42% ID/g, respectively, in chase group and in non-chase group, while the tumor-to-background (T/NT) ratios were 3.19 and 0.56, respectively. The tumor uptake was slightly decreased by avidin chase, but the T/NT ratios were increased. In treated groups the growth rate of body weight and the number of WBC decreased after injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt, and the WBC counts recovered earlier in the group with avidin chase than in the group without avidin chase. Compared to the non-treated group, treated groups with and without avidin chase showed significant

  6. The study on specific umbilical blood Dc vaccine for Beige nude mice loaded human colorectal carcinoma to induce anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z-X; Han, J-S; Liu, F; Zhao, Z-L; Li, D-B; Shi, L; Dong, J-T; Zhou, Y; Cai, J-H

    2017-05-01

    This study is to observe the immunosuppression of CD137L transfected umbilical blood Dcs (Dendritic cell) vaccine to tumor development of SCID/ Beige nude mice. Samples of umbilical blood in the childbirth pregnant women were collected by density gradient centrifugation. Umbilical cord blood dendritic cells (Dcs) were transfected by specific CD137L via LipofectamineTM method and cells were harvested. Meanwhile, the peripheral blood of volunteers was collected to isolate Dcs, the Dcs were cultured for 5 days and hatched with SW-1116 cells antigen. The mature Dcs were harvested. The male SCID/Beige nude mice were subcutaneously injected with human SW-1116 cells in axillary to build colorectal carcinoma model as blank control (Blank). The naked peripheral blood Dc vaccine group (cPBMCs), the SW-1116 antigen-specific peripheral blood Dc vaccine group (pDcs) and the CD137L specific umbilical blood Dc vaccine group (tuDcs) were injected 24 h before tumor cells injection, respectively to recur the humanized immune reconstruction. The general life, living habits changes, tumor growing time and tumor size were observed. The nude mice were sacrificed 18 days after tumor formation. The tumor size, mice weight, in vitro tumor weight, liver weight and spleen weight of mice were recorded to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of the specific immune cells. The nude mice in pDcs group showed better general living condition, slower tumor growth, smaller tumor volume and no ulceration, necrosis, and death in nude mice. The tumor formation time in different groups was 4.71 ± 0.18 ds (blank), 7.71 ± 0.29 ds (cPBMCs), 7.86 ± 0.26 ds (pDcs) and 8.14 ± 0.69 ds (tuDcs) respectively. There were significant differences between blank and other three groups (F = 40.96, p < 0.01). Compared to mice in blank group, the tumor volume of cPBMCs group was significantly smaller (201.43 ± 69.84 mm³ vs. 436.04 ± 54.50 mm³, p < 0.01) and the tumor weight were significantly smaller (1.25 ± 0.12 g vs

  7. Antiproliferative effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro and in human tumour xenografted athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, P. Y.; Bressolle, F.; Pinguet, F.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MEBCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide known for its interaction with the plasma membrane, was investigated in vitro and in vivo and compared with that of doxorubicin (DOX) in the human tumour models MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma. In vitro proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice injected weekly i.p. with MEBCD at 300 or 800 mg kg(-1) or DOX at 2 mg kg(-1), during 2 months. Under these conditions, MEBCD was active against MCF7 and A2780 cell lines and tumour xenografts. For each tumour model, the tumoral volume of the xenografted mice treated with MEBCD was at least twofold reduced compared with the control group. In the MCF7 model, MEBCD (800 mg kg(-1)) was more active than DOX (2 mg kg(-1)). After 56 days of treatment with MEBCD, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared with controls. The accumulation of MEBCD in normal and tumour tissues was also assessed using a chromatographic method. Results indicated that after a single injection of MEBCD, tumour, liver and kidneys accumulated the highest concentrations of MEBCD. These results provided a basis for the potential therapeutic application of MEBCD in cancer therapy. PMID:9820174

  8. Effects and mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen; Lin, Zhiwu; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kong, Lingying; Yang, Li

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice, and investigate its functions in regulating tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was established by subcutaneous injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Two weeks later, the mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 for each group): negative control group, rhEPO group, EPO antibody group and EPO+EPO antibody group. Drugs were administered to the corresponding mice once every 3 days for five times. The size and weight of tumors were measured after the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The expression levels of EPO/EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and Bcl-2 in the tumor tissues were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) and expression of VEGF in the tumors were detected using immunohistochemistry. TUNEL assay was used to determine apoptosis in tumors. Results show that rhEPO significantly promoted the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice (P<0.05). Compared with the negative control group, the expression levels of EPO, EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and VEGF, as well as the MVD values, were significantly elevated in the rhEPO group. However, the apoptotic index was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The ability of rhEPO to promote tumor growth may be associated with its functions in promoting microvessel formation and inhibiting tumor cell apoptosis.

  9. Aminoguanidine impedes human pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis development in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nora A; Cricco, Graciela P; Sambuco, Lorena A; Croci, Máximo; Medina, Vanina A; Gutiérrez, Alicia S; Bergoc, Rosa M; Rivera, Elena S; Martín, Gabriela A

    2009-03-07

    To study the action of aminoguanidine on pancreatic cancer xenografts in relation to cell proliferation, apoptosis, redox status and vascularization. Xenografts of PANC-1 cells were developed in nude mice. The animals were separated into two groups: control and aminoguanidine treated. Tumor growth, survival and appearance of metastases were determined in vivo in both groups. Tumors were excised and ex vivo histochemical studies were performed. Cell growth was assessed by Ki-67 expression. Apoptosis was studied by intratumoral expression of B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) family proteins and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (Tunel). Redox status was evaluated by the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Finally, vascularization was determined by Massons trichromic staining, and by VEGF and CD34 expression. Tumor volumes after 32 d of treatment by aminoguanidine (AG) were significantly lower than in control mice (P < 0.01). Median survival of AG mice was significantly greater than control animals (P < 0.01). The appearance of both homolateral and contralateral palpable metastases was significantly delayed in AG group. Apoptotic cells, intratumoral vascularization (trichromic stain) and the expression of Ki-67, Bax, eNOS, CD34, VEGF, catalase, CuZnSOD and MnSOD were diminished in AG treated mice (P < 0.01), while the expression of Bcl-2 and GPx did not change. The antitumoral action of aminoguanidine is associated with decreased cell proliferation, reduced angiogenesis, and reduced expression of antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Imaging exosome transfer from breast cancer cells to stroma at metastatic sites in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Honma, Kimi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Ochiya, Takahiro; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-03-01

    Exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication to promote tumor metastasis. In order to image the fate of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in orthotopic nude mouse models of breast cancer, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged CD63, which is a general marker of exosomes. Breast cancer cells transferred their own exosomes to other cancer cells and normal lung tissue cells in culture. In orthotopic nude-mouse models, breast cancer cells secreted exosomes into the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-derived exosomes were incorporated into tumor-associated cells as well as circulating in the blood of mice with breast cancer metastases. These results suggest that tumor-derived exosomes may contribute to forming a niche to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of GFP imaging to investigate the role of exosomes in cancer metastasis.

  11. Inhibition of human pancreatic cancer growth in nude mice by boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Yanagië, H; Tomita, T; Kobayashi, H; Fujii, Y; Nonaka, Y; Saegusa, Y; Hasumi, K; Eriguchi, M; Kobayashi, T; Ono, K

    1997-01-01

    Immunoliposomes were prepared by conjugating anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody with liposomes containing [10B]compound. These immunoliposomes were shown to bind selectively to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) bearing CEA on their surface. The cytotoxic effects of locally injected [10B]compound, multilamellar liposomes containing [10B]compound or [10B]immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with [10B]solution, 10B-containing liposomes or [10B]immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of [10B]immunoliposomes caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with intratumoral injection of immunoliposomes is able to destroy malignant cells in the marginal portion between normal tissues and cancer tissues from the side of 4He generation.

  12. Inhibition of human pancreatic cancer growth in nude mice by boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagië, H.; Tomita, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujii, Y.; Nonaka, Y.; Saegusa, Y.; Hasumi, K.; Eriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, K.

    1997-01-01

    Immunoliposomes were prepared by conjugating anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody with liposomes containing [10B]compound. These immunoliposomes were shown to bind selectively to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) bearing CEA on their surface. The cytotoxic effects of locally injected [10B]compound, multilamellar liposomes containing [10B]compound or [10B]immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with [10B]solution, 10B-containing liposomes or [10B]immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of [10B]immunoliposomes caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with intratumoral injection of immunoliposomes is able to destroy malignant cells in the marginal portion between normal tissues and cancer tissues from the side of 4He generation. Images Figure 2 PMID:9043021

  13. Phellinus Linteus Extract Sensitizes Advanced Prostate Cancer Cells to Apoptosis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takanori; Du, Wei; Nishioka, Takashi; Chen, Lihua; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Chen, Chang Yan

    2010-01-01

    Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom possesses anti-tumor property. We previously reported that the treatment with PL caused cultured human prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. To further studying the mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis, we performed xenograft assay, together with in vitro assays, to evaluate the effect of PL on the genesis and progression of the tumors formed from the inoculation of prostate cancer PC3 or DU145 cells. After the inoculation, nude mice were injected with PL every two days for 12 days. Although PL treatment did not prevent the formation of the inoculated tumors, the growth rate of the tumors after PL treatment was dramatically attenuated. We then tested the effect of PL on the tumors 12 days after the inoculation. After inoculated tumors reached a certain size, PL was administrated to the mice by subcutaneous injection. The histochemistry or immunochemistry analysis showed that apoptosis occurred with the activation of caspase 3 in the tumors formed by inoculating prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells. The data was in a good agreement with that from cultured cells. Thus, our in vivo study suggests that PL not only is able to attenuate tumor growth, but also to cause tumor regression by inducing apoptosis. PMID:20360989

  14. Phellinus linteus extract sensitizes advanced prostate cancer cells to apoptosis in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takanori; Du, Wei; Nishioka, Takashi; Chen, Lihua; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Chen, Chang Yan

    2010-03-31

    Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom possesses anti-tumor property. We previously reported that the treatment with PL caused cultured human prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. To further studying the mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis, we performed xenograft assay, together with in vitro assays, to evaluate the effect of PL on the genesis and progression of the tumors formed from the inoculation of prostate cancer PC3 or DU145 cells. After the inoculation, nude mice were injected with PL every two days for 12 days. Although PL treatment did not prevent the formation of the inoculated tumors, the growth rate of the tumors after PL treatment was dramatically attenuated. We then tested the effect of PL on the tumors 12 days after the inoculation. After inoculated tumors reached a certain size, PL was administrated to the mice by subcutaneous injection. The histochemistry or immunochemistry analysis showed that apoptosis occurred with the activation of caspase 3 in the tumors formed by inoculating prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells. The data was in a good agreement with that from cultured cells. Thus, our in vivo study suggests that PL not only is able to attenuate tumor growth, but also to cause tumor regression by inducing apoptosis.

  15. In vivo optical imaging of bacterial infection and antibiotic response in intact nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tao; Chen, Yanping; Chu, Jun; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    We describe imaging the luminance of red fluorescent protein (DsRed2)-expressing bacteria from outside intact infected animals. This simple, nonintrusive technique can show in great detail the temporal behavior of the infectious process. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes, we set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a digital camera, fluorescence filters and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply as excitation light source. The bacteria, expressing the DsRed2, are sufficiently bright as to be clearly visible from outside the infected animal and recorded with simple equipment. Introduced bacteria were observed in the abdomen. Instantaneous real-time images of the infectious process were acquired by using a digital camera by simply illuminating nude mice with mercury lamp. The development of infection over 48 hours and its regression after kanamycin treatment were visualized by whole-body imaging. The DsRed2 was excited directly by mercury lamp with EF500/50 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with CB580 nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For one year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible, which affords a powerful approach to visualizing the infection process.

  16. Development of a nude mouse model to study human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, M J; Zone, J J; Krueger, G G

    1984-01-01

    Study of human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology is limited by lack of an adequate animal model. This study was designed to develop an animal model using human face skin grafted onto the nude mouse to study human sebaceous glands. Full-thickness human face skin was grafted onto 60 adult male nude mice. 4 wk after grafting, androgens, which are known to stimulate sebaceous glands, were administered to test the system. Androgens were administered to 21 animals by implanted catheters that were filled with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Empty catheters were implanted in 15 control animals. Graft biopsies and blood for androgen levels were obtained at time 1 (pre-catheter) and time 2 (26 d after catheter implantation). Three assessments were made on each biopsy: sebaceous gland volume, using an image analyzing computer; sebaceous cell size; and sebaceous gland labeling index. 29 mice completed the study through time 2. In the androgen-treated group, T levels (nanogram per milliliter) five times increased to 4.92 +/- 0.35, and DHT levels (nanogram per milliliter) increased 50 times to 16.70. In the androgen-treated group, sebaceous gland volume (micron 3 X 10(-3) increased from 896 +/- 194 to 3,233 +/- 754 (P less than 0.001), sebaceous cell area (micron 2) increased from 167 +/- 12 to 243 +/- 19 (P less than 0.001), and labeling index (percentage) increased from 2.7 +/- 0.7 to 6.4 +/- 0.9 (P less than 0.01). In the control group, sebaceous gland volume fell from 1,070 +/- 393 to 417 +/- 99 (NS), sebaceous cell size remained the same, and the labeling index fell from 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 3.2 +/- 1.1. After androgen administration, Halowax N-34, a known comedogen, or its vehicle, was applied to 15 grafts for 2-6 wk. Twice as many microcomedones were seen in the Halowax-treated grafts, compared with vehicle-treated grafts at the end of this time period. No visible comedones were produced. This study demonstrated that: (a) human sebaceous glands can

  17. Development of a nude mouse model to study human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M J; Zone, J J; Krueger, G G

    1984-10-01

    Study of human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology is limited by lack of an adequate animal model. This study was designed to develop an animal model using human face skin grafted onto the nude mouse to study human sebaceous glands. Full-thickness human face skin was grafted onto 60 adult male nude mice. 4 wk after grafting, androgens, which are known to stimulate sebaceous glands, were administered to test the system. Androgens were administered to 21 animals by implanted catheters that were filled with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Empty catheters were implanted in 15 control animals. Graft biopsies and blood for androgen levels were obtained at time 1 (pre-catheter) and time 2 (26 d after catheter implantation). Three assessments were made on each biopsy: sebaceous gland volume, using an image analyzing computer; sebaceous cell size; and sebaceous gland labeling index. 29 mice completed the study through time 2. In the androgen-treated group, T levels (nanogram per milliliter) five times increased to 4.92 +/- 0.35, and DHT levels (nanogram per milliliter) increased 50 times to 16.70. In the androgen-treated group, sebaceous gland volume (micron 3 X 10(-3) increased from 896 +/- 194 to 3,233 +/- 754 (P less than 0.001), sebaceous cell area (micron 2) increased from 167 +/- 12 to 243 +/- 19 (P less than 0.001), and labeling index (percentage) increased from 2.7 +/- 0.7 to 6.4 +/- 0.9 (P less than 0.01). In the control group, sebaceous gland volume fell from 1,070 +/- 393 to 417 +/- 99 (NS), sebaceous cell size remained the same, and the labeling index fell from 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 3.2 +/- 1.1. After androgen administration, Halowax N-34, a known comedogen, or its vehicle, was applied to 15 grafts for 2-6 wk. Twice as many microcomedones were seen in the Halowax-treated grafts, compared with vehicle-treated grafts at the end of this time period. No visible comedones were produced. This study demonstrated that: (a) human sebaceous glands can

  18. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. IV. The effect of PMSG and oestradiol on the growth of the oocyte and follicle.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    Retarded follicular and oocyte nucleolar growth rates in ovaries of 1 month old congenitally athymic nude mice are restored by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). By contrast oestradiol-17beta depresses follicular growth rate in phenotypically normal (control) mice to levels found in nude littermates. Paradoxically, oestradiol-17beta stimulates nucleolar growth rate in control mice, but not nudes, to levels found in PMSG treated groups. These results are discussed in relation to the position of the thymus gland in the pituitary/ovarian axis and the mode of action gonadotrophin upon oocyte and follicular growth in the pre-puberal mouse ovary.

  19. [An experimental study on the Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone CPA-Yang1-BR with brain metastasis potency in nude mice and in vivo imaging research].

    PubMed

    Lei, Bei; Cao, Jie; Shen, Jie; Zhao, Lanxiang; Liang, Sheng; Meng, Qinggang; Xie, Wenhui; Yang, Shunfang

    2013-08-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women. It is also the most common cause of brain metastases. A brain metastasis model is difficult to be established because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the lack of optimal methods for detecting brain metastasis in nude mice. Thus, the establishment of a Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its animal model with brain metastasis potency and in vivo research is of great significance. CPA-Yang1 cells were obtained from a patient with human lung adenocarcinoma by lentiviral vector-mediated transfection of green fluorescence protein. Intracardiac inoculation of the cells was performed in nude mice, and brain metastatic lesions were detected using micro ¹⁸F FDG-PET/CT scanners, small animal in vivo imaging system for fluorescence, radionuclide and X ray fused imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sense body detection, and resection. The samples were divided into two parts for cell culture and histological diagnosis. The process was repeated in vivo and in vitro for four cycles to obtain a novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR. A novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR, was obtained with a brain metastatic rate of 50%. The use of MRI for the detection of brain metastases has obvious advantages. An experimental Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone (CPA-Yang1-BR) and its animal model with brain metastasis potency in nude mice were established. MRI with sense body or micro MRI may be used as a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive method to detect experimental brain metastases in intact live immunodeficient mice. The results of this study may serve as a technical platform for brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Inhibition by an angiogenesis inhibitor, TNP-470, of the growth of a human hepatoblastoma heterotransplanted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, S; Nakasho, K; Terada, N; Sugihara, A; Tsujimura, T; Takanashi, T; Uematsu, K; Okamoto, E; Toyosaka, A

    2000-08-01

    The effect of TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor, on the growth of a hepatoblastoma transplanted into nude mice was examined. A hepatoblastoma obtained from a 3-year-old girl was serially transplanted into nude mice subcutaneously, and the transplant tumors of the seventh and eighth generations were used for experiments. Expression of various markers in the tumors was examined immunohistochemically. TNP-470 was injected subcutaneously every other day into tumor-bearing mice from 3 weeks after tumor transplantation. The proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells was estimated by means of the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. The original hepatoblastoma showed the histology of the epithelial type, consisting of both the fetal and embryonal subtypes and was positively stained with anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), anti-cytokeratin-19 and polyclonal anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibodies, and an antihuman hepatocyte antibody (hepatocyte paraffin 1). The transplant tumors consisted of solid nests of tumor cells with numerous vascular lakes of various sizes, and showed positive staining with all antibodies that reacted positively with the original hepatoblastoma. Injections of TNP-470 at the doses of 15 mg and 30 mg/kg body weight suppressed the tumor growth and the increase in the serum level of AFP dose dependently. Injections of TNP-470 also suppressed the proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells in the tumors. Hepatoblastomas maintained in nude mice retained the immunohistochemical characteristics of the original hepatoblastoma, and TNP-470 suppressed the growth of hepatoblastomas transplanted into nude mice. TNP-470 may be worth investigating further as to its usefulness as a therapy for hepatoblastomas.

  1. Changing in lipid profile induced by the mutation of Foxn1 gene: A lipidomic analysis of Nude mice skin.

    PubMed

    Lanzini, Justine; Dargère, Delphine; Regazzetti, Anne; Tebani, Abdellah; Laprévote, Olivier; Auzeil, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Nude mice carry a spontaneous mutation affecting the gene Foxn1 mainly expressed in the epidermis. This gene is involved in several skin functions, especially in the proliferation and the differentiation of keratinocytes which are key cells of epithelial barrier. The skin, a protective barrier for the body, is essentially composed of lipids. Taking into account these factors, we conducted a lipidomic study to search for any changes in lipid composition of skin possibly related to Foxn1 mutation. Lipids were extracted from skin biopsies of Nude and BALB/c mice to be analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). Multivariate and univariate data analyses were carried out to compare lipid extracts. Identification was performed using HRMS data, retention time and mass spectrometry fragmentation study. These results indicate that mutation of Foxn1 leads to significant modifications in the lipidome in Nude mice skin. An increase in cholesterol sulfate, phospholipids, sphingolipids and fatty acids associated with a decrease in glycerolipids suggest that the lipidome in mice skin is regulated by the Foxn1 gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. Rebamipide does not interfere with the antitumor effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in human oral tumor-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shibamori, Masafumi; Sato, Masayuki; Uematsu, Naoya; Nakashima, Takako; Sato, Asuka; Yamamura, Yoshiya; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Ken; Sakurai, Kazushi

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that rebamipide, which suppresses reactive oxygen species, prevents chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers. However, anticancer action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is believed to be partially associated with generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to determine whether rebamipide interferes with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The effect of rebamipide on tumor cell growth was investigated using a human oral squamous carcinoma cell line, HSC-2, in vitro and in vivo. Rebamipide showed no significant effect on cell or tumor growth in HSC-2 tumor-bearing nude mice. Influences of rebamipide on the antitumor action of radiotherapy and of chemotherapy with cisplatin or docetaxel were investigated using the same animal model. In radiotherapy, the tumor was treated with 2.5 Gy of X-rays for 5 days, and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered during irradiation periods. In chemotherapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated once with cisplatin (8 mg/kg, i.v.) or docetaxel (15 mg/kg i.v.) and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered for 5 days following the antitumor drug treatment. Rebamipide did not interfere with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Myxoma virus therapy for human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kinn, Veronica G; Hilgenberg, Valerie A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a devastating tumor of young people that is difficult to cure. To determine if oncolytic virus therapy can improve outcomes in individuals with RMS, myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein (MYXV-red) was evaluated for antitumoral effects using a murine model of RMS. Fluorescent protein was expressed in four RMS cell lines inoculated with MYXV-red, indicating that these cells were semipermissive to MYXV infection. MYXV-red replication and cytopathic effects were further evaluated using human embryonal RMS (CCL-136) cells. Logarithmic growth of MYXV-red and significant cell death were observed 72 hours after inoculation with MYXV. The oncolytic effects of MYXV-red were then studied in nude mice that were injected subcutaneously with CCL-136 cells to establish RMS xenografts. Once tumors measured 5 mm in diameter, mice were treated with multiple intratumoral injections of MXYV-red or saline. The average final tumor volume and rate of tumor growth were significantly decreased, and median survival time was significantly increased in MYXV-red-treated mice (P-values =0.0416, 0.0037, and 0.0004, respectively). Histologic sections of MYXV-red-treated tumors showed increased inflammation compared to saline-treated tumors (P-value =0.0002). In conclusion, MXYV-red treatment of RMS tumors was successful in individual mice as it resulted in decreased tumor burden in eight of eleven mice with nearly complete tumor remission in five of eleven mice. These data hold promise that MYXV-red treatment may be beneficial for people suffering from RMS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of RMS tumors using an oncolytic poxvirus.

  4. Myxoma virus therapy for human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kinn, Veronica G; Hilgenberg, Valerie A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a devastating tumor of young people that is difficult to cure. To determine if oncolytic virus therapy can improve outcomes in individuals with RMS, myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein (MYXV-red) was evaluated for antitumoral effects using a murine model of RMS. Fluorescent protein was expressed in four RMS cell lines inoculated with MYXV-red, indicating that these cells were semipermissive to MYXV infection. MYXV-red replication and cytopathic effects were further evaluated using human embryonal RMS (CCL-136) cells. Logarithmic growth of MYXV-red and significant cell death were observed 72 hours after inoculation with MYXV. The oncolytic effects of MYXV-red were then studied in nude mice that were injected subcutaneously with CCL-136 cells to establish RMS xenografts. Once tumors measured 5 mm in diameter, mice were treated with multiple intratumoral injections of MXYV-red or saline. The average final tumor volume and rate of tumor growth were significantly decreased, and median survival time was significantly increased in MYXV-red-treated mice (P-values =0.0416, 0.0037, and 0.0004, respectively). Histologic sections of MYXV-red-treated tumors showed increased inflammation compared to saline-treated tumors (P-value =0.0002). In conclusion, MXYV-red treatment of RMS tumors was successful in individual mice as it resulted in decreased tumor burden in eight of eleven mice with nearly complete tumor remission in five of eleven mice. These data hold promise that MYXV-red treatment may be beneficial for people suffering from RMS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of RMS tumors using an oncolytic poxvirus. PMID:27579297

  5. Selenized milk casein in the diet of BALB/c nude mice reduces growth of intramammary MCF-7 tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary selenium has the potential to reduce growth of mammary tumors. Increasing the Se content of cows’ milk proteins is a potentially effective means to increase Se intake in humans. We investigate the effects of selenized milk protein on human mammary tumor progression in immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice. Methods Four isonitrogenous diets with selenium levels of 0.16, 0.51, 0.85 and 1.15 ppm were formulated by mixing low- and high-selenium milk casein isolates with a rodent premix. MCF-7 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c nude mice implanted with slow-release 17 β-estradiol pellets. Mice with palpable tumors were randomly assigned to one of the four diets for 10 weeks, during which time weekly tumor caliper measurements were conducted. Individual growth curves were fit with the Gompertz equation. Apoptotic cells and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were determined. Results There was a linear decrease in mean tumor volume at 70 days with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05), where final tumor volume decreased 35% between 0.16 and 1.15 ppm Se. There was a linear decrease in mean predicted tumor volume at 56, 63 and 70 days, and the number of tumors with a final volume above 500 mm3, with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05). This tumor volume effect was associated with a decrease in the proportion of tumors with a maximum growth rate above 0.03 day-1. The predicted maximum volume of tumors (Vmax) and the number of tumors with a large Vmax, were not affected by Se-casein. Final tumor mass, Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were not significantly affected by Se-casein. There was a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in high-Se tumors as compared to low-Se tumors. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that turnover of cells in the tumor, but not its nutrient supply, were affected by dairy Se. We have shown that 1.1 ppm dietary Se from selenized casein can effectively reduce

  6. Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Efficiently Establish Persistent Infection in Neural Tissues of Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Yao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2017-02-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neural tissues of immunocompetent mice but persists in both peripheral and neural tissues of lymphocyte-deficient mice. Thymidine kinase (TK) is believed to be essential for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues of immunocompromised mice, because infectious virus of a mutant with defects in both TK and UL24 is detected only in peripheral tissues, but not in neural tissues, of severe combined immunodeficiency mice (T. Valyi-Nagy, R. M. Gesser, B. Raengsakulrach, S. L. Deshmane, B. P. Randazzo, A. J. Dillner, and N. W. Fraser, Virology 199:484-490, 1994, https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1150). Here we find infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells in peripheral and neural tissues of mice infected with a TK-negative mutant. We therefore investigated the significance of viral TK and host T cells for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues using three genetically engineered mutants with defects in only TK or in both TK and UL24 and two strains of nude mice. Surprisingly, all three mutants establish persistent infection in up to 100% of brain stems and 93% of trigeminal ganglia of adult nude mice at 28 days postinfection, as measured by the recovery of infectious virus. Thus, in mouse neural tissues, host T cells block persistent HSV-1 infection, and viral TK is dispensable for the virus to establish persistent infection. Furthermore, we found 30- to 200-fold more virus in neural tissues than in the eye and detected glycoprotein C, a true late viral antigen, in brainstem neurons of nude mice persistently infected with the TK-negative mutant, suggesting that adult mouse neurons can support the replication of TK-negative HSV-1.

  7. Establishment and characterization of a new human oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive mammary carcinoma serially transplantable in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Fichtner, I; Büttner, B; Frege, J

    1992-01-01

    A human mammary carcinoma originating from a postmenopausal patient was successfully transplanted into nude mice. According to the adopted criteria the tumour proved to be oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive. Histological studies of the patient tumour revealed a ductal invasive mammary carcinoma with 80% tubular growth pattern. Following transplantation the adenoid structures decreased to 30%; the mitosis rate and grade of malignancy increased. Treatment of the nude mice with 20 micrograms oestradiol benzoate/mouse caused a loss of the oestradiol receptor of the mammary carcinoma. The mammary carcinoma 3366 can be used for testing of antineoplastic substances, antihormones and for studies in regard to down-regulation or blocking of hormone receptors and possible consequences for therapies.

  8. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Beach, J L

    1984-07-15

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10(7) were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth.

  9. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Beach, J.L.

    1984-07-15

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10/sup 7/ were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth.

  10. ABCG2-overexpressing H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice maintained original biochemical and cytological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Likun; Wang, Fang; Li, Furong; Wang, Xiaokun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-01

    H460/MX20 are derived from large cell lung cancer H460 cell line and then transformed into ABCG2-overexpressing cells by mitoxantrone’s induction, which are widely used in study of multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. To establish and spread the model of H460/MX20 cell xenografts, we investigated whether cell biological characteristics and the MDR phenotype were maintained in vivo model. Our results demonstrated that the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in xH460/MX20 cells isolated from H460/MX20 cell xenografts were similar to H460/MX20 cells in vitro. Importantly, xH460/MX20 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan as H460/MX20 cells did. Furthermore, lapatinib, the inhibitor of ABCG2, potently reversed mitoxantrone- and topotecan-resistance of xH460/MX20 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice still retain their original cytological characteristics and MDR phenotype. Thus, the H460/MX20 cell xenografts model could serve as a sound model in vivo for study on reversal MDR. PMID:28059154

  11. ABCG2-overexpressing H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice maintained original biochemical and cytological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Likun; Wang, Fang; Li, Furong; Wang, Xiaokun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-06

    H460/MX20 are derived from large cell lung cancer H460 cell line and then transformed into ABCG2-overexpressing cells by mitoxantrone's induction, which are widely used in study of multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. To establish and spread the model of H460/MX20 cell xenografts, we investigated whether cell biological characteristics and the MDR phenotype were maintained in vivo model. Our results demonstrated that the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in xH460/MX20 cells isolated from H460/MX20 cell xenografts were similar to H460/MX20 cells in vitro. Importantly, xH460/MX20 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan as H460/MX20 cells did. Furthermore, lapatinib, the inhibitor of ABCG2, potently reversed mitoxantrone- and topotecan-resistance of xH460/MX20 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice still retain their original cytological characteristics and MDR phenotype. Thus, the H460/MX20 cell xenografts model could serve as a sound model in vivo for study on reversal MDR.

  12. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulates protective innate immunity against human renal cell carcinoma xenografted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei-jun; Ma, Bin-bin; He, Wei; Xu, Da; Wang, Xiang-hui

    2011-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma easily develops metastasis, which is highly resistant to a variety of therapies. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are potent activators of innate and adaptive immunity. CpG ODN is inclined to be used as vaccine adjuvant or in combination with other therapies to exert antitumor effect mediated by the adaptive immunity. Herein, we examined the antitumor effect of CpG ODN monotherapy and the role of innate immunity on human RCC Caki-1 cells xenografted in nude mice. Our results indicated that the peritumoral subcutaneous injections of CpG ODN1826 once a week resulted in significant inhibition of the growth of Caki-1 xenografts compared with the control groups, and the survival of tumor-bearing mice were also prolonged significantly. When cytotoxicity of splenic cells from host mice was assessed, it was found that CpG ODN1826 significantly promoted the cytotoxicities of splenocytes targeting primary Caki-1 cells or YAC-1 cells, indicating that the activity of natural killer cells in tumor-bearing nude mice was enhanced by CpG ODN1826 monotherapy. The serum concentrations of interleukin-12 were increased in mice treated with CpG ODN1826. Thus, CpG ODN1826 monotherapy induces significant inhibitory effects on the growth of human RCC xenografted in athymic immunodeficient mice, and the tumor-bearing mice achieves long-term survival, which might be attributed to enhanced innate immunity.

  13. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-08-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores.

  14. Phenotypic characterization of collagen gel embedded primary human breast epithelial cells in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Guzman, R C; Popnikolov, N; Bandyopadhyay, G K; Christov, K; Collins, G; Nandi, S

    1994-06-30

    We have developed a method to characterize the phenotypes and tumorigenicity of dissociated human breast epithelial cells. The dissociated cells were first embedded in collagen gels and subsequently transplanted subcutaneously in vivo in athymic nude mice. The transplantation of dissociated epithelial cells from reduction mammoplasties, presumed to be normal, always resulted in normal histomorphology. Epithelial cells were arranged as short tubular structures consisting of lumina surrounded by epithelial cells with an occasional more complex branching structure. These outgrowths were surrounded by intact basement membrane and were embedded in collagen gel that, at termination, contained collagenous stroma with fibroblasts and blood vessels. In contrast, transplantation of dissociated breast epithelial cells from breast cancer specimens resulted in outgrowths with an invasive pattern infiltrating the collagen gel as well as frank invasion into vascular space, nerves and muscles. These observations were made long before the subsequent palpable stage which resulted if left in the mouse for a long enough time. The dissociated human breast epithelial cells thus retained their intrinsic property to undergo morphogenesis to reflect their original phenotype when placed in a suitable environment, the collagen gel.

  15. Impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, L; Eizirik, D L; Pipeleers, D G; Borg, L A; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1995-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores. Images PMID:7635965

  16. Human eccrine sweat gland cells reconstitute polarized spheroids when subcutaneously implanted with Matrigel in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Liyun; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Bingna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that maintenance of cell polarity plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glandular homeostasis and function. We examine the markers for polarity at different time points to investigate the formation of cell polarity during 3D reconstitution of eccrine sweat glands. Mixtures of eccrine sweat gland cells and Matrigel were injected subcutaneously into the inguinal regions of nude mice. At 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-implantation, Matrigel plugs were removed and immunostained for basal collagen IV, lateral β-catenin, lateroapical ZO-1 and apical F-actin. The results showed that the cell polarity of the spheroids appeared in sequence. Formation of basal polarity was prior to lateral, apical and lateroapical polarity. Collagen IV was detected basally at 2 weeks, β-catenin laterally and ZO-1 lateroapically at 3 weeks, and F-actin apically at 4 weeks post-implantation. At week 5 and week 6, the localization and the positive percentage of collagen IV, β-catenin, ZO-1 or F-actin in spheroids was similar to that in native eccrine sweat glands. We conclude that the reconstituted 3D eccrine sweat glands are functional or potentially functional.

  17. Microcirculation of human pancreatic islets transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L; Tyrberg, B; Carlsson, P O; Nordin, A; Andersson, A; Källskog O

    2001-08-27

    The aim was to measure the capillary blood pressure in transplanted human islets. Human islets were isolated at the Central Unit of the beta-cell Transplant in Brussels, Belgium. After transport to our laboratory, the islets were implanted under the renal capsule of normoglycemic nude mice. Two weeks later the capillary and venous blood pressures in the islet graft and adjacent renal parenchyma were measured with a micropuncture technique. Capillary blood pressure was approximately 5-8 mmHg in both graft and renal capillaries: twice as high as in native islets. Venous blood pressures were similar (4-5 mmHg) in the veins draining the graft and in the renal interlobular veins. All veins leading from the graft emptied into the renal parenchyma, that is, into interlobular veins. The capillary hypertension seen in transplanted human islets is probably necessary to secure adequate drainage through the renal veins. Whether this contributes to the poor results of long-term islet graft survival is unknown.

  18. A Novel Dietary Flavonoid Fisetin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Signaling and Tumor Growth in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Asim, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh; Zaid, Mohammad Abu; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)–mediated signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Hormonal therapies, mainly with combinations of antiandrogens and androgen deprivation, are the mainstay treatment for advanced disease. However, emergence of androgen resistance largely due to inefficient antihormone action limits their therapeutic usefulness. Here, we report that fisetin, a novel dietary flavonoid, acts as a novel AR ligand by competing with the high-affinity androgen to interact with the ligand binding domain of AR. We show that this physical interaction results in substantial decrease in AR stability and decrease in amino-terminal/carboxyl-terminal (N-C) interaction of AR. This results in blunting of AR-mediated transactivation of target genes including prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, treatment of LNCaP cells with fisetin decreased AR protein levels, in part, by decreasing its promoter activity and by accelerating its degradation. Fisetin also synergized with Casodex in inducing apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Treatment with fisetin in athymic nude mice implanted with AR-positive CWR22Rυ1 human PCa cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and reduction in serum PSA levels. These data identify fisetin as an inhibitor of AR signaling axis and suggest that it could be a useful chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent to delay progression of PCa. PMID:18922931

  19. Tanapoxvirus lacking a neuregulin-like gene regresses human melanoma tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantian; Suryawanshi, Yogesh R; Kordish, Dennis H; Woyczesczyk, Helene M; Jeng, David; Essani, Karim

    2017-02-01

    Neuregulin (NRG), an epidermal growth factor is known to promote the growth of various cell types, including human melanoma cells through ErbB family of tyrosine kinases receptors. Tanapoxvirus (TPV)-encoded protein TPV-15L, a functional mimic of NRG, also acts through ErbB receptors. Here, we show that the TPV-15L protein promotes melanoma proliferation. TPV recombinant generated by deleting the 15L gene (TPVΔ15L) showed replication ability similar to that of wild-type TPV (wtTPV) in owl monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells, and human melanoma (SK-MEL-3) cells. However, a TPV recombinant with both 15L and the thymidine kinase (TK) gene 66R ablated (TPVΔ15LΔ66R) replicated less efficiently compared to TPVΔ15L and the parental virus. TPVΔ15L exhibited more robust tumor regression in the melanoma-bearing nude mice compared to other TPV recombinants. Our results indicate that deletion of TPV-15L gene product which facilitates the growth of human melanoma cells can be an effective strategy to enhance the oncolytic potential of TPV for the treatment of melanoma.

  20. Split tolerance in nude mice transplanted with 2'-deoxyguanosine-treated allogeneic thymus lobes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, G.; Moriyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawase, Y.; Habu, S.

    1989-03-01

    To elucidate the acquisition of self tolerance in the thymus, full-allogeneic thymic chimeras were constructed. Athymic C3H and BALB/c nude mice were reconstituted with the thymic lobes of BALB/c and B10.BR fetuses, respectively, that were organ cultured for 5 days in the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine. T cells in these chimeras were tolerized to the host MHC in both MLR and CTL assays. In contrast, T cells in the chimeras exhibited split tolerance for the thymic MHC haplotype. CTL specific for class I MHC of the thymic haplotype were generated not only from the peripheral T cells of the chimeras but also from thymocytes re-populated in the engrafted thymic lobes. However, T cells in these chimeras responded poorly to the class II MHC of the thymic haplotype in a standard MLR assay. In a syngeneic MLR culture upon stimulation with enriched APC of the thymic haplotype, only 22 to 48% of the responses were mediated by CD4+ cells, and proliferations of CD4- cells were prominent. There were no haplotype-specific suppressor cells detected which would cause the unresponsiveness to the thymic class II MHC. These results indicated that the thymic lobes treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine were defective in the ability to induce the transplantation tolerance for the class I MHC expressed on the thymus, although the same thymic lobes were able to induce the transplantation tolerance for the thymic class II MHC.

  1. [Amphiregulin antisense RNA expression inhibits angiogenesis of human breast cancer in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Serova, Maria; Podgorniak, Marie Pierre; Berthois, Yolande; Mourah, Samia; Calvo, Fabien

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of amphiregulin (AR) antisense RNA expression in breast cancer. Human AR cDNA antisense plasmid was transfected into NS2T2A1 cells (a human breast cancer cell line). Two selected clones expressed AR antisense RNA (AR AS1 and AR AS3 cell lines) in which AR protein expression was reduced. Control cell line NS2T2A1 V was obtained by empty vector transfection. These cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice. The effects of conditioned media on proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were evaluated and VEGF secreted by the cells was measured by ELISA method. In tumor tissues, VEGF expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and CD31-immunostaining was used for intra-tumoral vascular quantification. The proliferation index of HMEC cells grown in conditioned media with AR AS1 and AR AS3 was significantly reduced in comparison with that of control cells, accompanied by a decreased VEGF secretion. In tumors derived from AR AS1 and AR AS3 cells, intra-tumoral vascularization was reduced to about 50% of that derived from control cell line, accompanied with a decrease of VEGF expression. Amphiregulin antisense RNA expression inhibits efficiently the angiogenesis in breast cancer, suggesting this growth factor could represent a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  2. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P <0.05); thus D-galactose induced sub-acutely aging mice models were duplicated successfully. Results also indicated that transplantation of ASCs could reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers such as MDA, SOD, and advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs); hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thickness of the dermis layer as well as the collagen content of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In addition, immunohistochemical assay showed that expression quantity of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In conclusion, ASCs can trace cell distribution successfully through bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control

  3. Enhanced delivery of paclitaxel liposomes using focused ultrasound with microbubbles for treating nude mice bearing intracranial glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuanyuan; Pi, Zhaoke; Yan, Fei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Zeng, Xiaojun; Diao, Xianfen; Hu, Yaxin; Chen, Siping; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel liposomes (PTX-LIPO) are a clinically promising antineoplastic drug formulation for the treatment of various extracranial cancers, excluding glioblastoma. A main reason for this is the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or blood-tumor barrier (BTB), preventing liposomal drugs from crossing at a therapeutically meaningful level. Focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles (MBs) has been suggested in many studies to be an effective approach to increase the BBB or BTB permeability. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of enhancing the delivery of PTX-LIPO in intracranial glioblastoma-bearing nude mice using pulsed low-intensity FUS exposure in the presence of MBs. Our results showed that the delivery efficiency of PTX-LIPO could be effectively improved in terms of the penetration of both the BBB in vitro and BTB in vivo by pulsed FUS sonication with a 10 ms pulse length and 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency at 0.64 MPa peak-rarefactional pressure in the presence of MBs. Quantitative analysis showed that a 2-fold higher drug concentration had accumulated in the glioblastoma 3 h after FUS treatment, with 7.20±1.18 µg PTX per g glioma tissue. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analysis illustrated that the intracranial glioblastoma progression in nude mice treated with PTX-LIPO delivered via FUS with MBs was suppressed consistently for 4 weeks compared to the untreated group. The medium survival time of these tumor-bearing nude mice was significantly prolonged by 20.8%, compared to the untreated nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed the antiproliferation effect and cell apoptosis induction. Our study demonstrated that noninvasive low-intensity FUS with MBs can be used as an effective approach to deliver PTX-LIPO in order to improve their chemotherapy efficacy toward glioblastoma.

  4. Tumor grafting induces changes of gut microbiota in athymic nude mice in the presence and absence of medicinal Gynostemma saponins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Tai, William C S; Brar, Manreetpal S; Leung, Frederick C C; Hsiao, W L Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have revealed that gut microbiota plays a substantial role in modulating diseases such as autism, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, and cancer that occur at sites distant to the gut. Athymic nude mice have been employed for tumorigenic research for decades; however, the relationships between the gut microbiome and host's response in drug treatment to the grafted tumors have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed the fecal microbiome of nonxenograft and xenograft nude mice treated with phytosaponins from a popular medicinal plant, Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp). Analysis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR data showed that the microbiota profile of xenograft mice departed from that of the nonxenograft mice. After ten days of treatment with Gp saponins (GpS), the microbiota of the treated mice was closer to the microbiota at Day 0 before the implantation of the tumor. Data obtained from 16S pyrosequencing of fecal samples reiterates the differences in microbiome between the nonxenograft and xenograft mice. GpS markedly increased the relative abundance of Clostridium cocleatum and Bacteroides acidifaciens, for which the beneficial effects on the host have been well documented. This study, for the first time, characterizes the properties of gut microbiome in nude mice responding to tumor implant and drug treatment. We also demonstrate that dietary saponins such as GpS can potentially regulate the gut microbial ecosystem by increasing the number of symbionts. Interestingly, this regulation of the gut ecosystem might, at least in part, be responsible for or contribute to the anticancer effect of GpS.

  5. Tumor Grafting Induces Changes of Gut Microbiota in Athymic Nude Mice in the Presence and Absence of Medicinal Gynostemma Saponins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Tai, William C. S.; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have revealed that gut microbiota plays a substantial role in modulating diseases such as autism, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, and cancer that occur at sites distant to the gut. Athymic nude mice have been employed for tumorigenic research for decades; however, the relationships between the gut microbiome and host’s response in drug treatment to the grafted tumors have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed the fecal microbiome of nonxenograft and xenograft nude mice treated with phytosaponins from a popular medicinal plant, Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp). Analysis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR data showed that the microbiota profile of xenograft mice departed from that of the nonxenograft mice. After ten days of treatment with Gp saponins (GpS), the microbiota of the treated mice was closer to the microbiota at Day 0 before the implantation of the tumor. Data obtained from 16S pyrosequencing of fecal samples reiterates the differences in microbiome between the nonxenograft and xenograft mice. GpS markedly increased the relative abundance of Clostridium cocleatum and Bacteroides acidifaciens, for which the beneficial effects on the host have been well documented. This study, for the first time, characterizes the properties of gut microbiome in nude mice responding to tumor implant and drug treatment. We also demonstrate that dietary saponins such as GpS can potentially regulate the gut microbial ecosystem by increasing the number of symbionts. Interestingly, this regulation of the gut ecosystem might, at least in part, be responsible for or contribute to the anticancer effect of GpS. PMID:25992551

  6. Mechanisms of defective glucose-induced insulin release in human pancreatic islets transplanted to diabetic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Eizirik, D L; Jansson, L; Flodström, M; Hellerström, C; Andersson, A

    1997-08-01

    We have previously observed that human islets, transplanted under the kidney capsule of hyperglycemic nude mice, show a longlasting impairment in glucose-induced insulin release. To investigate the cause(s) of this phenomenon, we transplanted human islets into normoglycemic or alloxan-diabetic nude mice for a 4- to 6-week period. In a third experimental group, aimed at evaluating reversibility of hyperglycemia effects, diabetic nude mice bearing a human islet graft were cured by a second intrasplenic transplant of mouse islets, and the human islets were exposed to a further 2 weeks of normoglycemia. Four to 6 weeks of hyperglycemia induced a severe impairment of glucose- and arginine-induced insulin release, as demonstrated by perfusion of the graft-bearing kidney. This defective release was not restored by a subsequent 2-week period of normoglycemia, and it was accompanied by normal (pro)insulin biosynthesis, glucose oxidation, and expression of insulin messenger RNA. Taken together with our previous study, these observations indicate that impaired glucose metabolism, depletion of insulin messenger RNA, decreased (pro)insulin biosynthesis, increased glycogen accumulation, and depletion of insulin reserves cannot explain the deleterious effects of the diabetic state on human islet insulin release. This, and the similar inhibition of glucose- and arginine-induced insulin release, suggest that prolonged hyperglycemia may exert its deleterious effect on insulin release at a step distal to closure of ATP-sensitive K-channels.

  7. Serum CEA levels in patients with gastric carcinoma correlate with the tumorigenicity of their xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kiyama, T; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Okuda, T; Mizutani, T; Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Nishi, K; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N

    1991-01-01

    We examined the correlation among preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, staining properties of the tumors by CEA immunohistochemistry and the tumorigenicity of their xenografts in nude mice, in 28 patients with gastric cancer. Eleven (40 per cent) of them were positive for serum CEA (greater than or equal to 2.5 ng/ml) and seven (25 per cent) of the xenografts were tumorigenic in nude mice. All the tumorigenic cases were positive for serum CEA (p less than 0.001) and the mean value of the serum CEA level in the patients with tumorigenic neoplasms was 20.8 ng/ml, being significantly higher than that (1.4 ng/ml) in the patients with non-tumorigenic neoplasms (p less than 0.001). Twenty-five of the 28 carcinomas (89 per cent) were positive for CEA staining in their cancer cells by the ABC method and CEA localization correlated with tumorigenicity (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that the serum CEA level in patients is correlated with the tumorigenicity of their gastric carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and may account for the poor prognosis of patients with high serum CEA.

  8. Five Stabilized 111In-labeled neurotensin analogs in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paul J J M; de Visser, Moniaue; Verwijnen, Suzanne M; Bernard, Bert F; Srinivasan, Ananth; Erion, Jack L; Breeman, Wouter A P; Vulto, Arnold G; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in different human tumors, such as human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. New stable neurotensin analogs with high receptor affinity have been synthesized by replacing arginine residues with lysine and arginine derivatives. The aim of this study was to explore the biodistribution, tumor uptake, kidney localization, and stability characteristics of these new analogs in order to develop new diagnostic tools for exocrine pancreatic cancer. Four (111)In-labeled DTPA-chelated NT analogs and one (111)In-labeled DOTA-chelated NT analog were evaluated in NMRI nude mice bearing NT receptor-positive HT29 tumors. Experiments with a coinjection of unlabeled NT or lysine were performed to investigate receptor-mediated uptake and kidney protection, respectively. In addition, the in vivo serum stability of the most promising analog was analyzed. In the biodistribution study in mice, at 4 hours postinjection, a low percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tissue for all compounds was found in NT receptor-negative organs, such as the blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle, and femur. A high uptake was found in the colon, intestine, kidneys, and in implanted HT29 tumors. The coinjection of excess unlabeled neurotensin significantly reduced tumor uptake, showing tumor uptake to be receptor-mediated. To a lesser extent, this was also observed for the colon, but not for other tissues. We concluded that DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH and the DOTA-linked counterpart have the most favorable biodistribution properties regarding tumor uptake.

  9. Preclinical evaluation of new radioligand of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in endocrine tumors xenograft nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Dierickx, L. O.; Mestre, B.; Nalis, J.; Picard, C.; Favre, G.; Poirot, M.; Silvente-Poirot, S.; Courbon, F.

    2007-02-01

    The cholecystokinin(CCK)/gastrin 2 receptors (R-CCK2) are overexpressed in 90% of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and in 60% of small cell lung cancers but not or poorly in corresponding healthy tissues. They represent a relevant target for the diagnosis and internal targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. Although previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin to target CCK-2 receptor-expressing tissues in animals and patients, some problems remained unsolved to identify an optimum candidate for in vivo targeting of R-CCK2-expressing tumors. By a rational approach and " in silico" drug design, we synthesized a new CCK-derivative with high affinity for the R-CCK2. The aim of this study was to achieve the radiolabeling of a new radioligand, to assess its efficacy using a published CCK radioligand ( 111In-DTPA-CCK8) as a control for the R-CCK2 targeting. This new CCK-derivative was radiolabeled with 111In. Nude mice, bearing the human MTC TT tumors and NIH-3T3 cell line expressing a tumorigenic mutant of the R-CCK2, were injected with this radiolabeled peptide. In vivo planar scintigraphies were acquired. Thereafter, biodistribution studies (%ID/g tissue) were done. The conditions of radiolabelling were optimized to obtain a radiochemical purity >90%. Scintigraphic images of xenograft mice showed significant tumor uptake with a target to nontarget ratio higher than two. These results were confirmed by the biodistribution studies which showed as expected a significant activity in the spleen, the liver and the kidneys. Therefore, this new radiolabeled compound is a promised new candidate for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy for R-CCK2 tumor targeting.

  10. Antiangiogenic effect of propranolol on the growth of the neuroblastoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Xiao, Xianmin; Zheng, Shan; Zheng, Jicui; Zhu, Haitao; Ji, Yi; Yang, Shaobo

    2013-12-01

    Propranolol has been reported to display an antiangiogenic effect on infantile hemangiomas and also some adult cancers. Little is known, however, about whether propranolol has such effect on pediatric malignancies. Nude mice bearing BE(2) C neuroblastoma xenografts were injected intraperitoneally with propranolol and divided into groups of PROP-2 (n=11), -5 (n=11), and -10 (n=10) according to the treating dosages of 2, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. The tumor volume and body weight were recorded every other day. All mice were sacrificed on day 9, and the levels of angiogenic factors were measured in harvested xenografts by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The tumor volume and weight of PROP-2 (0.72±0.28 cm(3), 0.59±0.21 g) and PROP-5 (0.81±0.35 cm(3), 0.61±0.25 g) were significantly decreased when compared with those of CTL (1.22±0.58 cm(3), 0.93±0.15 g; P<0.01). The tumor microvessel density (MVD) scores that PROP-2, -5, and -10 groups had (49.28±17.53, 52.45±17.11, and 51.09±13.18 pixels per picture, respectively) were lower than those from the control group (65.29±17.33 pixels per picture, P<0.01). Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were significantly lower in the groups with propranolol treated dosage of 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)day(-1) than in the control group. Propranolol can exhibit an inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and angiogenic factors expression in neuroblastoma xenografts, which may provide some knowledge to the role of β-blockers in the management of NB. © 2013.

  11. The effect of Setarud (IMODTM) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. Results: On the 2nd and 7th day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Conclusion: Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made. PMID:26644788

  12. Recruitment of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Blood Vessels by Orthotopic Liver Tumors Imaged in Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) Transgenic Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasagawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical for tumor growth and progression. We report here an imageable model of the TME of orthotopic liver cancer. The transgenic red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing nude mouse was used as the host. The RFP nude mouse expresses RFP in all organs. Non-colored Huh-7 human hepatoma cells were injected in the spleen of RFP nude mice to establish an orthotopic liver cancer model. TME formation resulting from the orthotopic liver tumor was observed using the Olympus OV100 small animal fluorescence imaging system. Non-colored liver cancer cells formed tumor colonies in the liver 28 days after cell transplantation to the spleen. RFP-expressing host cells and blood vessels were recruited by the liver tumors as visualized by fluorescence imaging. A desmin- and sirus-red-positive area increased around and within the liver tumor over time. These results indicate cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were recruited by the liver tumors suggesting that CAFs, along with the angiogenic tumor blood vessels, were necessary for liver-tumor growth and could serve as visible therapeutic targets. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Bone regeneration by nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the calvarial defects of the nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Su, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Yin-Cheng; Zhou, Hong; Qiao, Hu; Guan, Li-Min; Zou, Min; Si, Xin-Qin

    2015-01-01

    In the preliminary study, we have found an excellent osteogenic property of nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (nHA/CS/PLGA) scaffolds seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in vitro and subcutaneously in the nude mice. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the osteogenic capacity of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice. Totally 108 nude mice were included and divided into 6 groups: PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds without seeding; the control group (no scaffolds) (n = 18). The scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defects of nude mice. The amount of new bones was evaluated by fluorescence labeling, H&E staining, and Van Gieson staining at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The results demonstrated that the amount of new bones was significantly increased in the group of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs (p < 0.01). On the basis of previous studies in vitro and in subcutaneous implantation of the nude mice, the results revealed that the nHA and CS also enhanced the bone regeneration by nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice at early stage.

  14. Bone Regeneration by Nanohydroxyapatite/Chitosan/Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Scaffolds Seeded with Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Calvarial Defects of the Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Su, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Yin-Cheng; Zhou, Hong; Qiao, Hu; Guan, Li-Min; Zou, Min; Si, Xin-Qin

    2015-01-01

    In the preliminary study, we have found an excellent osteogenic property of nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (nHA/CS/PLGA) scaffolds seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in vitro and subcutaneously in the nude mice. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the osteogenic capacity of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice. Totally 108 nude mice were included and divided into 6 groups: PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds without seeding; the control group (no scaffolds) (n = 18). The scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defects of nude mice. The amount of new bones was evaluated by fluorescence labeling, H&E staining, and Van Gieson staining at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The results demonstrated that the amount of new bones was significantly increased in the group of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs (p < 0.01). On the basis of previous studies in vitro and in subcutaneous implantation of the nude mice, the results revealed that the nHA and CS also enhanced the bone regeneration by nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice at early stage. PMID:26550565

  15. Brugia pahangi in nude mice: protective immunity to infective larvae is Thy 1.2+ cell dependent and cyclosporin A resistant.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Nayar, J K

    1987-03-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to larvae of Brugia pahangi were studied in congenitally athymic nude C3H/HeN mice and their syngeneic heterozygous littermates. An average 11% of subcutaneous larval inocula was recovered from control nudes 28 days after inoculation. No worms were recovered from nude recipients of viable splenic Thy 1.2+ T lymphocytes from heterozygotes which had killed a priming dose of B. pahangi larvae. Primed T lymphocytes, depleted of either Lyt 1.1+ or Lyt 2.1+ cells or incubated with anti-Thy 1.2 monoclonal antibody and complement, failed to protect nude mice against a larval challenge. Nor were primed B lymphocytes depleted by Thy 1.2+ T cell contaminants protective. Treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) did not increase the numbers of worms recovered from heterozygotes nor did CsA treatment of heterozygous cell donors abolish the ability of primed Thy 1.2+ T lymphocytes to transfer protection to nude mice. IgG but not IgM antibody titres to B. pahangi antigens were depressed in all CsA-treated mice. CsA treatment of nude mice had no direct effect upon development of B. pahangi larvae. These results show that protective immunity to larvae of B. pahangi in mice depends upon small numbers of Thy 1.2+ T cells which are CsA-resistant.

  16. Differential effects of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma on xenografted human thyroid tissue in severe combined immunodeficient mice and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Enomoto, T; Fornasier, V; Resetkova, E; Volpé, R

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the in vivo effects of human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) administration on human thyroid tissue xenografted into two mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and nude mice. Human lymphocytes survive in SCID mice but are lysed in nude mice. Thyroid tissues from Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or paranodular [normal, (N)] tissue was xenografted into SCID mice (0.8 g/mouse) pretreated with anti-asialo GM-1 antiserum and radiation and also into nude mice. One week after xenografting, SCID and nude mice were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with IFN-alpha intraperitoneally (2,000 units/mouse) three times weekly; group B was treated with IFN-gamma similarly; group C was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only (control). Autologous human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were added to mice receiving N xenografts. Blood was taken every 2 weeks for levels of IgG and thyroid antibodies (TAb). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and xenograft thyrocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression were measured. In addition, thyrocyte cultures were stimulated in vitro with 200 units/ml of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma or PBS (control). SCID mice xenografted with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in group A showed a significantly higher TAb production than group C, whereas in group B, TAb production was not statistically increased compared to control (group C). SCID mice xenografted with N did not produce TAb in any group, nor did nude mice xenografted with AITD. Thyrocyte HLA-DR expression was markedly increased in group A and B in SCID mice xenografted with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and N tissue compared to group C. In contrast, only group B (IFN-gamma) showed an increase in thyrocyte HLA-DR in nude mice. In the in vitro studies, only IFN-gamma (not IFN-alpha) stimulated

  17. In vivo cultivation of human articular chondrocytes in a nude mouse-based contained defect organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Rath, R; Gavénis, K; Gravius, S; Andereya, S; Mumme, T; Schneider, U

    2007-01-01

    The nude mouse model is an established method to cultivate and investigate tissue engineered cartilage analogues under in vivo conditions. One limitation of this common approach is the lack of appropriate surrounding articular tissues. Thus the bonding capacity of cartilage repair tissue cannot be evaluated. Widely applied surgical techniques in cartilage repair such as conventional and three-dimensional autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) based on a collagen gel matrix cannot be included into nude mouse studies, since their application require a contained defect. The aim of this study is to apply an organ culture defect model for the in vivo cultivation of different cell-matrix-constructs. Cartilage defects were created on osteochondral specimens which had been harvested from 10 human knee joints during total knee replacement. Autologous chondrocytes were isolated from the cartilage samples and cultivated in monolayer until passage 2. On each osteochondral block defects were treated either by conventional ACI or a collagen gel seeded with autologous chondrocytes, including a defect left empty as a control. The samples were implanted into the subcutaneous pouches of nude mice and cultivated for six weeks. After retrieval, the specimens were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and by cell morphology quantification. In both, ACI and collagen gel based defect treatment, a repair tissue was formed, which filled the defect and bonded to the adjacent tissues. The repair tissue was immature with low production of collagen type II. In both groups redifferentiation of chondrocytes remained incomplete. Different appearances of interface zones between the repair tissue and the adjacent cartilage were found. The presented contained defect organ culture model offers the possibility to directly compare different types of clinically applied biologic cartilage repair techniques using human articular tissues in a nude mouse model.

  18. A metastatic nude-mouse model of human pancreatic cancer constructed orthotopically with histologically intact patient specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X; Guadagni, F; Hoffman, R M

    1992-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most intractable and least understood of all human cancers. Pancreatic cancers is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States with less than 2% of the patients surviving for 5 yr. In an effort to help develop more effective treatment modalities for pancreatic cancer and improve detection, we report an animal model for individual human pancreatic-cancer patients. The model involves orthotopic transplantation of histologically intact pancreatic-cancer specimens to the nude-mouse pancreas, which can result in models that resemble the clinical picture including (i) extensive local tumor growth, (ii) extension of the locally growing human pancreatic cancer to the nude-mouse stomach and duodenum, (iii) metastases of the human pancreatic tumor to the nude-mouse liver and regional lymph nodes, and (iv) distant metastases of the human pancreatic tumor to the nude-mouse adrenal gland, diaphragm, and mediastinal lymph nodes. In a series of five patient cases, a 100% take rate has been demonstrated, and of 17 mice transplanted, 15 supported tumor growth. Immunohistochemical analysis of the antigenic phenotype of the transplanted human pancreatic tumors showed a similar pattern of expression of two different human tumor-associated antigens, such as tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 and carcinoembryonic antigen in the transplanted tumors when compared with the original surgical biopsy, suggesting similarity between the two. This model should, therefore, prove valuable for treatment evaluation of individual cancer patients, as well as for evaluation of experimental treatment modalities for this disease. Images PMID:1608975

  19. [Lethal effects of nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin on Saos-2 cells and its distribution in nude mice bearing human].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo Wen; Guo, Wei; Tang, Xiao Dong; Peng, Chang Liang; Zhao, Hui

    2009-10-18

    To investigate the killing effect of nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin (NLE-CDDP) on human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 and explore the distribution of platinum (Pt) in tumor-bearing mice. Saos-2 cells were cultured at different concentrations of NLE-CDDP. MTT assay, inverted microscopic observation and flow cytometry assay(FCM)were used to observe the antiproliferative effect of NLE-CDDP on the human osteosarcoma cells. Antitumor effect of NLE-CDDP was determined using the xenografts models of human osteosarcoma cell Saos-2 in nude mice. The Pt concentration in the tissues of tumor-transplanted mice was determined by atomic spectrophotometer. When treated at different concentrations of NLE-CDDP for 24-96 hours, the survival rate of Saos-2 cells decreased significantly(P<0.05). At the same time point, the inhibitory effect of NLE-CDDP was stronger than that of CDDP;Degeneration and necrosis of Saos-2 cells increased; the apoptosis increased and the S phase reduced. This study demonstrated that NLE-CDDP had obvious anti-tumor activity. Within 1 hour of injection, in NLE-CDDP group plasma platinum concentration was 4.4-fold that in CDDP group; 2 hours later, platinum was not detected in the blood of CDDP group; 24 hours later, platinum still could be detected in NLE-CDDP group at 2.76 mumol/L. During the first hour after injection of NLE-CDDP, the platinum content of the kidney was 50% less than that of CDDP group. Platinum in NLE-CDDP group showed rapid higher accumulation in the liver, spleen and tumor compared with CDDP group, and within 24 hours platinum reached the peak concentration in the spleen. The antitumor efficacy of NLE-CDDP on Saos-2 tumor is higher than that CDDP alone, and its mechanism is delaying rapid clearance from circulation.

  20. Antitumor effect of microbubbles enhanced by low frequency ultrasound cavitation on prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YU; HU, BING; DIAO, XUEHONG; ZHANG, JIZHEN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect induced by low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound (US) radiation combined with intravenous injection of microbubbles (Mbs) on prostate carcinoma Du145 xenografts in nude mice. Du145 prostate tumors were percutaneously implanted in 40 nude mice, which were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): US+Mbs, US, Mbs and control groups. The mice in the US+Mbs group were treated with 20 kHz, 200 mW/cm2 US radiation and with 0.2 ml Mbs injected intravenously. Mice in the US and Mbs groups were only treated with US radiation and injection of Mbs, respectively. Tumors were measured with sonography, and the ratio of antitumor growth was calculated. The mice were sacrificed 14 days after treatment. Specimens of the tumor tissues were observed pathologically using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor were compared among groups by immunohistochemistry. The average gross tumor volume of the US+Mbs group was significantly reduced compared with the other groups following treatment (P<0.05). The ratio of the antitumor growth in the US+Mbs group was significantly greater than that of the US and Mbs group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in the US+Mbs group. Examination by electron microscopy revealed vessel injury in the endothelium in the tumors treated with US+Mbs. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+Mbs group were significantly less than that of other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, low frequency US of 20 kHz radiation combined with Mbs may be used to inhibit the growth of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice, and the effect is likely realized through microvessel destruction caused by cavitation. PMID:22969866

  1. Antitumor effect of microbubbles enhanced by low frequency ultrasound cavitation on prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Bing; Diao, Xuehong; Zhang, Jizhen

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect induced by low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound (US) radiation combined with intravenous injection of microbubbles (Mbs) on prostate carcinoma Du145 xenografts in nude mice. Du145 prostate tumors were percutaneously implanted in 40 nude mice, which were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): US+Mbs, US, Mbs and control groups. The mice in the US+Mbs group were treated with 20 kHz, 200 mW/cm(2) US radiation and with 0.2 ml Mbs injected intravenously. Mice in the US and Mbs groups were only treated with US radiation and injection of Mbs, respectively. Tumors were measured with sonography, and the ratio of antitumor growth was calculated. The mice were sacrificed 14 days after treatment. Specimens of the tumor tissues were observed pathologically using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor were compared among groups by immunohistochemistry. The average gross tumor volume of the US+Mbs group was significantly reduced compared with the other groups following treatment (P<0.05). The ratio of the antitumor growth in the US+Mbs group was significantly greater than that of the US and Mbs group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in the US+Mbs group. Examination by electron microscopy revealed vessel injury in the endothelium in the tumors treated with US+Mbs. Microvessel density and the average optical density of vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+Mbs group were significantly less than that of other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, low frequency US of 20 kHz radiation combined with Mbs may be used to inhibit the growth of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice, and the effect is likely realized through microvessel destruction caused by cavitation.

  2. [Detecting doxorubicin concentration in KBv200 and KB cell xenografts in nude mice by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Zhao-Lei; Liang, Yong-Ju; Dai, Chun-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Fu, Li-Wu

    2008-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. Drug concentrations in tumor tissue can predict the drugos efficacy better than that in serum do. This study was to detect and compare the concentration of Dox in KBv200 and KB cell xenografts in nude mice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tumor models in nude mice were established with KB cells (drug-sensitive) and KBv200 cells (multidrug-resistant). Dox was injected via the tail vein. The concentration of Dox in tumor tissue was detected by HPLC at 1, 3 and 5 h after injection. A Hypersil reversed-phase BDS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, ID 5 microm) and mobile phases that were composed of acetonitrile and 0.02 mol/L KH2PO4 (1/2.4, V/V, pH 3.9) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min were used for setting a fluorescence detector (excitation wave length was 480 nm; emission wave length was 580 nm). Under the condition of HPLC, the calibration curve of Dox concentration in tumor tissue was linear within a range of 29.3-7 500 ng/g (r=0.9998). The limit of detection in tumor tissue was 14 ng/g. At the concentration of 3 750, 468.8 and 117.2 ng/g, extraction recovery were (99.35+/-7.65)%, (99.79+/-5.73)% and (103.67+/-6.76)%, respectively, method recovery were (91.89+/-7.03)%, (94.94+/-5.18)% and (100.83+/-5.32)%, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 4.2%. At 1, 3, 5 h after Dox injection, the concentrations of Dox were (139.32+/-54.68), (260.00+/-126.11) and (173.26+/-13.88) ng/g in KBv cell xenografts, respectively, and (385.13+/-42.55), (523.38+/-138.84) and (460.75+/-86.85) ng/g in KB cell xenografts, respectively. The Dox concentration was significantly higher in KB cell xenografts than in KBv200 cell xenografts at the same time point (P<0.05). Detected by HPLC, the concentration of Dox is much lower in multidrug-resistant cell xenografts than in sensitive cell xenografts.

  3. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces the Growth of LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Hardman, W. Elaine; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Qi, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether a standard mouse diet (AIN-76A) supplemented with walnuts reduced the establishment and growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in nude (nu/nu) mice. The walnut-enriched diet reduced the number of tumors and the growth of the LNCaP xenografts; 3 of 16 (18.7%) of the walnut-fed mice developed tumors; conversely, 14 of 32 mice (44.0%) of the control diet-fed animals developed tumors. Similarly, the xenografts in the walnut-fed animals grew more slowly than those in the control diet mice. The final average tumor size in the walnut-diet animals was roughly one-fourth the average size of the prostate tumors in the mice that ate the control diet. PMID:23758186

  4. Killing effects of Huaier Granule combined with DC-CIK on nude mice transplanted with colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Wen; Dou, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Lin; Qiao, Li-Kui; Shen, Na; Zhao, Qiang; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2017-07-11

    This study aims to compare the efficacy of different treatments for nude mice transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line. BalB/C nude mice were transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line and randomly divided into four groups, with 5 mice in each group: blank control group, DC-CIK group, Huaier Granule group, and Huaier Granule group combined with DC-CIK group (combined treatment group). For DC-CIK group and combined treatment group, 1×106 DC-CIK cells were injected via the tail vein 4 days after transplantation. The injection was performed twice weekly for a total of 2 weeks. For Huaier Granule group and combined treatment group, Huaier Granule was administered at the dose of 20 g/60 g, by dissolving 20 g of Huaier granules in 600 ml of pure water. Intragastric administration of 0.2 ml of granules was performed once daily for 3 weeks. For the blank control group, equal volume of normal saline was given. Tumor size and body weight of nude mice were measured every 2 days during the 3-week treatment. The mice were sacrificed at the end of treatment to harvest tumors. Key genes of the signaling pathway were detected by RT-PCR. At the end of treatment, mice in combined treatment group, DC-CIK group and Huaier Granule group remained stable emotionally with normal mobility and water and food intake. However, in the blank control group, the mobility was restricted starting from the third week and the mice were on the verge of dying. The expression of PI3KR1, Akt, Wnt1, CTTNB1, Notch1, Notch2 and Notch3 genes were all downregulated significantly in the combined treatment group compared with DC-CIK group and Huaier Granule group (P<0.05). Therefore, the combined treatment of Huaier Granule combined with DC-CIK achieved the best effect in nude mice transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line.

  5. Killing effects of Huaier Granule combined with DC-CIK on nude mice transplanted with colon carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Qiao, Li-Kui; Shen, Na; Zhao, Qiang; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the efficacy of different treatments for nude mice transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line. BalB/C nude mice were transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line and randomly divided into four groups, with 5 mice in each group: blank control group, DC-CIK group, Huaier Granule group, and Huaier Granule group combined with DC-CIK group (combined treatment group). For DC-CIK group and combined treatment group, 1×106 DC-CIK cells were injected via the tail vein 4 days after transplantation. The injection was performed twice weekly for a total of 2 weeks. For Huaier Granule group and combined treatment group, Huaier Granule was administered at the dose of 20 g/60 g, by dissolving 20 g of Huaier granules in 600 ml of pure water. Intragastric administration of 0.2 ml of granules was performed once daily for 3 weeks. For the blank control group, equal volume of normal saline was given. Tumor size and body weight of nude mice were measured every 2 days during the 3-week treatment. The mice were sacrificed at the end of treatment to harvest tumors. Key genes of the signaling pathway were detected by RT-PCR. At the end of treatment, mice in combined treatment group, DC-CIK group and Huaier Granule group remained stable emotionally with normal mobility and water and food intake. However, in the blank control group, the mobility was restricted starting from the third week and the mice were on the verge of dying. The expression of PI3KR1, Akt, Wnt1, CTTNB1, Notch1, Notch2 and Notch3 genes were all downregulated significantly in the combined treatment group compared with DC-CIK group and Huaier Granule group (P<0.05). Therefore, the combined treatment of Huaier Granule combined with DC-CIK achieved the best effect in nude mice transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line. PMID:28537906

  6. The Rac Inhibitor EHop-016 Inhibits Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Humphries-Bickley, Tessa; De La Parra, Columba; Forestier-Roman, Ingrid; Martinez-Ferrer, Magaly; Hernandez, Eliud; Vlaar, Cornelis; Ferrer-Acosta, Yancy; Washington, Anthony V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Rodriguez-Orengo, Jose; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic disease still lacks effective treatments, and remains the primary cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop better strategies to inhibit metastatic cancer. The Rho family GTPase Rac is an ideal target for anti-metastatic cancer therapy, because Rac is a key molecular switch that is activated by a myriad of cell surface receptors to promote cancer cell migration/invasion and survival. Previously, we reported the design and development of EHop-016, a small molecule compound, which inhibits Rac activity of metastatic cancer cells with an IC50 of 1 μM. EHop-016 also inhibits the activity of the Rac downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK), lamellipodia extension, and cell migration in metastatic cancer cells. Herein, we tested the efficacy of EHop-016 in a nude mouse model of experimental metastasis, where EHop-016 administration at 25 mg/kg body weight (BW) significantly reduced mammary fat pad tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As quantified by UPLC MS/MS, EHop-016 was detectable in the plasma of nude mice at 17 to 23 ng/ml levels at 12 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 10 to 25 mg/kg BW EHop-016. The EHop-016 mediated inhibition of angiogenesis In Vivo was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of excised tumors and by In Vitro tube formation assays of endothelial cells. Moreover, EHop-016 affected cell viability by down-regulating Akt and Jun kinase activities and c-Myc and Cyclin D expression, as well as increasing caspase 3/7 activities in metastatic cancer cells. In conclusion, EHop-016 has potential as an anticancer compound to block cancer progression via multiple Rac-directed mechanisms. PMID:25389450

  7. The Rac Inhibitor EHop-016 Inhibits Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in a Nude Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Humphries-Bickley, Tessa; De La Parra, Columba; Forestier-Roman, Ingrid; Martinez-Ferrer, Magaly; Hernandez, Eliud; Vlaar, Cornelis; Ferrer-Acosta, Yancy; Washington, Anthony V; Cubano, Luis A; Rodriguez-Orengo, Jose; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2014-10-01

    Metastatic disease still lacks effective treatments, and remains the primary cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop better strategies to inhibit metastatic cancer. The Rho family GTPase Rac is an ideal target for anti-metastatic cancer therapy, because Rac is a key molecular switch that is activated by a myriad of cell surface receptors to promote cancer cell migration/invasion and survival. Previously, we reported the design and development of EHop-016, a small molecule compound, which inhibits Rac activity of metastatic cancer cells with an IC50 of 1 μM. EHop-016 also inhibits the activity of the Rac downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK), lamellipodia extension, and cell migration in metastatic cancer cells. Herein, we tested the efficacy of EHop-016 in a nude mouse model of experimental metastasis, where EHop-016 administration at 25 mg/kg body weight (BW) significantly reduced mammary fat pad tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As quantified by UPLC MS/MS, EHop-016 was detectable in the plasma of nude mice at 17 to 23 ng/ml levels at 12 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 10 to 25 mg/kg BW EHop-016. The EHop-016 mediated inhibition of angiogenesis In Vivo was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of excised tumors and by In Vitro tube formation assays of endothelial cells. Moreover, EHop-016 affected cell viability by down-regulating Akt and Jun kinase activities and c-Myc and Cyclin D expression, as well as increasing caspase 3/7 activities in metastatic cancer cells. In conclusion, EHop-016 has potential as an anticancer compound to block cancer progression via multiple Rac-directed mechanisms.

  8. The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on the viability of human fat injected into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, O; Shupak, A; Ullmann, Y; Ramon, Y; Gilhar, A; Kehat, I; Peled, I J

    2000-11-01

    Autologous free-fat injection for the correction of soft-tissue defects has become a common procedure in plastic surgery. The main shortcoming of this method for achieving permanent soft-tissue augmentation is the partial absorption of the injected fat, an occurrence that leads to the need for both overcorrection and repeated fat reinjection. Improving the oxygenation of the injected fat has been suggested as a means of helping to overcome the initial critical phase that occurs postinjection (when the fat cells are nourished by osmosis), increasing phagocyte activity, accelerating fibroblast activity and collagen formation, and enhancing angiogenesis. In addition, the hyperbaric oxygen-mediated decrement in endothelial leukocyte adhesion will decrease cytokine release, thereby reducing edema and inflammatory responses. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on improving the viability of injected fat. Adipose tissue obtained from human breasts by suction-assisted lipectomy was injected into the subcuticular nuchal region in nude mice. The mice were then exposed to daily hyperbaric oxygen treatments, breathing 100% oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 90 minutes. The duration of the administered hyperbaric oxygen therapy was 5, 10, or 15 days, according to the study group. Mice exposed to normobaric air alone served as the control group, and each group included 10 animals. The rats were killed 15 weeks after fat injection. The grafts were dissected out, weight and volume were measured, and histologic evaluation was performed. In all of the study groups, at least part of the injected fat survived, giving the desired clinical outcome. No significant differences could be found between the groups regarding fat weight and volume. Histopathologic examination of the dissected grafts demonstrated a significantly better integrity of the fat tissue in the group that received hyperbaric oxygen for 5 days (p = 0.047). This

  9. Inhibition of gastric cancer cell adhesion in nude mice by inraperitoneal phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marc; Treutner, Karl-Heinz; Jansen, Petra Lynen; Zuber, Sebastian; Otto, Jens; Tietze, Lothar; Schumpelick, Volker

    2005-06-01

    Adhesion of tumor cells to mesothelial cells or extracellular matrix components is a pivotal step in developing peritoneal dissemination after gastric cancer. As phospholipids were found to reduce adhesion formation, especially at sites of peritoneal lesions, we assessed the inhibition of attachment of NUGC-4 gastric cancer cells by local treatment with phospholipids to the peritoneum in nude mice. Gastric cancer cells (1xl0(6)) suspended in either normal saline (controls) or phospholipid suspension 75 mg/kg body weight (PL75) or 150 mg/kg (PL150) were injected intraperitoneally into 90 female BALB/c nu/nu mice. The treatment groups were subdivided into animals with defined peritoneal lesions and animals without lesions. After 30 days the extent of peritoneal carcinosis and the Peritoneal Cancer Index were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with two factorial ANOVAs. The level of significance was adjusted according to Bonferrorni (alpha = 0.00278). During a 90-day observation period the survival rate was determined using the log rank test. After 30 days the intraperitoneal tumor volume was reduced by PL150 up to 0.6 ml (SEM 0.16) and 0.48 ml (SEM 0.09) in mice with peritoneal lesions compared to 0.9 ml (SEM 0.2) and 0.9 ml (SEM 0.1) in the control group (P = 0.04). The mean area of tumor adhesion amounted to 145 mm(2) (SEM 17) (P = 0.08) and 164 mm(2) (SEM 32.8) (P = 0.049) with peritoneal lesions after treatment with PL150 [controls: 216 mm(2) (SEM 28.5) and 245 mm(2) (SEM 29.3)]. The peritoneal cancer index was 16.4 (SEM 1.7) in the control group and 9 (SEM 1.68) with PL150 (P = 0.0002). In the subgroup with peritoneal lesions, the respective values were as follows: controls: 20.8 (SEM 0.85); PL 150:14.3 (SEM 1.07) (P = 0.0001). We found a prolonged survival rate after treatment with PL150. However, this effect was not significantly different to that seen in the control group. Treatment with PL75 had no significant influence. Phospholipids may be an

  10. Inhibitory effect of radiotherapy combined with weekly recombinant human endostatin on the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-dong; Dai, Peng; Wu, Jin; Song, Da-an; Yu, Jin-ming

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of radiotherapy combined with weekly recombinant human endostatin (RHES) on the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts in nude mice. The 40 A549 xenograft nude mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups (each group with 10 nude mice). Single radiotherapy group (group 1) was given a single external irradiation (6MV-X ray, 10 Gy) and peritumoral subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml normal saline every day for 7 days. Single RHES group (group 2) was given peritumoral subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml RHES (0.75 mg/ml) for 7 days. Combination therapy group (group 3) was given radiotherapy as the same as group 1 and RHES as the same as group 2. Control group was given normal saline as the same as group 1. The tumor volume was smaller in group 3 than in control group from the 8th day after treatment (P<0.05) and tumor regression occurred from the second week after treatment in group 3. On the 15th day after treatment, the inhibitory rates of tumor volume were 69.65%, 92.64% and 116.4% in groups 2, 1 and 3, respectively; MVD number was lower in group 3 than in group 1 (P<0.05); there was no statistical significance in VEGF expression between group 2 and control group as well as between group 3 and group 1 (P>0.05). Apoptosis was marked in group 3. Radiotherapy combined with weekly RHES can significantly inhibit tumor growth and earlier induce tumor regression, which may be related to the improvement of tumor hypoxia and the inhibition of radiation-induced tumor angiogenesis. Short-term application (1 week) of RHES is beneficial to clinical practice.

  11. Systemic interleukin 2 therapy for human prostate tumors in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Triest, J A; Grignon, D J; Cher, M L; Kocheril, S V; Montecillo, E J; Talati, B; Tekyi-Mensah, S; Pontes, J E; Hillman, G G

    1998-08-01

    Once the regional lymph nodes become involved in prostate carcinoma, 85% of patients develop distant metastases within 5 years, and metastatic disease is difficult to treat. We have investigated the effect of systemic interleukin 2 (IL-2) treatment on metastatic prostate carcinoma using a xenograft tumor model. Cells from a PC-3/IF cell line, produced by intrafemoral injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells, were injected in the prostate of Balb/c nude mice. Prostate tumors and para-aortic lymph nodes were resected, and tumor cells were recultured and passaged in the prostate in vivo to produce new cell lines. On day 6 following prostatic injection of these cell lines, mice were treated with i.p. injections of IL-2 at 25,000-50,000 units/ day for 5 consecutive days. The effect of IL-2 on tumor progression was assessed, and histological studies were performed on prostate tumor and lymph node sections. The tumor cell lines generated by serial prostate injection were tumorigenic and metastasized to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. Tumors of 0.4 cm were obtained by day 16 and grew to 1-1.5 cm by day 40 with metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. Following two to three weekly courses of 5 days of 25,000-40,000 units/day of IL-2, the growth of prostate tumors was inhibited by 94%. Higher doses of 50,000 units/ day were toxic. Histologically, prostate sections showed vascular damage manifested by multifocal hemorrhages and an influx of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells into disintegrating tumors and areas of necrosis containing numerous apoptotic cells. In contrast to control mice, para-aortic lymph nodes were not enlarged in responding mice. These findings suggest that systemic IL-2 therapy can induce an antitumor response in prostate tumors and control their growth and metastasis.

  12. Quantitative monitoring of radiation induced skin toxicities in nude mice using optical biomarkers measured from diffuse optical reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yohan, Darren; Kim, Anthony; Korpela, Elina; Liu, Stanley; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C; Chin, Lee CL

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the onset of erythema following external beam radiation therapy has the potential to offer a means of managing skin toxicities via biological targeted agents – prior to full progression. However, current skin toxicity scoring systems are subjective and provide at best a qualitative evaluation. Here, we investigate the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) to provide quantitative metrics for scoring skin toxicity. A DOS fiberoptic reflectance probe was used to collect white light spectra at two probing depths using two short fixed source-collector pairs with optical probing depths sensitive to the skin surface. The acquired spectra were fit to a diffusion theory model of light transport in tissue to extract optical biomarkers (hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, scattering power and slope) from superficial skin layers of nude mice, which were subjected to erythema inducing doses of ionizing radiation. A statistically significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin (p < 0.0016) was found in the skin post-irradiation – confirming previous reports. More interesting, we observed for the first time that the spectral scattering parameters, A (p = 0.026) and k (p = 0.011), were an indicator of erythema at day 6 and could potentially serve as an early detection optical biomarker of skin toxicity. Our data suggests that reflectance DOS may be employed to provide quantitative assessment of skin toxicities following curative doses of external beam radiation. PMID:24876997

  13. Induction of Apoptosis in Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells and Therapy of Orthotopic Human Pancreatic Carcinoma in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Kim, Sun-Jin; Thaker, Premal; Yazici, Sertac; Nam, Do-Hyun; He, Junqin; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Chiao, Paul J; Sclabas, Guido M; Abbruzzese, James L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although gemcitabine has been accepted as the first-line chemotherapeutic reagent for advanced pancreatic cancer, improvement of response rate and survival is not sufficient and patients often develop resistance. We hypothesized that the inhibition of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, combined with gemcitabine, would overcome the resistance to gemcitabine in orthotopic pancreatic tumor animal model. L3.6pl, human pancreatic cancer cells growing in the pancreas, and tumor-associated endothelial cells in microorgan environment highly expressed phosphorylated EGFR, VEGFR, and Akt, which regulates antiapoptotic mechanism. Oral administration of AEE788 (dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR and VEGFR) inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR, and Akt on tumor-associated endothelial cells as well as tumor cells. Although intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gemcitabine showed limited inhibitory effect on tumor growth, combination with AEE788 and gemcitabine produced nearly 95% inhibition of tumor growth in parallel with a high level of apoptosis on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, and decreased microvascular density and proliferation rate. Collectively, these data indicate that dual inhibition of phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR, in combination with gemcitabine, produces apoptosis of tumor-associated endothelial cells and significantly suppresses human pancreatic cancer in nude mice. PMID:16026649

  14. Quantitative monitoring of radiation induced skin toxicities in nude mice using optical biomarkers measured from diffuse optical reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yohan, Darren; Kim, Anthony; Korpela, Elina; Liu, Stanley; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C; Chin, Lee Cl

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the onset of erythema following external beam radiation therapy has the potential to offer a means of managing skin toxicities via biological targeted agents - prior to full progression. However, current skin toxicity scoring systems are subjective and provide at best a qualitative evaluation. Here, we investigate the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) to provide quantitative metrics for scoring skin toxicity. A DOS fiberoptic reflectance probe was used to collect white light spectra at two probing depths using two short fixed source-collector pairs with optical probing depths sensitive to the skin surface. The acquired spectra were fit to a diffusion theory model of light transport in tissue to extract optical biomarkers (hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, scattering power and slope) from superficial skin layers of nude mice, which were subjected to erythema inducing doses of ionizing radiation. A statistically significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin (p < 0.0016) was found in the skin post-irradiation - confirming previous reports. More interesting, we observed for the first time that the spectral scattering parameters, A (p = 0.026) and k (p = 0.011), were an indicator of erythema at day 6 and could potentially serve as an early detection optical biomarker of skin toxicity. Our data suggests that reflectance DOS may be employed to provide quantitative assessment of skin toxicities following curative doses of external beam radiation.

  15. Expression of galectin-3 in primary and metastatic melanoma: immunohistochemical studies on human lesions and nude mice xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Pierre; Debray, Charles; Petein, Michel; Awada, Ahmad; Lalmand, Marie-Claude; Laporte, Marianne; Van Den Heule, Bernard; Verhest, Alain; Pochet, Roland; Heenen, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Galectins are a large family of proteins which bind galactoside-containing glycans. Their role in cancer seems to be important since members of the family may mediate cell adhesion and modulate cell growth. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is expressed in the nucleus, in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, and can also be secreted into the extracellular matrix. A series of experimental and clinical data have been reported which indicate that Gal-3 may play a putative role in carcinogenesis, cancer progression and the process of metastasis. To study the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and malignant potential in primary melanoma lesions, we conducted an immunohistochemical study with monoclonal anti-Gal-3 antibody in a series of primary and metastatic melanoma lesions as well as benign skin pigmented lesions. We also developed a xenograft melanoma model in nude mice with two melanoma cell lines (ATCC G-361 and ATCC HT-144) and assessed staining with the Gal-3 antibody in the xenografts and the metastases. The expression of anti-Gal-3 staining was determined semiquantitatively. The expression of Gal-3 was higher in thin primary melanoma lesions than in benign pigmented skin lesions or metastases and seemed to correlate inversely with the aggressiveness as estimated by the Breslow index which is recognized as the main prognostic factor in melanoma. We propose Gal-3 expression in melanoma as a diagnostic and/or a prognostic parameter and suggest that further studies of such a role for Gal-3 are warranted.

  16. [Effects of primary tumor excision on angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice].

    PubMed

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Chen, Yan-xi; Yao, Bin; Gao, You-shui; Yu, Xiu-mao; Wang, Zhi-yuan

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effects of primary tumor excision on osteosarcoma angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis, and explore its possible mechanism and clinical significance. The tumor-bearing nude mice were constructed by injection of human osteosarcoma cell suspension, and divided into primary tumor resection, amputation and normal groups. The level of VEGF and endostatin was examined by ELISA assay. The hemoglobin content in Matrigel pellets was measured with HiCN method. Pulmonary metastasis was detected with dilated-squash technique and immunohistochemical staining. The serum VEGF and endostatin level was significantly decreased in the primary tumor excision group compared with that in the normal and control groups after operation, but endostatin decreased more prominently [VEGF: (71.43 +/- 9.15) pg/ml vs. (115.81 +/- 4.38) pg/ml, (111.68 +/- 12.26) pg/ml, P < 0.01; ES: (40.77 +/- 5.41) ng/ml vs. (123.18 +/- 5.94) ng/ml, (128.06 +/- 4.52) ng/ml, P < 0.01]. The HB contents in Matrigel pellets increased in the primary tumor excision group compared with that in normal and control groups [(36.55 +/- 2.35) g/L vs. (16.84 +/- 1.15) g/L, (16.29 +/- 1.10) g/L, P < 0.01]. The rate of pulmonary metastasis in tumor excision group was much higher than that in the un-excised groups (80.0% vs. 40.0% and 35.0%, P < 0.05). The excision of primary tumor can promote osteosarcoma angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis, so anti-angiogenic treatment after operation has instructive clinical significance in preventing tumor metastasis.

  17. In vivo potentiation of radiation response by topotecan in human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, P; Merlin, J L; Marchal, C; Hoffstetter, S; Barberi-Heyob, M; Vassal, G; Duprez, A

    2000-08-01

    The lack of new highly efficacious drugs for cancer treatment promotes the search for innovative therapeutic modalities. The authors reported the results leading to the definition of parameters needed to demonstrate a possible radiopotentiation by topotecan (TPT) on two representative human rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) xenografted into nude mice. Experimental studies of radiopotentiation with different doses of topotecan showed that concomitant association of topotecan and RT for 5 consecutive days provided a synergistic therapeutic effect. Response rates were statistically higher with the radiochemotherapeutic combination (P < 0.001). Efficacy enhancement factors of this combination compared with the sum of the antitumoral activity of these treatments separately administrated were 1.54 and 1.60, respectively, on both rhabdomyosarcomas. Moreover, the efficiency of the combination of radiotherapy at the dose of 20 Gy with topotecan (12.5 mg/kg) was not statistically different from that of radiotherapy at the dose of 40 Gy. According to microscopy results, the analyses performed at different periods after topotecan treatment alone, radiotherapy alone, and their combination seemed to show that tumoral repopulation by malignant cells is as fast as the dose of radiotherapy and/or topotecan is low. Furthermore, lesions observed with the dose of 40 Gy were similar to those obtained with the association of topotecan at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg and radiotherapy at the dose of 20 Gy. In conclusion, all clinical and pathological results are consistent with a radiopotentiation effect of topotecan on the two xenografted human rhabdomyosarcomas and are currently leading to the design of clinical studies.

  18. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel; Requardt, Herwig; Wion, Didier; Vial, Jean Claude; Segebarth, Christoph; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2013-09-01

    Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion.

  19. Dual cancer-specific targeting strategy cures primary and distant breast carcinomas in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-zhong; Vozhilla, Nicolaq; Park, Eun Sook; Gupta, Pankaj; Fisher, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Limitations of current viral-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specific targeting and insufficient tumor delivery. To ameliorate these problems and develop a truly effective adenovirus gene-based therapy for cancer, we constructed a conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA) manifesting the unique properties of tumor-specific virus replication in combination with production of a cancer-selective cytotoxic cytokine, melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), which embodies potent bystander antitumor activity. Cancer cell selective tropism was ensured by engineering the expression of the adenoviral E1A protein, necessary for viral replication, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells. In the E3 region of this CRCA, we introduced the mda-7/IL-24 gene, thereby mediating robust production of this cytokine as a function of adenovirus replication. Infection of this CRCA (designated Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, mda-7/IL-24 expression, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction. Injecting Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7 into human breast cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice completely eradicated not only the primary tumor but also distant tumors (established on the opposite flank of the animal) thereby implementing a cure. This dual cancer-specific targeting strategy provides an effective approach for treating breast and other human neoplasms with the potential for eradicating both primary tumors and metastatic disease. Additionally, these studies support the potential use of mda-7/IL-24 in the therapy of malignant cancers. PMID:16172403

  20. Eliminating established tumor in nu/nu nude mice by a TRAIL-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengqin; Wang, Li; Davis, John J.; Hu, Wenxian; Zhang, Lidong; Guo, Wei; Teraishi, Fuminori; Ji, Lin; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oncolytic viruses have recently been investigated extensively for cancer therapy. However, preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that their clinical application is hampered by either weak anticancer activity or systemic toxicity. We examined whether the weaknesses of the two strategies can be overcome by integrating the TRAIL gene into an oncolytic vector. Experimental Design We constructed a TRAIL-expressing oncolytic adenovector designated Ad/TRAIL-E1. The expression of both the TRAIL and viral E1A genes is under the control of a synthetic promoter consisting of sequences from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and a minimal cytomegalovirus early promoter. The transgene expression, apoptosis induction, viral replication, antitumor activity and toxicity of Ad/TRAIL-E1 were determined in vitro and in vivo in comparison with control vectors. Results Ad/TRAIL-E1 elicited enhanced viral replication and/or stronger oncolytic effect in vitro in various human cancer cell lines than a TRAIL-expressing replication-defective adenovector or an oncolytic adenovector expressing green fluorescent protein. Intralesional administration of Ad/TRAIL-E1 eliminated all subcutaneous xenograft tumors established from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299, on nu/nu nude mice, resulting in long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, we found no treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Viral replication and antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus can be enhanced by the TRAIL gene and Ad/TRAIL-E1 could become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:16951242

  1. Dual cancer-specific targeting strategy cures primary and distant breast carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-Zhong; Vozhilla, Nicolaq; Park, Eun Sook; Gupta, Pankaj; Fisher, Paul B

    2005-09-27

    Limitations of current viral-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specific targeting and insufficient tumor delivery. To ameliorate these problems and develop a truly effective adenovirus gene-based therapy for cancer, we constructed a conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA) manifesting the unique properties of tumor-specific virus replication in combination with production of a cancer-selective cytotoxic cytokine, melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), which embodies potent bystander antitumor activity. Cancer cell selective tropism was ensured by engineering the expression of the adenoviral E1A protein, necessary for viral replication, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells. In the E3 region of this CRCA, we introduced the mda-7/IL-24 gene, thereby mediating robust production of this cytokine as a function of adenovirus replication. Infection of this CRCA (designated Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, mda-7/IL-24 expression, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction. Injecting Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7 into human breast cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice completely eradicated not only the primary tumor but also distant tumors (established on the opposite flank of the animal) thereby implementing a cure. This dual cancer-specific targeting strategy provides an effective approach for treating breast and other human neoplasms with the potential for eradicating both primary tumors and metastatic disease. Additionally, these studies support the potential use of mda-7/IL-24 in the therapy of malignant cancers.

  2. Influence of Anti-Mouse Interferon Serum on the Growth and Metastasis of Tumor Cells Persistently Infected with Virus and of Human Prostatic Tumors in Athymic Nude Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lola M.; Minato, Nagahiro; Gresser, Ion; Holland, John; Kadish, Anna; Bloom, Barry R.

    1981-02-01

    Baby hamster kidney or HeLa cells form tumors in 100% of athymic nude mice. When such cells are persistently infected (PI) with RNA viruses, such as mumps or measles virus, the tumor cells either fail to grow or form circumscribed benign nodules. Neither the parental nor the virus PI tumor cells form invasive or metastatic lesions in nude mice. Previous studies have indicated a correlation between the susceptibility of virus-PI tumor cells in vitro and the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and their failure to grow in vivo. Because interferon (IF) is the principal regulatory molecule governing the differentiation of NK cells, it was possible to test the relevance of the IF--NK cell system in vivo to restriction of tumor growth by treatment of nude mice with anti-IF globulin. This treatment was shown to reduce both IF production and NK activity in spleen cells. Both parental and virus-PI tumor cells grew and formed larger tumors in nude mice treated with anti-IF globulin than in control nude mice. The viral-PI tumor cells and the uninfected parental cells formed tumors in treated mice that were highly invasive and often metastatic. Some human tumor types have been notoriously difficult to establish as tumor lines in nude mice (e.g., primary human prostatic carcinomas). When transplanted into nude mice treated either with anti-IF globulin or anti-lymphocyte serum, two prostatic carcinomas grew and produced neoplasms with local invasiveness and some metastases. The results are consistent with the view that interferon may be important in restricting the growth, invasiveness, and metastases of tumor cells by acting indirectly through components of the immune system, such as NK cells.

  3. Epidermal growth factor inhibits radioiodine uptake but stimulates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in newborn rat thyroids grown in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, S.; Spaulding, S.W. )

    1990-08-01

    We have studied the effect of altering the level of circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the function and growth of newborn rat thyroids transplanted into nude mice. Preliminary studies confirmed that sialoadenectomy reduced circulating EGF levels in nude mice (from 0.17 +/- 0.02 to 0.09 +/- 0.02 ng/ml), and that ip injection of 5 micrograms EGF raised EGF levels (the peak level of 91.7 +/- 3.3 ng/ml was achieved at 30 min, with a subsequent half-life of about 1 h). The radioiodine uptake by newborn rat thyroid transplants in the sialoadenectomized and sham-operated animals correlated inversely with the circulating EGF levels determined when the mice were killed (r = -0.99). Low-dose TSH treatment (0.1 microU/day) generally stimulated the radioiodine uptake, but high-dose TSH groups (100 microU/day) were not significantly different from the control group. The 5-day nuclear (3H)thymidine labeling index was 6.8 +/- 0.5% IN newborn rat thyroid transplants grown in sialoadenectomized animals, 13.1 +/- 0.3% in sham-operated animals, and 16.8 +/- 0.5% in nude mice receiving 5 micrograms EGF ip daily. In general, both low-dose and high-dose TSH promoted DNA synthesis under low EGF conditions but were ineffective in the presence of higher levels of EGF. Adult rat thyroid transplants showed no significant responses. Although sialoadenectomy may alter other factors besides EGF, it appears that changes in the levels of circulating EGF within the physiological range affect the function and growth of newborn rat thyroid transplants. Circulating EGF may play a role in thyroid maturation and may also be involved in the regulation of thyroid function throughout life.

  4. Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome Associated with Tumor Formation by Madin–Darby Canine Kidney Cells in Newborn Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 107 Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 102.8 to 107.5); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor–derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  5. Surveillance of systemic trafficking of macrophages induced by UHMWPE particles in nude mice by non-invasive imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Pei-Gen; Huang, Zhinong; Ma, Ting; Biswal, Sandip; Smith, Robert L.; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages constitute a major part of the cell response to wear particles produced at articulating and non-articulating interfaces of joint replacements. This foreign body reaction can result in periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening. We demonstrate that ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles induce systemic trafficking of macrophages by non-invasive in vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. The distal femora of nude mice were injected with 60 mg/ml UHMWPE suspension, or saline alone. Reporter RAW264.7 macrophages which stably expressed the bioluminescent reporter gene and the fluorescence reporter gene were injected intravenously. Bioluminescence imaging was performed using an in vivo imaging system immediately after macrophage injection, and at 2-day intervals. Compared to the non-operated contralateral femora, at day 4, 6, and 8, the bioluminescent signal of femora containing UHMWPE suspension increased 1.30 ± 0.09, 2.36 ± 0.92, and 10.32 ± 7.61 fold, respectively. The values at same time points for saline injected control group were 1.08 ± 0.07, 1.14 ± 0.27, and 1.14 ± 0.35 fold, respectively. The relative bioluminescence of the UHMWPE group was higher at all post-injection days and significantly greater than the saline group at day 8 (p < 0.05). Histological analysis confirmed the presence of reporter macrophages within the medullary canal of mice with implanted UHMWPE particles. The presence of UHMWPE particles induced enhanced bone remodeling activity. Clinically relevant UHMWPE particles stimulated the systemic recruitment of macrophages during an early time course using the murine femoral implant model. Interference with systemic macrophage trafficking may potentially mitigate UHMWPE particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:20213815

  6. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Arrests a Chemo-Resistant Patient Soft-Tissue Sarcoma in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Maawy, Ali; Murakami, Takashi; Mii, Sumiyuki; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    A patient-derived nude-mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma has been established and treated in the following groups: (1) untreated controls; (2) gemcitabine (GEM) (80 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 3 weeks); (3) Pazopanib (100 mg/kg, orally, daily, 3 weeks) and (4) Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (5 × 10(7) CFU/body, ip, weekly, 3 weeks). The sarcoma was resistant to GEM (p = 0.879). Pazopanib tended to reduce the tumor volume compared to the untreated mice, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.115). S. typhimurium A1-R significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the untreated mice (p = 0.001). S. typhimurium A1-R was the only effective treatment for the soft-tissue sarcoma nude mouse model among all treatments including a newly approved multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Pazopanib. These results suggest tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R is a promising treatment for chemo-resistant soft-tissue sarcoma.

  8. Zanthoxylum avicennae extracts induce cell apoptosis through protein phosphatase 2A activation in HA22T human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and block tumor growth in xenografted nude mice.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Duc; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Chen, Chung-Yu; Peng, Wen-Huang; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Chen, Li-Mien; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The use of herbs as alternative cancer therapies has attracted a great deal of attention owing to their lower toxicity. Whether Zanthoxylum avicennae (Ying Bu Bo, YBB) induces liver cancer cell apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of YBB extracts (YBBEs) on HA22T human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in an in vivo mouse xenograft model. HA22T cells were treated with different concentrations of YBBEs and analyzed with Western blot analysis, TUNEL, JC-1 staining and siRNA transfection assays. Additionally, the HA22T-implanted xenograft nude mice model was applied to confirm the cellular effects. YBBEs-induced apoptosis, up-regulated death receptor apoptotic pathway markers as well as mitochondrial proteins, and suppressed the survival proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins were inhibited and the pro-apoptotic ones were increased. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) siRNA or okadaic acid reversed the YBBEs effects, confirming the role of PP2A in YBBEs-induced HA22T apoptosis. All our experimental evidence indicates that YBBEs significantly promote HA22T apoptosis and reduce tumor sizes in xenograft nude mice via PP2A in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Organ specific Gst-pi expression of the metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Taku; Asamoto, Makoto; Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Naomi; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-04-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer, particularly to the bone, is a major issue for treatment of this malignancy. We previously reported that an androgen-independent variant had higher expression of glutathione S-transferase pi (Gst-pi) compared with a parent androgen-dependent transplantable rat prostate carcinoma which was established from the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP). A new cell line, PCai1, was established from the androgen-independent tumor and investigated its metastatic potential in nude mice. The tumorigenesis of PCai1 cells in vivo was studied by subcutaneous transplantations into nude mice. The growth in the microenvironment of the prostate was studied by orthotopic transplantation of PCai1 cells into nude mice. The metastatic potential of PCai1 cells was studied by tail vein injections. Effects of Gst-pi knocked down were analysis in PCai1 cells. PCai1 frequently formed metastatic lesions in the lung and lymph nodes after orthotopic implantation in the prostate. Intravenous injections of PCai1, metastasis to lung and bone were obvious. PCai1 had strong expression for Gst-pi, therefore we tried knocked down Gst-pi. Gst-pi-siRNA in vitro significantly suppressed cell proliferation rate. In addition, high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were recognized in the Gst-pi knockout. Gst-pi expression of the prostate cancers are dependent on metastatic site, and that Gst-pi has an important role in adapting prostate cancer for growth and metastasis involving an alteration of ROS signals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lovastatin, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibits the growth of human H-ras oncogene transformed cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sebti, S M; Tkalcevic, G T; Jani, J P

    1991-05-01

    Post-translational modification of oncogenic p21ras proteins with farnesyl, a lipid intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis, is required for p21ras membrane association and for the ability of p21ras to transform cultured cells. We have tested the ability of lovastatin, a specific inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, to inhibit the growth of ras oncogene-transformed cells in vivo. Balb/c mouse 3T3 cells, transfected with H-ras oncogene from human EJ bladder carcinoma, were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. Immunoprecipitation studies with transformed EJ cells showed that lovastatin (1-100 microM) inhibited p21ras membrane association in a concentration-dependent manner and that a 10 microM concentration reduced the amount of p21ras bound to the membrane by 50%. Lovastatin also inhibited EJ cell growth in a concentration range that closely paralleled that required for inhibition of p21ras membrane association. Treatment of nude mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) EJ tumors with lovastatin (50 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the abilities of these tumors to grow as early as four days and, by day 12, the lovastatin treated group of animals had tumors with an average size that was 3-fold smaller than those in the saline treated group. Western blotting studies showed that lovastatin (50 mg/kg) was also able to inhibit p21ras membrane association in EJ tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. These results demonstrate that lovastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, inhibited in vivo tumor growth of H-ras oncogene transformed cells. The results also suggest that inhibition of p21ras membrane association, an essential step in ras oncogene neoplastic transformation, is one mechanism by which lovastatin may express its antitumor activity.

  11. The Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-associated JAK2 L611S Mutant Induces Tumorigenesis in Nude Mice*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tago, Kenji; Sumi, Kazuya; Abe, Miyuki; Aizu-Yokota, Eriko; Oshio, Tomoyuki; Sonoda, Yoshiko; Kasahara, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    JAK2 plays important roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including cell migration, proliferation, and protection from apoptosis. Recently the L611S point mutation in JAK2 has been identified in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we analyzed the mechanism by which JAK2 exhibits its oncogenicity. In BaF3 murine hematopoietic cells, L611S mutant increased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins including X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and Bcl-XL. We also showed that JAK2 L611S mutant protects BaF3 cells from cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to cytokine-independent cell growth. Furthermore BaF3 cells expressing JAK2 L611S mutant gained the ability to induce tumorigenesis in nude mice. The L611S mutant also exhibited malignancy, including prompt invasion and spreading into various organs, leading to rapid lethality of the mice. Finally we showed that a specific JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, potently inhibited cytokine-independent cell growth induced by JAK2 L611S mutant via the induction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, treatment with AG490 significantly inhibited the JAK2 L611S mutant-induced tumorigenesis in nude mice. Thus, our results both in vitro and in vivo strongly suggest that L611S mutant of JAK2 harbors potent oncogenic activity, and this probably requires the antiapoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:19289461

  12. [Immunoradionuclide localization of human neuroblastoma xenografted in nude mice using anti-GD2 labelled with I125].

    PubMed

    Perdereau, B; Barbaroux, C; Michon, J; Fridman, W H; Rosin, N; Validire, P; Zucker, J M; Manil, L

    1994-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent tumour of the childhood under the age of 5. The staging and the follow up are achieved by MIBG scintigraphy, considered as the method of reference, but sometimes difficult to interpret . The availability of monoclonal antibodies against the ganglioside GD2, expressed on the cell membrane of neuroblastoma and neuro-endocrine cancers offers novel tools that deserve to be carefully explored. We investigated four mouse monoclonal antibodies (3 IgG3: BW704, 7A4, 60C3, and the IgG1 variant of BW704: MAK704), on nude mice xenografted with a human neuroblastoma (REM). Sixty one nude mice were included. The three former MAbs provided tumour imaging, the best results being obtained with BW704, followed by 7A4 and 60C3. MAK704 was disappointing. A control antiphosphorylcholine antibody (P51-1) did not give any tumour image in the three tested mice. Scintigraphy ratios tumour/liver and tumour/muscle reached 20 and 100 with BW704, respectively, on the 10th day. Good imaging quality was already obtained from the 24th h. The tumour uptake, calculated from radioactivity countings of resected samples, reached 22 +/- 3% of injected dose per gramme. These results let us hope that these antibodies could also provide highly contrasted images in humans and could open the way for therapeutic applications.

  13. The acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated JAK2 L611S mutant induces tumorigenesis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tago, Kenji; Sumi, Kazuya; Abe, Miyuki; Aizu-Yokota, Eriko; Oshio, Tomoyuki; Sonoda, Yoshiko; Kasahara, Tadashi

    2009-05-08

    JAK2 plays important roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including cell migration, proliferation, and protection from apoptosis. Recently the L611S point mutation in JAK2 has been identified in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we analyzed the mechanism by which JAK2 exhibits its oncogenicity. In BaF3 murine hematopoietic cells, L611S mutant increased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins including X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and Bcl-XL. We also showed that JAK2 L611S mutant protects BaF3 cells from cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to cytokine-independent cell growth. Furthermore BaF3 cells expressing JAK2 L611S mutant gained the ability to induce tumorigenesis in nude mice. The L611S mutant also exhibited malignancy, including prompt invasion and spreading into various organs, leading to rapid lethality of the mice. Finally we showed that a specific JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, potently inhibited cytokine-independent cell growth induced by JAK2 L611S mutant via the induction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, treatment with AG490 significantly inhibited the JAK2 L611S mutant-induced tumorigenesis in nude mice. Thus, our results both in vitro and in vivo strongly suggest that L611S mutant of JAK2 harbors potent oncogenic activity, and this probably requires the antiapoptotic signaling pathway.

  14. Tumorigenicity and Validity of Fluorescence Labelled Mesenchymal and Epithelial Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei Xin; Zheng, Li Wu; Ma, Li; Huang, Hong Zhang; Yu, Ru Qing; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Tumorigenicity and metastatic activity can be visually monitored in cancer cells that were labelled with stable fluorescence. The aim was to establish and validate local and distant spread of subcutaneously previously injected fluorescence transduced human tongue cancer cell lines of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype in nude mice. A total of 32 four-week-old male athymic Balb/c nude mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n = 8). A single dose of 0.3 mL PBS containing 1 × 107 of four different cancer cell-lines (UM1, UM1-GFP, UM2, and UM2-RFP) was injected subcutaneously into the right side of their posterolateral back. Validity assessment of the labelled cancer cells' tumorigenicity was assessed by physical examination, imaging, and histology four weeks after the injection. The tumor take rate of cancer cells was similar in animals injected with either parental or transduced cancer cells. Transduced cancer cells in mice were easily detectable in vivo and after cryosection using fluorescent imaging. UM1 cells showed increased tumor take rate and mean tumor volume, presenting with disorganized histopathological patterns. Fluorescence labelled epithelial and mesenchymal human tongue cancer cell lines do not change in tumorigenicity or cell phenotype after injection in vivo.

  15. Effects of low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles on angiogenesis-associated proteins in subcutaneous tumors of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Yong; Shen, E; Zhang, Ji-Zhen; Bai, Wen-Kun; Wang, Yu; Yang, Shao-Lin; Nan, Shu-Liang; Lin, Yan-Duan; Li, Yi; Hu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    It has been shown that 1 and 3 MHz low-intensity ultrasound was able to affect the fragile and leaky angiogenic blood vessels in a tumor. However, the biological effects of 21 kHz low-intensity ultrasound on tumors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 21 kHz ultrasound with microbubbles on the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and apoptosis in subcutaneous prostate tumors in nude mice. The study included three parts, each with 20 tumor-bearing nude mice. Twenty nude mice were divided into four groups: control (sham treatment), microbubble ultrasound contrast agent (UCA), low-frequency ultrasound (US) and US+UCA groups. The UCA used was a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue). The parameter of ultrasound: 21 kHz, an intensity of 26 mW/cm2, 40% duty cycle (on 2 sec, off 3 sec), 3 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. In the first study, all subcutaneous tumors were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) at the initiation and completion of the experiments. Peak intensity (PI), time to peak intensity (TTP) and area under the curve (AUC) on the time intensity curve (TIC) were analyzed. In the second study, the intensity of VEGF and COX-2 protein expression in the vascular endothelium and cytoplasm was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy. In the third study, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used for the evaluation of cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. The tumor cells and vasculature were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only in the US+UCA group, PI and AUC decreased. The intensity of COX-2 and VEGF in the US+UCA group in immunohistochemical staining and laser confocal microscopy was lower compared to that of the other three groups. More cell apoptosis was found in the US+UCA group compared to the other 3 groups. In the control, UCA and US groups, the tumors

  16. The anti-tumour activity of rLj-RGD4, an RGD toxin protein from Lampetra japonica, on human laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep-2 cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fangyu; Lv, Mei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Junshu; Wang, Yue; Lv, Li; Wang, Jihong

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antiproliferative activity and mechanism of integrin-binding rLj-RGD4 in a Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model. Human laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells (Hep-2) were inoculated subcutaneously into the axilla of nude mice to generate a Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model. When the Hep-2 xenograft model was successfully established, the animals were randomly separated into five groups. Three groups were treated with different dosages of rLj-RGD4. Cisplatin was administered to the positive control group, and normal saline (NaCl) was administered to the negative control group for 3 weeks. The body weights and the survival of the nude mice were evaluated, and the volumes and weights of the solid tumours were measured. The mechanism underlying rLj-RGD4 inhibition of tumour growth in transplanted Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma-bearing nude mice was evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL), measurement of intratumoural microvessel density (MVD), Western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The tumour volumes and weights of the treatment groups were reduced compared with the model group, and survival times were improved by rLj-RGD4 treatment in Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma-bearing nude mice. The number of apoptotic Hep-2 human cells and intratumoural MVD significantly decreased after the administration of rLj-RGD4. In the xenograft tissue of animals treated with rLj-RGD4, FAK, PI3K, and Akt expression was unaltered, whereas P-FAK, P-PI3K, Bcl-2, P-Akt, and VEGF levels were down-regulated. In addition, activated caspase-3, activated caspase-9, and Bax levels were up-regulated. rLj-RGD4 exhibits potent in vivo activity and inhibits the growth of transplanted Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma cells in a nude mouse model. Thus, these results

  17. [Evaluation of combination chemotherapy with 5-FU, CDDP and CPT-11 for human gastric carcinoma transplanted into nude mice - comparative study of in vivo chemosensitivity test].

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Noriaki; Fujii, Masashi; Kochi, Mitsugu; Kaiga, Teruo; Takahashi, Tohru; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2007-06-01

    We performed in vivo chemosensitivity tests on human gastric carcinoma. To evaluate the efficacy of some combined chemotherapy for human gastric carcinoma maintained in the subcutaneous space in nude mice, we designed the following six experimental groups: 1) 5-FU group, 2) CDDP group, 3) CPT-11 group, 4) combined therapy group of 5-FU and CDDP, 5) combined therapy group of 5-FU and CPT-11, and 6) combined therapy group of CPT-11 and CDDP. An in vivo nude mice assay was performed. Histopathological changes of the tumors in nude mice, treated with anti-cancer agents,were also evaluated and compared to the results of the nude mice assay. Based on histopathological grading,the true positive rate of the nude mice assay was 0%, the true negative rate was 83.3%, and the accuracy rate was 83.3%. CPT-11 appeared to be highly efficacious when given in combination with CDDP in human gastric cancer cell lines. These results suggest that combination chemotherapy with CPT-11 and CDDP is clinically effective for gastric cancer patients.

  18. Matrigel basement membrane matrix induces eccrine sweat gland cells to reconstitute sweat gland-like structures in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Shaopeng; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Shu, Shenyou; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Severe burn results in irreversible damage to eccrine sweat glands, for which no effective treatment is available. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and epithelial cells is critical for proper three-dimensional organization and function of the epithelium. Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were subcutaneously implanted into the inguinal regions of nude mice. Two weeks later, the Matrigel plugs were removed and evaluated for series of detection items. Sweat gland cells developed into sweat gland-like structures in the Matrigel plugs based on: (1) de novo formation of tubular-like structures with one or more hollow lumens, (2) expression of epithelial and sweat gland markers (pancytokeratin, CK5/7/14/19, α-SMA and CEA), (3) basement membrane formation, (4) myoepithelial cells presenting in and encompassing the tubular-like structures, (5) cellular polarization, evident by the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-2), anchoring junctions (desmoglein-1 and -2 and E-cadherin) and CEA in the luminal membrane, (6) expression of proteins related to sweat secretion and absorption (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotranspoter 1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, aquaporin-5, epithelial sodium channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase), and (7) about 20% of the tubular-like structures are de novo coils and 80% are de novo ducts. This study provides not only an excellent model to study eccrine sweat gland development, cytodifferentiation and reconstitution, but also an in vivo model for regeneration of eccrine sweat glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Clinical effect of ultrasound-guided injection of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Fe3O4 in situ implant for magnetic thermal ablation in treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Zuo, G Q; Zheng, Y Y; He, S; Zuo, D Y

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To prepare the Fe3O4-loaded biodegradable liquid-solid phase inversion poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in situ implant for ultrasound-guided injection into nude mouse tumor model, and to investigate its clinical effect in thermomagnetic treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells in an alternating magnetic field. Methods: An in situ implant containing 10% Fe3O4 was prepared, and 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of Kunming mice. The degradation of this material was observed for 2 consecutive months, and the changes in body weight were recorded. HE staining and Prussian blue staining were performed for the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of Kunming mice. Fresh ex vivo bovine liver was taken and cut into cubes with a dimension of 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm and then 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected; after phase inversion, the cubes of ex vivo bovine liver were heated for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes, respectively, and then cut open for observing the range of ablation; HE staining was also performed. Micro-CT scan was performed after ultrasound-guided injection of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA gel into the tumors of the nude mice, and then the nude mice were divided into treatment group and control group. The mice in the treatment group were given thermomagnetic treatment for 3 minutes, and tumor growth was observed daily. Results: The biodegradation of Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP implant showed that the subcutaneously injected material was gradually metabolized at 2 weeks after injection and that the nude mice were in good condition. The bovine liver ablation experiment showed that the range of ablation of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA implant reached 1.46 ± 0.11 cm. HE staining showed that part of bovine liver had coagulative necrosis. The phase inversion experiment of Fe3O4-PLGA gel showed quick liquid-solid phase inversion of the material after injection into the tumor, and the process of liquid-solid phase inversion could be

  20. Assessment of Viability of Human Fat Injection into Nude Mice with Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael T.; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Christopher R.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Lipotransfer is a vital tool in the surgeon’s armamentarium for the treatment of soft tissue deficits of throughout the body. Fat is the ideal soft tissue filler as it is readily available, easily obtained, inexpensive, and inherently biocompatible.1 However, despite its burgeoning popularity, fat grafting is hampered by unpredictable results and variable graft survival, with published retention rates ranging anywhere from 10-80%. 1-3 To facilitate investigations on fat grafting, we have therefore developed an animal model that allows for real-time analysis of injected fat volume retention. Briefly, a small cut is made in the scalp of a CD-1 nude mouse and 200-400 µl of processed lipoaspirate is placed over the skull. The scalp is chosen as the recipient site because of its absence of native subcutaneous fat, and because of the excellent background contrast provided by the calvarium, which aids in the analysis process. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to scan the graft at baseline and every two weeks thereafter. The CT images are reconstructed, and an imaging software is used to quantify graft volumes. Traditionally, techniques to assess fat graft volume have necessitated euthanizing the study animal to provide just a single assessment of graft weight and volume by physical measurement ex vivo. Biochemical and histological comparisons have likewise required the study animal to be euthanized. This described imaging technique offers the advantage of visualizing and objectively quantifying volume at multiple time points after initial grafting without having to sacrifice the study animal. The technique is limited by the size of the graft able to be injected as larger grafts risk skin and fat necrosis. This method has utility for all studies evaluating fat graft viability and volume retention. It is particularly well-suited to providing a visual representation of fat grafts and following changes in volume over time. PMID:25590561

  1. Generation of Live Piglets for the First Time Using Sperm Retrieved from Immature Testicular Tissue Cryopreserved and Grafted into Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Michiko; Somfai, Tamas; Noguchi, Junko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues is essential for increasing the possibilities of offspring generation by testicular xenografting for agricultural or medical purposes. However, successful production of offspring from the sperm involved has never been reported previously. In the present study, therefore, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we examined whether xenogeneic sperm obtained from immature pig testicular tissue after cryopreservation would have the capacity to produce live piglets. Testicular fragments from 9- to 11-day-old piglets were vitrified after 10- or 20-min immersion in vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol (EG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and trehalose as cryoprotectants, and then stored in liquid nitrogen for more than 140 days. Thirty nude mice were assigned to each immersion-time group. Testicular fragments were transplanted under the back skin of castrated mice immediately after warming and removal of the cryoprotectants. Blood and testicular grafts were then recovered from the recipient mice on days 60, 120, 180 and 230−350 (day 0 =  grafting). Histological assessment of the testicular grafts and analyses of inhibin and testosterone production revealed no significant differences between the two immersion-time groups, indicating equal growth activity of the cryopreserved tissues. A single sperm obtained from a mouse in each group on day 230−350 was injected into an in vitro-matured porcine oocyte, and then the ICSI oocytes were transferred to the oviducts of estrus-synchronized recipient gilts. One out of 4 gilts that had received oocytes fertilized using sperm from the 10-min immersion group delivered 2 live piglets, and one of another 4 gilts from the 20-min group delivered 4 live piglets. Thus, we have successfully generated porcine offspring utilizing sperm from immature testicular tissues after cryopreservation and transplantation into nude mice. The present model using pigs will be

  2. Cytokine mRNA expression in normal skin of various age populations before and after engraftment onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Ullmann, Y; Shalagino, R; Weisinger, G

    1998-01-01

    Whether the impact of skin biological age on cytokine expression is a result of this tissue's proliferation potential or not is an important issue in dermatology. We investigated these questions by monitoring cytokine marker mRNA expression from human skin samples from healthy groups of individuals. The skin samples studied represented three age groups: fetal (17-21 weeks), young (18-35 years) and aged (76-88 years). Furthermore, upon skin transplantation of tissue from different age groups onto nude mice, we investigated whether cytokine marker RNA levels would change or normalize. Interestingly, both TNF-alpha and P53 mRNA showed a similar pattern of expression. Both were significantly higher in fetal skin (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively), and no difference was noted between aged versus young skin. In contrast to this, IL1-alpha mRNA was expressed at its lowest and highest levels in fetal and young skin, respectively. Following skin transplantation, cytokines and P53 mRNA expression were normalized to similar levels in all age groups. This study implies that when cytokine expression was determined directly at the mRNA level, post-natal expression was not significantly different at either age group. Furthermore, it seems that the environmental conditions surrounding the grafted human skin found on nude mice encouraged normalization of donor cytokine expression.

  3. Generation and characterization of human monoclonal antibody HMD4 against ovarian carcinoma and the study of radioimmunoimaging in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, H.N.; Cui, H.; Feng, J.; Fu, T.Y.; Wei, P.; Fu, Z.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of patients with ovarian carcinoma were immortalized by fusing them with a nonsecreting cell line of murine myeloma (Sp2/0-Ag14). By early cloning and recloning a hybrid cell line, named HMD4, was established. It has secreted human IgG for more than 15 months stably. Chromosome analysis corresponded with the characterization of human-mouse hybridoma. Large quantities of ascites were obtained after hybrid cells injection into the primed nude mice. Human IgG of light chain was detected and purified from the ascites. Twenty-six of 43 (60.5%) epithelial ovarian cancers were positively stained with HMD4 by ABC immunoperoxidase methods while nonepithelial ovarian cancers and almost all benign tumors and normal tissues were negative. The molecular weight of the antigen recognized by HMD4 was 55KDa determined by Western blotting. 131I labeled HMD4 was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing human ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma; 131I labeled normal human IgG and normal murine IgG were used as controls. Measurements of T/NT and T/B ratios of 131I-HMD4 were done. Radioimaging showed HMD4 clearly localized on tumor regions at 48 and 72 hours and the biodistribution and metabolism of the labeled HMD4 corresponded with the images. The above results indicate that HMD4 was specific to ovarian carcinoma, a hopeful clue for clinical applications.

  4. Different metastasis patterns of a human melanoma cell line in nude mice and rats: Influence of microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kjonniksen, I.; Hoifodt, H.K.; Pihl, A.; Fodstad, O. )

    1991-07-17

    The metastatic capacity of intravenously injected human FEMX-I melanoma cells in athymic nude mice and rats was compared. Young rats given 1 {times} 10(6) ascites tumor cells all died of lung tumors with a life span of 50 {plus minus} 10 days (mean{plus minus} SD). In contrast, in accordance with previous findings, only extrapulmonary metastases developed in mice. This host-dependent difference in metastasis pattern permitted studies on the role of factors that may influence the organ specificity of metastases. The tissue distribution of 125I-labeled FEMX-I cells did not differ in the two nude species during the first 12 hours after cell injection. The plating efficiency of FEMX-I cells in soft agar was increased by the addition of conditioned medium prepared from rat lungs, resulting also in a significant increase in colony size. In contrast, conditioned medium prepared from mouse lungs reduced the clonogenic capacity of the FEMX-I cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conditioned media prepared from rat and mouse liver, kidney, and spleen tissues either inhibited or had no effect on colony formation. The results suggest that the unexpected differential metastatic patterns observed in vivo may reflect differences in the presence of growth-modulating paracrine factors in the host lungs.

  5. Stat3 enhances the growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in intact and castrated male nude mice.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Fernando; Lee, Soo Ok; Lou, Wei; Xiao, Xiao; Pflug, Beth R; Nelson, Joel B; Gao, Allen C

    2002-07-01

    Prostate cancer frequently progresses from an initial androgen dependence to androgen independence, rendering the only effective androgen ablation therapy useless. The mechanism underlying the androgen-independent progression is unknown. Stat3, a member of the family of signal transducers and activators of transcription, is activated in numerous cancers, including prostate. This study is to investigate the role of Stat3 activation in the growth of prostate cancer cells. A constitutively active Stat3 was ectopically expressed in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells and resulting stable clones expressing activated Stat3 were isolated. The effect of Stat3 activation on LNCaP cell growth in response to androgen in vitro and in vivo was examined. We show that the levels of activated Stat3 are associated with the progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Activation of Stat3 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells results in enhancement of tumor growth in both intact and castrated male nude mice and enhances androgen receptor-mediated prostate specific antigen expression. These findings demonstrate that intracellular signaling mediated by Stat3 can enhance the growth of androgen-sensitive human LNCaP prostate cancer cells in both intact and castrated male nude mice. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Susceptibility of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to subperiodic Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) adapted to nude mice and jirds.

    PubMed

    Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Vickery, A C

    1990-05-01

    Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Aedes aegypti (Black-eyed Liverpool strain) were fed on jirds and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Microfilariae of B. malayi from jird-mouse and mouse-jird infections developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus, whereas those from jird-jird infections did not develop. Microfilariae of both species from jirds and nude mice developed normally in Ae. aegypti and those of B. pahangi developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus. It is suggested that microfilariae from nude mice are modified physiologically, immunologically, or both so that they can develop in refractory An. quadrimaculatus, thus indicating that susceptibility and refractoriness of An. quadrimaculatus to B. malayi also is influenced by factors relating to the vertebrate host in addition to mosquito genetic factors.

  7. Immunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice with I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Senekowitsch, R.; Maul, F.D.; Wenisch, H.J.C.; Kriegel, H.; Hor, G.

    1985-05-01

    In the present study radioiodinated F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of CA19-9 and antibody that reacts specifically with human gastrointestinal cancer were examined for their ability to detect human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 80..mu..Ci of I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/ with a specific activity of 1.8..mu..Ci/..mu..g. All mice were imaged after the injection and every 24hr up to 6 days. The retained radioactivity was also registered with a whole-body counter immediately after imaging. As a control F(ab's)/sub 2/ of a nonspecific antibody were administered in parallel to another group of animals bearing the same tumor. Three animals of each group were killed at 1,2,4 and 8 days for determination of the distribution of both labeled antibody-fragments. On scintigraphic images obtained with the CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/ the tumors could be visualized 24hr after injection, the best dilineation however was achieved 96hr p.i.. The biodistribution data exhibited a more rapid blood clearance for the specific fragments compared to that for the unspecific ones. Tumors showed an increase in uptake up to 48hr reaching 1.7% of the injected dose per gram, declining to values of 0.08%/g at day 6 p.i.. The highest tumor-to-blood ratios were found after 96h. They were 7 for the CA19-9-fragments compared to 1.5 for the unspecific fragments. The whole body counting revealed a more rapid excretion for the fragments of the specific monoclonal antibodies than for the unspecific ones. In summary the authors were able to show that CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments can be used for immunodetection of human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice.

  8. Radiotherapy of CD19 expressing Daudi tumors in nude mice with Yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD19 antibody.

    PubMed

    Vallera, Daniel A; Elson, Michael; Brechbiel, Martin W; Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Burns, Linda J; Jaszcz, Waclaw B; Ramsay, Norma K; Panoskaltsis-Mortar, Angela; Kuroki, David W; Wagner, John E; Vitetta, Ellen S; Kersey, John H

    2004-02-01

    Studies were performed to determine the suitability of using two different anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies to deliver the high energy beta-particle emitting isotope 90Y to B-cell lymphoma grown as flank tumors in athymic nude mice. The antibodies BU12 and HD37, both of the IgG1 subclass, recognize CD19, an internalizing B-lineage-specific membrane glycoprotein and member of the Ig supergene family. The antibodies were readily labeled with 90Y using the highly stable chelate, 1B4M-MX-DTPA. The radioimmunoconjugates selectively bound to the CD19 expressing B cell line Daudi, but not to CD19 negative control cells. Significantly more 90Y anti-CD19 bound to Daudi tumors growing in nude mice than did a control non-binding antibody (p = 0.001). The biodistribution data correlated with an anti-tumor effect. Anti-tumor activity was dose dependent and the best results were observed in mice receiving a single dose of approximately 300 uCi. The anti-CD19 antibody had significantly better anti-tumor activity as compared to a control 90Y-labeled antibody and most mice survived over 119 days with no evidence of tumor (p < 0.003). Histology studies showed no significant injury to the kidney, liver, or small intestine. Because radiolabeled anti-CD19 antibody can be used to deliver radiation selectively to lymphohematopoietic tissue, these data support the use of 90Y anti-CD19 antibodies in treating B-cell malignancies.

  9. Effects of arsenic trioxide under different administration ways on T-cell lymphoma xenografts in nude mice: in vivo and in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Cai, Qing-Qing; Li, Su; Bu, Qing; Liao, Hong; Zhou, Yin; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2009-02-01

    In vitro, arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) can inhibit proliferation of many lymphoma cell lines. In clinic, it also can be used to treat many subtypes of lymphoma. But the dosage and administration ways are undetermined yet. In this research, we studied the antitumor effect of As(2)O(3) with different administration ways on T-cell lymphoma and observed the toxicity. Murine T-cell lymphoma cell line EL4 was treated with As(2)O(3) of eight concentrations. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining and observed under electroscope and fluorescent microscope. EL4 cells were inoculated into nude mice to establish lymphoma models. The effect of As(2)O(3) on lymphoma in nude mice was observed. As(2)O(3) inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 1.28 micromol/L at 72 h (p < 0.05). When treated with the same total dose of As(2)O(3) by 4 mg(kg d)(-1) for seven days or 2 mg(kg d)(-1) for 14 days, the inhibition rates of tumor growth in mice were equivalent (58.8% vs. 55.6%, p = 0.351). Apoptotic cells were increased and apoptotic bodies were observed in xenograft tumor tissues. Acute liver damage is the major toxicity. Shortening the administration course and increasing the daily dosage of As(2)O(3) can be considered as a reasonable model for treating advanced/refractory lymphomas.

  10. Outcome of xenografted fetal porcine pancreatic tissue is superior in inbred scid (C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) compared to outbred nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Tuch, B E; Casamento, F M

    1999-01-01

    Nude mice are used as recipients of foreign tissue because of their inability to reject these grafts. Our experience has been that there is variable rejection of fetal porcine insulin-producing tissue transplanted into CD-1 (athymic) outbred nude mice. To examine the suitability of this line of nude mouse as a recipient of the tissue, fetal porcine pancreas was grafted either into these outbred animals or into an inbred mutant strain of mice, the more immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. Eight weeks after transplantation grafts were recovered from recipients and assayed for insulin content. Mean insulin levels were not significantly different between the two groups of mice, but a wider range of values was obtained from grafts recovered from nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice. Reversal of diabetes in hyperglycemic recipients was achieved in 4 of 8 nude mice and 8 of 8 scid (C.B-17/lcr-scid/scid) mice. The time taken to achieve this was longer in the nudes than the scid mice, 121 +/- 12 vs. 44 +/- 2 days, the grafts increasing in size at a slower rate in the nude mice. Time taken for the weight of the grafts to double in size was 94 +/- 17 vs. 32 +/- 1 days, respectively. Histologically the grafts in the scid mice contained mostly epithelial cell clusters, a majority of which were insulin containing. In the nude mice that achieved normoglycemia, a similar pattern was observed and, as well, there was a localized lymphoid infiltrate. In those nude mice that remained diabetic fibrous tissue predominated together with a lymphoid infiltrate. In summary, fetal porcine pancreatic tissue grows and develops more efficiently when xenografted into scid rather than outbred nude mice.

  11. [Effects of intratumoral injection of microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin on transplanted human hepatoma in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lin, Li-wu; Chen, Zhi-kui; Xue, En-sheng; Lin, Xiao-dong; Yu, Li-Yun; Lin, Zhen-hu

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intratumoral injection of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin in nude mice with transplanted human hepatoma. Cytotoxic activity of cytotoxin from cobra venom was determined by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method in vitro. Microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin were prepared with a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Forty BALB/c nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously in right flank with hepatoma BEL-7404 cells. Thirty-two mice whose tumor size reached about 1.0 cm in diameter, were randomly assigned into normal saline group, blank microsphers group, cytotoxin group and cytotoxin-PLGA group. Nude mice were intratumorally injected with normal saline, blank microspheres, cytotoxin or cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres respectively. Internal echo characteristics and blood flow of tumors were observed by high-frequency ultrasound every week after treatment. Twenty-six days after treatment, the tumors were removed to calculate the inhibition rate of tumor growth. The tumor, heart, liver and kidney tissues were obtained for histopathological examination. The cytotoxin separated and purified from crude cobra venom caused intense cytotoxic effects to the BEL-7404 cells in vitro. The diameter of PLGA microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin was about (34.45+/-9.85)microm. Encapsulation rate was up to (78.13+/-8.92)%, and cumulative amount of cobra venom cytotoxin released from the PLGA microspheres in vitro during 30 days was up to 84.3%. After intratumoral injection, tumor volumes and weights in the cytotoxin-PLGA group were lower than those in the normal saline group, with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 52.36%. Observed under a light microscope, most tumor tissues were necrotic. No obvious morphological change could be seen on the liver, kidney and heart tissues. The above findings indicate that intratumoral injection of cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres has strong

  12. The disintegrin echistatin in combination with doxorubicin targets high-metastatic human osteosarcoma overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in chick embryo and nude mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tome, Yasunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Echistatin, a cyclic RGD peptide, which is an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin (disintegrin), inhibited human osteosarcoma in the chick chorioallontoic membrane (CAM) model and tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in a nude mouse orthotopic model. A high-metastatic variant of human osteosarcoma, 143B-LM4, overexpressing αvβ3 integrin was used. Tumor angiogenesis by high-metastatic variant 143B-LM4 cells in the CAM was significantly inhibited by echistatin (P<0.05) as was overall growth. A doxorubicin (DOX)-echistatin combination inhibited orthotopic tumor growth compared to untreated control (P<0.01) or DOX alone (P<0.05) in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with the DOX-echistatin combination survived longer than those treated with DOX alone or control PBS (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). Echistatin also inhibited experimental lung metastasis of 143B-LM4 cells in nude mice. These results suggest that DOX in combination with a disintegrin has potential to treat osteosarcoma and that αvβ3 integrin may be a target for osteosarcoma. PMID:27894082

  13. Nude mice produce a T cell-derived antigen-binding factor that mediates the early component of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Herzog, W R; Meade, R; Pettinicchi, A; Ptak, W; Askenase, P W

    1989-03-15

    The elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in mice is caused by the sequential action of two different T cells. An early-acting, DTH-initiating T cell produces an Ag-specific T cell factor, that is analogous to IgE antibody and initiates DTH by sensitizing the local tissues for release of the vasoactive amine serotonin. In picryl chloride or oxazolone contact sensitivity, this T cell factor is Ag-specific, but MHC unrestricted. We, therefore, hypothesized that DTH-initiating T cells are primitive T cells with Ag receptors that can bind Ag without MHC restriction. In order to characterize the origin of this DTH-initiating T cell and the conditions that are necessary for its development, we contact-sensitized various strains of immunodeficient mice. Surprisingly, we found that the early phase of DTH was present in athymic nude mice. In contrast, the early component of DTH was absent in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. These mice lack T and B cells, but have NK cells. These findings suggested that the early component of DTH was not caused by NK cells, and was caused by cells belonging to a lineage from a rearranging gene family. The early component of DTH in nude mice was Ag specific, was caused by MHC unrestricted Thy-1+ T cells, and was mediated by Ag-binding, Ag-specific T cell factors. We found that DTH-initiating, T cell-derived, Ag-binding molecules from nude mice and normal CBA/J mice had the same functional properties. The early component of DTH was elicited in two different systems (contact sensitivity and SRBC-specific DTH) in two strains of nude mice (BALB/c athymic nudes and CByB6F1/J-nu) from two different suppliers, but not in BALB/c and athymic nudes from a third supplier. From these findings we concluded that DTH-initiating T cells, which produce IgE-like Ag-specific T cell factors, are present in some strains of athymic nude mice and thus are relatively thymic independent T cells.

  14. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  15. Immune and mitogenic responses by BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, and nude mice to Brucella abortus bacterin and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Spellman, J M; Reed, N D

    1979-05-01

    The immunogenic and mitogenic properties of Brucella abortus 1119-3 bacterin (BA) and biologically active B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (BA-LPS) were studied using normal and athymic (nude) BALB/c and C3H/HeJ mice. Although BA stimulated 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive (2-ME-S) primary and secondary antibody responses in all mice, nude mice, in contrast to normal BALB/c and C3H/HeJ mice, did not make substantial 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant (2-ME-R) antibody responses. Similarly, all mice injected with BA-LPS made 2-ME-S primary responses, and the secondary response of thymus-bearing mice contained a substantial 2-ME-R component. Collectively, these observations suggest that although both BA and BA-LPS can stimulate thymus-independent 2-ME-S antibody synthesis, thymus-derived cells are required for optimal immune responses containing a 2-ME-R component. The antibody responses of normal BALB/c and C3H/HeJ mice to BA and BA-LPS were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Both BA and BA-LPS were mitogenic for spleen cells from normal and nude BALB/c and C3H/HeJ mice but not for thymus cells from normal BALB/c or C3H/HeJ mice, suggesting that both preparations are B-cell mitogens.

  16. Antrodia camphorata induces G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human premyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Kumar, K J Senthil; Kuo, Ya-Ting; Chang, Hebron C; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsu, Li-Sung; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan. The broth from a fermented culture of Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been shown to induce apoptosis in cultured human premyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of AC on cell cycle arrest in vitro in HL-60 cells and on tumor regression in vivo using an athymic nude mouse model. We found that AC (20-80 μg mL(-1)) treatment significantly induced G1 cell-cycle arrest in HL-60 cells by reducing the levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin A, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb). Moreover, AC treatment led to significantly increased protein expression levels of CDK inhibitors, including p21(WAF1) and p15(NIK4B). Additionally, AC treatment markedly induced intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, the in vivo study results revealed that AC treatment was effective in terms of delaying the tumor incidence in nude mice that had been inoculated with HL-60 cells as well as in reducing the tumor burden. Histological analysis confirmed that AC treatment significantly modulated the xenografted tumor progression as demonstrated by a reduction in mitotic cells. Our data strongly suggest that Antrodia camphorata could be an anti-cancer agent for human leukemia.

  17. A controlled study of the effects of RU58841, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, on human hair production by balding scalp grafts maintained on testosterone-conditioned nude mice.

    PubMed

    De Brouwer, B; Tételin, C; Leroy, T; Bonfils, A; Van Neste, D

    1997-11-01

    Human hair growth can be monitored for several months after the transplantation of scalp samples from men with androgen-dependent alopecia on to female nude mice. Hair production from balding sites has been shown to be inhibited in testosterone-conditioned nude mice. We used this recently reported model to study the effect of a new non-steroidal antiandrogen-RU58841-on human hair growth. Twenty productive scalp grafts from balding men were maintained for 8 months after grafting on to nude mice, and hair production was monitored monthly for 6 months. All mice were conditioned by the topical application of testosterone (testosterone propionate, 300 micrograms in 10 microL; 5 days/week) on the non-grafted flank. The scalp samples were divided equally according to the estimated hair production potential, which was based on the amount of hair present on the scalp samples before grafting. Each of the two equal groups of grafts was further allocated at random to be treated topically (5 days/week) with blinded solutions of either RU58841 1% in ethanol, or ethanol as a control. Twenty-eight active follicles appeared on the 10 control grafts. Among them only two follicles (7%) initiated a second hair cycle. However, the 10 RU58841-treated grafts bore a total of 29 active follicles, and eight of them (28%) showed a second cycle. The values for the linear hair growth rates (LHGR) were significantly (P < 0.04) higher in the RU58841-treated group. Recycling and increased LHGR indicate a positive action for RU58841 on human hair growth from balding samples grafted on to testosterone-conditioned nude mice, and encourage a clinical trial to evaluate its potential in the treatment of androgen-dependent alopecia.

  18. Comparative patterns of serum immunoglobulin levels in specific-pathogen-free congenitally athymic (nude), hereditarily asplenic (Dh/+), congenitally athymic-asplenic (lasat) and splenectomized athymic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, D D; Gershwin, M E; Drago, J; Faulkin, L

    1979-01-01

    Serial determinations of serum immunoglobulin levels were assessed in congenitally athymic (nude), hereditarily asplenic (Dh/+) and congenitally athymic-asplenic (lasat) mice and the results compared to normal intact littermate controls (nu/+), neonatally splenectomized nu/+ and neonatally splenectomized nude mice. Quantification of Ig levels was accomplished by radial immunodiffusion, for IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibody isotypes. Intact spleen and/or thymus function was shown to have marked effects on the age-dependent development of serum IgM, IgG2b and IgA production. Furthermore, because of higher levels of IgA in congenitally athymic-asplenic mice and neonatally splenectomized nude mice v. sham splenectomized nude mice, it is suggested that an IgA-specific suppressor population resides in the spleen. Finally, because of frequent problems in the literature in interpretation of immunoglobulin values, the criteria for the statistical evaluation of such data in establishing normal serum Ig values and ascertaining real differences between treatment groups are emphasized. PMID:159256

  19. Growth of diploid, Epstein-Barr virus-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines heterotransplanted into nude mice under immunologically privileged conditions.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B; Nilsson, K; Zech, L; Yim, O; Klein, G; Stehlin, J S

    1979-07-15

    Human Epstein-Barr virus-carrying lymphoid cell lines which have been classified on the basis of studies on clonality and morphological, chromosomal and functional parameters as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) of presumed non-neoplastic origin were inoculated intracerebrally into nude mice. All eighteen of them grew, killing the host mice within 7 to 25 days, except for 2 which grew more slowly. At autopsy, the brain of the nudes was found to be invaded by infiltrating lymphomas. Sixteen of these lymphomas, when recultured in vitro, gave rise to cell lines with growth properties and morphology indistinguishable from those of the inoculated LCL. Chromosomal examinations showed that 3/7 cell lines injected, which grew as lymphomas in the brain, were still normal diploid on reexplantation whereas the remaining four had become aneuploid. Four lines derived from intracerebral lymphomas (2 diploid, 1 aneuploid and 1 untested) were inoculated subcutaneously into adult nude mice. None of them grew. When the corresponding four original LCL lines were inoculated subcutaneously into newborn nude mice, they grew rapidly, but failed to do so in newborn normal mice or intracerebrally in adult normal mice. One such line, U-1450, was treated with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS). Small nodules developed at the site of inoculation. From one nodule a cell line was cultured, 1450 ALSAD. It was morphologically indistinguishable from the line of origin. The lines obtained from nude mice inoculated with polyclonal LCL seem to have a restricted clonal representation, but were not monoclonal, as evidenced by analyses of their pattern of immunoglobulin synthesis.

  20. [Effects of human Livin gene down-regulation by RNA interference on xenograft of transplantation tumor induced by SPC-A1 in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Sheng; Li, You-Tang; Li, Hong-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    To explore the in vivo inhibitory effect of Livin gene silencing by RNA interference on xenograft of lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells in BALB/C nude mice. Three different BALB/C nude mice models were established by subcutaneously inoculating differently treated SPC-A-1 cells into 3 nude mice groups: the blank control group was inoculated with blank SPC-A-1 cells, while the negative group was inoculated with cells transfected with lentivirus-delivered negative shRNA, the experimental group was inoculated with cells with lentivirus-delivered Livin shRNA. Then the growth of tumors was observed, and the volume and weight of the tumors were measured at different time points. The curve of tumor growth was then described, and the inhibition rate was calculated. Livin gene expression in the tumor tissues was determined by RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. Cell apoptosis of tumor tissues was detected by TUNEL. Slower tumor growth, smaller tumor volume and lighter tumor weight were observed in the experimental group as compared to the blank and negative groups (F = 70.509, P < 0.01; F = 12.821, P < 0.01). The inhibition rate of tumor volume was (59.5 ± 3.4)%, and the inhibition rate of tumor weight was (71.1 ± 5.6)%. Livinα mRNA and Livinβ mRNA expressions in the experimental group were significantly lower than the 2 control groups [(37.2 ± 1.6)% versus (63.3 ± 3.8)%, (66.1 ± 2.6)%; (29.4 ± 1.1)% versus (53.2 ± 3.4)%, (52.3 ± 3.1)% (F(α) = 45.309, P < 0.01; F(β) = 30.076, P < 0.01)]. Livin protein expression level was also significantly lower than the blank and the negative groups [(15.3 ± 2.8)% versus (51.3 ± 2.1)%, (52.5 ± 2.5)%, F = 78.92, P < 0.01]. The apoptosis rate in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the 2 control groups [(35.4 ± 3.2)% versus (5.4 ± 1.3)%, (8.6 ± 1.5)%, F = 14.509, P < 0.01]. The lentivirus-delivered Livin shRNA was shown to inhibit the proliferation of transplantation tumor of lung carcinoma effectively

  1. Systematically experimental investigation on carcinogenesis or tumorigenicity of VERO cell lines of different karyotypes in nude mice in vivo used for viral vaccine manufacture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Li; Ji, Liang; Li, Liu-Jin; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2004-07-01

    Many cell lines used for vaccine production have a potentially strong tumorigenic character. Some of those routinely used need to be checked at different passage numbers for this characteristic. Using HeLa cell cultures as positive controls, and primary canine kidney cell (CKC) or feline kidney cell (FKC) cultures purified in vitro on passage three as negative controls, the tumorigenicity of VERO cell sublines was tested in 219 nude mice. The master cell stocks (MCS) and working cell banks (WCB) of eight strains of VERO African green monkey kidney cell (AGMKC) line used for canine, feline and mink vaccine preparation were established in China. The hypo-tetra-ploid JA or hyper-diploid KA strain of VERO line was highly tumorigenic. These data showed a variable chromosome karyotype of VERO line, and contraindicated the use of JA or KA strain of VERO line for the preparation of attenuated viral vaccines. JA or KA strain of VERO line could be a substitute for HeLa line as a positive-control malignant tumor (MT) cell model. The non-carcinogenic YB, JC, M and JB strains of VERO line were therefore selected for the preparation of modified live rabies viral vaccine in place of BHK-21. The cell sub-lines are comparatively stable in terms of their heritable characters, and show little significant changes between passages. In summary, we have found that: 1) the tumorigenicity of cell line is different among different-karyotypic cells; 2) it is the genetic characteristics of chromosomes of cell lines that determines their tumorigenicity, but with species-specific carcinogenicity; 3) the chromosome number variation of cell lines has positive relationship with their carcinogenesis; 4) highly variable strains of tumor cell line can be selected quickly and successfully in nude mice by alternate cultivation in vitro and in vivo. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) was evolved in nude mice inoculated with violently variable HeLa or VERO cells. The importance of assessing the

  2. Effects of transplantation sites on tumour growth, pulmonary metastasis and ezrin expression of canine osteosarcoma cell lines in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jaroensong, T; Endo, Y; Lee, S-J; Kamida, A; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Nakagawa, T

    2012-12-01

    To determine the influence of the transplantation site of canine osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines on tumour growth and pulmonary metastasis, three OS cell lines were transplanted into nude mice via subcutaneous (SC), intratibial (IT) or intravenous (IV) injection. IT-xenografts exhibited greater potential for developing primary masses and pulmonary metastasis than SC-xenografts. In IT and IV xenografts, lung micrometastases along with phosphorylated ezrin-radixin-moesin (p-ERM) overexpression were found in mice xenografted with HMPOS and OOS cells after 1 week and metastasis was found with decreased p-ERM expression at later time points. The expression of ezrin and p-ERM in the primary tumours of IT-xenografted mice was higher than those in SC-xenografted mice with HMPOS and OOS cells. The results suggest that the orthotopic transplantation site plays an important role in the spontaneous metastasis of canine OS and that ezrin phosphorylation may be involved in the early metastatic mechanism of canine OS cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Recombinant methioninase effectively targets a Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Li, Shukuan; Han, Qinghong; Tan, Yuying; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Miyake, Kentaro; Singh, Arun S; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Lwin, Thinzar M; DeLong, Jonathan C; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    Methionine dependence is due to the overuse of methionine for aberrant transmethylation reactions in cancer. Methionine dependence may be the only general metabolic defect in cancer. In order to exploit methionine dependence for therapy, our laboratory previously cloned L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase [EC 4.4.1.11]). The cloned methioninase, termed recombinant methioninase, or rMETase, has been tested in mouse models of human cancer cell lines. Ewing's sarcoma is recalcitrant disease even though development of multimodal therapy has improved patients'outcome. Here we report efficacy of rMETase against Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Eight Ewing's sarcoma PDOX mice were randomized into untreated control group (n = 4) and rMETase treatment group (n = 4). rMETase (100 units) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every 24 hours for 14 consecutive days. All mice were sacrificed on day-15, 24 hours after the last rMETase administration. rMETase effectively reduced tumor growth compared to untreated control. The methionine level both of plasma and supernatants derived from sonicated tumors was lower in the rMETase group. Body weight did not significantly differ at any time points between the 2 groups. The present study is the first demonstrating rMETase efficacy in a PDOX model, suggesting potential clinical development, especially in recalcitrant cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma.

  4. Human hypertrophic scar-like nude mouse model: characterization of the molecular and cellular biology of the scar process.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianFei; Ding, Jie; Jiao, Haiyan; Honardoust, Dariush; Momtazi, Moein; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HTS) following thermal injury and other forms of trauma is a dermal fibroproliferative disorder that leads to considerable morbidity. Because of the lack of an ideal animal model, research is difficult. We have established an HTS model that involves transplanting human split-thickness skin graft (STSG) or full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) onto the backs of nude mice. The animals developed raised, firm, and reddish scars 2 months following transplantation. Histology and micromeasurement indicate raised, thickened engrafted skin with STSG and FTSG. In contrast, thickening was not observed with full-thickness rat skin grafts used as controls. Masson's trichrome staining demonstrates increased accumulations of collagen fibrils in the dermis in both scars grafted with STSG and FTSG. Staining cells with toludine blue and an antibody for F4/80 showed an increase in the infiltration of mast cells and macrophages. Quantification of fibrocytes reveals increased fibrocytes. Moreover, STSG grafted skin had significantly more macrophages, mast cells, and fibrocytes than FTSG. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significantly elevated mRNA levels for type I collagen, transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor and heat shock protein 47 in both types of engrafted skin. These data demonstrate that human skin grafted onto nude mice develops red raised and thickened scars having intrinsic properties that closely resemble HTS formation as seen in humans. Interestingly, STSG developed more scar than FTSG. Furthermore, inflammatory cells and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes may play a critical role in HTS development in this animal model. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  6. An approach to automatic blood vessel image registration of microcirculation for blood flow analysis on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chen; Wu, Chih-Chieh; Zhang, Geoffrey; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsien; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Image registration is often a required and a time-consuming step in blood flow analysis of large microscopic video sequences in vivo. In order to obtain stable images for blood flow analysis, frame-to-frame image matching as a preprocessing step is a solution to the problem of movement during image acquisition. In this paper, microscopic system analysis without fluorescent labelling is performed to provide precise and continuous quantitative data of blood flow rate in individual microvessels of nude mice. The performance properties of several matching metrics are evaluated through simulated image registrations. An automatic image registration programme based on Powell's optimisation search method with low calculation redundancy was implemented. The matching method by variance of ratio is computationally efficient and improves the registration robustness and accuracy in practical application of microcirculation registration. The presented registration method shows acceptable results in close requisition to analyse red blood cell velocities, confirming the scientific potential of the system in blood flow analysis.

  7. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer. PMID:19152710

  8. [Influence of c-kit RNA interference mediated by AdMax adenovirus upon gastrointestinal stromal tumor in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-bao; Shi, Han-ping; Huang, Wen-sheng; Lin, Wei-hao; Dong, Wen-guang

    2011-03-01

    To investigate a novel therapeutic regiment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) based on c-kit RNA interference (RNAi) under the mediation of AdMax adenovirus. c-kit shRNA, whose lateral sides were decorated with restriction endonuclease sequences, was designed. The joining of c-kit shRNA and PDC316-EGFP-U6 was catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase to construct PDC316-EGFP-U6-C-KIT. Homologous recombination of AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was performed with AdMax system. Heterotopic transplantation of GIST in nude mice was established. AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was intratumorally injected in experimental group while blank admax adenovirus AdEGFP-U6 in control group. The volume, inhibition ratio of tumor and CD117 expression of graft tumor were compared between test and control groups. The length of c-kit shRNA was around 50 bp in agarose electrophoresis. Gene sequencing revealed the designed c-kit RNAi sequence in PDC316-EGFP-U6-C-KIT. After transfection with AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT, 293 cells presented green fluorescence. The physical and infective titer of AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was 5 × 10(11)vp/ml and 5.67 × 10(7) pfu/ml respectively. At the end of test, the mean volume of graft tumor was significantly smaller in test group than in control group [(75 ± 23) vs (989 ± 31) mm(3), P = 0.000]. The inhibition ratio of tumor was 59.6% in test group. Two cases (20%) in test group and 10 (100%) in control group had a positive expression of CD117 (P = 0.001). c-kit RNAi mediated by Admax vector system can inhibit effectively the expression of c-kit gene and the growth of GIST in nude mice.

  9. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia.

  10. Disposition and metabolism of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor in nude mice bearing human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cussac, C; Mounetou, E; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Maurizis, J C; Labarre, P; Chollet, P; Chabard, J L; Godeneche, D; Baudry, J P

    1994-01-01

    Tumor resistances to chloroethylnitrosourea (CENU) are mainly due to O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Our laboratory has synthesized a new water-soluble AGT inhibitor. O6-benzyl-N-acetylguanosine (BNAG). We have shown that this compound is able to deplete AGT activity on M4Beu human melanoma cells and to enhance the antitumor power of CENU N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea (cystemustine) towards the M4Beu melanoma grafted on nude mice. With a view to determining the best combination BNAG/CENUs conditions, we have studied the distribution and metabolism of BNAG in nude mice bearing M4Beu human melanoma. BNAG, labelled with carbon-14 on the benzyl group, was administered by single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg. Blood analysis showed that the main radioactive compound was unchanged molecule, and only a small part was found as hippuric acid resulting from the metabolic cleavage of the benzyl group. BNAG and hippuric acid were mainly eliminated in the urine. Unchanged BNAG blood kinetics showed three phases: blood epuration (t1/2 (1) = 13 min), reabsorption and elimination (t1/2 (2) = 1.7 hr). This kinetic profile is probably due to an enterohepatic cycle. BNAG is distributed in several tissues (kidney, liver, skin, duodenum, colon, tumor) but not in the central nervous system, suggesting a poor blood-brain crossing. Because an important part of the administered dose is not metabolized, high unchanged BNAG level remains in most tissues, including M4Beu tumor, and AGT depletion can occur several hours after dosing.

  11. Enhancement by N-methylformamide of the effect of ionizing radiation on a human colon tumor xenografted in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, D.L.; Lee, E.S.; Bliven, S.F.; Glicksman, A.S.; Leith, J.T.

    1984-11-01

    Polar solvents, which induce differentiation in murine and human tumor cells, enhance the effect of ionizing radiation on cultured mouse mammary and human colon cancer cells. To determine whether this enhancement occurs in vivo, DLD-2 human colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were treated with combinations of 6 MV photon irradiation, the polar solvent N-methylformamide (NMF), or combinations of the two agents. Nude mice bearing 300-mg s.c. implants of DLD-2 tumors were treated i.p. with 150 mg NMF/kg daily for 19 days. Local tumor irradiations were administered as graded single doses or as fractionated doses, daily for 4 days, following the third NMF injection. The growth-inhibiting effect of the radiation treatment for both single dose and fractionation protocols was enhanced by the polar solvent. NMF alone increased the time required for a doubling of initial tumor volume by 1.7 days, compared to control tumors. Initial tumor volume doubling times compared to untreated controls were increased by 3.6 and 7.6 days by photon doses of 10.0 and 13.75 Gy, respectively, whereas NMF plus 10.0 or 13.75 Gy increased the DLD-2 regrowth delay time by 7.5 or 12.9 days. NMF caused essentially equivalent enhancements, whether split-dose schedules of 2.5 Gy daily for 4 days, and 3.44 Gy daily for 4 days, or single doses of 10.0 and 13.75 Gy were used; therefore, radiation enhancement was not due to effects on sublethal damage repair. The results support the use of NMF, currently in Phase 1-Phase 2 clinical trials, with radiation in the therapy of selected human neoplasms.

  12. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

    2009-01-20

    Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  13. Antitumor and antimetastasis effects of carboplatin liposomes with polyethylene glycol-2000 on SGC-7901 gastric cell-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Huang, Changming; Huang, Heguang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated carboplatin liposomes (PL-CBPs), including size, stability, their release, entrapping and loading efficiencies, and their antitumor and antimetastatic effects on the lymph nodes. The PL-CBPs were prepared using PEG-2000 with the thin film hydration method. The liposome size and release, entrapping and loading efficiencies were detected by ultra-violet/visible spectrophotometry. A nude mouse model was established with the SGC-7901 gastric cell line to evaluate the antitumor effect of the PL-CBP. After 7 days, the mice were randomly divided into three groups (the control, CBP, and PL-CBP groups). CBP and PL-CBP were administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg for two consecutive cycles of treatment, 5 days apart, to their respective groups. In each group, two doses of 5 mg/kg were administered every 48 h. The tumor weight and volume were detected, and the food intake and body weight were measured during the administration. Apoptosis in the tumor cells was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and platinum (Pt) accumulation was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Lastly, lymph node metastasis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The PL-CBPs were more stable when comapred with CBP alone, and the drug release efficiency was 0.7, 22.5, 48.7 and 65.1% at 37°C for 0, 12, 24 and 48 h. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency was 85% and the loading efficiency was 0.15 mg/mg lipid. After 35 days, PL-CBP induced potent antitumor effects compared with the control and CBP groups (PL-CBP vs. control, P<0.01; PL-CBP vs. CBP, P<0.05). PL-CBP and CBP induced a lower and the lowest body weight and level of food intake, respectively, compared with the control group (CBP vs. control, P<0.05). The apoptosis rate and lymph node metastasis in the PL-CBP group was higher than that in the CBP and control groups (PL-CBP vs. control, P

  14. Use of αv Integrin Linked to Green Fluorescent Protein in Osteosarcoma Cells and Confocal Microscopy to Image Molecular Dynamics During Lung Metastasis in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Tome, Yasunori; Yano, Shuya; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Mii, Sumiyuki; Uehara, Fuminari; Miwa, Shinji; Bouvet, Michael; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    We report here imaging of the behavior of αv integrin linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in human osteosarcoma cells colonizing the lung of nude mice. 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing αv integrin-GFP were generated by transfection of an αv integrin-GFP fusion-gene vector pCMV-AC- ITGAV-GFP. In order to generate experimental lung metastases, 143B osteosarcoma cells (1×10(6)), stably expressing αv integrin-GFP, were injected intravenously via the tail vein. The osteosarcoma cells were transplanted orthotopically in the tibia of nude mice in order to generate spontaneous metastases. Lungs were harvested and imaged by confocal microscopy within 1 hour. In the experimental lung-metastasis model, extravasating and deformed osteosarcoma cells expressing αv integrin-GFP were observed. Pseudopodia of the osteosarcoma cells contained small puncta of αv integrin-GFP. In early-stage spontaneous lung metastasis, tumor emboli were observed in pulmonary vessels. At high magnification, small αv integrin-GFP puncta were observed in the tumor embolus. In late-stage spontaneous metastasis, tumor emboli were also observed in pulmonary vessels. Invading cancer cells with strong expression of αv integrin-GFP were observed at the margin of the tumor emboli. The results of this study demonstrate that molecular dynamics of αv integrin-GFP can be imaged in lung metastasis, which will allow further understanding of the role of αv integrin in this process. The results also suggest a general concept for imaging molecular behavior in vivo. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colon cancer cell seeding using a pirarubicin solution in rats and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Favoulet, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Osmak, Liliana; Polycarpe, Emmanuel; Esquis, Philippe; Duvillard, Christian; Guiu, Boris; Rat, Patrick; Favre, Jean Pierre; Chauffert, Bruno

    2004-05-01

    Free malignant cells, which are frequently detected in the washing liquid from the peritoneal cavity before and after resection of human colorectal cancer, are suspected to cause recurrent peritoneal cancer. We carried out an experimental study to compare the prophylactic efficacy of washing the peritoneum with several anticancer drugs and the antiseptic povidone-iodine against the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colonic origin in rats and nude mice. The in vitro anticancer activity of a short, 15-minute exposure of pirarubicin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and 1% povidone-iodine was first evaluated by an MTT assay on DHD/K12/PROb rat and LS174T human colon cancer cells. For the in vivo experiments, BDIX rats were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 x 10(6) DHD/K12/PROb cells followed by peritoneal scarring and a colocolic anastomosis. A 15-minute peritoneal washing with the anticancer drugs or povidone-iodine was then performed. Nude mice were i.p.-inoculated with 1 x 10(7) LS174T human cells and treated 2 hours later with i.p. pirarubicin. Only pirarubicin, mitomycin C, and povidone-iodine were fully cytotoxic in vitro against DHD/K12/PROb rat colon cancer cells. In contrast to pirarubicin and povidone-iodine, mitomycin C was not completely active against LS174Tcells. In vivo, pirarubicin cured DHD/K12/PROb-inoculated rats, even at the site of the peritoneal scarring and intestinal anastomosis. i.p. pirarubicin prevented the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and liver metastasis in LS174T-inoculated mice. i.p. washing with pirarubicin cured 2-day-old, but not 7-day-old, peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Short exposure to i.p. pirarubicin is nontoxic and more active than povidone-iodine and other anticancer drugs in preventing the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colonic origin in rats and mice. The prophylactic effect of preoperative peritoneal washing with pirarubicin on the development of

  16. In Vivo Selection of Intermediately- and Highly-Malignant Variants of Triple-negative Breast Cancer in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-12-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the absence of receptors for estrogen, progesterone and human epithelial receptor 2 (HER2), is a recalcitrant disease in need of effective therapy. We previously isolated very-highly metastatic variants of the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing red fluorescent protein (MDA-MB-231-RFP) (1×10(7) cells/site) were initially injected subcutaneously in the flank of nude mice. After the subcutaneous tumors grew, they were harvested and cut into small pieces for orthotopic implantation into the right lower mammary gland. After the orthotopic tumors grew, they were resected and cut into small pieces and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice. The tumors grew and metastasized to lymph nodes. The lymph node metastases were harvested and cut into small pieces and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice. After the orthotopic tumors grew, the tumor was removed leaving residual cancer cells, which grew and metastasized to lymph nodes. The lymph node metastases were harvested, cut into pieces and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for three or seven cycles in order to isolate intermediately, or highly-metastatic variants, respectively. The degree of malignancy of isolated variants of MDA-MB-231 depends on the extent of orthotopic transplantation. Serial transplantation resulted in MDA-MB-231-RFP which significantly produced larger tumors compared with the parental MDA-MB-231-RFP. Serial orthotopic implantation for three cycles resulted in intermediately-metastatic variants of MDA-MB-231-RFP. MDA-MB-231-RFP serially orthotopically transplanted seven times significantly metastasized more to lymph nodes compared with parental MDA-MB-231-RFP cells and the intermediately-metastatic variant. The highly-metastatic variant MDA-MB-231-RFP cells

  17. Low-dose dietary genistein negates the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xujuan; Hartman, James A.; Cooke, Paul S.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Ju, Young H.; Helferich, William G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of dietary genistein, a soy isoflavone, on breast cancer patients who take tamoxifen, an antiestrogen treatment, using a preclinical model. The interaction of various doses of genistein with tamoxifen on the growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells was investigated by subcutaneously injecting MCF-7 cells into the flank of ovariectomized athymic mice. Animals were randomized into eight experimental groups with 10–13 mice per group: control (C), estrogen (E) (0.08 mg E implant), tamoxifen (T) (3 mg T implant), estrogen + tamoxifen (E + T), tamoxifen + 500 p.p.m. genistein (T + G500), estrogen + tamoxifen + 250 p.p.m. genistein (E + T + G250), estrogen + tamoxifen + 500 p.p.m. genistein (E + T + G500) and estrogen + tamoxifen + 1000 p.p.m. genistein (E + T + G1000). Treatment of tamoxifen significantly reduced the estrogen-induced MCF-7 tumor prevalence and tumor size. This inhibitory effect of tamoxifen was significantly negated by the low doses of dietary genistein (250 and 500 p.p.m.), whereas the 1000 p.p.m. genistein did not have the same effect. Cells harvested from tamoxifen-treated tumors retained estrogen responsiveness of their progenitor MCF-7 cells, indicating that the abrogating effect of genistein on tamoxifen-treated tumor growth was not caused by a diminished tamoxifen response but directly by genistein. The low doses of dietary genistein abrogated the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen potentially by acting on the tumor cell proliferation/apoptosis ratio and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cyclin D1 in addition to regulating the mRNA expression of progesterone receptor. Therefore, data from the current study suggest that caution is warranted regarding the consumption of dietary genistein by breast cancer patients while on tamoxifen therapy. PMID:22266527

  18. MMP-12-mediated by SARM-TRIF signaling pathway contributes to IFN-γ-independent airway inflammation and AHR post RSV infection in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaoru; Li, Simin; Xie, Jun; Li, Wei; Zang, Na; Ren, Luo; Deng, Yu; Xie, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijia; Fu, Zhou; Liu, Enmei

    2015-02-05

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-γ. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-γ, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-γ in the condition of RSV infection. Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-γ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-γ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-γ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression. RSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-γ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-γ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the

  19. Subcutaneous administration of D-luciferin is an effective alternative to intraperitoneal injection in bioluminescence imaging of xenograft tumors in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ashraf A.; Jameson, Mark J.; Broaddus, William C.; Chung, Theodore D.; Golding, Sarah E.; Dever, Seth M.; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Currently, intraperitoneal (IP) injection of D-luciferin is the preferred method of providing substrate for bioluminescent imaging (BLI); however it has a failure rate of 3–10% due to accidental intestinal injection. The present study evaluates the quality of BLI after subcutaneous (SC) injection of D-luciferin and demonstrates the effectiveness of SC injection in anatomically disparate tumor models. Mice bearing luciferase-expressing tumors underwent BLI after SC or IP injection of D-luciferin. The average time to maximal luminescence was 6 min (range 5–9 min) after SC injection and 8 min (range 5–8 min) after IP injection. Within 7 minutes of injection, SC and IP routes yielded similar luminescence in subcutaneous, intracranial, tongue, and lung xenograft tumor models. In a model of combined subcutaneous and intracranial xenografts, SC injection resulted in proportional luminescence at all sites, confirming that preferential delivery of substrate does not occur. While tumors were occasionally not visualized with IP injection, all tumors were visualized reliably with SC injection. Thus, SC injection of D-luciferin is a convenient and effective alternative to IP injection for BLI in nude mice. It may be a preferable approach, particularly for tumors with weaker signals and/or when greater precision is required. PMID:25392739

  20. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice V. The effects of PMSG upon the numbers and growth of follicles in the early juvenile ovary.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The composition and growth patterns of the ovarian follicle population have been determined in early juvenile athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates. Nude ovaries contained significantly more primordial follicles and fewer trilaminar follicles at 10 days of age. The rate of growth of the oocyte nucleolus was significantly less than in control ovaries. Treatment with PMSG from days 7 to 9 restored the rate of oocyte nucleolar growth in nudes to control levels. PMSG also increased the number of follicles commencing growth in both nudes and controls and the differences in the numbers of primordial and trilaminar follicles were no longer detectable. The data demonstrate that abnormalities in the ovarian follicle population of the nude are detectable as early as the 10th day of life and can be reversed by treatment with exogenous gonadotrophin. These results are discussed in relation to the role of the thymus gland in ovarian development and the competence of the early juvenile ovary to respond to gonadotrophin.

  1. Micro-computed tomography evaluation of human fat grafts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael T; Hyun, Jeong S; Lo, David D; Montoro, Daniel T; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Levi, Benjamin; Januszyk, Michael; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2013-03-01

    Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis. Human fat grafts were prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique. Fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of 10 adult Crl:NU-Foxn1(nu) CD-1 male mice. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately following injection and then weekly thereafter. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) surface through cubic-spline interpolation. Specimens were also harvested at various time points and sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for macrophages using CD68 and for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Finally, samples were explanted at 8- and 12-week time points to validate calculated micro-CT volumes. Weekly CT scanning demonstrated progressive volume loss over the time course. However, volumetric analysis at the 8- and 12-week time points stabilized, showing an average of 62.2% and 60.9% survival, respectively. Gross analysis showed the fat graft to be healthy and vascularized. H&E analysis and staining for CD68 showed minimal inflammatory reaction with viable adipocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CB1 antibodies confirmed human origin of the adipocytes. Studies assessing the fate of autologous fat grafts in animals have focused on nonimaging modalities, including histological and biochemical analyses, which require euthanasia of the animals. In this study, we have demonstrated the ability to employ micro-CT for 3D reconstruction and volumetric analysis of human fat grafts in a mouse model. Importantly, this model provides a platform for

  2. Complete regression of experimental prostate cancer in nude mice by repeated hyperthermia using magnetite cationic liposomes and a newly developed solenoid containing a ferrite core.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Noriyasu; Ito, Akira; Nakahara, Yoko; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2006-05-15

    Magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) can be used to induce hyperthermia because they generate heat in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). This study aimed at developing more practical method for MCL hyperthermia examining the effect of MCL-induced hyperthermia on human prostate cancer in vivo. A newly developed AMF generator incorporating a solenoid with a ferrite core (FC) was used. Human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and LNCap) were injected subcutaneously into nude mice. MCLs were injected into tumor nodule and the mice were exposed into AMF three times at 24-hr intervals (repeated hyperthermia; RH) until complete tumor regression was observed. Irradiation with an AMF generated by newly developed device can adequately increase the temperature of tumor tissue. Frequent RH resulted in complete tumor regression in all nude mice. RH using MCLs may be a promising new therapy for hormone-refractory human prostate cancer in the future.

  3. Vascularization and innervation of slits within polydimethylsiloxane sheets in the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gurlin, Rachel E; Keating, Mark T; Li, Shiri; Lakey, Jonathan Rt; de Feraudy, Sébastien; Shergill, Bhupinder S; Botvinick, Elliot L

    2017-01-01

    Success of cell therapy in avascular sites will depend on providing sufficient blood supply to transplanted tissues. A popular strategy of providing blood supply is to embed cells within a functionalized hydrogel implanted within the host to stimulate neovascularization. However, hydrogel systems are not always amenable for removal post-transplantation; thus, it may be advantageous to implant a device that contains cells while also providing access to the circulation so retrieval is possible. Here we investigate one instance of providing access to a vessel network, a thin sheet with through-cut slits, and determine if it can be vascularized from autologous materials. We compared the effect of slit width on vascularization of a thin sheet following subcutaneous implantation into an animal model. Polydimethylsiloxane sheets with varying slit widths (approximately 150, 300, 500, or 1500 µm) were fabricated from three-dimensional printed molds. Subcutaneous implantation of sheets in immunodeficient mice revealed that smaller slit widths have evidence of angiogenesis and new tissue growth, while larger slit widths contain native mature tissue squeezing into the space. Our results show that engineered slit sheets may provide a simple approach to cell transplantation by providing a prevascularized and innervated environment.

  4. Vascularization and innervation of slits within polydimethylsiloxane sheets in the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Gurlin, Rachel E; Keating, Mark T; Li, Shiri; Lakey, Jonathan RT; de Feraudy, Sébastien; Shergill, Bhupinder S; Botvinick, Elliot L

    2017-01-01

    Success of cell therapy in avascular sites will depend on providing sufficient blood supply to transplanted tissues. A popular strategy of providing blood supply is to embed cells within a functionalized hydrogel implanted within the host to stimulate neovascularization. However, hydrogel systems are not always amenable for removal post-transplantation; thus, it may be advantageous to implant a device that contains cells while also providing access to the circulation so retrieval is possible. Here we investigate one instance of providing access to a vessel network, a thin sheet with through-cut slits, and determine if it can be vascularized from autologous materials. We compared the effect of slit width on vascularization of a thin sheet following subcutaneous implantation into an animal model. Polydimethylsiloxane sheets with varying slit widths (approximately 150, 300, 500, or 1500 µm) were fabricated from three-dimensional printed molds. Subcutaneous implantation of sheets in immunodeficient mice revealed that smaller slit widths have evidence of angiogenesis and new tissue growth, while larger slit widths contain native mature tissue squeezing into the space. Our results show that engineered slit sheets may provide a simple approach to cell transplantation by providing a prevascularized and innervated environment. PMID:28228933

  5. Therapeutic effect against human xenograft tumors in nude mice by the third generation microtubule stabilizing epothilones.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Zhong, Zi-Yang; Li, Yong; Feng, Li; Eng, Sara; Myles, David R; Johnson, Robert; Wu, Nian; Yin, Ye Ingrid; Wilson, Rebecca M; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2008-09-02

    The epothilones represent a promising class of natural product-based antitumor drug candidates. Although these compounds operate through a microtubule stabilization mechanism similar to that of taxol, the epothilones offer a major potential therapeutic advantage in that they retain their activity against multidrug-resistant cell lines. We have been systematically synthesizing and evaluating synthetic epothilone congeners that are not accessible through modification of the natural product itself. We report herein the results of biological investigations directed at two epothilone congeners: iso-fludelone and iso-dehydelone. Iso-fludelone, in particular, exhibits a number of properties that render it an excellent candidate for preclinical development, including biological stability, excellent solubility in water, and remarkable potency relative to other epothilones. In nude mouse xenograft settings, iso-fludelone was able to achieve therapeutic cures against a number of human cancer cell lines, including mammarian-MX-1, ovarian-SK-OV-3, and the fast-growing, refractory, subcutaneous neuroblastoma-SK-NAS. Strong therapeutic effect was observed against drug-resistant lung-A549/taxol and mammary-MCF-7/Adr xenografts. In addition, iso-fludelone was shown to exhibit a significant therapeutic effect against an intracranially implanted SK-NAS tumor.

  6. High-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice using clinical PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying Yi; Wang, Kai; Xu, Zuo Yu; Song, Yan; Wang, Chu Nan; Zhang, Chong Qing; Sun, Xi Lin; Shen, Bao Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Considering the general application of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography is limited, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. To estimate the feasibility of using clinical PET/CT with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for high-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cancer xenografts in nude mice. Dynamic clinical PET/CT scans were performed on xenografts for 60 min after injection with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Scans were reconstructed with or without SharpIR method in two phases. And mice were sacrificed to extracting major organs and tumors, using ex vivo γ-counting as a reference. Strikingly, we observed that the image quality and the correlation between the all quantitive data from clinical PET/CT and the ex vivo counting was better with the SharpIR reconstructions than without. Our data demonstrate that clinical PET/CT scanner with SharpIR reconstruction is a valuable tool for imaging small animals in preclinical cancer research, offering dynamic imaging parameters, good image quality and accurate data quatification. PMID:28881772

  7. High-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice using clinical PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying Yi; Wang, Kai; Xu, Zuo Yu; Song, Yan; Wang, Chu Nan; Zhang, Chong Qing; Sun, Xi Lin; Shen, Bao Zhong

    2017-08-08

    Considering the general application of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography is limited, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. To estimate the feasibility of using clinical PET/CT with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for high-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cancer xenografts in nude mice. Dynamic clinical PET/CT scans were performed on xenografts for 60 min after injection with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Scans were reconstructed with or without SharpIR method in two phases. And mice were sacrificed to extracting major organs and tumors, using ex vivo γ-counting as a reference. Strikingly, we observed that the image quality and the correlation between the all quantitive data from clinical PET/CT and the ex vivo counting was better with the SharpIR reconstructions than without. Our data demonstrate that clinical PET/CT scanner with SharpIR reconstruction is a valuable tool for imaging small animals in preclinical cancer research, offering dynamic imaging parameters, good image quality and accurate data quatification.

  8. [Experimental study of skin wound healing with epidermal stem cells from human hypertrophic scar in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuping; Huang, Zhilong; Ma, Jiguang; Xu, Jingjing; Cai, Jinglong; Zong, Xianlei; Du, Le

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effect of epidermal stem cells from human hypertrophic scar (HS-ESCs) on the skin wound healing in nude mice. 40 mice were randomly divided into two groups as experimental group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20). Wounds, 1 cm in diameters, were made on every mouse back. The wounds were treated with HS-ESCs and erythromycin ointment in experimental group, or only with erythromycin ointment in control group. The wound healing was observed during the following 14 days. The expression of collagen-I, collagen-III, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) , transforming growth factor (TGFbeta1, and TGFbeta2) were studied. The wound healing time in the experimental group was (20.8 +/- 0.84) d, which was (25.6 +/- 0.89) d in the control group. HE staining revealed that the extent of vascularization in the experimental group was 11.60 +/- 0.55, while it was 8.04 +/- 0.33 in the control group. Immunochemistry analysis showed the expression of collagen-I, collagen-III, EGF, FGF2, TGFbeta1, and TGFbeta2 in the experimental group were significantly higher, compared with those in control group (P < 0.05). HS-ESCs may promote wound healing through enhancement of the vascularization of the wound tissue and the expression of growth factors.

  9. Anti-tumour activity of photodynamic therapy in combination with mitomycin C in nude mice with human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L. W.; Moan, J.; Steen, H. B.; Iani, V.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and a chemotherapeutic drug, mitomycin C (MMC), was investigated using WiDr human colon adenocarcinoma tumours implanted on Balb/c athymic nude mice. The WiDr tumours were treated with PDT alone, MMC alone or with both. It was found that the combined treatment produced a greater retardation in the growth of the WiDr tumour than monotherapy with MMC or PDT. The synergistic effect was especially prominent when PDT was used in combination with a low dose of MMC (1 mg kg-1), since treatment of 1 mg kg-1 MMC alone had no effect on the tumour. The anti-tumour activity of PDT was found to be increased with MMC of 5 mg kg-1. The response of normal skin on mice feet to PDT slightly greater when PDT was combined with 5 mg kg-1 MMC than when PDT was applied alone, while no detectable additional effect on skin photosensitivity was observed when PDT was combined with 1 mg kg-1 MMC. An enhanced uptake of Photofrin in tumours was found 12 h and 24 h after administration of MMC. The effect of MMC on the cell cycle distribution of cell dissociated directly from the tumours was studied. The results suggest that the increased susceptibility to photoinactivation of Photofrin-sensitised tumours may be due to MMC-induced accumulation of the tumour cells in S-phase. PMID:7734319

  10. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable.

  11. The hepoxilin analog, PBT-3, inhibits growth of K-562 CML solid tumours in vivo in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Qiao, Na; Reynaud, Denis; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Pace-Asciak, Cecil R

    2005-01-01

    PBT-3 is one of a family of stable chemical analogs of the hepoxilins, products derived from arachidonic acid. We previously showed that PBT-3 caused apoptosis in the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K-562 in vitro (Anti-cancer Res 23: 3617-3622, 2003). It was as effective as Gleevec, a novel agent that blocks tyrosine kinase activity during treatment of CML. We describe, herein, the growth inhibiting effects of PBT-3 in nude mice into which K-562 cells were transplanted subcutaneously. Groups of mice were treated with vehicle as control, or PBT-3, or Gleevec. PBT-3 was effective during the 8-day treatment protocol in inhibiting the growth of the tumours in vivo as was Gleevec. Analysis of the tumours demonstrated the presence of apoptosis (DNA laddering and TUNEL assay) in both the PBT-3- and Gleevec-treated groups. These results demonstrate that PBT-3 is effective in vivo in controlling tumour growth and provides a novel platform for the therapeutic control of cancer.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  13. Micro-Computed Tomography Evaluation of Human Fat Grafts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael T.; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D.; Montoro, Daniel T.; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Levi, Benjamin; Januszyk, Michael; Longaker, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis. Methods Human fat grafts were prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique. Fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of 10 adult Crl:NU-Foxn1nu CD-1 male mice. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately following injection and then weekly thereafter. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) surface through cubic-spline interpolation. Specimens were also harvested at various time points and sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for macrophages using CD68 and for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Finally, samples were explanted at 8- and 12-week time points to validate calculated micro-CT volumes. Results Weekly CT scanning demonstrated progressive volume loss over the time course. However, volumetric analysis at the 8- and 12-week time points stabilized, showing an average of 62.2% and 60.9% survival, respectively. Gross analysis showed the fat graft to be healthy and vascularized. H&E analysis and staining for CD68 showed minimal inflammatory reaction with viable adipocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CB1 antibodies confirmed human origin of the adipocytes. Conclusions Studies assessing the fate of autologous fat grafts in animals have focused on nonimaging modalities, including histological and biochemical analyses, which require euthanasia of the animals. In this study, we have demonstrated the ability to employ micro-CT for 3D reconstruction and volumetric analysis of human fat grafts in a mouse model. Importantly

  14. The remedial effect of soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II on endometriosis in the nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liying; Sun, Liang; Cui, Yugui; Hou, Zhen; Gao, Li; Zhou, Jing; Mao, Yundong; Han, Suping; Liu, Jiayin

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the local expression of soluble interleukin (IL) -1 receptor type II (sIL-1 RII) in endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis is decreased, and the depression of IL-1 RII was more significant in infertile women than that in fertile women with endometriosis. In this research, we investigated the remedial effect of sIL-1-RII administration on endometriosis in the nude mouse model. NINETEEN NUDE MODEL MICE WITH ENDOMETRIOSIS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: group A was treated by intraperitoneal administration with only sIL-1 RII for two weeks, group B was similarly treated with only IL-1, and group C (control) was administered saline . After 2 weeks, the size of the ectopic endometrial lesions was calculated, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and B-cell lymphoma leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The IL-8 and VEGF levels in the peritoneal fluid (PF) and serum were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean size of ectopic endometrial lesion did not differ between the three groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, the expression of VEGF and Bcl-2 was significantly lower in group A, and higher in group B. In the three groups, the levels of IL-8 in the PF and serum were highest in group A, and lowest in group B. sIL-1 RII may suppresse hyperplasia of ectopic endometriosis, perhaps by reducing the expression of certain cytokines, such as VEGF, IL-8, and Bcl-2, which could provide a new clinical strategy for the treatment of endometriosis.

  15. A nude mouse model of obesity to study the mechanisms of resistance to aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schech, Amanda; Yu, Stephen; Goloubeva, Olga; McLenithan, John; Sabnis, Gauri

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer progression. Breast cancer patients who are overweight or obese or have excess abdominal fat have an increased risk of local or distant recurrence and cancer-related death. Hormone depletion therapies can also cause weight gain, exacerbating the risk for these patients. To understand the effect of obesity on hormone-dependent human breast cancer tumors, we fed ovariectomized athymic nude mice a diet containing 45% kcal fat and 17% kcal sucrose (high fat sucrose diet (HFSD)), 10% kcal fat (low fat diet (LFD)), or a standard chow diet (chow). The mice fed the HFSD developed metabolic abnormalities consistent with the development of obesity such as weight gain, high fasting blood glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance. These mice also developed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The obese mice also had a higher tumor growth rate compared to the lean mice. Furthermore, the obese mice showed a significantly reduced responsiveness to letrozole. To understand the role of obesity in this reduced responsiveness, we examined the effect of insulin on the growth of MCF-7Ca cells in response to estrogen or letrozole. The presence of insulin rendered MCF-7Ca cells less responsive to estrogen and letrozole. Exogenous insulin treatment of MCF-7Ca cells also resulted in increased p-Akt as well as ligand-independent phosphorylation of ERα. These findings suggest that diet-induced obesity may result in reduced responsiveness of tumors to letrozole due to the development of hyperinsulinemia. We conclude that obesity influences the response and resistance of breast cancer tumors to aromatase inhibitor treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Sensitization of cerebral tissue in nude mice with photodynamic therapy induces ADAM17/TACE and promotes glioma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Katakowski, Mark; Zhang, Xuepeng; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a mild cerebral tissue injury promotes subsequent glioma invasion via activation of the ADAM17-EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Mild injury was induced by Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which employs tissue-penetrating laser light exposure following systemic administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizer. Athymic nude mice were treated with sublethal PDT (80J/cm2 with 2mg/kg Photofrin). Hypoxic stress and ADAM17-EGFR-PI3K-Akt were measured using Western blot and immunostaining. Additional groups with/without pro-sublethal PDT were subsequently implanted with U87 glioma tumor cell. Tumor invasion and ADAM17-EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway in tumor area were measured. After a sublethal dose of PDT, HIF-1α expression was increased by a factor of three in PDT-treated normal brain tissue compared to contralateral control brain tissue. PDT-treated brain tissue exhibited a significant increase in ADAM17, p-EGFR, p-Akt expression compared to non-treated tissue. ADAM17 positive area significantly increased from 1.78% to 10.89%. The percentage of p-EGFR and p-Akt positive cells significantly increased from 9.50% and 14.50% to 21.31% and 32.29%,respectively, PDT treatment significantly increased subsequent implanted U87 glioma cell invasion by 3.68-fold and increased ADAM17, EGFR, p-EGFR, Akt, p-Akt expression by 178%, 43.9%,152.7%, 89.6%,and 164.2%, respectively, compared to control group. Our data showed that a sublethal sensitization of cerebral tissue with PDT significantly increased U87 cell invasion in nude mice, and that glioma cell invasion is highly correlated with activation of the ADAM17-EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway (r=0.928, 0.775, 0.870, 0.872, and 0.883, respectively), most likely via HIF-1α. PMID:18358600

  17. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs–scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 106 cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. PMID:26253192

  18. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  19. In vivo evidences of nanosecond pulsed electric fields for melanoma malignancy treatment on tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Yao, C; Li, C; Mi, Y; Peng, Q; Tang, J

    2014-08-01

    In order to get in vivo evidences of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) for skin tumor treatment, tumor models in 10 female BALB/c nude mice were established by inoculating them with human melanoma cells A375. These mice were randomly divided into treated group (exposed to nsPEF with intensity of 20 kV/cm and duration of 300 ns) and control group equally. Five days post-nsPEF treatment, tumor growth in the treated group was effectively inhibited (P < 0.01 compared with that in control group), typical apoptotic characteristics (DNA damage and fragmentation) were observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and significant increases in Bax and decreases in Bcl-2, micro-vessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were observed by immunohistochemistry (P < 0.01). These experimental results indicate that in vivo tumor growth can be effectively inhibited by nsPEF, which activate two targets, apoptosis initiation and angiogenesis inhibition.

  20. Antisense oligonucleotides adsorbed to polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles specifically inhibit mutated Ha-ras-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, G; Chavany, C; Duroux, I; Goubin, G; Lebeau, J; Hélène, C; Saison-Behmoaras, T

    1994-01-01

    Ras oncogenes owe their transforming properties to single point mutations in the sequence coding for the active site of the p21 protein. These mutations lead to changes in cellular proliferation and induce tumorigenic properties. Point mutations represent a well-defined target for antisense oligonucleotides that can specifically suppress the translation of the targeted mutant mRNA. We show that the stability and cellular disponibility of antisense oligonucleotides can be markedly improved by adsorption to polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles. Nanoparticle-adsorbed antisense oligonucleotides directed to a point mutation (G-->U) in codon 12 of the Ha-ras mRNA selectively inhibited the proliferation of cells expressing the point-mutated Ha-ras gene at a concentration 100 times lower than free oligonucleotides. In addition they markedly inhibited Ha-ras-dependent tumor growth in nude mice after subcutaneous injection. These experiments show that inhibition of ras oncogenes by antisense oligonucleotides can block tumor development even though ras oncogenic activation might be an early event in tumor progression. Images PMID:7937975

  1. Combining metformin and nelfinavir exhibits synergistic effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chenglai; Chen, Ruihong; Chen, Jinman; Qi, Qianqian; Pan, Yanbin; Du, Lanying; Xiao, Guohong; Jiang, Shibo

    2017-01-01

    Human cervical cancer is the fourth most common carcinoma in women worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance calls for continuously developing new anticancer drugs and combination chemotherapy regimens. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cervical cancer effects of metformin, a first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, when used alone or in combination. We found that both metformin and nelfinavir, when used alone, were moderately effective in inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration and invasion of human cervical cell lines HeLa, SiHa and CaSki. When used in combination, these two drugs acted synergistically to inhibit the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and cervical cancer cell xenograft in vivo in nude mice, and suppress cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. The protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit PI3K(p110α), which can promote tumor growth, was remarkably downregulated, while the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21 were substantially upregulated following the combinational treatment in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that clinical use of metformin and nelfinavir in combination is expected to have synergistic antitumor efficacy and significant potential for the treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:28252027

  2. Distinct morphological and immunohistochemical features and different growth rates among four human neuroblastomas heterotransplanted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Nobuo; Hitomi, Jiro; Kusakabe, Takashi; Fukuda, Takeaki; Hirota, Masayuki; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

    2008-09-01

    To elucidate more precisely the biological characteristics of neuroblastomas, we examined four human neuroblastomas heterotransplanted into athymic nude mice NB-39 (undifferentiated type), NB-45 (poorly differentiated type with undifferentiated component), NB-52 (poorly differentiated type), and NB-726 (differentiating type) by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and radioimmunoassay for the peptides in tumors. Ultrastructurally, NB-45, NB-52, and NB-726 contained more numerous and variously sized neurosecretory granules than did NB-39. Immunohistochemistry revealed neurofilament proteins, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and chromogranin A-positive cells in the four tumors in the following order of frequency: NB-726, NB-45, NB-52, and NB-39. NB-726, NB-45, and NB-52, but not NB-39, contained galanin-positive tumor cells. NB-45 and NB-726 harbored a few positive cells for calcitonin gene-related peptide. Furthermore, NB-726 exhibited positivity to leu-enkephalin, met-enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and serotonin. Radioimmunoassay substantiated the results of immunohistochemistry, showing NPY in all tumors and either galanin or VIP in three tumors, excepting NB-39. Average doubling time of the tumor was as follows: 2 days in NB-39, 10 days in NB-45, 22 days in NB-52, and 45 days in NB-726. These results indicate that human neuroblastoma cells have different biological characteristics and reduced growth rate with differentiation in terms of ultrastructure and of peptide production abilities.

  3. Differential permeability of the blood-brain barrier in experimental brain metastases produced by human neoplasms implanted into nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, R. D.; Price, J. E.; Fujimaki, T.; Bucana, C. D.; Fidler, I. J.

    1992-01-01

    This study clarified whether and when the blood-brain barrier in experimental brain metastases is impaired by using hydrosoluble sodium fluorescein (MW 376) as a blood-brain barrier function indicator. Cells from eight human tumor lines (four melanomas, two breast carcinomas, one colon carcinoma, and one renal carcinoma) were inoculated into the internal carotid artery of nude mice. Brain metastases at different stages of development were sampled and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier around the metastases determined. Histologic examination showed two patterns of tumor growth. In the first, tumor cells formed isolated, well-defined nodules in the parenchyma of the brain. In lesions smaller than 0.2 mm2, the blood-brain barrier was intact. In the second, small diffuse nests of tumor cells were distributed throughout the brain parenchyma. The blood-brain barrier was intact until the small tumor cell colonies coalesced to form large tumor masses. These results suggest that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier varies among different experimental brain metastases and that its function is related to the growth pattern and size of the lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1443046

  4. Implantation of preadipocyte-loaded hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds into nude mice to evaluate potential for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hemmrich, Karsten; von Heimburg, Dennis; Rendchen, Raoul; Di Bartolo, Chiara; Milella, Eva; Pallua, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    The reconstruction of soft tissue defects following extensive deep burns or tumor resections remains an unresolved problem in plastic and reconstructive surgery since adequate implant materials are still not available. Preadipocytes, immature precursor cells found between mature adipocytes in adipose tissue, are a potential material for soft tissue engineering since they can proliferate and differentiate into adipose tissue after transplantation. In previous studies, we identified hyaluronan benzyl ester (HYAFF 11) sponges to be promising carrier matrices. This study now evaluates, in vitro and in vivo, a new sponge architecture with pores of 400 microm either made of plain HYAFF 11 or HYAFF 11 coated with the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid. Human preadipocytes were isolated, seeded onto carriers and implanted into nude athymic mice. Explants harvested after 3, 8, and 12 weeks were examined for macroscopical appearance, thickness, weight, pore structure, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Compared to previous studies, we found better penetration of cells into both types of scaffolds, with more extensive formation of new vessels throughout the construct but with only minor adipose tissue. Our encouraging results contribute towards a better seeded and vascularised scaffold but also show that the enhancement of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes remains a major task for further in vivo experiments.

  5. Synthetic paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate reversing the resistance of A2780/Taxol to paclitaxel in xenografted tumor in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Yang; Fan, Li-Li; Ren, Mu-Lan; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peptide hormone-based targeted therapy to tumors has been studied extensively. Our previous study shows that somatostatin receptor expresses high level on drug-resistant human ovarian cancer. The paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate (POC) exhibits enhanced growth inhibition, as well as reduced toxicity, in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted cytotoxicity and potential reversal mechanism of resistance in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells xenografted into nude mice. The SSTR2 shows higher expression levels in tumor tissue. Moreover, fluorescein-labeled POC displays favorable targeting in tumor cells. POC presents the perfect efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth and exerts lower or no toxic effects on normal tissues. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting has demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expressions of SSTR2 in POC group were significantly higher, while MDR1, α-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, VEGF and MMP-9 were significantly lower than in the other treatment groups and controls. Combined with the previous study in vitro, this study evaluates an effective approach on the treatment of paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer which expresses somatostatin receptor SSTR. Our investigation has also revealed the possible molecular mechanism of POC in treating the ovarian cancer, and therefore, provided a theoretical basis for the clinical application of this newly-invented compound. PMID:27825139

  6. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Li, Weiyong; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Ziming; Wang, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor effect of Lentinan is thought rely on the activation of immune responses; however, little is known about whether Lentinan also directly attacks cancer cells. We therefore investigated the direct antitumor activity of SLNT (a water-extracted polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes) and its probable mechanism. We showed that SLNT significantly inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Annxein V-FITC/PI, DAPI, AO/EB and H&E staining assays all showed that SLNT induced cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. SLNT induced apoptosis by activating Caspase-3 via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, which presented as the activation of Caspases-9 and -8, upregulation of cytochrome c and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, downregulation of NF-κB, and overproduction of ROS and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO or antioxidant NAC blocked SLNT-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SLNT exerts direct antitumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated intrinsic and TNF-α-mediated extrinsic pathways. SLNT may thus represent a useful candidate for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27888812

  7. Synthetic paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate reversing the resistance of A2780/Taxol to paclitaxel in xenografted tumor in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Yang; Fan, Li-Li; Ren, Mu-Lan; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-12-13

    Peptide hormone-based targeted therapy to tumors has been studied extensively. Our previous study shows that somatostatin receptor expresses high level on drug-resistant human ovarian cancer. The paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate (POC) exhibits enhanced growth inhibition, as well as reduced toxicity, in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted cytotoxicity and potential reversal mechanism of resistance in paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells xenografted into nude mice. The SSTR2 shows higher expression levels in tumor tissue. Moreover, fluorescein-labeled POC displays favorable targeting in tumor cells. POC presents the perfect efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth and exerts lower or no toxic effects on normal tissues. Real-time PCR and Western Blotting has demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expressions of SSTR2 in POC group were significantly higher, while MDR1, α-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, VEGF and MMP-9 were significantly lower than in the other treatment groups and controls. Combined with the previous study in vitro, this study evaluates an effective approach on the treatment of paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer which expresses somatostatin receptor SSTR. Our investigation has also revealed the possible molecular mechanism of POC in treating the ovarian cancer, and therefore, provided a theoretical basis for the clinical application of this newly-invented compound.

  8. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity.

  9. Evaluation of wound healing effect on skin-defect nude mice by using human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Perng, C-K; Ku, H-H; Chiou, S-H; Chen, I-L; Tsai, F-T; Yang, Y-P; Chang, K Y; Kao, C-L

    2006-11-01

    We report that human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) possess differentiation potential of epidermis facilitating wound healing in skin-defect nude mice in combination with the treatment using gelatin/thermosensitive poly N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAm)/polypropylene (PP). The results showed that the rate of cell growth and wound recovery in the hDMSC and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group was significantly greater than those in the gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated only group (P < .01). The reepithelialization marker of human pan-cytokeratin was also significantly increased on days 14 and day 21 in the wound site of hDMSCs and gelatin/pNIPAAm/PP-treated group. Furthermore, the stem cell marker of human CD13 gradually decreased during the period of wound healing. In sum, this novel method provided a transferring system for stem cell therapy, maintaining its temperature-sensitive property of easy peeling by lower temperature treatment.

  10. Radiolabeling of substance P with lutetium-177 and biodistribution study in rat pancreatic tumor xenografted nude mice.

    PubMed

    De Araújo, E B; Pujatti, P B; Mengatti, J

    2010-05-10

    Pancreatic tumor (PT) is a neuroendocrine neoplasm that usually origin metastases in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The presence of peptide receptors at the cell membrane of PT constitutes the basis of the clinical use of specific radiolabeled ligands for its diagnosis and targeted therapy. Substance P (SP), an 11-amino acid peptide which has an important role in modulating pain transmission trough neurokinin type 1 (NK1r) and 2 receptors (NK2r), may play a role in the pathogenesis of PT, because approximately 10% of these tumors overexpress NK1r. The aim of the present work was to produce a pure and stable SP analog (DOTA-SP) radiolabeled with lutetium-177 ((177)Lu), and to evaluate its in vivo target to AR42J pancreatic tumor cells in Nude mice, in other to verify if SP can be used in this pancreatic tumor detection and treatment. Substance P was successfully labeled with high yield (>99%) at optimized conditions and kept stable for more than 72 hours at 2-8 degrees C and 4 hours in human plasma. Biodistribution studies showed that SP excretion was mainly performed by renal pathway. In addition, (177)Lu-DOTA-SP showed higher uptake by tumor than normal pancreas, indicating the presence of NK receptors in AR42J pancreatic tumor.

  11. Optoacoustic 3D whole-body tomography: experiments in nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Fronheiser, Matt; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Liopo, Anton; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2009-02-01

    We developed a 3D whole-body optoacoustic tomography system for applications in preclinical research on mice. The system is capable of generating images with resolution better than 0.6 mm. Two pulsed lasers, an Alexandrite laser operating at 755 nm and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 1064nm were used for light delivery. The tomographic images were obtained while the objects of study (phantoms or mice) were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. During the scan, the mouse was illuminated orthogonally to the array with two wide beams of light from a bifurcated fiber bundle. Illumination at 532 nm showed superficial vasculature, but limited penetration depth at this wavelength prevented the detection of deeper structures. Illumination at 755 and 1064 nm showed organs and blood vessels, respectively. Filtering of the optoacoustic signals using high frequency enhancing wavelets further emphasized the smaller blood vessels.

  12. Relative potencies of different anti-herpes agents in the topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, J; De Clercq, E; Barr, P J; Jones, A S; Walker, R T; Torrence, P F; Shugar, D

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen established anti-herpes compounds have been directly compared in a single assay system for their effects on the development of herpetic skin lesions, and mortality associated therewith, in athymic nude (nu/nu) mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOS). When applied topically (at 1% in a water-soluble ointment), phosphonoacetic acid, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, acycloguanosine, and trisodium phosphonoformate emerged as the most active agents. PMID:526011

  13. Experimental immunotherapy of human breast carcinomas implanted in nude mice with a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against human milk fat globule components.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, R L; Blank, E W; Peterson, J A

    1987-01-15

    Immunological therapy of BALB/c nude mice (nu/nu) implanted with human breast tumors, estrogen receptor negative MX-1 and estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7, was carried out with four monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against human milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins also present on normal breast epithelial cells. MoAbs injected singly or as a partial mixture arrested growth of the tumors but to a lesser extent than a mixture ("cocktail") of all four MoAbs. Two model systems were developed in order to examine the capabilities of the four MoAbs to arrest human mammary tumor growth. In the first model the ability of these MoAbs to arrest tumor growth during a 6- to 8-week period was tested by injection of the MoAbs immediately before and after implantation (passive immunization) and thereafter every other day. In the second model the effect of these MoAbs on established and growing tumors was tested. Using the cocktail in the passive immunization protocol, human mammary tumor growth in nu/nu mice was arrested either completely or averaging to one-tenth the size of the controls for those mice in which the tumors had taken. Other human carcinomas, colon and lung, under the same protocol, were not affected. Injection of cocktail every 2 days into nu/nu mice with established and growing human breast tumors (both estrogen receptor positive and negative) produced arrests of tumor growth of 44.1, 45.2, 49.8% of their controls after 7 to 8 days of treatment. Previously, it has been established that human mammary tumors are heterogeneous in expression of the human milk fat globule antigens recognized by our antibodies to the extent that some cells may have large amounts and others no detectable amount of a particular antigen. Those MX-1 tumors treated for a prolonged time with the cocktail of MoAbs that survived and continued to grow could be the result of the preferential multiplication of those cells in the heterogeneous population which had low or no antigen content

  14. [Study on biodistribution and imaging of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotides in nude mice bearing human lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Rong-fu; Zhang, Chun-li; Liu, Meng; Guo, Feng-qin

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the possibility of using radioiodine labeled framework region (FR) antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) as an imaging agent or antisense therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in lymphoma. A 18-mer partial phosphorothioate oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and grafted in 5' with a tyramine group which was further radioiodinated. Radioiodination of the tyramine derivatized oligonucleotides was performed using the chloramine T method. (1) Normal CD-1 mice were injected via a tail vein with 148 kBq (125)I-FR-ASON (2-3 microg). Animals were sacrificed at the end of 1, 2, 4 and 24 h, and tissue samples were studied.(2) Liposome-mediated 3.33 MBq (131)I-FR-ASON (7-9 microg) were injected intratumorally into tumor-bearing BALB/c mice (6 weeks after inoculation of 107 Namalwa cells) meanwhile liposome-mediated (131)I labeled sense oligonucleotides served as controls. Biodistribution was monitored by sequential scintigraphy and organ radioactivity measurement 24 h after injection. Percentage of the injected dose per gram of tumor and tumor/non-tumor tissue ratios (T/NT) were calculated for each group of mice and the difference between two groups was assessed. The 5' tyramine group allowed specific and stable radiolabeling of the ASON with radioiodine. The radioactivity reached its peak 1 h after injection, and then decreased rapidly in normal mice after intravenous administration of (125)I-FR-ASON. The liver, stomach and intestine played an important role in biodistribution and radioactivity counts were low in bone, brain and blood. When (131)I-FR-ASON was injected intratumorally into mice grafted with Namalwa cell line, images showed the tracer accumulated in the tumor. Immediately after intratumoral administration, only the tumor was visible. Scintiscans performed at the end of 1 and 2 h showed elimination of the tracer from the tumor to the abdomen and at the end of 24 h the tumor was clearly seen. Percentage of the injected dose per gram of tumor and T

  15. A novel gain of function mutant in C-kit gene and its tumorigenesis in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chen-Guang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xie, Qiang; Feng, Fei; Ma, Da-Lie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To transfect mutant C-kit cDNA at codon 579 into human embryonic kidney cell line to observe its role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). METHODS: Eukaryotic expression vectors of pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W were constructed. Then pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W plasmids were transfected into human embryonic kidney cell line by Lipofectamine. The resistant clone was screened by G418 filtration and identified by sequencing, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical staining. Human embryonic kidney cells were divided into three groups including pcDNA3-Kit-NW, pcDNA3-Kit-W, and vector control groups. Absorbency value with a wavelength of 574 nm was detected by MTT analysis. Mice were injected with three groups of cells. Volume, mass, and histological examinations of the tumors in different groups were measured and compared. RESULTS: The C-kit gene and mutant C-kit gene were successfully cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3. pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W were successfully transfected into human embryonic kidney cell line and showed stable expression in this cell line. Cell proliferating activity had significant differences between pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3, pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W (P<0.05), respectively. Tumors were only observed in nude mice implanted with cells transfected with pcDNA3-Kit-NW. CONCLUSION: Mutation of C-kit gene increases the proliferation activity of human cells and plays an important role in the malignant transformation of GIST. PMID:16437655

  16. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug daunorubicin-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Houba, P H; Boven, E; van der Meulen-Muileman, I H; Leenders, R G; Scheeren, J W; Pinedo, H M; Haisma, H J

    1999-03-15

    N-[4-daunorubicin-N-carbonyl (oxymethyl)phenyl] O-beta-glucuronyl carbamate (DNR-GA3) is a glucuronide prodrug of daunorubicin (DNR) which induced a better tumor growth delay than DNR when studied at equitoxic doses in three human ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggested that the prodrug DNR-GA3 was selectively activated by human beta-glucuronidase present in tumor tissue. We determined the pharmacokinetics and distribution of DNR-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts (OVCAR-3, FMa, A2780, and MRI-H-207). Administration of DNR at 10 mg/kg i.v. (maximum tolerated dose) to OVCAR-3-bearing mice resulted in a peak plasma concentration of the drug of 12.18 microM (t = 1 min). DNR-GA3 at 100 mg/kg i.v. (approximately 50% of the maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) resulted in a peak plasma concentration of DNR that was 28-fold lower than that after DNR itself; in normal tissues, prodrug injection resulted in 5- to 23-fold lower DNR concentrations. DNR showed a relatively poor uptake into OVCAR-3 tumors with a peak concentration of 2.05 nmol x g(-1) after injection. In the same xenograft, DNR-GA3 resulted in a significantly higher DNR peak concentration of 3.45 nmol x g(-1) (P < 0.05). The higher area under the curve of DNR in tumor tissue after DNR-GA3 than after DNR itself would be the result of prodrug activation by beta-glucuronidase. In this respect, a considerably higher beta-glucuronidase activity was found in tumor tissue when compared to plasma. The specific activation of DNR-GA3 by beta-glucuronidase at the tumor site relative to normal organs leads to a more tumor-selective therapy, resulting in greater efficacy without increased toxicity.

  17. Targeting glioblastoma multiforme with an IL-13/diphtheria toxin fusion protein in vitro and in vivo in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbin; Hall, Walter A; Jin, Ni; Todhunter, Deborah A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Vallera, Daniel A

    2002-05-01

    Fusion proteins composed of tumor binding agents and potent catalytic toxins show promise for intracranial therapy of brain cancer and an advantage over systemic therapy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of brain cancer and overexpresses IL-13R. Thus, we developed an interleukin-13 receptor targeting fusion protein, DT(390)IL13, composed of human interleukin-13 and the first 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin. To measure its ability to inhibit GBM, DT(390)IL13 was tested in vitro and found to inhibit selectively the U373 MG GBM cell line with an IC(50) around 12 pmol/l. Cytotoxicity was neutralized by anti-human-interleukin-13 antibody, but not by control antibodies. In vivo, small U373 MG glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice completely regressed in most animals after five intratumoral injections of 1 microg of DT(390)IL13 q.o.d., but not by the control fusion protein DT(390)IL-2. DT(390)IL13 was also tested against primary explant GBM cells of a patient's excised tumor and the IC(50) was similar to that measured for U373 MG. Further studies showed a therapeutic window for DT(390)IL13 of 1-30 microg/injection and histology studies and enzyme measurements showed that the maximum tolerated dose of DT(390)IL13 had little effect on kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart in non-tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice. Together, these data suggest that DT(390)IL13 may provide an important, alternative therapy for brain cancer.

  18. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of nude mice vasculature using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Shahzad, Khalid; Wang, Yao; Burcher, Michael; Scholle, Frank-Detlef; Hauff, Peter; Mofina, Sabine; Skobe, Mihaela

    2008-02-01

    In-vivo photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging of nude mice was investigated using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner HDI-5000. Raw per-channel data was captured and beamformed to generate each individual photoacoustic image with a single laser shot. An ultra-broadband CL15-7 linear array with a center frequency of 8 MHz, combined with a Schott Glass fiber bundle, was used as a compact high resolution imaging probe, with lateral and axial PA resolutions of about 300µm and 200µm, respectively. The imaging system worked in a dual PA-US mode, with the ultrasound outlining the tissue structure and the photoacoustic image showing the blood vessels. PA signals were generated by exposing mice to ultra-short optical pulses from a Nd:YAG-pumped OPO laser operating in a wavelength range of 700-950nm. The corresponding ultrasound images were generated in the regular B-mode with standard delay-and-sum beamforming algorithm. The system resolution was sufficiently high to identify and clearly distinguish the dorsal artery and the two lateral veins in the mouse tail. Both the saphena artery and the ischiatic vein on the cross-section of the mouse leg were clearly outlined in the PA images and correctly overlaid on the ultrasound image of the tissue structure. Similarly, cross-section PA images of the mouse abdomen revealed mesenteric vasculatures located below the abdominal wall. Finally, a successful PA imaging of the mouse thoracic cavity unveiled the ascending and descending aorta. These initial results demonstrate a great potential for a dual photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging modality implemented on a commercial ultrasound imaging scanner.

  19. Osteoprotegerin inhibits osteolysis and decreases skeletal tumor burden in syngeneic and nude mouse models of experimental bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Morony, S; Capparelli, C; Sarosi, I; Lacey, D L; Dunstan, C R; Kostenuik, P J

    2001-06-01

    Certain malignancies, including breast cancer, frequently metastasize to bone, where the tumor cells induce osteoclasts to locally destroy bone. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. We tested the ability of recombinant OPG to inhibit tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteolysis, and skeletal tumor burden in two animal models. In a syngeneic model, mouse colon adenocarcinoma (Colon-26) cells were injected into the left ventricle of mice. Treatment with OPG dose-dependently decreased the number and area of radiographically evident lytic bone lesions, which, at the highest dose, were undetectable. Histologically, OPG also decreased skeletal tumor burden and tumor-associated osteoclasts. In a nude mouse model, OPG treatment completely prevented radiographic osteolytic lesions caused by human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Histologically, OPG decreased skeletal tumor burden by 75% and completely eradicated MDA tumor-associated osteoclasts. In both models, OPG had no effect on metastatic tumor burden in a panel of soft tissue organs. These data indicate that OPG may be an effective therapy for preventing osteolysis and decreasing skeletal tumor burden in patients with bone metastasis.

  20. Comparison of the selective targeting efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 on the Lewis lung carcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-06-10

    Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is auxotrophic for arg and leu, which attenuates growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor targeting and virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer as well as osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and glioma in clinically-relevant mouse models. VNP20009 is also a genetically-modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium that has been tested in Phase I clinical trials, but is more attenuated than S. typhimurium A1-R and in addition of multiple amino-acid auxotrophs, is purine auxotropic with the purI mutation. In the present study, mouse Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing nude mouse models were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R or VNP20009. S. typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 were both eliminated from the liver and spleen approximately 3-5 days after administration via the tail vein. However, A1-R showed higher tumor targeting and inhibited the Lewis lung carcinoma to a greater extent than VNP20009, with less body weight loss. The mice tolerated S. typhimurium A1-R to at a least 2-fold higher dose than VNP20009 when the bacteria were administered iv. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R has greater clinical potential than VNP20009.

  1. Monoclonal antibody-targeted radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma using a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, R.K.; Vessella, R.L.; Limas, C.; Shafer, R.B.; Elson, M.K.; Arfman, E.W.; Lange, P.H.

    1988-05-01

    Radiation dosimetry and monoclonal antibody (MAB)-targeted radiotherapy studies were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using tumor-preferential MAB as targeting agents for internal radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Two human RCC xenograft lines, TK-177G and TK-82, were established in nude mice and studied using MAB A6H as a targeting agent. This MAB has previously demonstrated excellent in vivo localization to RCC xenografts. Two doses of A6H (13 to 19 micrograms) labeled with iodine 131 (110 to 130 microCi) caused the tumor to regress or arrested the tumor growth in both xenografts. Similar doses (18 to 43 micrograms; 120 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled control MAB AFP-22 or of unlabeled A6H did not inhibit tumor growth. While most mice in the control groups had tumors greater than 250 mg in weight by day 43, none of the tumors in mice treated with /sup 131/I-labeled A6H grew to that size during the 3-month observation period. Sequential computerized scintigraphy was used to calculate the amount of radioisotope localized in tumor versus normal mouse tissue. Therapeutic doses of /sup 131/I-labeled A6H delivered a median calculated radiation dose of 38 cGy/microCi (range, 28 to 57) injected dose to RCC xenografts, and a median of 0.9 cGy/microCi to normal mouse tissues. These findings suggest that A6H is able to target radioisotopes highly specifically to RCC and achieve a therapeutic effect in the experimental setting.

  2. Discrepancy Between Tumor Antigen Distribution and Radiolabeled Antibody Binding in a Nude Mouse Xenograft Model of Human Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Il; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2017-04-01

    Biodistribution of antibodies is vital to successful immunoscintigraphy/immunotherapy, and it is assumed to be similar to antigen distribution. We measured and compared the binding pattern of radiolabeled antibody to tissue antigen distribution in a nude mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. We transplanted 10(7) FEM-XII human melanoma cells into the right flank of five nude mice. For the control, we transplanted 5 × 10(6) LS174T human colon cancer cells into the left flank. Two weeks later, 10 μCi of (131)I-labeled melanoma-associated 96.5 monoclonal antibody (targeting p97 antigen) was intravenously injected. Three days later, we sacrificed the mice and evaluated 96.5 antibody binding and concentration in the tumors by ex vivo quantitative autoradiography (QAR). Two months later, we incubated adjacent tumor tissue slices in various concentrations of (125)I-labeled 96.5 MoAb and evaluated the distribution/concentration of p97 antigen by in vitro QAR. p97 antigen distribution was homogeneous in the tumors (total antigen concentration [Bmax] = 17.36-38.36 pmol/g). In contrast, radiolabeled 96.5 antibody binding was heterogenous between location within the tumor (estimated bound antigen concentration = 0.7-6.6 pmol/g). No quantifiable parameters were found to be related with radiolabeled antibody binding and tumor antigen distribution. Antibody-bound tumor antigen to total antigen ratios ranged between 2% and 38%. Heterogeneous features of target antibody binding were observed in contrast to relatively homogenous feature of tumor antigen. We did not identify any correlations between p97 antigen distribution and 96.5 antibody binding in melanoma tissue. Radiolabeled 96.5 antibody binding patterns within melanoma cannot be predicted based on p97 antigen distribution in the tumor, which needs to be further studied with several other methods and more subjects in the future.

  3. [Molecular imaging for PET-CT reporter gene in breast adenocarcinoma (HSV1-tk) of subcutaneous xenografts in living nude mice].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-gui; Dai, Dong; Fang, Na; Song, Xiu-yu; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Yan-jia; Men, Xiao-yuan

    2009-12-29

    To study the in vitro accumulation of (18)F-FHBG, its in vivo distribution and (18)F-FHBG PET-CT imaging for reporter gene (HSV1-tk) in nude mice with a xenograft of breast adenocarcinoma. The in vitro uptake of (18)F-FHBG in tumor cells of T47D and T47D-tk and the distribution of (18)F-FHBG in normal Kunming mice and nude mice with breast adenocarcinoma xenograft were detected by well-type gamma counter. Reporter gene PET-CT imaging with (18)F-FHBG was performed in nude mice with a xenograft of breast adenocarcinoma. And the expression location of HSV1-tk gene could be monitored by observing the in vitro and in vivo accumulation of (18)F-FHBG. The in vitro uptake of (18)F-FHBG in T47D-tk cells (143.67 dpm/10(4) +/- 5.82 dpm/10(4) cells) was significantly higher than that in T47D cells (2.23 dpm/10(4) +/- 0.23 dpm/10(4) cells) at 60 and 120 min post-injection (P < 0.001) and reaches a plateau at 60 min. In normal Kunming mice, (18)F-FHBG was mainly distributed in liver, intestine, kidney and bladder while there was no obvious radioactive accumulation in brain. (18)F-FHBG accumulated at a significantly higher level in T47D-tk tumors than in T47D tumors and its accumulation yielded the best image effect at 2 h by PET-CT imaging in nude mice. The in vitro uptake of (18)F-FHBG in T47D-tk cells is significantly higher than that in T47D cells. (18)F-FHBG is mainly excreted by digestive tract and urinary tract in mice. It agrees with the expression pattern of HSV1-tk gene. (18)F-FHBG can determine the localization of HSV1-tk gene expression in an efficient way. This study will offer a monitoring method and scientific base for (18)F-FHBG reporter gene imaging and HSV1-tk gene therapy in tumors.

  4. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu

    2012-03-01

    S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance(MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  5. Gallic acid, an active constituent of grape seed extract, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic effects against prostate carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Velmurugan, Balaiya; Rajamanickam, Subapriya; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2009-09-01

    Gallic acid, a natural agent present in a wide-range of fruits and vegetables, has been of potential interest as an anti-cancer agent; herein, we evaluated its efficacy in androgen-independent DU145 and androgen-dependent-22Rv1 human prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Cell viability was determined by MTT and apoptosis by Annexin V-PI assays. In vivo anti-cancer efficacy was assessed by DU145 and 22Rv1 xenograft growth in nude mice given normal drinking water or one supplemented with 0.3% or 1% (w/v) gallic acid. PCNA, TUNEL and CD31 immunostaining was performed in tumor tissues for in vivo anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of gallic acid. Gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in both DU145 and 22Rv1 cells largely via apoptosis induction. In tumor studies, gallic acid feeding inhibited the growth of DU145 and 22Rv1 PCa xenografts in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and reduction of microvessel density in tumor xenografts from gallic acid-fed mice as compared to controls in both DU145 and 22Rv1 models. Taken together, our findings show the anti-PCa efficacy of gallic acid and provide a rationale for additional studies with this naturally-occurring agent for its efficacy against PCa.

  6. Monoclonal antibody Po66 uptake by human lung tumours implanted in nude mice: effect of co-administration with doxorubicin.

    PubMed Central

    Desrues, B.; Léna, H.; Brichory, F.; Ramée, M. P.; Toujas, L.; Delaval, P.; Dazord, L.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of radioimmunotherapy of tumours with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) depends on the amount of antibody taken up by the tumour and on its intratumoral distribution. In the case of MAbs directed against intracellular antigens, increasing the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane may augment the bioavailability of the antigen for the antibody. This raises the question whether the induction of tumour necrosis by chemotherapy can enhance the tumour uptake of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. In this work, the effect of doxorubicin on the biodistribution of Po66, an MAb directed against an intracellular antigen, was studied in nude mice grafted with the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line SK-MES-1. After injection on day 0 of 125I-labelled Po66, tumour radioactivity increased up to days 3-5, and then remained unchanged to day 14. The combined administration of 125I-labelled Po66 with 8 mg kg-1 doxorubicin, in two doses separated by 7 days, doubled the radioactivity retained by the tumour. Histological and historadiographic analysis showed, however, that the drug induced cellular damage. In the absence of doxorubicin, the accumulation of Po66 was restricted to some necrotic areas, whereas with doxorubicin the necrosis was more extensive and the antibody more evenly distributed. These results suggest that chemotherapy and immunoradiotherapy combined would enhance tumour uptake of radioisotope and promote more homogenous distribution of the radiolabelled MAb. This would promote eradication of the remaining drug-resistant cells in tumours. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7577450

  7. Sodium phenylacetate enhances the inhibitory effect of dextran derivative on breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, M; Kourbali, Y; Starzec, A; Vassy, R; Jozefonvicz, J; Perret, G; Crepin, M; Kraemer, M

    2001-09-14

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) and carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran derivative (CMDB(LS4)) are able to inhibit growth of breast tumour cells. In this study, we explored whether the combination of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)may enhance their respective inhibitory effects on the MCF-7ras cell growth in vitro and in vivo. NaPa inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by reducing the DNA replication concomitantly with a recruitment of cells in G0/G1 phase and by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of CMDB(LS4)potentiated the NaPa antiproliferative effect in the manner dependent on the ratio of CMDB(LS4)and NaPa concentrations. In nude mice, CMDB(LS4)(150 mg kg(-1)) or NaPa (40 mg kg(-1)) administrated twice a week, for 7 weeks inhibited MCF-7ras xenograft growth by 40% and 60%, respectively. The treatment by both, CMDB(LS4)and NaPa, decreased tumour growth by 83% without any toxicity. To better understand the mechanism of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)action we assessed their effect on mitogenic activity of MCF-7ras conditioned medium (CM) on BALBC/3T3 fibroblasts. CMDB(LS4)added to the CM, inhibited its mitogenic activity whereas NaPa had an anti-mitogenic effect when CM was prepared from MCF-7ras cells pretreated with NaPa. Thus, the antiproliferative effects of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)involve 2 different mechanisms explaining, at least in part, the possible synergism between them. Overall, this study points to the potential use of a combination of dextran derivatives with NaPa to inhibit the breast tumour growth.

  8. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Hadi, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Syed, Deeba N; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Developing novel mechanism-based chemopreventive approaches for lung cancer through the use of dietary substances which humans can accept has become an important goal. In the present study, employing normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, we first compared the growth inhibitory effects of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE). Treatment of PFE (50-150 microg/ml) for 72 h was found to result in a decrease in the viability of A549 cells but had only minimal effects on NHBE cells as assessed by the MTT and Trypan blue assays. PFE treatment of A549 cells also resulted in dose-dependent arrest of cells in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle (as assessed by DNA cell cycle analysis). We further found that PFE treatment also resulted in (i) induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27, (ii) decrease in the protein expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E, and (iii) decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4 and cdk6 expression. The treatment of cells with PFE inhibited (i) phosphorylation of MAPK proteins, (ii) inhibition of PI3K, (iii) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308, (iv) NF-kappaB and IKKalpha, (v) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and (vi) Ki-67 and PCNA. We also found that PFE treatment to A549 cells resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Oral administration of PFE (0.1 and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with A549 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth. Our results provide a suggestion that PFE can be a useful chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer.

  9. Determining a Clinically Relevant Strategy for Bone Tissue Engineering: An “All-in-One” Study in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vignes, Caroline; Sourice, Sophie; Masson, Martial; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Pilet, Paul; Cordonnier, Thomas; Mercier, Jacques; Remy, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Autologous bone grafting (BG) remains the standard reconstruction strategy for large craniofacial defects. Calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials, such as biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), do not yield consistent results when used alone and must then be combined with cells through bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this context, total bone marrow (TBM) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are the primary sources of cellular material used with biomaterials. However, several other BTE strategies exist, including the use of growth factors, various scaffolds, and MSC isolated from different tissues. Thus, clinicians might be unsure as to which method offers patients the most benefit. For this reason, the aim of this study was to compare eight clinically relevant BTE methods in an “all-in-one” study. Methods We used a transgenic rat strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), from which BG, TBM, and MSC were harvested. Progenitor cells were then mixed with CaP materials and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After eight weeks, bone formation was evaluated by histology and scanning electron microscopy, and GFP-expressing cells were tracked with photon fluorescence microscopy. Results/Conclusions Bone formation was observed in only four groups. These included CaP materials mixed with BG or TBM, in which abundant de novo bone was formed, and BCP mixed with committed cells grown in two- and three-dimensions, which yielded limited bone formation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that only the TBM and BG groups were positive for GFP expressing-cells, suggesting that these donor cells were still present in the host and contributed to the formation of bone. Since the TBM-based procedure does not require bone harvest or cell culture techniques, but provides abundant de novo bone formation, we recommend consideration of this strategy for clinical applications. PMID:24349093

  10. Sodium phenylacetate enhances the inhibitory effect of dextran derivative on breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, M Di; Kourbali, Y; Starzec, A; Vassy, R; Jozefonvicz, J; Perret, G; Crepin, M; Kraemer, M

    2001-01-01

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) and carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran derivative (CMDBLS4) are able to inhibit growth of breast tumour cells. In this study, we explored whether the combination of NaPa and CMDBLS4 may enhance their respective inhibitory effects on the MCF-7ras cell growth in vitro and in vivo. NaPa inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by reducing the DNA replication concomitantly with a recruitment of cells in G0/G1 phase and by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of CMDBLS4 potentiated the NaPa antiproliferative effect in the manner dependent on the ratio of CMDBLS4 and NaPa concentrations. In nude mice, CMDBLS4 (150 mg kg−1) or NaPa (40 mg kg−1) administrated twice a week, for 7 weeks inhibited MCF-7ras xenograft growth by 40% and 60%, respectively. The treatment by both, CMDBLS4 and NaPa, decreased tumour growth by 83% without any toxicity. To better understand the mechanism of NaPa and CMDBLS4 action we assessed their effect on mitogenic activity of MCF-7ras conditioned medium (CM) on BALBC/3T3 fibroblasts. CMDBLS4 added to the CM, inhibited its mitogenic activity whereas NaPa had an anti-mitogenic effect when CM was prepared from MCF-7ras cells pretreated with NaPa. Thus, the antiproliferative effects of NaPa and CMDBLS4 involve 2 different mechanisms explaining, at least in part, the possible synergism between them. Overall, this study points to the potential use of a combination of dextran derivatives with NaPa to inhibit the breast tumour growth. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556846

  11. Enforced expression of METCAM/MUC18 increases tumorigenesis of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang-Jer; Wu, Mei-Whey H; Wang, Changsheng; Liu, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18, a cell adhesion molecule in the Ig-like gene super family, is a key determinant in prostate cancer cell progression. However, the mechanisms by which human metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 stimulates progression are poorly understood. To investigate this and determine whether human metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 may act as a possible tumor progression gene, we studied the effect of its enforced expression on LNCaP cell tumorigenesis. We subcutaneously co-injected a metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 expressing LNCaP clone and control clones/cells with Matrigel™ into nude mice, observed tumor formation of these cells and measured tumors at different times. To understand the mechanisms we also determined the expression of several downstream key effectors of metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 in subcutaneous tumors and compared them to those in previously obtained orthotopic (prostatic) tumors. Tumors derived from human metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 expressing LNCaP clones/cells appeared about 18 days earlier than the empty vector transfected clone/cells. Enforced expression of human metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 also increased tumor take 2-fold, tumorigenicity 10 to 12-fold and final tumor weight 5-fold. Enforced expression appeared to render the cells with increased levels of the proliferation indexes Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the survival index phospho-AKT, and the angiogenesis indexes vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and CD31. However, it did not significantly render the cells with altered levels of various apoptosis indexes. Enforced expression of human metastasis cell adhesion molecule/MUC18 increases prostate tumorigenesis in vivo and may affect the process by increasing proliferation, up-regulating the AKT survival pathway, and augmenting the angiogenic ability of prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2011

  12. Adenoviral expression of XIAP antisense RNA induces apoptosis in glioma cells and suppresses the growth of xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naumann, U; Bähr, O; Wolburg, H; Altenberend, S; Wick, W; Liston, P; Ashkenazi, A; Weller, M

    2007-01-01

    The expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members contributes to the resistance of human cancers to apoptosis induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We report that the infection of malignant glioma cells and several other tumor cell lines with adenoviruses encoding antisense RNA to X-linked IAP (XIAP) depletes endogenous XIAP levels and promotes global caspase activation and apoptosis. In contrast, non-neoplastic SV-FHAS human astrocytes and other non-neoplastic cells express XIAP at very low levels and resist these effects of adenovirus-expressing XIAP antisense RNA (Ad-XIAP-as). Caspase inhibitors such as z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) delay caspase processing and XIAP depletion, suggesting that XIAP depletion results both from antisense-mediated interference with protein synthesis and proteolytic cleavage by activated caspases. However, zVAD-fmk neither prevents nor delays cell death, indicating a caspase-independent pathway to cell death triggered by IAP depletion. Similarly, B-cell lymphoma-X(L) (BCL-X(L)) inhibits caspase activity, but fails to rescue from apoptosis. Loss of p65/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) protein and NF-kappaB activity is an early event triggered by Ad-XIAP-as and probably involved in Ad-XIAP-as-induced apoptosis. Finally, Ad-XIAP-as gene therapy induces cell death in intracranial glioma xenografts, prolongs survival in nude mice and may reduce tumorigenicity in synergy with Apo2L/TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in vivo. Altogether, these data define a powerful survival function for XIAP and reinforce its possible role as a therapeutic target in human glioma cells.

  13. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering - an in vivo experiment in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Bolei; Ma, Qin; Chen, Fulin; Wu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-based injectable tissue engineering is limited by weak mechanical properties and a rapid fibrinolytic rate. We proposed a new strategy, a cell bricks-stabilized PRP injectable system, to engineer and regenerate cartilage with stable morphology and structure in vivo. Chondrocytes from the auricular cartilage of rabbits were isolated and cultured to form cell bricks (fragmented cell sheet) or cell expansions. Fifteen nude mice were divided evenly (n = 5) into cells-PRP (C-P), cell bricks-PRP (CB-P) and cell bricks-cells-PRP (CB-C-P) groups. Cells, cell bricks or a cell bricks/cells mixture were suspended in PRP and were injected subcutaneously in animals. After 8 weeks, all the constructs were replaced by white resilient tissue; however, specimens from the CB-P and CB-C-P groups were well maintained in shape, while the C-P group appeared distorted, with a compressed outline. Histologically, all groups presented lacuna-like structures, glycosaminoglycan-enriched matrices and positive immunostaining of collagen type II. Different from the uniform structure presented in CB-C-P samples, CB-P presented interrupted, island-like chondrogenesis and contracted structure; fibrous interruption was shown in the C-P group. The highest percentage of matrix was presented in CB-C-P samples. Collagen and sGAG quantification confirmed that the CB-C-P constructs had statistically higher amounts than the C-P and CB-P groups; statistical differences were also found among the groups in terms of biomechanical properties and gene expression. We concluded that cell bricks-enriched PRP gel sufficiently enhanced the morphological stability of the constructs, maintained chondrocyte phenotypes and favoured chondrogenesis in vivo, which suggests that such an injectable, completely biological system is a suitable cell carrier for cell-based cartilage repair.

  14. Effects of Medicated Diet to Eradicate Helicobacter spp. on Growth, Pathology, and Infection Status in Rag1–/– and Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Caroline M; Muth, Dillon; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The use of a commercial 4-drug diet has been shown to eradicate Helicobacter spp. from immunocompetent mice and those with innate immunodeficiencies. However the efficacy of this diet has not been confirmed in mice with altered adaptive immunity. We hypothesized that an 8-wk treatment with medicated diet would eradicate H. hepaticus and H. typhlonius from young naturally infected nude and Rag1 mice lacking functional T cells (Foxn1nu) or T and B cells (B6.129S7-Rag1tm1Mom/J), respectively. We evaluated helicobacter status, body weight, and gross and histologic changes between medicated and control diet in groups of infected and uninfected mice throughout treatment and at 8 wk after treatment completion. Initial infection status was confirmed by fecal PCR at weaning and 3 wk later, with study initiation in 7-wk-old mice. PCR testing demonstrated that independent of strain and sex, all treated mice tested negative for Helicobacter spp. after 4 wk of treatment and remained negative for the duration of the study. Irrespective of infection status, nude and Rag1 mice fed 8 wk of medicated diet gained less weight than did their untreated controls. Both strains normalized body weight while on control diet for the 8 wk after treatment. Mice fed medicated diet developed severe gastroesophageal hyperkeratosis, suggestive of reduced feed consumption, and enlarged ceca. These conditions improved or resolved after the return to control diet. This report is the first to demonstrate the efficacy and physical effects of providing medicated diet for the eradication of Helicobacter spp. from mice with adaptive immune deficiencies. PMID:24827565

  15. Potent therapeutic activity of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its schedule dependency in medulloblastoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vassal, G; Boland, I; Santos, A; Bissery, M C; Terrier-Lacombe, M J; Morizet, J; Sainte-Rose, C; Lellouch-Tubiana, A; Kalifa, C; Gouyette, A

    1997-09-26

    The anti-tumor activity of irinotecan (CPT-11), a DNA-topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, was evaluated in 5 advanced stage subcutaneous medulloblastoma xenografts in nude mice, using different schedules of administration. With a 5-day schedule, the highest i.v. dose tested (40 mg kg-1 day-1) induced complete regressions in all xenografts but 1, and delays in tumor growth always exceeded 30 days. Two xenografts, IGRM11 and IGRM33, were highly sensitive, and animals survived tumor-free beyond 120 days after treatment. CPT-11 clearly retained its anti-tumor activity at a lower dosage (27 mg kg-1 day-1). CPT-11 was significantly more active than cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and etoposide against the 3 xenografts evaluated. To study the schedule dependency of its anti-tumor activity, CPT-11 was given i.v. at the same total doses over the same period (33 days) using either a protracted or a sequential schedule in IGRM34-bearing mice. With a dose of 10 mg kg-1 day-1 given on days 0-4, days 7-11, days 21-25 and days 28-32 (total dose, 200 mg kg-1), 3 of 6 animals were tumor free on day 378. The same total dose given with a sequential schedule, i.e., 20 mg kg-1 day-1 on days 0-4 and days 28-32, failed to induce complete regression. The plasma pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and SN-38 were studied in IGRM34-bearing animals after a single i.v. dose of 10 and 40 mg kg-1. The plasma clearance rate of CPT-11 was dose dependent. The ratio between the SN-38 and CPT-11 area under the curve in plasma was 0.4-0.65, i.e., significantly higher than that observed in humans at the maximum tolerated dose (0.01-0.05). Conversely, this ratio was 10-fold lower in tumor than in plasma. Clinical development of irinotecan is warranted in pediatric malignancies.

  16. Comparison of 211At-PRIT and 211At-RIT of ovarian microtumors in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Frost, Sofia H L; Bäck, Tom; Chouin, Nicolas; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars; Elgqvist, Jörgen; Jensen, Holger; Albertsson, Per; Lindegren, Sture

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Purpose: Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) against intraperitoneal (i.p.) ovarian microtumors using avidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody MX35 (avidin-MX35) and (211)At-labeled, biotinylated, succinylated poly-l-lysine ((211)At-B-PLsuc) was compared with conventional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using (211)At-labeled MX35 in a nude mouse model. Mice were inoculated i.p. with 1×10(7) NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. After 3 weeks, they received PRIT (1.0 or 1.5 MBq), RIT (0.9 MBq), or no treatment. Concurrently, 10 additional animals were sacrificed and examined to determine disease progression at the start of therapy. Treated animals were analyzed with regard to presence of tumors and ascites (tumor-free fraction; TFF), 8 weeks after therapy. Tumor status at baseline was advanced: 70% of sacrificed animals exhibited ascites. The TFFs were 0.35 (PRIT 1.0 MBq), 0.45 (PRIT 1.5 MBq), and 0.45 (RIT). The 1.5-MBq PRIT group exhibited lower incidence of ascites and fewer tumors >1 mm than RIT-treated animals. PRIT was as effective as RIT with regard to TFF; however, the size distribution of tumors and presence of ascites indicated that 1.5-MBq PRIT was more efficient. Despite advanced disease in many animals at the time of treatment, PRIT demonstrated good potential to treat disseminated ovarian cancer.

  17. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-transformed 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juanling; Yao, Biyun; Jia, Yongrui; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Xuehui; Dong, Lisha; Gao, Ya; Liu, Wenli; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Zongcan

    2016-02-05

    To screen potential biomarkers of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer, the proteomic profiles of BaP-transformed 16HBE cell line T-16HBE-C1 cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera were compared with those of 16HBE group by utilizing label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. By employing nano-LC-MS/MS technology followed by MaxQuant and Perseus processing, 489 differentially expressed proteins were identified between T-16HBE-C1 and 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant, and 49 significantly up-regulated proteins were identified in T-16HBE-C1 xenografted nude mice sera. Three proteins neuropilin-2 (NRP2), clusterin (CLU) and A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) were up-regulated in the serum-free culture supernatant of T-16HBE-C1 cells. These 3 human proteins were present in the sera of nude mice xenografted with T-16HBE-C1 cells, but were undetectable in mice xenografted with 16HBE cells. The proteomic results of NRP2 and AKAP12 were confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Moreover, the serum NRP2 levels were significantly elevated at the 4th day after tumor cell implantation and showed good positive correlation with tumor growth characterized by tumor volume. In conclusion, serum NRP2, CLU and AKAP12 could be potential biomarkers of BaP-induced lung cancer. The proteomic results will gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Fluorescence-guided surgery of retroperitoneal-implanted human fibrosarcoma in nude mice delays or eliminates tumor recurrence and increases survival compared to bright-light surgery.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Tome, Yasunori; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Bouvet, Michael; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate human fibrosarcoma growing in the retroperitoneum of nude mice. One week after retroperitoneal implantation of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (HT-1080-GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n = 22). After BLS, mice were randomized into 2 treatment groups; BLS-only (n = 11) or the combination of BLS + FGS (n = 11). The residual tumors remaining after BLS were resected with FGS using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation. The average residual tumor area after BLS + FGS was significantly smaller than after BLS-only (0.4 ± 0.4 mm(2) and 10.5 ± 2.4 mm(2), respectively; p = 0.006). Five weeks after surgery, the fluorescent-tumor areas of BLS- and BLS + FGS-treated mice were 379 ± 147 mm(2) and 11.7 ± 6.9 mm(2), respectively, indicating that FGS greatly inhibited tumor recurrence compared to BLS. The combination of BLS + FGS significantly decreased fibrosarcoma recurrence compared to BLS-only treated mice (p < 0.001). Mice treated with BLS+FGS had a significantly higher disease-free survival rate than mice treated with BLS-only at five weeks after surgery. These results suggest that combination of BLS + FGS significantly reduced the residual fibrosarcoma volume after BLS and improved disease-free survival.

  19. Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Retroperitoneal-Implanted Human Fibrosarcoma in Nude Mice Delays or Eliminates Tumor Recurrence and Increases Survival Compared to Bright-Light Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Tome, Yasunori; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Bouvet, Michael; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate human fibrosarcoma growing in the retroperitoneum of nude mice. One week after retroperitoneal implantation of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (HT-1080-GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n = 22). After BLS, mice were randomized into 2 treatment groups; BLS-only (n = 11) or the combination of BLS + FGS (n = 11). The residual tumors remaining after BLS were resected with FGS using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation. The average residual tumor area after BLS + FGS was significantly smaller than after BLS-only (0.4 ± 0.4 mm2 and 10.5 ± 2.4 mm2, respectively; p = 0.006). Five weeks after surgery, the fluorescent-tumor areas of BLS- and BLS + FGS-treated mice were 379 ± 147 mm2 and 11.7 ± 6.9 mm2, respectively, indicating that FGS greatly inhibited tumor recurrence compared to BLS. The combination of BLS + FGS significantly decreased fibrosarcoma recurrence compared to BLS-only treated mice (p < 0.001). Mice treated with BLS+FGS had a significantly higher disease-free survival rate than mice treated with BLS-only at five weeks after surgery. These results suggest that combination of BLS + FGS significantly reduced the residual fibrosarcoma volume after BLS and improved disease-free survival. PMID:25710463

  20. Sodium phenylacetate induces growth inhibition and Bcl-2 down-regulation and apoptosis in MCF7ras cells in vitro and in nude