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Sample records for number attraction effect

  1. Number Attraction Effects in Near-Native Spanish Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical agreement phenomena such as verbal number have long been of fundamental interest in the study of second language (L2) acquisition. Previous research from the perspective of sentence processing has documented nativelike behavior among nonnative participants but has also relied almost exclusively on grammar violation paradigms. The…

  2. Number Attraction Effects in Near-Native Spanish Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical agreement phenomena such as verbal number have long been of fundamental interest in the study of second language (L2) acquisition. Previous research from the perspective of sentence processing has documented nativelike behavior among nonnative participants but has also relied almost exclusively on grammar violation paradigms. The…

  3. On the Nature of Clitics and Their Sensitivity to Number Attraction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Santesteban, Mikel; Zawiszewski, Adam; Erdocia, Kepa; Laka, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Pronominal dependencies have been shown to be more resilient to attraction effects than subject-verb agreement. We use this phenomenon to investigate whether antecedent-clitic dependencies in Spanish are computed like agreement or like pronominal dependencies. In Experiment 1, an acceptability judgment self-paced reading task was used. Accuracy data yielded reliable attraction effects in both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences, only in singular (but not plural) clitics. Reading times did not show reliable attraction effects. In Experiment 2, we measured electrophysiological responses to violations, which elicited a biphasic frontal negativity-P600 pattern. Number attraction modulated the frontal negativity but not the amplitude of the P600 component. This differs from ERP findings on subject-verb agreement, since when the baseline matching condition obtained a biphasic pattern, attraction effects only modulated the P600, not the preceding negativity. We argue that these findings support cue-retrieval accounts of dependency resolution and further suggest that the sensitivity to attraction effects shown by clitics resembles more the computation of pronominal dependencies than that of agreement. PMID:28928686

  4. On the Interpretation of the Number Attraction Effect: Response Time Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Speakers frequently make subject-verb number agreement errors in the presence of a local noun with a different number from the head of the subject phrase. A series of four experiments used a two-choice response time (RT) paradigm to investigate how the latency of correct agreement decisions is modulated by the presence of a number attractor, and…

  5. On the Interpretation of the Number Attraction Effect: Response Time Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Speakers frequently make subject-verb number agreement errors in the presence of a local noun with a different number from the head of the subject phrase. A series of four experiments used a two-choice response time (RT) paradigm to investigate how the latency of correct agreement decisions is modulated by the presence of a number attractor, and…

  6. Sequential effects in face-attractiveness judgment.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Aki; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that current-trial responses are biased toward the response of the preceding trial in perceptual decisionmaking tasks (the sequential effect-Holland and Lockhead, 1968 Perception & Psychophysics 3 409-414). The sequential effect has been widely observed in evaluation of the physical properties of stimuli as well as more complex properties. However, it is unclear whether subjective decisions (e.g., attractiveness judgments) are also susceptible to the sequential effect. Here, we examined whether the sequential effect would occur in face-attractiveness judgments. Forty-eight pictures of male and female faces were presented successively. Participants rated the attractiveness of each face on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the attractiveness rating of a given face assimilated toward the rating of the preceding trial. In a separate experiment, we provided the average attractiveness rating by others for each trial as feedback. The feedback weakened the sequential effect. These findings suggest that attractiveness judgment is also biased toward the preceding judgment, and hence the sequential effect can be extended into the domain of subjective decisionmaking.

  7. The Attraction Effect in Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Dimara, Evanthia; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications. In a first crowdsource experiment, we indeed partially replicated the attraction effect with three alternatives presented as a numerical table, and observed similar effects when they were presented as a scatterplot. In a second experiment, we investigated if the effect extends to larger sets of alternatives, where the number of alternatives is too large for numerical tables to be practical. Our findings indicate that the bias persists for larger sets of alternatives presented as scatterplots. We discuss implications for future research on how to further study and possibly alleviate the attraction effect.

  8. Effective writing that attracts patients.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Doctors today not only must communicate verbally, they must also realize that the written word is important to their ability to connect with the patients that they already have and also to attract new patients. Doctors will be expected to write blogs, to create content for their Web sites, to write articles for local publications, and even to learn to express themselves in 140 characters or less (i.e., Twitter). This article presents 10 rules for selecting the right words to enhance your communication with existing patients and potentially to attract new patients to your practice.

  9. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  10. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  11. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    PubMed

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group.

  12. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores. PMID:26218430

  13. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  14. The Elusive Loss in Attraction Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindorf, J. A.; And Others

    A significant loss in attraction effect has never been obtained from subjects who are the direct recipients of another's evaluation. Rather, the effect has been obtained only from those subjects who assume the role of recipient of another's evaluation. In a discussion context, the present study compared direct recipients (DR) and role playing…

  15. Effects of bowing on perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Takayuki; Kawahara, Jun I

    2015-07-01

    Bowing is a greeting behavior. The present study examined the modulation effect of bowing on perception of attractiveness. In each trial, a portrait digitized from university yearbooks was presented on a computer screen. The portrait was mildly tilted toward participants to simulate a greeting bow (25-degree angle). Participants evaluated the subjective attractiveness of the face using a visual analog scale (0-100). The mean attractiveness judgment of the bowing portrait was significantly higher relative to that of the bending-backward or standing-still control conditions (Experiment 1). Additional control experiments revealed that alternative accounts relying on apparent spatial proximity and physical characteristics could not solely explain the effect of bowing (Experiment 2) and indicated that the effect was specific to objects perceived as faces (Experiment 3). Furthermore, observers' in-return bowing behavior did not reduce the bowing effect (Experiment 4), and bowing motion increased the ratings of subjective politeness and submissiveness (Experiment 5). Finally, tilting the 3D faces elicited the same effect from observers as did tilting the still photos (Experiment 6). These results suggest that a tilting motion of portraits (or images of face-like objects) mimicking bowing enhances perceived attractiveness, at least as measured in a culture familiar with greeting by bowing.

  16. Differences in Expressivity Based on Attractiveness: Target or Perceiver Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Kayl, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant association exists between adults’ expressivity and facial attractiveness, but it is unclear whether the association is linear or significant only at the extremes of attractiveness. It is also unclear whether attractive persons actually display more positive expressivity than unattractive persons (target effects) or whether high and low attractiveness influences expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects). Experiment 1 demonstrated adult ratings of attractiveness were predictive of expressivity valence only for high and low attractive females and medium attractive males. Experiment 2 showed that low attractive females actually display more negative expressivity than medium and high attractive females, but there were no target effects for males. Also, attractiveness influenced expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects) for both females and males. Our findings demonstrate that low attractive females are at a particular disadvantage during social interactions due to their low attractiveness, actual displays of negative expressivity, and perceptions of their negative expressivity. PMID:26366010

  17. Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making.

    PubMed

    Agthe, Maria; Spörrle, Matthias; Maner, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of organizational decision making demonstrate an abundance of positive biases directed toward highly attractive individuals. The current research, in contrast, suggests that when the person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps. Three experiments assessing evaluations of potential job candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and university applicants (Study 2) demonstrated positive biases toward highly attractive other-sex targets but negative biases toward highly attractive same-sex targets. This pattern was mediated by variability in participants' desire to interact with versus avoid the target individual (Studies 1 and 2) and was moderated by participants' level of self-esteem (Study 3); the derogation of attractive same-sex targets was not observed among people with high self-esteem. Findings demonstrate an important exception to the positive effects of attractiveness in organizational settings and suggest that negative responses to attractive same-sex targets stem from perceptions of self-threat.

  18. Statistical properties and condensate fluctuation of attractive Bose gas with finite number of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Sangita; Lekala, Mantile Leslie; Chakrabarti, Barnali; Bhattacharyya, Satadal; Rampho, Gaotsiwe Joel

    2017-09-01

    'We study the condensate fluctuation and several statistics of weakly interacting attractive Bose gas of 7 Li atoms in harmonic trap. Using exact recursion relation we calculate canonical ensemble partition function and study the thermal evolution of the condensate. As 7 Li condensate is associated with collapse, the number of condensate atom is truly finite and it facilitates to study the condensate in mesoscopic region. Being highly correlated, we utilize the two-body correlated basis function to get the many-body effective potential which is further used to calculate the energy levels. Taking van der Waals interaction as interatomic interaction we calculate several quantities like condensate fraction N, root-mean-square fluctuation δn0 and different orders of central moments. We observe the effect of finite size on the calculation of condensate fluctuations and the effect of attractive interaction over the noninteracting limit. We observe the depletion of the condensate with increase in temperature. The calculated moments nicely exhibit the mesoscopic effect. The sharp fall in the root-mean-square fluctuation near the critical point signifies the possibility of phase transition.

  19. Effects of Instructor Attractiveness on Learning.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Richard; Millar, Murray; Walsh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Although a considerable body of research has examined the impact of student attractiveness on instructors, little attention has been given to the influence of instructor attractiveness on students. This study tested the hypothesis that persons would perform significantly better on a learning task when they perceived their instructor to be high in physical attractiveness. To test the hypothesis, participants listened to an audio lecture while viewing a photograph of instructor. The photograph depicted either a physically attractive instructor or a less attractive instructor. Following the lecture, participants completed a forced choice recognition task covering material from the lecture. Consistent with the predictions; attractive instructors were associated with more learning. Finally, we replicated previous findings demonstrating the role attractiveness plays in person perception.

  20. Solvation effects on like-charge attraction.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Shahzad; Rottler, Jörg

    2013-02-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the electrostatic interaction between two parallel charged rods in the presence of divalent counterions. Such polyelectrolytes have been considered as a simple model for understanding electrostatic interactions in highly charged biomolecules such as DNA. Since there are correlations between the free charge carriers, the phenomenon of like charge attraction appears for specific parameters. We explore the role of solvation effects and the resulting deviations from Coulomb's law on the nanoscale on this peculiar phenomenon. The behavior of the force between the charged rods in a simulation with atomistic representation of water molecules is completely different from a model in which water is modeled as a continuum dielectric. By calculating counterion-rodion pair correlation functions, we find that the presence of water molecules changes the structure of the counterion cloud and results in both qualitative and quantitative changes of the force between highly charged polyelectrolytes.

  1. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  2. Number of older brothers and sexual orientation: new tests and the attraction/behavior distinction in two national probability samples.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2003-03-01

    The extent to which number of older brothers or "fraternal birth order" predicted the 2 main components that researchers have traditionally used to conceptualize sexual orientation-that is, psychological attraction and sexual behavior-was examined in 2 recent national probability samples. In both studies, fraternal birth order predicted same-sex attraction in men, with each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexual attraction by an average of 38%. Results also indicated that the fraternal birth order/same-sex attraction relationship in men was independent of sexual behavior, including early same-sex behavior. No sibling characteristics predicted sexual orientation in women. Results suggest experience-based theories (e.g., early same-sex play) of the fraternal birth order effect in men are unlikely to be correct.

  3. Relationship between neighbor number and vibrational spectra in disordered colloidal clusters with attractive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunker, Peter J.; Zhang, Zexin; Gratale, Matthew; Chen, Ke; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    We study connections between vibrational spectra and average nearest neighbor number in disordered clusters of colloidal particles with attractive interactions. Measurements of displacement covariances between particles in each cluster permit calculation of the stiffness matrix, which contains effective spring constants linking pairs of particles. From the cluster stiffness matrix, we derive vibrational properties of corresponding "shadow" glassy clusters, with the same geometric configuration and interactions as the "source" cluster but without damping. Here, we investigate the stiffness matrix to elucidate the origin of the correlations between the median frequency of cluster vibrational modes and average number of nearest neighbors in the cluster. We find that the mean confining stiffness of particles in a cluster, i.e., the ensemble-averaged sum of nearest neighbor spring constants, correlates strongly with average nearest neighbor number, and even more strongly with median frequency. Further, we find that the average oscillation frequency of an individual particle is set by the total stiffness of its nearest neighbor bonds; this average frequency increases as the square root of the nearest neighbor bond stiffness, in a manner similar to the simple harmonic oscillator.

  4. Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S

    1998-08-27

    Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.

  5. Effects of partner beauty on opposite-sex attractiveness judgments.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Caldwell, Christine A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Many studies show mate choice copying effects on mate preferences in non-human species in which individuals follow or copy the mate choices of same-sex conspecifics. Recent studies suggest that social learning also influences mate preferences in humans. Studies on heterosexual humans have focused on rating the attractiveness of potential mates (targets) presented alongside individuals of the opposite sex to the target (models). Here, we examined several different types of pairing to examine how specific social learning is to mate preferences. In Study 1, we replicated a previous effect whereby target faces of the opposite sex to the subject were rated as more attractive when paired with attractive than unattractive partner models of the same sex as the subject. Using the same paired stimuli, Study 2 demonstrated no effect of a paired model if subjects were asked to rate targets who were the same sex as themselves. In Study 3, we used pairs of the same sex, stating the pair were friends, and subjects rated targets of the opposite sex to themselves. Attractive models decreased targets' attractiveness, opposite to the effect in Study 1. Finally, Study 4 examined if attractive versus unattractive non-face stimuli might influence attraction. Unlike in Study 1, pairing with attractive stimuli either had no effect or decreased the attractiveness of paired target face images. These data suggest that social transmission of preferences via pairing with attractive/unattractive images is relatively specific to learning about mate preferences but does not influence attractiveness judgments more generally.

  6. Modeling distributions of flying insects: Effective attraction radius of pheromone in two and three dimensions. Journal of Theoretical Biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effective attraction radius (EAR) of an attractive pheromone-baited trap was defined as the radius of a passive “sticky” sphere that would intercept the same number of flying insects as the attractant. The EAR for a particular attractant and insect species in nature is easily determined by a cat...

  7. Effect of tattoos on perceptions of credibility and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Seiter, John S; Hatch, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the effects of tattooing on perception of a male's and a female's credibility and attractiveness. 74 undergraduates viewed a photograph of a tattooed or nontattooed male or female model and then rated dimensions of the models' credibility and attractiveness. Analysis indicated that, although the models' attractiveness ratings were not affected by having a tattoo, their credibility ratings were generally lower when wearing a tattoo than when not wearing one.

  8. From the depletion attraction to the bridging attraction: The effect of solvent molecules on the effective colloidal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Kline, Steven R.; Liu, Yun

    2015-02-01

    Depletion attraction induced by non-adsorbing polymers or small particles in colloidal solutions has been widely used as a model colloidal interaction to understand aggregation behavior and phase diagrams, such as glass transitions and gelation. However, much less attention has been paid to study the effective colloidal interaction when small particles/molecules can be reversibly attracted to large colloidal particles. At the strong attraction limit, small particles can introduce bridging attraction as it can simultaneously attach to neighbouring large colloidal particles. We use Baxter's multi-component method for sticky hard sphere systems with the Percus-Yevick approximation to study the bridging attraction and its consequence to phase diagrams, which are controlled by the concentration of small particles and their interaction with large particles. When the concentration of small particles is very low, the bridging attraction strength increases very fast with the increase of small particle concentration. The attraction strength eventually reaches a maximum bridging attraction (MBA). Adding more small particles after the MBA concentration keeps decreasing the attraction strength until reaching a concentration above which the net effect of small particles only introduces an effective repulsion between large colloidal particles. These behaviors are qualitatively different from the concentration dependence of the depletion attraction on small particles and make phase diagrams very rich for bridging attraction systems. We calculate the spinodal and binodal regions, the percolation lines, the MBA lines, and the equivalent hard sphere interaction line for bridging attraction systems and have proposed a simple analytic solution to calculate the effective attraction strength using the concentrations of large and small particles. Our theoretical results are found to be consistent with experimental results reported recently.

  9. From the depletion attraction to the bridging attraction: the effect of solvent molecules on the effective colloidal interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2015-02-28

    Depletion attraction induced by non-adsorbing polymers or small particles in colloidal solutions has been widely used as a model colloidal interaction to understand aggregation behavior and phase diagrams, such as glass transitions and gelation. However, much less attention has been paid to study the effective colloidal interaction when small particles/molecules can be reversibly attracted to large colloidal particles. At the strong attraction limit, small particles can introduce bridging attraction as it can simultaneously attach to neighbouring large colloidal particles. We use Baxter's multi-component method for sticky hard sphere systems with the Percus-Yevick approximation to study the bridging attraction and its consequence to phase diagrams, which are controlled by the concentration of small particles and their interaction with large particles. When the concentration of small particles is very low, the bridging attraction strength increases very fast with the increase of small particle concentration. The attraction strength eventually reaches a maximum bridging attraction (MBA). Adding more small particles after the MBA concentration keeps decreasing the attraction strength until reaching a concentration above which the net effect of small particles only introduces an effective repulsion between large colloidal particles. These behaviors are qualitatively different from the concentration dependence of the depletion attraction on small particles and make phase diagrams very rich for bridging attraction systems. We calculate the spinodal and binodal regions, the percolation lines, the MBA lines, and the equivalent hard sphere interaction line for bridging attraction systems and have proposed a simple analytic solution to calculate the effective attraction strength using the concentrations of large and small particles. Our theoretical results are found to be consistent with experimental results reported recently.

  10. Effects of Affective Value and Similarity on Attraction.

    PubMed

    Steele, Maryann E; McGlynn, Richard P

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that an information processing analysis of the ubiquitous similarity-attraction relationship predicts that the effects of similarity on attraction are indirect. A reanalysis which views similarity manipulations as conveying relevant information about attraction was subjected to empirical test. Data from 60 male and female undergraduates who rated the attractiveness of persons described by positive or negative personality traits under conditions in which their own personality feedback was either similar but neutral, similar but explicitly positive or negative, or controlled (no feedback) provided a test of the effects of similarity with affective value controlled. Results showed significant main effects for both affective value and similarity indicating that similarity can have direct effects on attraction.

  11. Effects of Type of Information Upon Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duck, Steven W.; Craig, Gordon

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments are reported: one in which presentation of external information about a stranger evoked significantly higher attraction ratings than available psychological information; and a second where similarity of Subject and Other on external characteristics had greater effects upon attraction scores than did similarity of psychological…

  12. The Perceived Relationship between Physical Attractiveness and Social Influence Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Laura C.; Ashmore, Richard D.

    The power of beauty has been contemplated by writers, poets, and philosophers for centuries. The link between the target physical attractiveness and perceived social influence effectiveness has not been directly and systematically investigated. The goal of this study was to assess whether physically attractive (versus unattractive) individuals are…

  13. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Any lure’s semiochemical release rate that is attractive to flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure’s orientation response strength. The EAR was defined as the radius of a passive sphere that would intercept the same number of insects as a semioch...

  14. Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Students' Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Maria T.

    1987-01-01

    A study found that the physical attractiveness of a dental school teacher affected the student's opinion of teaching effectiveness, regardless of the student's sex, with effectiveness ratings correlating with pleasing appearance. (MSE)

  15. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  16. The effect of physical attractiveness of models on advertising effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  17. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  18. The relative effects of competence and likability on interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramadhar; Tor, Xue Ling

    2008-04-01

    Undergraduate students in Singapore (N = 80) learned about the competence (low vs. high) and likability (low vs. high) of a future interaction partner and indicated their attraction toward that stranger. The effect of likability was two times as large as that of competence. Because of the additive effects of the two manipulated factors on attraction, the authors interpreted the preference for lovable fools over competent jerks as an outcome of a generalized supremacy of likability over competence.

  19. The Attraction Effect Modulates Reward Prediction Errors and Intertemporal Choices.

    PubMed

    Gluth, Sebastian; Hotaling, Jared M; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2017-01-11

    Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle. We first demonstrate that intertemporal decision making is prone to the attraction effect in humans. In an independent group of participants, we then investigated how this affects the neural and behavioral valuation of outcomes using a novel intertemporal lottery task and fMRI. Participants' behavioral responses (i.e., satisfaction ratings) were modulated systematically by the attraction effect and this modulation was correlated across participants with the respective change of the RPE signal in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, we show that, because exponential and hyperbolic discounting models are unable to account for the attraction effect, recently proposed sequential sampling models might be more appropriate to describe intertemporal choices. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the attraction effect modulates subjective valuation even in the absence of choice. The findings also challenge the prospect of using neuroscientific methods to measure utility in a context-free manner and have important implications for theories of reinforcement learning and delay discounting.

  20. Effects of solute-solvent attractive forces on hydrophobic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lawrence R.; Chandler, David

    1980-10-01

    A theory is presented for the effect of slowly varying attractive forces on correlations between nonpolar solutes in dilute aqueous solution. We find that hydrophobic correlations are sensitive to relatively long range slowly varying interactions. Thus, it is possible to make qualitative changes in these correlations by introducing small changes in the attractive forces. Several model calculations are presented to illustrate these facts. The contributions of the Lennard-Jones attractive forces to the computer simulation results of Pangali, Rao, and Berne are calculated. For this case it is found that the potential of mean force between spherical nonpolar solutes is hardly affected by inclusion of attractive forces. However, the osmotic second virial coefficient is dominated by the contributions of the attractive forces. For spherical solutes which provide a reasonable model for the methane molecule, inclusion of attractive forces produces a qualitative change in the methane-methane potential of mean force. The connection between these effects of slowly varying attractive forces and the enthalpic part of Ben-Naim's δAHI is discussed.

  1. Ground state energy of a non-integer number of particles with δ attractive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Éric; Derrida, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    We show how to define and calculate the ground state energy of a system of quantum particles with δ attractive interactions when the number of particles n is non-integer. The question is relevant to obtain the probability distribution of the free energy of a directed polymer in a random medium. When one expands the ground state energy in powers of the interaction, all the coefficients of the perturbation series are polynomials in n, allowing to define the perturbation theory for non-integer n. We develop a procedure to calculate all the cumulants of the free energy of the directed polymer and we give explicit, although complicated, expressions of the first three cumulants.

  2. The Effects of Attractiveness and Status on Personality Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Stefano; Rollero, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Research on personality has shown that perceiving a person as attractive fosters positive expectations about his/her personal characteristics. Literature has also demonstrated a significant link between personality traits and occupational achievement. Present research examines the combined effects of attractiveness, occupational status, and gender on the evaluation of others’ personality, according to the Big Five model. The study consisted of a 2 (Attractiveness: High vs. Low) x 2 (occupational Status: High vs. Low) x 2 (Target gender: Male vs. Female) between-subjects experimental design (N = 476). Results showed that attractive targets were considered more positively than unattractive targets, and this effect was even stronger for male targets. Occupational status influenced perceived agreeableness (lower for high-status targets) and perceived conscientiousness (higher for high-status targets). PMID:27247685

  3. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-12-30

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  4. [Field attraction effects of different trapping methods on Monochamus alternatus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibao; Liu, Yunpeng; Fan, Meizhen; Miao, Xuexia; Zhao, Xieqiu; Li, Zengzhi; Si, Shengli; Huang, Yongping

    2005-03-01

    A comparative study on the field attraction effects of different attractant, trap, lure and controlled-releasing amount on Monochamus alternatus showed that four test attractants had a certain trapping ability to Monochamus alternatus, among which, MA2K05 was the strongest, with a mean capture efficiency of 26.3 individuals each trap and being attractive to other species of Loleoptera and Hemiptera; MA2K13 took the second place, with 21.3 individuals each trap; while MA2K11 was the weakest, with 13.8 individuals each trap. Among the three lures tested, lures C (60 ml plastic cup with 2 of 5 cm round holes on the cover) and B (20 ml specified controlled-releasing plastic bottle) had a comparatively stronger effect, with a capture efficiency of 34.25 and 20.3 individuals each trap, respectively; while lure A (20 ml specified controlled-releasing plastic bottle, the releasing amount being smaller than that of lure B) was the weakest, with 14.7 individuals each trap. Because the attractant volume of lure C was 1.5 times larger than that of lures B and A, and the attractant for lure C was appended every 3-5 d, while that for lures B and A could be used for more than a month with once appended, lure B was the best on the whole. As for the test traps, Xuanzhou trap was superior to imitated Japanese trap, with a trapping efficiency of 36.4 and 9.7 individuals each trap, respectively. The attractiveness of attractants was not significantly enhanced when the dosage was increased from 20 ml to 80 ml, but significantly improved when it was up to 120 ml.

  5. Effects of Associating with Musical Genres on Heterosexual Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillman, Dolf; Bhatia, Azra

    1989-01-01

    Studies the effect of musical preferences on undergraduate students' estimation of numerous behavioral traits and the desirability of a potential heterosexual date. Finds that such disclosure influences attraction, as well as the perception and evaluation of pertinent traits, the effects being a function of genre-specific stereotypes and…

  6. Effects of Perceived Attractiveness and Sex-Role Interests on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Billy; Linnstaedter, LaNelle

    Subjects (40 male, 40 female) viewed a videotaped "interview" with a competent female stimulus person (SP) who appeared to be sex-role congruent or incongruent and was either physically attractive or unattractive. Interpersonal attraction (Likability) was assessed by objective questionnaires. Subjects' sex and attitudes toward women were included…

  7. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation.

    PubMed

    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases.

  8. Allee effects and conspecific cueing jointly lead to conspecific attraction.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Megan J

    2006-08-01

    Conspecific attraction is the preferential settlement into habitat patches with conspecifics. To be a good proximate strategy, fitness gains from settling with conspecifics must outweigh the costs of higher conspecific densities, such as intraspecific competition. Two types of benefits have been proposed to explain conspecific attraction: Allee effects (i.e., positive density dependence) and conspecific cueing (using conspecifics as an indicator of habitat quality). I present empirical evidence for conspecific attraction in the settlement of the porcelain crab, Petrolisthes cinctipes Randall (Anomura: Porcellanidae). Previous work demonstrated that P. cinctipes experiences strong intraspecific competition and that both Allee effects and conspecific cueing are present in P. cinctipes life-history. I developed an empirically-based fitness model of the costs and benefits of settling with conspecifics. Based on this model, I simulated optimal settlement to habitat patches that varied in conspecific density and habitat quality, where the correlation between density and habitat quality determined the level of conspecific cueing. I tested whether Allee effects alone, conspecific cueing alone, or Allee effects and conspecific cueing together could provide an ultimate explanation for the proximate settlement behavior of P. cinctipes. The settlement simulation was consistent with empirical settlement only when Allee effects and conspecific cueing were both included. Three life-history features are critical to this conclusion: (1) fitness is maximized at intermediate density, (2) fitness depends on the decisions of previous settlers, and (3) conspecific density provides good information about habitat quality. The quality of information garnered from conspecifics determines whether conspecific attraction is a good proximate strategy for settlement. I present a graphical illustration demonstrating how Allee effects and conspecific cueing work together to influence fitness

  9. Attracting, Retaining and Rewarding Teachers. What Research Says about Series Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report on attracting and retaining teachers presents highlights of two major categories of research studies on the topic. The first are the findings of Schlechy, Vance, and Weaver on the characteristics of the teacher workforce. The research findings are abstracted and policy recommendations are included. The second group is comprised of…

  10. Attracting, Retaining and Rewarding Teachers. What Research Says about Series Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report on attracting and retaining teachers presents highlights of two major categories of research studies on the topic. The first are the findings of Schlechy, Vance, and Weaver on the characteristics of the teacher workforce. The research findings are abstracted and policy recommendations are included. The second group is comprised of…

  11. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  12. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, A; McCarter, P; Baylis, M

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study was undertaken to investigate how the number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female Culicoides obsoletus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) caught. As the number of sheep increased from zero to three, the number of midges caught increased, but there appeared to be no further increase when six sheep were used. The lack of increase between three and six sheep is attributable to different activity rates on certain nights, perhaps in response to weather, and suggests, therefore, that catches in light traps increase linearly with sheep numbers, at least for small host numbers.

  13. Is Beauty Talent? Sex Interaction in the Attractiveness Halo Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    Male and female subjects judged an essay purportedly written by an attractive or an unattractive female author. The attractive author was rated as significantly more talented by male judges. Female judges rated the attractive author less talented although this difference was not statistically significant. A second experiment concerned ratings by…

  14. Is Beauty Talent? Sex Interaction in the Attractiveness Halo Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    Male and female subjects judged an essay purportedly written by an attractive or an unattractive female author. The attractive author was rated as significantly more talented by male judges. Female judges rated the attractive author less talented although this difference was not statistically significant. A second experiment concerned ratings by…

  15. Liquid drops attract or repel by the inverted Cheerios effect

    PubMed Central

    Karpitschka, Stefan; Pandey, Anupam; Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Botto, Lorenzo; Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2016-01-01

    Solid particles floating at a liquid interface exhibit a long-ranged attraction mediated by surface tension. In the absence of bulk elasticity, this is the dominant lateral interaction of mechanical origin. Here, we show that an analogous long-range interaction occurs between adjacent droplets on solid substrates, which crucially relies on a combination of capillarity and bulk elasticity. We experimentally observe the interaction between droplets on soft gels and provide a theoretical framework that quantitatively predicts the interaction force between the droplets. Remarkably, we find that, although on thick substrates the interaction is purely attractive and leads to drop–drop coalescence, for relatively thin substrates a short-range repulsion occurs, which prevents the two drops from coming into direct contact. This versatile interaction is the liquid-on-solid analog of the “Cheerios effect.” The effect will strongly influence the condensation and coarsening of drops on soft polymer films, and has potential implications for colloidal assembly and mechanobiology. PMID:27298348

  16. Similarity and attraction effects in episodic memory judgments.

    PubMed

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Matthew A J

    2007-12-01

    In the decision-making literature, it is known that preferences between two options can be influenced in different ways by the introduction of a third option. We investigated whether such influences could be demonstrated when making decisions about qualitative aspects of episodic memories. In a baseline condition, participants were asked which of two dissimilar events they remembered more vividly: (A) a well-known Olympic victory, or (B) the death of a well-known public figure. In two further conditions, a third event was added: (C) an Olympic victory similar and competitive to A, or (D) an Olympic victory similar but inferior to A. With the addition of C, participants were less likely to choose A than B (similarity effect), whereas with the addition of D, they were more likely to choose A than B (attraction effect), suggesting that effects known in decision-making can be generalised to relative judgments about episodic memories.

  17. Strengthening acceptance for xenotransplantation: the case of attraction effect.

    PubMed

    Rubaltelli, Enrico; Burra, Patrizia; Sartorato, Valentina; Canova, Daniele; Germani, Giacomo; Tomat, Silvia; Ancona, Ermanno; Cozzi, Emanuele; Rumiati, Rino

    2008-01-01

    Despite being still at the experimental level, xenotransplantation may become an effective strategy to overcome the scarcity of human organs. However, at the present time there is considerable resistance to this kind of biomedical technology. The aim of the present study was to identify novel strategies to reduce patients' negative affective reactions towards xenotransplantation helping them to understand the advantages of xenotransplantation in a more analytical fashion and increase their acceptance for this approach. The study was conducted in a group of patients with liver cirrhosis waiting for liver transplantation. They were presented with hypothetical scenarios and asked to choose among either two or three alternative types of donor defined by their species (e.g., livers from humans vs. other species) and availability (low for human donors and high for livers from non-human species). Patients were unwilling to accept xenotransplantation if they were presented with livers from humans (chosen by 97.5% of participants) vs. livers from genetically modified pigs (2.5%). On the other hand, a different group of patients was significantly more willing to accept xenotransplantation if they were presented with three different types of donors: respectively, human beings (74.4%), genetically modified pigs (25.6%) and genetically modified dogs. In addition, human livers were judged significantly more attractive than genetically modified livers from pigs, monkeys, dogs, or sheep and pig livers were rated as significantly more attractive than livers from monkeys, dogs, or sheep (for all comparisons P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that paradigms from other fields, like decision-making, might help to communicate more effectively the potential of xenotransplantation, modulating patients' affective reactions and allowing them to understand the potential strengths of this biomedical technology.

  18. The Effects of Other's Actions, Attitude Similarity, and Race on Attraction Towards Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen; Johnson, David W.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the effect of similarity of attitudes, race, and goal facilitation or frustration upon attraction toward a stranger, in order to clarify what is an effective approach to increasing attraction between blacks and whites. (DM)

  19. Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Evaluation of Vocal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapnick, Joel; Darrow, Alice Ann; Kovacs, Jolan; Dalrymple, Lucinda

    1997-01-01

    Studies whether physical attractiveness of singers affects judges' ratings of their vocal performances. Reveals that physical attractiveness does impact evaluation, that male raters were more severe than female raters, and that the rating of undergraduate majors versus graduate students and professors combined were not differently affected by…

  20. Attractiveness and Psychological Development. Teacher Education Forum; Volume 4, Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Robert; Salvia, John

    An investigation of the relationship between appearance and psychological development is presented in this paper. The central hypothesis of the investigation is that appearance is an important stimulus property in the psychological development of children, and as such has an effect on an individual's response to his environment as well as the…

  1. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    PubMed

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  2. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Electrostatic attraction of coupled Wigner crystals: finite temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Lau, A W; Pincus, P; Levine, D; Fertig, H A

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we present a unified physical picture for the electrostatic attraction between two coupled planar Wigner crystals at finite temperature. This model may facilitate our conceptual understanding of counterion-mediated attractions between (highly) similarly charged planes. By adopting an elastic theory, we show that the total attractive force between them can be (approximately) decomposed into a short-ranged and a long-ranged component. They are evaluated below the melting temperature of the Wigner crystals. In particular, we analyze the temperature dependence of the short-ranged attraction, arising from ground-state configuration, and we argue that thermal fluctuations may drastically reduce its strength. Also, the long-range force agrees exactly with that based on the charge-fluctuation approach. Furthermore, we take quantum contributions to the long-ranged (fluctuation-induced) attraction into account and show how the fractional power law, which scales as d(-7/2) for large interplanar distance d at zero temperature, crosses over to the classical regime d(-3) via an intermediate regime of d(-2).

  4. Confinement, curvature, and attractive interaction effects on polymer surface adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Wei; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the conformation and dynamics of a semi-flexible polymer near an attractive plane or a cylindrical post using Langevin dynamics. We characterize the transition from the desorbed to absorbed state and quantify how absorption depends on the attraction interaction, polymer molecular weight, polymer flexibility, intra-polymer interaction, and micro-confinement. We find that the critical point of adsorption for ideal flexible polymers only weakly depends on confinement. However, the critical point of adsorption increases significantly for self-avoiding flexible polymers and under confinement, deviating from scaling theory predictions. These findings provide insights into DNA surface adsorption in nanoslits and nanochannels.

  5. Effects of Attractiveness of the Endorser on the Performance of Testimonial Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Gary B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    When affective and cognitive scores were used as measures, the attractiveness level of the endorser of a product in an advertisement appeared to have a significant effect on the scores with the high attractiveness level producing the most favorable evaluations. When cognitive scores were used, however, the attractiveness level had no significant…

  6. Effects of attractiveness on face memory separated from distinctiveness: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Altmann, Carolin S; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined effects of attractiveness on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of face memory. Extending previous reports, we controlled for potential moderating effects of distinctiveness, a variable known to affect memory. Attractive and unattractive faces were selected on the basis of a rating study, and were matched for distinctiveness. In a subsequent recognition memory experiment, we found more accurate memory for unattractive relative to attractive faces. Additionally, an attractiveness effect in the early posterior negativity (EPN) during learning, with larger amplitudes for attractive than unattractive faces, correlated significantly with the magnitude of the memory advantage for unattractive faces at test. These findings establish a contribution of attractiveness to face memory over and above the well-known effect of distinctiveness. Additionally, as the EPN is typically enhanced for affective stimuli, our ERP results imply that the processing of emotionally relevant attractive faces during learning may hamper their encoding into memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of facial attractiveness on temporal perception.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that feelings of fear, dislike, shame and sadness affect our perception of duration (Droit-Volet et al., 2004; Gil et al., 2009). The current study sought to expand our understanding of the variables which moderate temporal perception by examining whether the attractiveness of a face influenced its perceived duration. Participants completed a verbal estimation task in which they judged the duration of attractive, unattractive and neutral faces. The results showed that participants underestimated the duration of unattractive faces relative to attractive and neutral faces. Estimates of unattractive faces were also less accurate than those of the attractive and neutral faces. The results are consistent with Gil et al.'s (2009) suggestion that the duration of disliked stimuli are underestimated relative to liked and neutral stimuli because they detract attention from temporal perception. Analysis of the slope and intercept of the estimation gradients supports Zakay and Block's (1997) suggestion that reduced attention to time results in a multiplicative underestimation of duration.

  8. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.

  9. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking.

  10. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations.

  11. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  12. Physical attractiveness biases in ratings of employment suitability: tracking down the "beauty is beastly" effect.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stefanie K; Podratz, Kenneth E; Dipboye, Robert L; Gibbons, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The "what is beautiful is good" heuristic suggests that physically attractive persons benefit from their attractiveness in a large range of situations, including perceptions of employment suitability. Conversely, the "beauty is beastly" effect suggests that attractiveness can be detrimental to women in certain employment contexts, although these findings have been less consistent than those for the "what is beautiful is good" effect. The current research seeks to uncover situations in which beauty might be detrimental for female applicants. In two studies, we found that attractiveness can be detrimental for women applying for masculine sex-typed jobs for which physical appearance is perceived as unimportant.

  13. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:27727311

  14. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity-more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness.

  15. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (<10, 10-20, 20-30, and >30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

  16. A meta-analysis of sex differences in romantic attraction: do rating contexts moderate tactic effectiveness judgments?

    PubMed

    Schmitt, David P

    2002-09-01

    Although a number of studies have explored perceived sex differences in romantic attraction effectiveness, no research has systematically examined whether different rating contexts might moderate effectiveness judgments. In a meta-analytic review of romantic attraction research, four potential moderating variables were examined: temporal context (unspecified, long-term, short-term), manipulation form (self-promotion, competitor derogation), attraction type (general, retention, poaching), and sex of rater (mixed, same, opposite). Although perceived sex differences in physical appearance and resource-related tactics remained stable across most moderating variables, sex differences did vary across some rating contexts. For example, perceptions of sex differences in the effectiveness of appearance-related attraction tactics were much stronger in the context of self-promotion (d = -.77) compared with the competitor derogation context (d = -.17). Resource-related tactics of attraction displayed the opposite pattern, with significantly larger perceived sex differences in the context of competitor derogation (d =.93) than in self-promotion (d =.68). Discussion focused on the implications of sex difference variability and stability across rating contexts for evolutionary theories of romantic attraction.

  17. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Renate C; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2010-05-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species. In the current study, these compounds were tested for their attractiveness relative to human emanations in vivo and in vitro. Emanations from a human hand, incubated sweat, and foot skin residues on a nylon sock were significantly attractive when tested against clean air. In a dual-choice test, foot skin residues were significantly more attractive than emanations from a human hand in vivo. Ammonia alone attracted more mosquitoes than fresh or incubated sweat. However, the odor of a human hand or of foot skin residues were more attractive than ammonia. A known attractive blend of ammonia with lactic acid and carboxylic acids was less effective than natural foot odorants. The results demonstrate that the synthetic blend based on skin odor is attractive for An. gambiae, but that in a choice situation in vitro natural skin odors are still preferred by the mosquito. Differences in volatile organic compound abundances between a worn sock and the synthetic blend may have resulted in stronger attraction to the sock. This suggests that candidate attractants should be evaluated with consideration of the strength of natural odorant sources. The data furthermore suggest that additional unidentified compounds from the human foot are involved in the host-seeking behavior of this mosquito species.

  18. Can beauty be ignored? Effects of facial attractiveness on covert attention.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Liu, Chang Hong

    2009-04-01

    Facial beauty has important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than at unattractive faces. However, little is known about whether an attractive face presented outside foveal vision can capture attention. The effect of facial attractiveness on covert attention was investigated in a spatial cuing task. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a cued target presented to the left or right visual field while ignoring a task-irrelevant face image flashed in the opposite field. The presentation of attractive faces significantly lengthened task performance. The results suggest that facial beauty automatically competes with an ongoing cognitive task for spatial attention.

  19. Interactions among the effects of head orientation, emotional expression, and physical attractiveness on face preferences.

    PubMed

    Main, Julie C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preferences for direct versus averted gaze are modulated by emotional expressions and physical attractiveness. For example, preferences for direct gaze are stronger when judging happy or physically attractive faces than when judging disgusted or physically unattractive faces. Here we show that preferences for front versus three-quarter views of faces, in which gaze direction was always congruent with head orientation, are also modulated by emotional expressions and physical attractiveness; participants demonstrated preferences for front views of faces over three-quarter views of faces when judging the attractiveness of happy, physically attractive individuals, but not when judging the attractiveness of relatively unattractive individuals or those with disgusted expressions. Moreover, further analyses indicated that these interactions did not simply reflect differential perceptions of the intensity of the emotional expressions shown in each condition. Collectively, these findings present novel evidence that the effect of the direction of the attention of others on attractiveness judgments is modulated by cues to the physical attractiveness and emotional state of the depicted individual, potentially reflecting psychological adaptations for efficient allocation of social effort. These data also present the first behavioural evidence that the effect of the direction of the attention of others on attractiveness judgments reflects viewer-referenced, rather than face-referenced, coding and/or processing of gaze direction.

  20. Estimating the Sex-Specific Effects of Genes on Facial Attractiveness and Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Purkey, Alicia M.; Grebe, Nicholas M.; Carey, Gregory; Garver-Apgar, Christine E.; Bates, Timothy C.; Arden, Rosalind; Hewitt, John K.; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Keller, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Human facial attractiveness and facial sexual dimorphism (masculinity–femininity) are important facets of mate choice and are hypothesized to honestly advertise genetic quality. However, it is unclear whether genes influencing facial attractiveness and masculinity–femininity have similar, opposing, or independent effects across sex, and the heritability of these phenotypes is poorly characterized. To investigate these issues, we assessed facial attractiveness and facial masculinity–femininity in the largest genetically informative sample (n = 1,580 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs and siblings) to assess these questions to date. The heritability was ~0.50–0.70 for attractiveness and ~0.40–0.50 for facial masculinity– femininity, indicating that, despite ostensible selection on genes influencing these traits, substantial genetic variation persists in both. Importantly, we found evidence for intralocus sexual conflict, whereby alleles that increase masculinity in males have the same effect in females. Additionally, genetic influences on attractiveness were shared across the sexes, suggesting that attractive fathers tend to have attractive daughters and attractive mothers tend to have attractive sons. PMID:24213680

  1. Estimating the sex-specific effects of genes on facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Mitchem, Dorian G; Purkey, Alicia M; Grebe, Nicholas M; Carey, Gregory; Garver-Apgar, Christine E; Bates, Timothy C; Arden, Rosalind; Hewitt, John K; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G; Zietsch, Brendan P; Keller, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Human facial attractiveness and facial sexual dimorphism (masculinity-femininity) are important facets of mate choice and are hypothesized to honestly advertise genetic quality. However, it is unclear whether genes influencing facial attractiveness and masculinity-femininity have similar, opposing, or independent effects across sex, and the heritability of these phenotypes is poorly characterized. To investigate these issues, we assessed facial attractiveness and facial masculinity-femininity in the largest genetically informative sample (n = 1,580 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs and siblings) to assess these questions to date. The heritability was ~0.50-0.70 for attractiveness and ~0.40-0.50 for facial masculinity-femininity, indicating that, despite ostensible selection on genes influencing these traits, substantial genetic variation persists in both. Importantly, we found evidence for intralocus sexual conflict, whereby alleles that increase masculinity in males have the same effect in females. Additionally, genetic influences on attractiveness were shared across the sexes, suggesting that attractive fathers tend to have attractive daughters and attractive mothers tend to have attractive sons.

  2. Effect of mating on sex attraction in Bactericera cockerelli with evidence of refractoriness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the effect of mating on female attractiveness and male responsiveness in the potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), a major pest of potato. Mating induced a behavioral refractoriness during which males are not attracted to females. This ...

  3. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Attributions of Causality for Success and Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Seymour; And Others

    Based on research indicating the existence of a generalized positive stereotype of physically attractive individuals, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of an individual's attractiveness on attributions about his achievement-related behavior. In the context of an accuracy-of-person perception task, 162 male and female…

  4. Effects of Counselor Sex, Student Sex, and Student Attractiveness on Counselors' Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Pauline; Atkinson, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effect of client sex and attractiveness on male and female counselors' judgments about students' educational and career potential. Found male counselors showed sex bias when suggesting occupations. Prediction of higher education and occupational status were not related to counselor or student sex or student attractiveness. (Author/JAC)

  5. Physical Attractiveness: Interactive Effects of Counselor and Client on Counseling Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how the physical attractiveness of counselors and clients interacted to build rapport in two experiments involving college students (N=128 and N=64). Results showed the counselor's physical attractiveness had a major impact on her perceived effectiveness and the client's expectation of success irrespective of the client's attractiveness…

  6. Physical Attractiveness: Interactive Effects of Counselor and Client on Counseling Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how the physical attractiveness of counselors and clients interacted to build rapport in two experiments involving college students (N=128 and N=64). Results showed the counselor's physical attractiveness had a major impact on her perceived effectiveness and the client's expectation of success irrespective of the client's attractiveness…

  7. Effects of Counselor Sex, Student Sex, and Student Attractiveness on Counselors' Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Pauline; Atkinson, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effect of client sex and attractiveness on male and female counselors' judgments about students' educational and career potential. Found male counselors showed sex bias when suggesting occupations. Prediction of higher education and occupational status were not related to counselor or student sex or student attractiveness. (Author/JAC)

  8. Adaptation effects to attractiveness of face photographs and art portraits are domain-specific

    PubMed Central

    Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.; Kloth, Nadine; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Redies, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We studied the neural coding of facial attractiveness by investigating effects of adaptation to attractive and unattractive human faces on the perceived attractiveness of veridical human face pictures (Experiment 1) and art portraits (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed a clear pattern of contrastive aftereffects. Relative to a pre-adaptation baseline, the perceived attractiveness of faces was increased after adaptation to unattractive faces, and was decreased after adaptation to attractive faces. Experiment 2 revealed similar aftereffects when art portraits rather than face photographs were used as adaptors and test stimuli, suggesting that effects of adaptation to attractiveness are not restricted to facial photographs. Additionally, we found similar aftereffects in art portraits for beauty, another aesthetic feature that, unlike attractiveness, relates to the properties of the image (rather than to the face displayed). Importantly, Experiment 3 showed that aftereffects were abolished when adaptors were art portraits and face photographs were test stimuli. These results suggest that adaptation to facial attractiveness elicits aftereffects in the perception of subsequently presented faces, for both face photographs and art portraits, and that these effects do not cross image domains. PMID:24349690

  9. Adaptation effects to attractiveness of face photographs and art portraits are domain-specific.

    PubMed

    Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Kloth, Nadine; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Redies, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We studied the neural coding of facial attractiveness by investigating effects of adaptation to attractive and unattractive human faces on the perceived attractiveness of veridical human face pictures (Experiment 1) and art portraits (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed a clear pattern of contrastive aftereffects. Relative to a pre-adaptation baseline, the perceived attractiveness of faces was increased after adaptation to unattractive faces, and was decreased after adaptation to attractive faces. Experiment 2 revealed similar aftereffects when art portraits rather than face photographs were used as adaptors and test stimuli, suggesting that effects of adaptation to attractiveness are not restricted to facial photographs. Additionally, we found similar aftereffects in art portraits for beauty, another aesthetic feature that, unlike attractiveness, relates to the properties of the image (rather than to the face displayed). Importantly, Experiment 3 showed that aftereffects were abolished when adaptors were art portraits and face photographs were test stimuli. These results suggest that adaptation to facial attractiveness elicits aftereffects in the perception of subsequently presented faces, for both face photographs and art portraits, and that these effects do not cross image domains.

  10. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  11. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  12. The Effect of Attractive Interactions and Macromolecular Crowding on Crystallins Association

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiachen; Dobnikar, Jure; Curk, Tine; Song, Fan

    2016-01-01

    In living systems proteins are typically found in crowded environments where their effective interactions strongly depend on the surrounding medium. Yet, their association and dissociation needs to be robustly controlled in order to enable biological function. Uncontrolled protein aggregation often causes disease. For instance, cataract is caused by the clustering of lens proteins, i.e., crystallins, resulting in enhanced light scattering and impaired vision or blindness. To investigate the molecular origins of cataract formation and to design efficient treatments, a better understanding of crystallin association in macromolecular crowded environment is needed. Here we present a theoretical study of simple coarse grained colloidal models to characterize the general features of how the association equilibrium of proteins depends on the magnitude of intermolecular attraction. By comparing the analytic results to the available experimental data on the osmotic pressure in crystallin solutions, we identify the effective parameters regimes applicable to crystallins. Moreover, the combination of two models allows us to predict that the number of binding sites on crystallin is small, i.e. one to three per protein, which is different from previous estimates. We further observe that the crowding factor is sensitive to the size asymmetry between the reactants and crowding agents, the shape of the protein clusters, and to small variations of intermolecular attraction. Our work may provide general guidelines on how to steer the protein interactions in order to control their association. PMID:26954357

  13. Effects of topology on the adsorption of singly tethered ring polymers to attractive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Sun, Zhao-Yan; An, Li-Jia

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the effect of topology on the equilibrium behavior of singly tethered ring polymers adsorbed on an attractive surface. We focus on the change of square radius of gyration Rg(2), the perpendicular component Rg⊥(2) and the parallel component Rg‖(2) to the adsorbing surface, the mean contacting number of monomers with the surface , and the monomer distribution along z-direction during transition from desorption to adsorption. We find that both of the critical point of adsorption εc and the crossover exponent ϕ depend on the knot type when the chain length of ring ranges from 48 to 400. The behaviors of Rg(2), Rg⊥(2), and Rg‖(2) are found to be dependent on the topology and the monomer-surface attractive strength. At weak adsorption, the polymer chains with more complex topology are more adsorbable than those with simple topology. However, at strong adsorption, the polymer chains with complex topology are less adsorbable. By analyzing the distribution of monomer along z-direction, we give a possible mechanism for the effect of topology on the adsorption behavior.

  14. Effects of attractiveness and gender on the perception of achievement-related variables.

    PubMed

    Chia, R C; Allred, L J; Grossnickle, W F; Lee, G W

    1998-08-01

    The present study was an examination of the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. It was hypothesized that attractive persons and men would be rated more favorably along these dimensions than would unattractive persons and women. The participants were 144 U.S. undergraduates who observed photographs of attractive and unattractive men and women and then rated the persons in the photographs on the aforementioned dimensions. Physical attractiveness had a differential effect on the dimensions within achievement. Also, being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but negative impressions for women.

  15. Effective forces in colloidal mixtures: from depletion attraction to accumulation repulsion.

    PubMed

    Louis, A A; Allahyarov, E; Löwen, H; Roth, R

    2002-06-01

    Computer simulations and theory are used to systematically investigate how the effective force between two big colloidal spheres in a sea of small spheres depends on the basic (big-small and small-small) interactions. The latter are modeled as hardcore pair potentials with a Yukawa tail which can be either repulsive or attractive. For a repulsive small-small interaction, the effective force follows the trends as predicted by a mapping onto an effective nonadditive hardcore mixture: both a depletion attraction and an accumulation repulsion caused by small spheres adsorbing onto the big ones can be obtained depending on the sign of the big-small interaction. For repulsive big-small interactions, the effect of adding a small-small attraction also follows the trends predicted by the mapping. But a more subtle "repulsion through attraction" effect arises when both big-small and small-small attractions occur: upon increasing the strength of the small-small interaction, the effective potential becomes more repulsive. We have further tested several theoretical methods against our computer simulations: The superposition approximation works best for an added big-small repulsion, and breaks down for a strong big-small attraction, while density functional theory is very accurate for any big-small interaction when the small particles are pure hard spheres. The theoretical methods perform most poorly for small-small attractions.

  16. The Effect of Professor's Attractiveness on Distance Learning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jeanny; Tomasi, Stella D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology enabled learning is becoming more popular and pervasive in education. While the effectiveness of distance learning versus traditional classroom education is strongly debated, human factors such as students' perception of their professors can influence their desire to learn. This research examines the perceptual effect of attractive…

  17. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  18. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  19. Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

  20. Beauty is better pursued: effects of attractiveness in multiple-face tracking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng

    2012-01-01

    Using the multiple-object tracking paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects distributed attention to multiple faces in dynamic displays. Observers tracked attractive faces more effectively than unattractive faces in this task. Tracking performance was only affected by target attractiveness, suggesting an absence of appraisal for distractor attractiveness. Attractive male faces also produced stronger binding of face identity and location for female participants. Together, the results suggest that facial attractiveness was appraised during tracking even though this was task irrelevant. Contrary to the theory that multiple-object tracking is driven by encapsulated low-level vision, our results show that the content of target representation is not only penetrable by social cognition but also modulates the course of tracking operations.

  1. The Effects of Sex of Subject, Sex and Attractiveness of Photo on Facial Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroo, Agatha W.; Mozingo, R.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed effect of sex of subject, and sex and attractiveness of photo on facial recognition with 25 male and 25 female college students. Found male subjects performed better with male faces with d' prime scores. (Author/ABL)

  2. Physical attractiveness, physical effectiveness, and self-concept in late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R M; Orlos, J B; Knapp, J R

    1976-01-01

    The differential role of various body attitudes in predicting the self-concepts of late adolescents (124 males and 218 females), enrolled in introductory psychology courses, was assessed. Subjects rated 24 body characteristics in terms of 1) how physically attractive they assumed these parts of their bodies were, and 2) how physically effective they assumed them to be; subjects also responded to a short self-concept scale. In accordance with the theory of Erikson (1968) and of McCandless (1970), it was expected that attractiveness attitudes should contribute more to the self-concepts of females than should effectiveness attitudes, while a reverse pattern of interrelatedness was expected for males. Results indicated a higher correspondence between what are seen as attractive body parts and what are viewed as effective body components for males than for females. Moreover, findings from step-wise multiple regression analyses of each sex group's ratings of the body parts for attractiveness and effectiveness, respectively, each with the criterion variable constituting mean self-concept score, were consistent with expectations. For females, the multiple correlation between attractiveness ratings and self-concept was greater than the multiple correlation between effectiveness ratings and self-concept, and more attractiveness variables than effectiveness variables were significant predictors of self-concept. The converse of these findings were obtained with the males' data. The relevance of these results for theories of personality development were discussed.

  3. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  4. Interpersonal attraction as a joint function of primacy and recency effects.

    PubMed

    Bell, P A

    1975-01-01

    Empirical primacy-recency inconsistencies between Byrne's reinforcement affect model of attraction and Anderson's information integration model of personality impression formation were explored. Thirty-six male and female Ss gave attraction responses to sequences of blocks of similar and dissimilar attitudes arranged in increasing or decreasing proportions of similarity and increasing or decreasing levels of topic importance. Results generally supported the hypothesis that attraction is a joint function of the proportion of similar attitudes within each block (recency) and cumulative proportion of similar attitudes before each response (primacy). This joint occurrence of primacy and recency effects was interpreted in terms of an affect neutralization hypothesis.

  5. Mediators of the effects of cold-warm communication on attraction toward online service providers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramadhar; Lee, Clara Yulin

    2008-06-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 120) in Singapore sought advice from the experimenter's confederate via e-mail or phone. After receiving a scripted warm or cold reply from the online service provider, participants rated their general attitude toward the service provided, positive and negative affect, and attraction toward the service provider. The effect of warm versus cold communication on attraction toward the online service provider was partly mediated by general attitude, positive affect, and negative affect. The results indicate that attitude that influences attraction through affect can itself be a mediator when it is formed through online interactions.

  6. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  7. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wust, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  8. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E; Christiansen, P

    2015-09-01

    Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.

  9. Effects of Objective 3-Dimensional Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Cory D; Wehby, George L; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-09-01

    Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. The authors evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The 3D facial images of 313 adults in Iowa were digitized with 32 landmarks, and objective 3D facial measurements capturing symmetric and asymmetric components of shape variation, centroid size, and fluctuating asymmetry were obtained from the 3D coordinate data using geo-morphometric analyses. Frontal and profile images of study participants were rated for facial attractiveness by 10 volunteers (5 women and 5 men) on a 5-point Likert scale and a visual analog scale. Multivariate regression was used to identify the effects of the objective 3D facial measurements on attractiveness ratings. Several objective 3D facial measurements had marked effects on attractiveness ratings. Shorter facial heights with protrusive chins, midface retrusion, faces with protrusive noses and thin lips, flat mandibular planes with deep labiomental folds, any cants of the lip commissures and floor of the nose, larger faces overall, and increased fluctuating asymmetry were rated as significantly (P < .001) less attractive. Perceptions of facial attractiveness can be explained by specific 3D measurements of facial shapes and fluctuating asymmetry, which have important implications for clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of water-channel attractions on single-file water permeation through nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yousheng; Tian, Xingling; Lv, Mei; Deng, Maolin; He, Bing; Xiu, Peng; Tu, Yusong; Zheng, Youqu

    2016-07-01

    Single-file transportation of water across narrow nanochannels such as carbon nanotubes has attracted much attention in recent years. Such permeation can be greatly affected by the water-channel interactions; despite some progress, this issue has not been fully explored. Herein we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of water-channel attractions on occupancy, translational (transportation) and orientational dynamics of water inside narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We use SWNTs as the model nanochannels and change the strength of water-nanotube attractions to mimic the changes in the hydrophobicity/polarity of the nanochannel. We investigate the dependence of water occupancy inside SWNTs on the water-channel attraction and identify the corresponding threshold values for drying states, wetting-drying transition states, and stably wetting states. As the strength of water-channel attractions increases, water flow increases rapidly first, and then decreases gradually; the maximal flow occurs in the case where the nanochannel is predominately filled with the 1D water wire but with a small fraction of ‘empty states’, indicating that appropriate empty-filling (drying-wetting) switching can promote water permeation. This maximal flow is unexpected, since in traditional view, the stable and tight hydrogen-bonding network of the water wire is the prerequisite for high permeability of water. The underlying mechanism is discussed from an energetic perspective. In addition, the effect of water-channel attractions on reorientational dynamics of the water wire is studied, and a negative correlation between the flipping frequency of water wire and the water-channel attraction is observed. The underlying mechanism is interpreted in term of the axial total dipole moment of inner water molecules. This work would help to better understand the effects of water-channel attractions on wetting properties of narrow nanochannels, and on single

  11. Can Beauty Be Ignored? Effects of Facial Attractiveness on Covert Attention

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Jie; Liu, Chang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Facial beauty has both important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than unattractive faces. However, little is known about whether an attractive face presented outside foveal vision can capture attention. The effect of facial attractiveness on covert attention was investigated in a spatial cuing task. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a cued target presented to the left or right visual field while ignoring a task-irrelevant face image flashed in the opposite field. Relative to unattractive faces, the presence of attractive faces significantly lengthened task performance. The results suggest that facial beauty automatically competes with an ongoing cognitive task for spatial attention. PMID:19293094

  12. The Role of Atomic Level Steric Effects and Attractive Forces in Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Heiko; Wolynes, Peter G.; Onuchic, José N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein folding into tertiary structures is controlled by an interplay of attractive contact interactions and steric effects. We investigate the balance between these contributions using structure-based models using an all-atom representation of the structure combined with a coarse-grained contact potential. Tertiary contact interactions between atoms are collected into a single broad attractive well between the Cβ atoms between each residue pair in a native contact. Through the width of these contact potentials we control their tolerance for deviations from the ideal structure and the spatial range of attractive interactions. In the compact native state dominant packing constraints limit the effects of a coarse-grained contact potential. During folding however the broad attractive potentials allow an early collapse that starts before the native local structure is completely adopted. As a consequence the folding transition is broadened and the free energy barrier is decreased. Eventually two-state folding behavior is lost completely for systems with very broad attractive potentials. The stabilization of native-like residue interactions in non-perfect geometries early in the folding process frequently leads to structural traps. Global mirror images are a notable example. These traps are penalized by the details of the repulsive interactions only after further collapse. Successful folding to the native state requires simultaneous guidance from both attractive and repulsive interactions. PMID:22081451

  13. Particle attraction effects on the centrifugal casting and extrusion of alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, C.H.; Bergstroem, L.; Ker, H.L.; Aksay, I.A.

    1993-04-01

    Interparticle attraction forces were empirically related to the centrifugal casting and extrusion behavior of flocculated alumina suspensions. Attractive forces were altered by two approaches: Salt flocculation, which entails regulating the electrical double-layer thickness through electrolyte additions; and screening of van der Waals attraction by steric interactions of surface-adsorbed fatty acids. Specimens produced by both compressibility at a critical maximum density that increased with decreasing interparticle attraction. Gradients in packing density during centrifugal casting were alleviated using both methods as long as spatial variations of the effective stress were within the low-compressibility range. We hypothesized that the reduced interparticle attraction in both methods may also raise the threshold packing density at which ductile-to-brittle transitions occur during plastic shear. Specimens prepared with oleic acid adlayers were highly plastic and easily extrudable at solids contents of up to 59 vol%, although salt-flocculated samples at 55 vol% density extruded at creeping flow rates that were insensitive to the applied pressure. Results suggested that particle rearrangement during shear, is a rate-limiting process, with an average relaxation time that is lowered by reducing interparticle attraction.

  14. Particle attraction effects on the centrifugal casting and extrusion of alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, C.H. ); Bergstroem, L. ); Ker, H.L.; Aksay, I.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Interparticle attraction forces were empirically related to the centrifugal casting and extrusion behavior of flocculated alumina suspensions. Attractive forces were altered by two approaches: Salt flocculation, which entails regulating the electrical double-layer thickness through electrolyte additions; and screening of van der Waals attraction by steric interactions of surface-adsorbed fatty acids. Specimens produced by both compressibility at a critical maximum density that increased with decreasing interparticle attraction. Gradients in packing density during centrifugal casting were alleviated using both methods as long as spatial variations of the effective stress were within the low-compressibility range. We hypothesized that the reduced interparticle attraction in both methods may also raise the threshold packing density at which ductile-to-brittle transitions occur during plastic shear. Specimens prepared with oleic acid adlayers were highly plastic and easily extrudable at solids contents of up to 59 vol%, although salt-flocculated samples at 55 vol% density extruded at creeping flow rates that were insensitive to the applied pressure. Results suggested that particle rearrangement during shear, is a rate-limiting process, with an average relaxation time that is lowered by reducing interparticle attraction.

  15. Brain potentials indicate the effect of other observers' emotions on perceptions of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujing; Pan, Xuwei; Mo, Yan; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-03-23

    Perceptions of facial attractiveness are sensitive to emotional expression of the perceived face. However, little is known about whether the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face may have an effect on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The present study used event-related potential technique to examine social influence of the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a neutral target face was paired with two images of individuals gazing at the target face with smiling, fearful or neutral expressions. In the second phase, participants were asked to judge the attractiveness of the target face. We found that a target face was more attractive when other observers positively gazing at the target face in contrast to the condition when other observers were negative. Additionally, the results of brain potentials showed that the visual positive component P3 with peak latency from 270 to 330 ms was larger after participants observed the target face paired with smiling individuals than the target face paired with neutral individuals. These findings suggested that facial attractiveness of an individual may be influenced by the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face.

  16. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P < 0·01 for all). With all age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Thermodynamically consistent Langevin dynamics with spatially correlated noise predicting frictionless regime and transient attraction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    While the origins of temporal correlations in Langevin dynamics have been thoroughly researched, the understanding of spatially correlated noise (SCN) is rather incomplete. In particular, very little is known about the relation between friction and SCN. In this article, starting from the microscopic, deterministic model, we derive the analytical formula for the spatial correlation function in the particle-bath interactions. This expression shows that SCN is the inherent component of binary mixtures, originating from the effective (entropic) interactions. Further, employing this spatial correlation function, we postulate the thermodynamically consistent Langevin equation driven by the Gaussian SCN and calculate the adequate fluctuation-dissipation relation. The thermodynamical consistency is achieved by introducing the spatially variant friction coefficient, which can be also derived analytically. This coefficient exhibits a number of intriguing properties, e.g., the singular behavior for certain types of interactions. Eventually, we apply this new theory to the system of two charged particles in the presence of counter-ions. Such particles interact via the screened-charge Yukawa potential and the inclusion of SCN leads to the emergence of the anomalous frictionless regime. In this regime the particles can experience active propulsion leading to the transient attraction effect. This effect suggests a nonequilibrium mechanism facilitating the molecular binding of the like-charged particles.

  18. Thermodynamically consistent Langevin dynamics with spatially correlated noise predicting frictionless regime and transient attraction effect.

    PubMed

    Majka, M; Góra, P F

    2016-10-01

    While the origins of temporal correlations in Langevin dynamics have been thoroughly researched, the understanding of spatially correlated noise (SCN) is rather incomplete. In particular, very little is known about the relation between friction and SCN. In this article, starting from the microscopic, deterministic model, we derive the analytical formula for the spatial correlation function in the particle-bath interactions. This expression shows that SCN is the inherent component of binary mixtures, originating from the effective (entropic) interactions. Further, employing this spatial correlation function, we postulate the thermodynamically consistent Langevin equation driven by the Gaussian SCN and calculate the adequate fluctuation-dissipation relation. The thermodynamical consistency is achieved by introducing the spatially variant friction coefficient, which can be also derived analytically. This coefficient exhibits a number of intriguing properties, e.g., the singular behavior for certain types of interactions. Eventually, we apply this new theory to the system of two charged particles in the presence of counter-ions. Such particles interact via the screened-charge Yukawa potential and the inclusion of SCN leads to the emergence of the anomalous frictionless regime. In this regime the particles can experience active propulsion leading to the transient attraction effect. This effect suggests a nonequilibrium mechanism facilitating the molecular binding of the like-charged particles.

  19. Attitudes, personal evaluations, cognitive evaluation and interpersonal attraction: on the direct, indirect and reverse-causal effects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ho, Li Jen; Tan, Hui Lynn; Bell, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    The authors hypothesized that (1) attraction toward a stranger based on attitudinal similarity is automatic, but cognitive evaluation of the stranger's quality before the measurement of attraction can make attraction nonautomatic or controlled; (2) personal evaluations from the stranger activate automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation; (3) controlled attraction from attitudes and automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation from personal evaluations engender reverse-causal effects (i.e. they mediate each other); and (4) attraction and cognitive evaluation are distinct constructs. Attitudinal similarity between the participant and the stranger or personal evaluations of the former by the latter were varied in Experiment 1 (N=96), and were crossed with each other in Experiment 2 (N=240). Orders of response measurement were either cognitive evaluation followed by attraction or attraction followed by cognitive evaluation. Results confirmed the hypotheses. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISINFECTION AND VECTOR ATTRACTION REDUCTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the current state of management practices for biosolids production and application, and how can those be made more effective? How effective are Class B disinfection and vector attraction processes, and public access and harvesting restrictions at reducing the public's exp...

  1. The Effects of Attitude Similarity, Spatial Relationship, and Task Difficulty on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study of the effects of the occupation of an individual's personal space on that individual's judgment of the invader when the invader's attitudes are known to the invadee. Also studies the effect of the difficulty of the task on the relationship between spatial orientation and interpersonal attraction. (JMF)

  2. Molecular theory and the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.; Asthagiri, D.; Tan, L.; Pratt, L. R.

    2015-12-22

    The role of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions is studied by coordinated development of theory and simulation results for Ar atoms in water. In this paper, we present a concise derivation of the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions, a derivation that clarifies the close relation of LMF theory to the EXP approximation applied to this problem long ago. The simulation results show that change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions diminishes the strength of hydrophobic bonds. For the Ar–Ar rdfs considered pointwise, the numerical results for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions are opposite in sign and larger in magnitude than predicted by LMF theory. That comparison is discussed from the point of view of quasichemical theory, and it is suggested that the first reason for this difference is the incomplete evaluation within LMF theory of the hydration energy of the Ar pair. With a recent suggestion for the system-size extrapolation of the required correlation function integrals, the Ar–Ar rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients B2. Those B2’s also show that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. With attractive interactions in play, B2 can change from positive to negative values with increasing temperatures. Furthermore, this is consistent with the puzzling suggestions of decades ago that B2 ≈ 0 for intermediate cases of temperature or solute size. In all cases here, B2 becomes more attractive with increasing temperature.

  3. Molecular theory and the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.; Asthagiri, D.; ...

    2015-12-22

    The role of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions is studied by coordinated development of theory and simulation results for Ar atoms in water. In this paper, we present a concise derivation of the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions, a derivation that clarifies the close relation of LMF theory to the EXP approximation applied to this problem long ago. The simulation results show that change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions diminishes the strength of hydrophobic bonds. For the Ar–Ar rdfs considered pointwise, the numericalmore » results for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions are opposite in sign and larger in magnitude than predicted by LMF theory. That comparison is discussed from the point of view of quasichemical theory, and it is suggested that the first reason for this difference is the incomplete evaluation within LMF theory of the hydration energy of the Ar pair. With a recent suggestion for the system-size extrapolation of the required correlation function integrals, the Ar–Ar rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients B2. Those B2’s also show that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. With attractive interactions in play, B2 can change from positive to negative values with increasing temperatures. Furthermore, this is consistent with the puzzling suggestions of decades ago that B2 ≈ 0 for intermediate cases of temperature or solute size. In all cases here, B2 becomes more attractive with increasing temperature.« less

  4. Molecular Theory and the Effects of Solute Attractive Forces on Hydrophobic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Rempe, Susan B; Asthagiri, D; Tan, L; Pratt, L R

    2016-03-03

    The role of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions is studied by coordinated development of theory and simulation results for Ar atoms in water. We present a concise derivation of the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions, a derivation that clarifies the close relation of LMF theory to the EXP approximation applied to this problem long ago. The simulation results show that change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions diminishes the strength of hydrophobic bonds. For the Ar-Ar rdfs considered pointwise, the numerical results for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions are opposite in sign and larger in magnitude than predicted by LMF theory. That comparison is discussed from the point of view of quasichemical theory, and it is suggested that the first reason for this difference is the incomplete evaluation within LMF theory of the hydration energy of the Ar pair. With a recent suggestion for the system-size extrapolation of the required correlation function integrals, the Ar-Ar rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients B2. Those B2's also show that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. With attractive interactions in play, B2 can change from positive to negative values with increasing temperatures. This is consistent with the puzzling suggestions of decades ago that B2 ≈ 0 for intermediate cases of temperature or solute size. In all cases here, B2 becomes more attractive with increasing temperature.

  5. A Quantitative Approach to Determining the Ideal Female Lip Aesthetic and Its Effect on Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Popenko, Natalie A; Tripathi, Prem B; Devcic, Zlatko; Karimi, Koohyar; Osann, Kathryn; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-07-01

    Aesthetic proportions of the lips and their effect on facial attractiveness are poorly defined. Established guidelines would aid practitioners in achieving optimal aesthetic outcomes during cosmetic augmentation. To assess the most attractive lip dimensions of white women based on attractiveness ranking of surface area, ratio of upper to lower lip, and dimensions of the lip surface area relative to the lower third of the face. In phase 1 of this study, synthetic morph frontal digital images of the faces of 20 white women ages 18 to 25 years old were used to generate 5 varied lip surface areas for each face. These 100 faces were cardinally ranked by attractiveness through our developed conventional and internet-based focus groups by 150 participants. A summed ranking score of each face was plotted to quantify the most attractive surface area. In phase 2 of the study, 4 variants for each face were created with 15 of the most attractive images manipulating upper to lower lip ratios while maintaining the most attractive surface area from phase 1. A total of 60 faces were created, and each ratio was ranked by attractiveness by 428 participants (internet-based focus groups). In phase 3, the surface area from the most attractive faces was used to determine the total lip surface area relative to the lower facial third. Data were collected from March 1 to November 31, 2010, and analyzed from June 1 to October 31, 2016. Most attractive lip surface area, ratio of upper to lower lip, and dimension of the lips relative to the lower facial third. In phase 1, all 100 faces were cardinally ranked by 150 individuals (internet-based focus groups [n = 130] and raters from conventional focus groups [conventional raters] [n = 20]). In phase 2, all 60 faces were cardinally ranked by 428 participants (internet-based focus groups [n = 408] and conventional raters [n = 20]). The surface area that corresponded to the range of 2.0 to 2.5 × 104 pixels represented the

  6. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    PubMed

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image.

  7. Language in Online Dating Texts: Trait Identification, Homophily, and their Effect on Attraction.

    PubMed

    Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.

  8. Is principal component analysis an effective tool to predict face attractiveness? A contribution based on real 3D faces of highly selected attractive women, scanned with stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Luigi Maria; Di Gioia, Eliana; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Percoco, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    In the literature, several papers report studies on mathematical models used to describe facial features and to predict female facial beauty based on 3D human face data. Many authors have proposed the principal component analysis (PCA) method that permits modeling of the entire human face using a limited number of parameters. In some cases, these models have been correlated with beauty classifications, obtaining good attractiveness predictability using wrapped 2D or 3D models. To verify these results, in this paper, the authors conducted a three-dimensional digitization study of 66 very attractive female subjects using a computerized noninvasive tool known as 3D digital photogrammetry. The sample consisted of the 64 contestants of the final phase of the Miss Italy 2010 beauty contest, plus the two highest ranked contestants in the 2009 competition. PCA was conducted on this real faces sample to verify if there is a correlation between ranking and the principal components of the face models. There was no correlation and therefore, this hypothesis is not confirmed for our sample. Considering that the results of the contest are not only solely a function of facial attractiveness, but undoubtedly are significantly impacted by it, the authors based on their experience and real faces conclude that PCA analysis is not a valid prediction tool for attractiveness. The database of the features belonging to the sample analyzed are downloadable online and further contributions are welcome.

  9. Redundancies in "H" Index Variants and the Proposal of the Number of Top-Cited Papers as an Attractive Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, and Mahalchik (this issue) evaluate 22 bibliometric indicators, including conventional measures, like the number of publications, the "h" index, and many "h" index variants. To assess the quality of the indicators, their well-justified criteria encompass conceptual, empirical, and practical…

  10. Redundancies in "H" Index Variants and the Proposal of the Number of Top-Cited Papers as an Attractive Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, and Mahalchik (this issue) evaluate 22 bibliometric indicators, including conventional measures, like the number of publications, the "h" index, and many "h" index variants. To assess the quality of the indicators, their well-justified criteria encompass conceptual, empirical, and practical…

  11. Student Teams and Achievement Divisions: Effects on Academic Performance, Mutual Attraction, and Attitudes. Report No. 233.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    Two instructional techniques, Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), and Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), contain a team component and a comparison-among-equals component. To separate the effects of these two components on academic performance, mutual attraction, and student attitudes, a 2 x 2 factorial design was used, varying reward structure…

  12. The Effect of Body Type and Camera Shot on Interpersonal Attraction and Source Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Thomas A.; Divers, Lawrence

    In order to examine the effects of manipulating image size (i.e., relative size) and body type of speakers in a television context on source credibility and interpersonal attraction, a study was conducted at Illinois State University during the spring of 1973. Subjects were eighteen intact groups of students enrolled in speech communication class…

  13. The Effects of Physical Appearance and Behavior Upon Ratings of Social Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Sandra D.

    A videotaped interaction between a stimulus person (SP) and an interviewer was viewed by 80 male and 80 female college students. The SP's physical appearance and behavior were varied in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design with student gender as the third independent variable. The effects of these three variables upon general attractiveness ratings and…

  14. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers: Background Report for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Wilcox, Danielle; Palmaffy, Tyce; Tracy, Christopher; Yiamouyiannis, Zeus; Ostermeier, Amy; Garcia, Lenore Yaffee

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a balanced picture of the debate on teacher quality in the U.S. and focuses on the aspects of teacher policy dealing with attracting, recruiting, developing and retaining effective teachers by synthesizing relevant research, identifying innovative and successful policy practices, facilitating exchanges of lessons among…

  15. Effectiveness and Attractiveness as a Function of Communicator Style in Triads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Anthony B.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how interactive style influences effectiveness and interpersonal attraction in groups. After college student volunteers completed the Communicator Style Measure (CSM), 72 subjects were selected from three style profiles and assigned to triads that contained high, mid, and low communication style…

  16. Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Sex and Sex-Role on Trait Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Deaux, Kay

    This research investigates how androgynous men and women are evaluated relative to those who are sex-typed or sex reversed, and also investigates the joint effects of attractiveness and sex-role upon such evaluation. Two studies with replicable results were conducted. In each, approximately 185 male and 185 female undergraduates were asked to rate…

  17. The Effects of Nonverbal Involvement and Communication Apprehension on State Anxiety, Interpersonal Attraction, and Speech Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.; Jones, Tricia S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines whether communication apprehension mediates the effect of nonverbal involvement cues (head nods, eye contact, body orientation, etc.) on state anxiety, interpersonal attraction, and speech duration in information gathering interviews. Finds that nonverbal cues affect loquacity and liking, but that a speaker's communication apprehension…

  18. The Effect of Camera Angle and Image Size on Source Credibility and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Thomas A.; Wakshlag, Jacob J.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two nonverbal visual variables (camera angle and image size) on variables developed in a nonmediated context (source credibility and interpersonal attraction). Camera angle and image size were manipulated in eight video taped television newscasts which were subsequently presented to eight…

  19. Stabilizing effect of TMAO on globular PNIPAM states: preferential attraction induces preferential hydration.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Martin A; Michalowsky, Julian; Fischer, Birgit; Smiatek, Jens; Grübel, Gerhard

    2016-11-23

    We study the effect of the organic co-solute trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) on the volume phase transition of microgel particles made from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The DLS measurements reveal a continuous TMAO-induced shrinking process from a coil to a globular state of PNIPAM microgel particles. Analyzing the DLS data by the phenomenological Flory-Rehner theory verifies the stabilization of the globular state of the particles in the presence of TMAO. Complementary atomistic MD simulations highlight a pronounced accumulation of TMAO molecules around PNIPAM chains. We observe a significant preferential attraction between TMAO and the globular state of PNIPAM, which is additionally stabilized by a larger number of hydrating water molecules compared to pure aqueous solutions. Further DLS measurements were also conducted on PNIPAM suspensions with the co-solute urea added. The observed differences compared with the results obtained for TMAO support the proposed mechanism.

  20. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T.; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between 19 and 65 years (Mage = 41, SD = 14) indicated their job attraction for each of 40 hypothetical job descriptions in which the four job characteristics were systematically manipulated (in total, participants provided 3,280 ratings). Results of multilevel analyses showed that the positive effects of task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job were stronger for younger compared to older employees, whereas we did not find significant age-differential effects of job autonomy on job attraction. These findings are only partially consistent with propositions of Truxillo et al.'s (2012) lifespan perspective on job design. PMID:28713322

  1. The amygdalostriatal and corticostriatal effective connectivity in anticipation and evaluation of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making consists of several stages of information processing, including an anticipation stage and an outcome evaluation stage. Previous studies showed that the ventral striatum (VS) is pivotal to both stages, bridging motivation and action, and it works in concert with the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala. However, evidence concerning how the VS works together with the vmPFC and the amygdala came mainly from neuropathology and animal studies; little is known about the dynamics of this network in the functioning human brain. Here we used fMRI combined with dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate the information flow along amygdalostriatal and corticostriatal pathways in a facial attractiveness guessing task. Specifically, we asked participants to guess whether a blurred photo of female face was attractive and to wait for a few seconds ("anticipation stage") until an unblurred photo of feedback face, which was either attractive or unattractive, was presented ("outcome evaluation stage"). At the anticipation stage, the bilateral amygdala and VS showed higher activation for the "attractive" than for the "unattractive" guess. At the outcome evaluation stage, the vmPFC and the bilateral VS were more activated by feedback faces whose attractiveness was congruent with the initial guess than by incongruent faces; however, this effect was only significant for attractive faces, not for unattractive ones. DCM showed that at the anticipation stage, the choice-related information entered the amygdalostriatal pathway through the amygdala and was projected to the VS. At the evaluation stage, the outcome-related information entered the corticostriatal pathway through the vmPFC. Bidirectional connectivities existed between the vmPFC and VS, with the VS-to-vmPFC connectivity weakened by unattractive faces. These findings advanced our understanding of the reward circuitry by demonstrating the pattern of information flow along the amygdalostriatal

  2. Effective theory and emergent SU(2 ) symmetry in the flat bands of attractive Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmasyan, Murad; Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2016-12-01

    In a partially filled flat Bloch band electrons do not have a well defined Fermi surface and hence the low-energy theory is not a Fermi liquid. Nevertheless, under the influence of an attractive interaction, a superconductor well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) wave function can arise. Here we study the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of a generic Hubbard model with a flat band. We obtain an effective Hamiltonian for the flat band physics by eliminating higher-lying bands via the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff transformation. At first order in the interaction energy we recover the usual procedure of projecting the interaction term onto the flat band Wannier functions. We show that the BCS wave function is the exact ground state of the projected interaction Hamiltonian, if a simple uniform pairing condition on the single-particle states is satisfied, and that the compressibility is diverging as a consequence of an emergent SU(2 ) symmetry. This symmetry is broken by second-order interband transitions resulting in a finite compressibility, which we illustrate for a one-dimensional ladder with two perfectly flat bands. These results motivate a further approximation leading to an effective ferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The gauge-invariant result for the superfluid weight of a flat band can be obtained from the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model only if the maximally localized Wannier functions in the Marzari-Vanderbilt sense are used. Finally, we prove an important inequality D ≥W2 between the Drude weight D and the winding number W , which guarantees ballistic transport for topologically nontrivial flat bands in one dimension.

  3. The effect of the buccal corridor and tooth display on smile attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Arab, Sepideh; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Imani, Mohammad Moslem

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the lay perception of the effect of the buccal corridor and amount of tooth-gingival display on the attractiveness of a smile in different facial types. Using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software, frontal facial images of two smiling Iranian female subjects (one short-faced and one long-faced) were altered to create different magnitudes of buccal corridor display (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) and tooth-gingival display (2 mm central incisor show, 6 mm central incisor show, total central incisor show, total tooth show with 2 mm gingival show and total tooth show with 4 mm gingival show). Sixty Iranians (30 males and 30 females) rated the attractiveness of the pictures on a 1-5 point scale. Narrower smiles were preferred in long-faced subjects compared with short-faced subjects. Minimal tooth show was more attractive than excessive gingival display in short-faced subjects. There were no gender specific, statistically significant differences found in the ratings given by the lay assessors. Harmonious geometry of the smile and face in both the vertical and transverse dimensions influences smile attractiveness and this should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning.

  4. Effective prey attraction in the rare Drosophyllum lusitanicum, a flypaper-trap carnivorous plant.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Nils; Paniw, Maria; Ojeda, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Carnivorous plants have unusually modified leaves to trap insects as an adaptation to low-nutrient environments. Disparate mechanisms have been suggested as luring traits to attract prey insects into their deadly leaves, ranging from very elaborate to none at all. Drosophyllum lusitanicum is a rare carnivorous plant with a common flypaper-trap mechanism. Here we tested whether Drosophyllum plants lure prey insects into their leaves or they act just as passive traps. We compared prey capture between live, potted plants and Drosophyllum-shaped artificial mimics coated with odorless glue. Since this species is insect-pollinated, we also explored the possible existence of a pollinator-prey conflict by quantifying the similarity between the pollination and prey guilds in a natural population. All experiments were done in southern Spain. The sticky leaves of Drosophyllum captured significantly more prey than mimics, particularly small dipterans. Prey attraction, likely exerted by scent or visual cues, seems to be unrelated to pollinator attraction by flowers, as inferred from the low similarity between pollinator and prey insect faunas found in this species. Our results illustrate the effectiveness of this carnivorous species at attracting insects to their flypaper-trap leaves. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Effects of shape parameters on the attractiveness of a female body.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Qian, X; Chau, K P; Liu, Q

    2007-08-01

    Various researchers have suggested that certain anthropometric ratios can be used to measure female body attractiveness, including the waist to hip ratio, Body Mass Index (BMI), and the body volume divided by the square of the height (Volume-Height Index). Based on a wide range of female subjects and virtual images of bodies with different ratios, Volume-Height Index was found to provide the best fit with female body attractiveness, and the effect of Volume-Height Index can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal Volume-Height Index at 14.2 liter/m2. It is suggested that the general trend of the effect of Volume-Height Index may be culturally invariant, but the optimal value of Volume-Height Index may vary from culture to culture. In addition to Volume-Height Index, other body parameters or ratios which reflect body proportions and the traits of feminine characteristics had smaller but significant effects on female body attractiveness, and such effects were stronger at optimum Volume-Height Index.

  6. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature.

  7. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  8. Recruiting nurses through social media: Effects on employer brand and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Marieke; Van Hoye, Greet; Stockman, Sara; Schollaert, Eveline; Van Theemsche, Bart; Jacobs, Gerd

    2017-05-11

    To investigate whether and how nurses' exposure to a hospital's profile on social media affects their perceptions of the hospital's brand and attractiveness as an employer. Since in many places across the globe hospitals are struggling with nursing shortages, competition is rising to be perceived as an attractive employer by this target group. Organizations are increasingly using social media for recruitment, however, little is known about its effects on potential applicants' perceptions of the organization as an employer. We thus examine whether these effects occur and rely on the media richness theory to explain the mechanisms at play. A between-subjects experimental design was applied. Three conditions were used: a control group, one condition that required visiting the Facebook page of a hospital and one condition that required visiting the LinkedIn page. The focal organization was an existing Belgian hospital which had a LinkedIn and a Facebook page. An online questionnaire was sent to nursing students and employed nurses over 5 months in 2015-2016. Nurses' exposure to the hospital's Facebook or LinkedIn page had a significant positive effect on a majority of the employer brand dimensions, both instrumental and symbolic. In addition, nurses who visited the Facebook page felt more attracted to working at the hospital. Most of these effects were mediated by social presence. Nurses' perceptions of employers can be positively influenced by seeing a hospital's social media page. Hospitals can thus employ social media to improve their employer brand image and attractiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Effectiveness and outlook for using attractants in controlling horseflies in pastures].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, R P

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the possibility of decreasing the number of tabanid flies on pastures by means of ball- and funnel-shaped traps (of the Manitoba type) with insecticides and expediency of using the above method for the cattle protection that prevents the milk productivity loss by 6.7 to 8.3%. In addition to the traps, a regular cattle dip with insecticides, which are most attracting for the whole complex of bloodsucking Diptera and zoophilous flies, offers promise in the control of tabanids.

  10. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  11. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  12. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  13. Mainstreaming hearing-impaired students: the effect of effort in communicating on cooperation and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Johnson, R T

    1985-01-01

    Cooperative and individualistic learning experiences were compared in terms of their effects on interaction and relationships between hearing and hearing-impaired students. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested--one stating that the effort required for hearing and hearing-impaired students to communicate would lead to frustration, withdrawal, exclusion, and rejection; the other stating that cooperative learning experiences would lead to cross-handicap interpersonal attraction regardless of communication difficulties. Thirty 3rd-grade students (20 hearing and 10 hearing impaired) were assigned to conditions on a stratified, random basis controlling for handicap, sex, and ability level. They participated in the study for 55 min a day for 15 instructional days. The results indicate that subjects involved in cooperative learning experiences performed higher on measures of interaction and interpersonal attraction between hearing and hearing-impaired students than did subjects involved in individualistic learning experiences.

  14. Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effect of attitude similarity on therapist credibility and attraction.

    PubMed

    Trautt, G M; Finer, W D; Calisher, S B

    1980-07-01

    Investigated the effect of attitude similarity upon perceived therapist credibility and attraction. Intially, Ss (N = 128) were given an attitude survey on topics of current interest. The second phase of the study had Ss supply an evaluation of a hypothetical therapist based upon a brief description of the therapist and a sample of the therapist's attitudes. The descriptions differed only in terms of the sex of the therapist, while the attitudes were constructed to be either 80% or 20% similar to the survey each S had completed. Results indicate that the therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, more likeable, and that Ss were more willing to recommend the therapist to a friend as well as seek therapy from the therapist. A significant interaction indicated that male Ss were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity than were female Ss. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Men in red: A reexamination of the red-attractiveness effect.

    PubMed

    Hesslinger, Vera M; Goldbach, Lisa; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-08-01

    Elliot, Kayser, Greitemeyer, Lichtenfeld, Gramzow, Maier, and Liu (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 399-417, 2010) showed that presenting men in front of a red background or with a red shirt enhances their attractiveness, sexual desirability, and status in the eyes of female observers. The purpose of the present research was to gain further insights concerning the robustness and the ecological validity of this red effect. In two experiments, we replicated the basic paradigm used by Elliot et al. Experiment 1 was a close replication of the first experiment in their original series. We presented the photo of a young man used by Elliot et al. on either a red or white background and asked participants (N = 89, female subsample n = 72) to rate it with regard to perceived attractiveness. Experiment 2 (N = 32) represents a somewhat more complex version of the first experiment; we increased the variance of the stimuli by showing photos of multiple men wearing different apparel styles (formal and casual, respectively). We did not find any significant impact of red in either of the studies. What we found, however, was a significant effect of apparel style with attractiveness ratings being higher for men wearing formal apparel than for men wearing casual apparel. Our results question the robustness and the ecological validity of Elliot et al.'s finding. On a more general level, they further point to limitations arising from (often necessary) restrictions in experimental designs.

  16. Face likeability mediates the memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young but not older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Lendry, Reesa; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence of effects of face attractiveness on memory is mixed and little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Previous work suggests a possible mediating role of affective responding to faces (i.e., face likeability) on the relationship between face attractiveness and memory. Age-related change in social motivation may reduce the relevance of face attractiveness in older adults, with downstream effects on memory. In the present study, 50 young and 51 older participants were presented with face-trait pairs. Faces varied in attractiveness. Participants then completed a face-trait associative recognition memory task and provided likeability ratings for each face. There was a memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young (but not older) participants, which was partially mediated by face likeability. In addition, more attractive and less attractive (compared to moderately attractive) faces were more likely remembered by both young and older participants. This quadratic effect of face attractiveness on memory was not mediated by face likeability. Findings are discussed in the context of motivational influences on memory that vary with age.

  17. The Effects of Light and Height of Building in Attracting Paederus fuscipes Curtis to Disperse towards Human Residential Areas

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, Sufian; Fadzly, Nik; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Paederus fuscipes Curtis is a nocturnal insect. The attractiveness of artificial light sources from residential premises eventually causes the risk of severe dermatitis effect, once Paederus is in contact with human skin. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the light and height factors of residential buildings and its’ association to rice cultivation phases are primary reasons for P. fuscipes’s mass dispersal into human residential areas. The study site was located in residential premises that were built adjacent to rice field areas (≈ 32–60 m and 164 m) north of the rice field located in Teluk Air Tawar, mainland of Pulau Pinang. Overall, both light sources and rice cultivation phases caused a significant effect for P. fuscipes beetles dispersal flight to invade human settlements. More P. fuscipes were captured near the bright light source with the highest number of beetles found during harvesting stage. Whereas, significantly higher number of P. fuscipes were captured at level 2 and 3 compared to ground and level 1 of the apartment building and P. fuscipes was also found significantly affected by the rice cultivation phases at different elevation levels. This indicates that bright light sources and higher elevation levels are the main factors in attracting P. fuscipes beetles to disperse and causes infestations in residential areas. This finding could create awareness among the public on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern. PMID:27965746

  18. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R.; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-01

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter’s two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms.

  19. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-16

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter's two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms.

  20. Hot or not--evaluating the effect of artificial tanning on the public's perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vinh Q; Gordon, Justin S; Veledar, Emir; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-11-01

    Despite strong evidence that sun exposure causes skin cancer, a significant proportion of the population continues to purposefully tan. Many individuals deliberately tan because they believe a tanned complexion makes them appear more attractive. To measure the effect that a tanned complexion has on the public's perception of attractiveness. Forty-five women aged 21 to 35 were recruited. A digital photograph was taken of each subject. Each image was uploaded onto a public website until it had been rated at least 100 times on a scale from 1 to 10. An average baseline, or untanned, rating of the image was calculated. The image was then given an artificial tan using a skin tanning protocol available for Adobe Photoshop. The tanned image was then re-uploaded onto the website and another average rating was calculated using the same criteria. The mean score±standard deviation was 6.3±2.3 for the untanned images and 6.5±2.3 for the tanned images (p<.001). The population who logged onto the website considers tanned people to be more attractive. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  1. Effect of Spatial Repellent Exposure on Dengue Vector Attraction to Oviposition Sites

    PubMed Central

    Grieco, John P.; Apperson, Charles S.; Schal, Coby; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Wesson, Dawn M.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue fever, an arthropod-borne disease of global importance. Although a vaccine has been recommended for prevention, current dengue prevention strategies rely on vector control. Recently, volatile pyrethroids—spatial repellents—have received interest as a novel delivery system for adult Ae. aegypti control. Understanding the full range of behavioral effects spatial repellents elicit in mosquito species will be critical to understanding the overall impact these products have on vector populations and will guide expectations of efficacy against DENV transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study quantified changes in attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti to experimental oviposition sites following exposure to the spatial repellent transfluthrin. Responses were measured with two-choice olfaction bioassays using ‘sticky-screens’ covering cups to prevent contact with the oviposition substrate. Two cups contained a bacterial attractant composed of four species of bacteria in calcium alginate beads in water and two cups contained only deionized water. Results from 40 replicates (n = 780 females total per treatment) indicated an estimated difference in attraction of 9.35% ± 0.18 (p ≤ 0.003), implying that the transfluthrin-exposed mosquitoes were more attracted to the experimental oviposition sites than the non-exposed mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Findings from this study will further characterize the role of spatial repellents to modify Ae. aegypti behavior related to dengue prevention specifically, and encourage innovation in vector control product development more broadly. PMID:27428011

  2. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  3. Social dynamics in emergency evacuations: Disentangling crowd's attraction and repulsion effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghani, Milad; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-06-01

    The social dynamics of crowds in emergency escape scenarios have been conventionally modelled as the net effect of virtual forces exerted by the crowd on each individual (as self-driven particles), with the magnitude of the influence formulated as decreasing functions of inter-individual distances and the direction of effect assumed to be transitioning from repulsion to attraction by distance. Here, we revisit this conventional assumption using laboratory experimental data. We show based on robust econometric hypothesis-testing methods that individuals' perception of other escapees differs based on whether those individuals are jamming around exit destinations or are on the move towards the destinations. Also, for moving crowds, it differs based on whether the escape destination chosen by the moving flow is visible or invisible to the individual. The presence of crowd jams around a destination, also the movement of crowd flows towards visible destinations are both perceived on average as repulsion (or disutility) effects (with the former showing significantly larger magnitude than the latter). The movement of crowd flows towards an invisible destination, however, is on average perceived as attraction (or utility) effect. Yet, further hypothesis testing showed that neither of those effects in isolation determines adequately whether an individual would merge with or diverge from the crowd. Rather, the social interaction factors act (at significant levels) in conjunction with the physical factors of the environments (including spatial distances to exit destinations and destinations' visibility). In brief, our finding disentangles the conditions under which individuals are more likely to show mass behaviour from the situations where they are more likely to break from the herd. It identifies two factors that moderate the perception of social interactions, ;crowds' jam/movement status; and ;environmental setup;. Our results particularly challenge the taxonomy of

  4. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  5. Name-valence and physical attractiveness in Facebook: their compensatory effects on friendship acceptance.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kunz, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Name-valence and physical attractiveness have been shown to be associated with how people respond toward others, in that people judge and behave more positively toward individuals with positive names and individuals who are physically attractive. The present research examined whether Facebook users are more likely to accept friendship requests from other Facebook users with positive (relative to negative) names and who are physically attractive (relative to being moderately attractive). In fact, both name-valence and physical attractiveness affected friendship acceptance. Moreover, results revealed that name-valence can be compensated by physical attractiveness (and vice versa). Acceptance rates of requests from users with positive names who are moderately attractive, as well as requests from users with negative names who are attractive did not significantly differ from those with positive names who are attractive.

  6. Effects of volatile compounds emitted by Protea species (Proteaceae) on antennal electrophysiological responses and attraction of cetoniine beetles.

    PubMed

    Steenhuisen, Sandy-Lynn; Jürgens, Andreas; Johnson, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary shifts in pollination systems within a plant genus are commonly associated with changes in floral scent, reflecting selection mediated through the sensory systems of various pollinators. The most common cetoniine beetle pollinator of grassland Protea species in South Africa, Atrichelaphinis tigrina, previously has been shown to have a strong preference for the fruity floral scent of these plants over the weak scent of their bird-pollinated congeners. However, it is not known which of the many compounds found in the scent of beetle pollinated Protea species play a role for pollinator attraction. Electroantennograms (EAG) from A. tigrina beetles were recorded in response to 15 compounds emitted by Protea flower heads. EAG responses to all 15 compounds were significantly greater than those to the paraffin solvent in which they were diluted. The greatest responses were observed for aromatics (anisole, methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, benzaldehyde) followed by the monoterpene β-linalool, which can comprise up to 66 % of fruity Protea scents. Five compounds that elicited EAG responses (benzaldehyde, β-linalool, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), methyl benzoate, and methyl salicylate) were tested in commercially available yellow bucket traps in the field to test their attractiveness to beetles. Traps baited with methyl benzoate, β-linalool, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), and methyl salicylate caught significantly more insects than did those containing paraffin only. Methyl benzoate also was more specifically attractive to A. tigrina than was (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid) and paraffin baited controls. A second field experiment using a combination of linalool vs. paraffin baited yellow or green traps showed that trap color had a significant effect on the number of trapped beetles. Yellow traps yielded a ten-fold higher number of insect catches than did green traps. However, the combination of yellow color and the scent compound linalool yielded the

  7. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jutta M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission. PMID:27114864

  8. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  9. Strategic self-promotion and competitor derogation: sex and context effects on the perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tactics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Buss, D M

    1996-06-01

    In this article, 7 evolutionary hypotheses about the context-specific nature of mate attraction effectiveness were empirically tested and supported. In the context of short-term mating, for example, men have faced the adaptive problem of finding sexually accessible women. As a result, men express a preference for sexually availability in short-term mates. In Studies 1 and 2, separate groups of undergraduate participants judged sexual availability tactics as most effective when used by women seeking short-term mates, confirming the hypothesized link between the judged effectiveness of mate attraction tactics used by one sex and the expressed mate preferences of the other. Showing resource potential was judged most effective for men seeking a long-term mate, whereas giving resources immediately was judged most effective for men seeking short-term mates, confirming the hypothesized importance of temporal context in mate attraction effectiveness. Discussion focuses on the context-specificity of human mating psychology and on linking evolutionary and traditional approaches to romantic attraction.

  10. Does Ethylene Treatment Mimic the Effects of Pollination on Floral Lifespan and Attractiveness?

    PubMed Central

    VAN DOORN, WOUTER G.

    2002-01-01

    In some species pollination may result in rapid changes in perianth colour and form (petal senescence and abscission, flower closure), rendering the flowers less attractive to pollinators. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by ethylene. Flowers from about 200 species and 50 families were exposed to ethylene (3 ppm for 24 h at 20 °C). The effects on petal senescence and abscission have been described previously. Flower closure and perianth colour changes were generally ethylene‐sensitive, but responses showed no consistency within families. Several flowers known to respond to pollination by rapid cessation of attractiveness were also exposed to ethylene: this produced the same effect as pollination, both on flower colour and form. Species that respond to pollination by changing flower form or colour were found exclusively in families in which the species are generally ethylene‐sensitive (with regard to changes in perianth form and colour). However, several families are generally ethylene‐sensitive but contain no species reported to respond to pollination. PMID:12096797

  11. Preserved nodal number effects under equal reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Dack, Charlotte; McHugh, Louise; Whelan, Robert

    2011-09-01

    The present set of experiments tested the hypothesis that the nodal number effects observed in previous studies of stimulus equivalence were due to the confounding factor of training structure that resulted in unequal reinforcement across trial types. In Experiment 1, two 5-member equivalence classes were trained across equal and unequal reinforcement conditions, both with and without a limited hold. A significant nodal effect, as measured by response speed, was found in the equal reinforcement, no-limited-hold condition. In Experiment 2, two 6-member equivalence classes were trained in equal and unequal reinforcement conditions without limited hold. In a transfer-of-function test, clear nodal effects were observed in the equal reinforcement condition. Experiment 3 replicated and extended the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 with an increased number of baseline training trials. The results of the present study suggest that the effects of nodal number are independent of differential reinforcement. Furthermore, a transfer-of-function test was most sensitive to nodal effects, response speed was the next most sensitive measure, and response accuracy was the least sensitive measure of nodal effects.

  12. Rubbernecking Effect of Intimate Information on Twitter: When Getting Attention Works Against Interpersonal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Baruh, Lemi; Cemalcılar, Zeynep

    2015-09-01

    Social networking sites offer individuals an opportunity to document and share information about themselves, as well as engaging in social browsing to learn about others. As a micro-blogging site within which users often share information publicly, Twitter may be a particularly suitable venue that can help satisfy both of these motivations. This study investigates how viewers react to disclosure of intimate information on Twitter. Specifically, the impact of disclosure intimacy is studied on attention that viewers pay to a Twitter page, reduction in their uncertainty about the attributes of the page owner, and their interpersonal attraction to the owner of the page. A total of 618 adult online panel members viewed one of six Twitter pages that contained either low-intimacy or high-intimacy tweets. Analyses indicated that viewers exposed to the Twitter pages containing high-intimate information paid more attention to the pages, were more confident about the attributions they could make about the page owner, yet were less willing to pursue further socialization with the page owner. Furthermore, attributional confidence mediated and perceived similarity moderated the relationship between disclosure intimacy and interpersonal attraction. This interaction between disclosure intimacy and perceived similarity was such that viewers who considered the page owner to be similar (dissimilar) to themselves were more (less) socially attracted to page owners who disclosed intimate information. These findings suggest that while intimate information shared on a Twitter page draws attention, this does not necessarily result in further socialization with the page owner--an effect we named as the "rubbernecking effect" of intimate information.

  13. Some Effects of Attitudinal Similarity and Exposure on Attraction and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship of attraction and aggression has yielded somewhat equivocal results. The present study investigated the influence of two variables, attitudinal similarity and exposure, on interpersonal attraction and physical aggression. (Editor)

  14. Effects of Applicant Sex, Physical Attractiveness, and Type of Job on Employment Interviewers' Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, David C.; And Others

    Past research on the employment interview has suggested that interviewers are influenced by many variables, including physical attractiveness. To investigate the potential interaction of applicant sex and attractiveness on hiring decisions, the type of job, applicant sex, and applicant physical attractiveness were manipulated to determine the…

  15. The Effects of Sensation Seeking and Misattribution of Arousal on Attraction toward Similar or Dissimilar Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the prediction that individual differences in sensation seeking moderate the relationship between attitudinal similarity and attraction. Results showed high sensation seekers were more attracted than low sensation seekers to dissimilar others, whereas low sensation seekers were more attracted than high sensation seekers to people with…

  16. The Effects of Defendant and Juror Attractiveness on Simulated Courtroom Trial Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Bruce W.; Jeffers, Devon

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=78) rated own attractiveness and rated attractive, moderately attractive, and unattractive hypothetical defendants as to guilt, responsibility, trustworthiness, happiness, honesty, intelligence, likeability, and recommended punishment. Findings suggest that decisions made by jurors are affected by physical appearance of…

  17. Effects of attractive colloids on the phase separation behaviors of binary polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Chen, Yunlin; Qu, Lijian; Yan, Dadong

    2013-08-01

    The attractive colloids are added as fillers to control the phase behaviors of binary polymer blends. Because the colloids attract both components in the blends, aggregates are formed by the colloids coated with both kinds of polymer brushes. The aggregation results in two contradictory effects on the phase separation. First, the formation of aggregate decreases the translational entropy, which promotes the phase separation. On the other hand, the phase separation causes the extra free energy penalty due to the stretch of the chains attaching on the colloids, which prevents the phase separation. Furthermore, as the concentration or adsorbability of the colloids increases the local fluctuations within the aggregates become important. This results in a transition from the macro-phase separation to the micro-phase separation and the existence of the Lifshitz point. All of these effects lead to diverse phase behaviors in the polymer nanocomposites system. In present work, these behaviors are studied theoretically by the random phase approximation in a model system.

  18. Effect of interfacial entanglement density on the melt and glassy properties of attractive polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar

    2014-03-01

    Individual dispersion of silica nanoparticles of 13 nm and 56 nm sizes in poly(methyl methacrylate) is achieved by the right choice of a solvent.By using this well-defined model attractive system, it was shown in our previous work that the conformation of PMMA on attractive silica surfaces can be dynamically altered by applying large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) well above the Tg of the polymer.Correspondingly, the entanglement density of polymer is increased due to dynamic heterogeneities between the matrix and the adsorbed polymer. Here, we investigate, on the same system, the effect of different interfacial entanglement densities on the melt and glassy properties (Tg, fragility and physical aging).Instead of surface modification of particles, which leads to poor control over the dispersion, we tuned the interfaces by applying LAOS above Tg of the composites and by using binary blends of short (Mw<Me) PMMA chains.With various nanoparticle concentrations and polymer blend ratios, we systematically study the effect of the confinement parameter (ID/2Rg) on the glass transition and dynamic fragility obtained from DSC and rheometry.Our results suggest that unlike Tg, the fragility presents strong dependence on ID/2Rg.

  19. Evaluating the attractiveness and effectiveness of artificial coral reefs as a recreational ecosystem service.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Yaniv; Rousseau, Meghan; Tynyakov, Jenny; Shashar, Nadav

    2017-12-01

    Artificial reefs are increasingly being used around the globe to attract recreational divers, for both environmental and commercial reasons. This paper examines artificial coral reefs as recreational ecosystem services (RES) by evaluating their attractiveness and effectiveness and by examining divers' attitudes toward them. An online survey targeted at divers in Israel (n = 263) indicated that 35% of the dives in Eilat (a resort city on the shore of the Red Sea) take place at artificial reefs. A second study monitored divers' behavior around the Tamar artificial reef, one of the most popular submerged artificial reefs in Eilat, and juxtaposed it with divers' activities around two adjacent natural reefs. Findings show that the average diver density at the artificial reef was higher than at the two nearby natural knolls and that the artificial reef effectively diverts divers from natural knolls. A third study that examined the attitudes towards natural vs. artificial reefs found that the artificial reefs are considered more appropriate for training, but that divers feel less relaxed around them. By utilizing the RES approach as a framework, the study offers a comprehensive methodology that brings together the aesthetic, behavioral, and attitudinal aspects in terms of which artificial reefs can be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrostatic attraction between DNA and a cationic surfactant aggregate. The screening effect of salt.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cecília; Moniri, Elham; Pegado, Luis; Wennerström, Håkan

    2007-05-31

    Anionic DNA and cationic surfactants form charge neutral complexes that contain finite amounts of water. There is a strong electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged species, and the finite swelling is caused by an opposing repulsive force. Adding NaCl to the complexes provides an opportunity to modulate the strength of the electrostatic attraction. The thermodynamics of the isothermal swelling process has been experimentally characterized using a calorimetric technique monitoring both the free energy and the enthalpy. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed in calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation to describe the electrostatic effects. The main findings are as follows: (i) Addition of salt results in an increased swelling at a given water activity. (ii) The effect of the salt can be quantitatively modeled on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation with a dielectric description of the water. (iii) There exists a short-range repulsive force between DNA double helices and surfactant aggregates. (iv) Solid NaCl dissolves in the complex at water activities in the range 0.5-0.6 rather than at 0.74 as in a saturated aqueous solution. (v) The heat of solution of NaCl in the complexes is around +1.6 +/- 0.5 kJ/mol, surprisingly close to the values found for the dissolution into bulk aqueous solutions.

  1. The effects of genotype, age, and social environment on male ornamentation, mating behavior, and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa K; Brooks, Robert

    2005-11-01

    The traits thought to advertise genetic quality are often highly susceptible to environmental variation and prone to change with age. These factors may either undermine or reinforce the potential for advertisement traits to signal quality depending on the magnitude of age-dependent expression, environmental variation, and genotype-age and genotype-environment interaction. Measurements of the magnitude of these effects are thus a necessary step toward assessing the implications of age dependence and environmental variability for the evolution of signals of quality. We conducted a longitudinal study of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from 22 full-sibling families. Each fish was assigned at maturity to one of three treatments in order to manipulate his allocation of resources to reproduction: a control in which the male was kept alone, a courtship-only treatment in which he could see and court a female across a clear partition, and a mating treatment in which he interacted freely with a female. We measured each male's size, ornamental color patterns, courtship, attractiveness to females, and mating success at three ages. Size was influenced by treatment and age-treatment interactions, indicating that courtship and mating may impose costs on growth. Tail size and color patterns were influenced by age but not by treatment, suggesting fixed age-dependent trajectories in these advertisement traits. By contrast, display rate and attempted sneak copulation rate differed among treatments but not among ages, suggesting greater plasticity of these behavioral traits. As a result of the different patterns of variation in ornamentation and behavior, male attractiveness and mating success responded to male age, treatment, and the interaction between age and treatment. Neither age nor treatment obscured the presence of genetic variation, and the genetic relationship between male ornamentation and attractiveness remained the same among treatments. Our findings suggest that

  2. Two Gut-Associated Yeasts in a Tephritid Fruit Fly have Contrasting Effects on Adult Attraction and Larval Survival.

    PubMed

    Piper, Alexander M; Farnier, Kevin; Linder, Tomas; Speight, Robert; Cunningham, John Paul

    2017-08-23

    Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition. Larval development trials showed that the fruit-agar substrate inoculated with the 'deterrent odour' yeast species, H. uvarum, resulted in significantly faster larval development and a greater number of adult flies, compared to a substrate inoculated with the 'attractive odour' yeast species, P. kluyveri, and a yeast free control substrate. GC-MS analysis of volatiles emitted by H. uvarum and P. kluyveri inoculated substrates revealed significant quantitative differences in ethyl-, isoamyl-, isobutyl-, and phenethyl- acetates, which may be responsible for the yeast-specific olfactory responses of adult flies. We discuss how our seemingly counterintuitive finding that female B. tryoni flies avoid a beneficial yeast fits well with our understanding of female choice of oviposition sites, and how the contrasting behavioural effects of H. uvarum and P. kluyveri raises interesting questions regarding the role of yeast-specific volatiles as cues to insect vectors. A better understanding of yeast-tephritid interactions could assist in the future management of tephritid fruit fly pests through the formulation of new "attract and kill" lures, and the development of probiotics for mass rearing of insects in sterile insect control programs.

  3. The Effect of Person Order on Egress Time: A Simulation Model of Evacuation From a Neolithic Visitor Attraction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur; Elyan, Eyad; Isaacs, John; McEwen, Leah; Wilson, Lyn

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the egress of visitors from a Neolithic visitor attraction. Tourism attracts increasing numbers of elderly and mobility-impaired visitors to our built-environment heritage sites. Some such sites have very limited and awkward access, were not designed for mass visitation, and may not be modifiable to facilitate disabled access. As a result, emergency evacuation planning must take cognizance of robust information, and in this study we aimed to establish the effect of visitor position on egress. Direct observation of three tours at Maeshowe, Orkney, informed typical time of able-bodied individuals and a mobility-impaired person through the 10-m access tunnel. This observation informed the design of egress and evacuation models running on the Unity gaming platform. A slow-moving person at the observed speed typically increased time to safety of 20 people by 170% and reduced the advantage offered by closer tunnel separation by 26%. Using speeds for size-specific characters of 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles increased time to safety in emergency evacuation by 51% compared with able-bodied individuals. Larger individuals may slow egress times of a group; however, a single slow-moving mobility-impaired person exerts a greater influence on group egress, profoundly influencing those behind. Unidirectional routes in historic buildings and other visitor attractions are vulnerable to slow-moving visitors during egress. The model presented in this study is scalable, is applicable to other buildings, and can be used as part of a risk assessment and emergency evacuation plan in future work.

  4. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  5. The combined effect of attraction and orientation zones in 2D flocking models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliass, Tarras; Cambui, Dorilson

    2016-01-01

    In nature, many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex motion of these systems, we study the Vicsek model of self-propelled particles (SPP) which is an important tool to investigate the behavior of collective motion of live organisms. This model reproduces the biological behavior patterns in the two-dimensional (2D) space. Within the framework of this model, the particles move with the same absolute velocity and interact locally in the zone of orientation by trying to align their direction with that of the neighbors. In this paper, we model the collective movement of SPP using an agent-based model which follows biologically motivated behavioral rules, by adding a second region called the attraction zone, where each particles move towards each other avoiding being isolated. Our main goal is to present a detailed numerical study on the effect of the zone of attraction on the kinetic phase transition of our system. In our study, the consideration of this zone seems to play an important role in the cohesion. Consequently, in the directional orientation, the zone that we added forms the compact particle group. In our simulation, we show clearly that the model proposed here can produce two collective behavior patterns: torus and dynamic parallel group. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Effect of surface roughness on van der Waals and Casimir-Polder/Casimir attraction energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, Maxim A.

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical model is devised to assess effects of surface roughness on dispersion interactions between macroscopic bodies, bounded by self-affine fractal surfaces and separated by a vacuum gap. The rough-surface profiles are described statistically by the saturation values of surface width and the correlation lengths; i.e., in terms of experimentally measurable quantities. The model devised takes into account the separation distance-dependent nature of dispersive interactions. The case of non-retarded van der Waals interactions, known to operate at smaller separation distances between the bodies, and that of retarded attractions, operative at larger separation length-scales, are treated separately in this work. Analytical formulae for the roughness corrections are deduced for the two aforementioned types of attractions. The model is employed to compute roughness corrections to interactions between an extended body, bounded by a self-affine surface, and: a) a point-like adherent; and b) a planar half-space. Furthermore, the roughness-induced corrections to dispersive interaction energies between half-spaces, both bounded by self-affine surfaces, are obtained under assumption that the corresponding surface profiles are not correlated. The predictions of the model are compared with some previously reported theoretical studies and available experimental data on the theme of dispersive adhesion between macroscopic bodies.

  7. In the attraction, compromise, and similarity effects, alternatives are repeatedly compared in pairs on single dimensions.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takao; Stewart, Neil

    2014-07-01

    In multi-alternative choice, the attraction, compromise, and similarity effects demonstrate that the value of an alternative is not independent of the other alternatives in the choice-set. Rather, these effects suggest that a choice is reached through the comparison of alternatives. We investigated exactly how alternatives are compared against each other using eye-movement data. The results indicate that a series of comparisons is made in each choice, with a pair of alternatives compared on a single attribute dimension in each comparison. We conclude that psychological models of choice should be based on these single-attribute pairwise comparisons. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential Effects in Judgements of Attractiveness: The Influences of Face Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.; Jones, Alex L.; Sharma, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    In perceptual decision-making, a person’s response on a given trial is influenced by their response on the immediately preceding trial. This sequential effect was initially demonstrated in psychophysical tasks, but has now been found in more complex, real-world judgements. The similarity of the current and previous stimuli determines the nature of the effect, with more similar items producing assimilation in judgements, while less similarity can cause a contrast effect. Previous research found assimilation in ratings of facial attractiveness, and here, we investigated whether this effect is influenced by the social categories of the faces presented. Over three experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of own- (White) and other-race (Chinese) faces of both sexes that appeared successively. Through blocking trials by race (Experiment 1), sex (Experiment 2), or both dimensions (Experiment 3), we could examine how sequential judgements were altered by the salience of different social categories in face sequences. For sequences that varied in sex alone, own-race faces showed significantly less opposite-sex assimilation (male and female faces perceived as dissimilar), while other-race faces showed equal assimilation for opposite- and same-sex sequences (male and female faces were not differentiated). For sequences that varied in race alone, categorisation by race resulted in no opposite-race assimilation for either sex of face (White and Chinese faces perceived as dissimilar). For sequences that varied in both race and sex, same-category assimilation was significantly greater than opposite-category. Our results suggest that the race of a face represents a superordinate category relative to sex. These findings demonstrate the importance of social categories when considering sequential judgements of faces, and also highlight a novel approach for investigating how multiple social dimensions interact during decision-making. PMID:24349226

  9. Sequential effects in judgements of attractiveness: the influences of face race and sex.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robin S S; Jones, Alex L; Sharma, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    In perceptual decision-making, a person's response on a given trial is influenced by their response on the immediately preceding trial. This sequential effect was initially demonstrated in psychophysical tasks, but has now been found in more complex, real-world judgements. The similarity of the current and previous stimuli determines the nature of the effect, with more similar items producing assimilation in judgements, while less similarity can cause a contrast effect. Previous research found assimilation in ratings of facial attractiveness, and here, we investigated whether this effect is influenced by the social categories of the faces presented. Over three experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of own- (White) and other-race (Chinese) faces of both sexes that appeared successively. Through blocking trials by race (Experiment 1), sex (Experiment 2), or both dimensions (Experiment 3), we could examine how sequential judgements were altered by the salience of different social categories in face sequences. For sequences that varied in sex alone, own-race faces showed significantly less opposite-sex assimilation (male and female faces perceived as dissimilar), while other-race faces showed equal assimilation for opposite- and same-sex sequences (male and female faces were not differentiated). For sequences that varied in race alone, categorisation by race resulted in no opposite-race assimilation for either sex of face (White and Chinese faces perceived as dissimilar). For sequences that varied in both race and sex, same-category assimilation was significantly greater than opposite-category. Our results suggest that the race of a face represents a superordinate category relative to sex. These findings demonstrate the importance of social categories when considering sequential judgements of faces, and also highlight a novel approach for investigating how multiple social dimensions interact during decision-making.

  10. Mirror Numbers and Wigner's ``Unreasonable Effectiveness''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander

    2006-04-01

    Wigner's ``unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics'' can be augmented by concept of mirror number (MN). It is defined as digital string infinite in both directions. Example is ()5141327182() where first 5 digits is Pi ``spelled'' backward (``mirrored'') and last 5 digits is the beginning of decimal exp1 string. Let MN be constructed from two different transcendental (or algebraically irrational) numbers, set of such MNs is Cantor-uncountable. Most MNs have contain any finite digital sequence repeated infinitely many times. In spirit of ``Contact'' (C.Sagan) each normal MN contains ``Library of Babel'' of all possible texts and patterns (J.L.Borges). Infinite at both ends, MN do not have any numerical values and, contrary to numbers written in positional systems, all digits in MNs have equal weight -- sort of ``numerological democracy''. In Pythagorean-Platonic models (space-time and physical world originating from pure numbers) idea of MN resolves paradox of ``beginning'' (or ``end'') of time. Because in MNs all digits have equal status, (quantum) randomness leads to more uniform and fully ergodic phase trajectories (cf. F.Dyson, Infinite in All Directions) .

  11. Brazil nut effect and excluded volume attraction in vibrofluidized granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, M.; Kumar, U. U.; Nott, P. R.; Kumaran, V.

    2005-08-01

    A two dimensional bi-disperse vibrofluidized granular mixture is studied in the rapid flow regime, where particle interactions occur due to instantaneous collisions. Both experiments and simulations are carried out, and these show the existence of two phenomena which have been observed only in very dense granular flows or in equilibrium systems. The Brazil nut phenomenon, which involves the rise of larger particles in a granular mixture upon vibration, has been observed in dense systems due to the percolation of small particles though the interstitial spaces between the large particles, or due to convection rolls. In the present case, where neither effect is present, it is observed that the fluidization of the smaller particles by vibration results in an exponentially decaying density profile, at heights large compared to the particle diameter, and thereby a pressure field that decreases with height. The larger particles, suspended in this decaying pressure field, experience a larger pressure at the bottom and a smaller pressure on top, and they rise to a height where the net force caused by the decreasing pressure is balanced by the weight of the particle. An attractive force between the large particles, similar to the entropic attraction effect in mixtures of colloids and polymers, is also observed in this nonequilibrium system, because when the distance between the large particles is less than the small particle diameter, the pressure between the large particles is smaller than that on the outside. Analytical results are derived for each of these effects, and these are in agreement with the experimental and simulation results.

  12. The Attraction Effect in Decision Making: Superior Performance by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghan; Hasher, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Previous work showed that older adults’ choice performance can be wiser than that of younger adults (Tentori, Osherson, Hasher, & May, 2001). We contrasted two possible interpretations: a general expertise/wisdom view that suggests that older adults are generally more skilled at making decisions than younger adults and a domain-specific expertise view that suggests that older adults are more skilled decision makers only in domains in which they have greater knowledge. These hypotheses were contrasted using attraction effect tasks in two different domains: earning extra credit in a course and grocery shopping, domains presumed to be of different levels of knowledge to younger and older adults. Older adults showed consistent choice for both domains; younger adults showed consistent choice only for the extra credit problem. Several explanations of these findings are considered, including Damasio’s somatic marker theory and age differences in reliance on heuristic versus analytic styles. PMID:15881294

  13. Effect of Coulomb attraction on low-energy structure of ATI spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Dmitry; Chu, Shih-I.

    2011-05-01

    Recent experimental observations of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of rare gas atoms and diatomic molecules by mid-infrared laser fields revealed a prominent maximum in the electron energy spectrum very close to the ionization threshold. This low-energy structure (LES) cannot be reproduced by the widely used Keldysh- Faisal-Reiss theories. We have performed a theoretical analysis and fully ab initio precision calculations for the hydrogen atom. Our results show that LES is related to the effect of Coulomb attraction in the final state of the electron. The probability density of slow electrons is condensed in the vicinity of the nucleus favoring the ionization process. As a result, the ATI electron energy spectrum increases when approaching the threshold. Our numerical data on the hydrogen atom show a maximum in the energy distribution close to the threshold, similar to the low-energy structure revealed by the experiments. This work was partially supported by DOE and NSF.

  14. Pretty Pleases: The Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Race, and Sex on Receiving Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Investigates whether favoritism for the physically attractive, a phenomenon demonstrated almost exclusively on the basis of rating scales, generalizes to nonreactive, behavioral helping responses. (Editor)

  15. Effects of Attractiveness and Social Status on Dating Desire in Heterosexual Adolescents: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data were used from a sample of 1,913 adolescents aged 13–18. Participants rated the importance of various characteristics of a potential partner and also participated in an experimental vignette study in which dating desire was measured with either low or high attractive potential partners having either a high or low social status. The results showed that boys rated attractiveness as more important than girls, while social status was rated as relatively unimportant by both sexes. In addition, in the experimental vignette study, it was found that attractiveness was the primary factor for boys’ dating desire. Only when a potential partner was attractive, social status became important for boys’ dating desire. For girls, on the other hand, it appeared that both attractiveness and social status of a potential partner were important for their dating desire. Finally, boys and girls who perceived themselves as having a high mate value showed more dating desire toward an attractive potential partner compared to adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low mate value. The present results extend previous research by showing that attractiveness of a potential partner is important to both adolescent boys and girls, but social status does not strongly affect dating desire during this particular age period. PMID:19830538

  16. The Effects of Relaxation and Cognitive Expectancy on Attraction in a Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Midge

    One approach to searching for determinants of interpersonal attraction involves the altering and studying of physiological arousal, psychological stress, and moods. On the basis of the reinforcement-affect model of attraction, it was hypothesized that the positive feelings obtained from undergoing relaxation exercises could serve to enhance…

  17. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness and Spokesperson Sex on Perceived Source and Organization Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donna L.; And Others

    To explore the dimensions of credibility and physical attractiveness in a public relations setting, the impact of public relations (PR) spokesperson physical attractiveness--as operationalized as photographs of the spokesperson attached to a press release--on perceptions of both the writer's and the organization's credibility was examined.…

  18. Effects of bark beetle pheromones on the attraction of Monochamus alternatus to pine volatiles

    Treesearch

    Jian-Ting Fan; Daniel Miller; Long-Wa Zhang; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the attraction of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Dryocoetes luteus Blandford and Orthotomicus erosusWollaston (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol and (+)-α-pinene and the bark beetle pheromones, ipsenol and ipsdienol. M. alternatus were attracted to traps baited...

  19. Effects of Profane Language and Physical Attractiveness on Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Louis V.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Data revealed that counselors using profanity were rated less favorably across all measures regardless of physical attractiveness. When profanity was present, female counselors were rated more positively than male counselors. Overall, physically attractive counselors were judged to have more favorable attributes. (Author)

  20. The Effects of Similarity, Evaluation, and Self-Esteem on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Donald H.

    It was predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have higher attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to similar strangers or to strangers who gave positive personal evaluations. It was also predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have lower attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to dissimilar strangers or to subjects…

  1. Effect of Leg-to-Body Ratio on Body Shape Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Kiire, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have examined various aspects of human physical attractiveness. Attractiveness is considered an evolved psychological mechanism acquired via natural selection because an attractive body reflects an individual's health and fertility. The length of the legs is an often-emphasized aspect of attractiveness and has been investigated using the leg-to-body ratio (LBR), which reflects nutritional status of the infant, health status, fecundity, and other factors that are predictive of physical fitness. However, previous studies of leg length and physical fitness have produced mixed results. The present study investigated the relationship between LBR, defined as the height to perineum divided by total height, and perceived attractiveness. Three-dimensional stimuli (11 male and 11 female) were constructed with various LBR features. Each stimulus was rated by 40 women and 40 men in Japan on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the values closest to the average LBRs were rated as the most attractive. Furthermore, by fitting a quadratic curve on the relationship between attractiveness and LBR, an inverted U-shaped curve with the peak located at the average LBR was observed. In addition, high LBR values were rated as more attractive in females, whereas the opposite was true for males. These results suggest that average LBR is indicative of good health and good reproductive potential, whereas more extreme values are avoided because they could be indicative of diseases and other maladaptive conditions.

  2. The Effect of Type of Information on Children's Attraction to Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Juanita Y.; Roberts, Albert

    1983-01-01

    Explored relationships between external (physique), impersonal (preferences), and interpersonal (character) information and children's attraction ratings of peers. A total of 160 Black second-grade male and female children participated in the study. While each level of information significantly influenced attraction ratings, character information…

  3. The Effects of Relaxation and Cognitive Expectancy on Attraction in a Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Midge

    One approach to searching for determinants of interpersonal attraction involves the altering and studying of physiological arousal, psychological stress, and moods. On the basis of the reinforcement-affect model of attraction, it was hypothesized that the positive feelings obtained from undergoing relaxation exercises could serve to enhance…

  4. The Effects of Applicant Attractiveness, Managerial Attributes and Gender on Executive Employment Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Bethia J.; Spector, Paul E.

    Although it has been shown that physical attractiveness is an advantage to male applicants for managerial positions, it is not clear whether attractiveness is an advantage or disadvantage to female applicants for these jobs. Male (N=25) and female (N=22) business administration students were asked to simulate selection decisions for a high level…

  5. The Effects of Sensation Seeking, Physical Attractiveness of Stimuli, and Exposure Frequency on Liking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horai, Joann

    1976-01-01

    Males (N=54) and 46 females who scored high or low on a sensation seeking scale were exposed to slides of physically attractive or unattractive person stimuli. High sensation seekers both liked and expected to recognize the physically attractive persons in the future more than the physically unattractive persons. (Author)

  6. The Effect of Type of Information on Children's Attraction to Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Juanita Y.; Roberts, Albert

    1983-01-01

    Explored relationships between external (physique), impersonal (preferences), and interpersonal (character) information and children's attraction ratings of peers. A total of 160 Black second-grade male and female children participated in the study. While each level of information significantly influenced attraction ratings, character information…

  7. Male perceptions of female attractiveness: the effects of targets' personal attributes and subjects' degree of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Keisling, B L; Gynther, M D

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the degree of sexist beliefs held toward women by male subjects and their perceptions of attractiveness of females described as possessing either masculine or feminine personality characteristics. One hundred twenty-two undergraduate males were given the Macho Scale, the Auburn University Personal Behavior Summary, a biodata sheet, and were asked to judge previously rated photographs of women along a dimension of attractiveness. Results demonstrated that males perceived physically unattractive and average females described as affectionate and compassionate as more attractive than similarly rated females described as independent and assertive. High Macho subjects viewed females as less attractive than low Macho subjects. Physical attractiveness of the male subjects was largely unrelated to their ratings of the females.

  8. Effects of different diets on the dietary attractability and selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqiang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability exist between FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD. In feeding experiment, Chinese shrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.

  9. Contextual Effects on Number-Time Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Hodges, Bert; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X.

    2009-01-01

    Time perception has long been known to be affected by numerical representations. Recent studies further demonstrate that when participants estimate the duration of Arabic numbers, number magnitude, though task-irrelevant, biases duration judgment to produce underestimation for smaller numbers and overestimation for larger numbers. Such effects…

  10. Contextual Effects on Number-Time Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Hodges, Bert; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X.

    2009-01-01

    Time perception has long been known to be affected by numerical representations. Recent studies further demonstrate that when participants estimate the duration of Arabic numbers, number magnitude, though task-irrelevant, biases duration judgment to produce underestimation for smaller numbers and overestimation for larger numbers. Such effects…

  11. Eigenvalue Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2016-02-01

    We prove that the complex conjugate (c.c.) eigenvalues of a smoothly varying real matrix attract (Eq. 15). We offer a dynamical perspective on the motion and interaction of the eigenvalues in the complex plane, derive their governing equations and discuss applications. C.c. pairs closest to the real axis, or those that are ill-conditioned, attract most strongly and can collide to become exactly real. As an application we consider random perturbations of a fixed matrix M. If M is Normal, the total expected force on any eigenvalue is shown to be only the attraction of its c.c. (Eq. 24) and when M is circulant the strength of interaction can be related to the power spectrum of white noise. We extend this by calculating the expected force (Eq. 41) for real stochastic processes with zero-mean and independent intervals. To quantify the dominance of the c.c. attraction, we calculate the variance of other forces. We apply the results to the Hatano-Nelson model and provide other numerical illustrations. It is our hope that the simple dynamical perspective herein might help better understanding of the aggregation and low density of the eigenvalues of real random matrices on and near the real line respectively. In the appendix we provide a Matlab code for plotting the trajectories of the eigenvalues.

  12. Effective Hamiltonian based Monte Carlo for the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasrija, Kanika; Chakraborty, Prabuddha B.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-10-01

    We present an effective Hamiltonian based real-space approach for studying the weak-coupling BCS to the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensate crossover in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model at finite temperatures. We introduce and justify an effective classical Hamiltonian to describe the thermal fluctuations of the relevant auxiliary fields. Our results for Tc and phase diagrams compare very well with those obtained from more sophisticated and CPU-intensive numerical methods. We demonstrate that the method works in the presence of disorder and can be a powerful tool for a real-space description of the effect of disorder on superconductivity. From a combined analysis of the superconducting order parameter, the distribution of auxiliary fields, and the quasiparticle density of states, we identify the regions of metallic, insulating, superconducting, and pseudogapped behavior. Our finding of the importance of phase fluctuations for the pseudogap behavior is consistent with the conclusions drawn from recent experiments on NbN superconductors. The method can be generalized to study superconductors with nontrivial order-parameter symmetries by identifying the relevant auxiliary variables.

  13. Attractive protein-polymer interactions markedly alter the effect of macromolecular crowding on protein association equilibria.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ming; Li, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P; Liang, Yi

    2010-08-04

    The dependence of the fluorescence of catalase upon the concentration of added superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicates that SOD binds to saturable sites on catalase. The affinity of SOD for these sites varies with temperature, and with the concentration of each of three nominally inert polymeric additives--dextran 70, Ficoll 70, and polyethylene glycol 2000. At room temperature (25.0 degrees C) and higher, the addition of high concentrations of polymer is found to significantly enhance the affinity of SOD for catalase, but with decreasing temperature the enhancing effect of polymer addition diminishes, and at 8.0 degrees C, addition of polymer has little or no effect on the affinity of SOD for catalase. The results presented here provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of competition between a repulsive excluded volume interaction between protein and polymer, which tends to enhance association of dilute protein, and an attractive interaction between protein and polymer, which tends to inhibit protein association. The net effect of high concentrations of polymer upon protein associations depends upon the relative strength of these two types of interactions at the temperature of measurement, and may vary significantly between different proteins and/or polymers.

  14. Effects of facial attractiveness on personality stimuli in an implicit priming task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Minxiao; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a priming paradigm, this study examines implicit priming in the association of personality words with facial attractiveness. A total of 16 participants (8 males and 8 females; age range, 19-24 years; mean age, 21.30 years) were asked to judge the color (red and green) of positive or negative personality words after exposure to priming stimuli (attractive and unattractive facial images). The positive personality words primed by attractive faces or the negative personality words primed by unattractive faces were defined as congruent trials, whereas the positive personality words primed by unattractive faces or the negative personality words primed by attractive faces were defined as incongruent trials. Behavioral results showed that compared with the unattractive faces trials, the trials that attractive faces being the priming stimuli had longer reaction times and higher accuracy rates. Moreover, a more negative ERP deflection (N2) component was observed in the ERPs of the incongruent condition than in the ERPs of the congruent condition. In addition, the personality words presented after the attractive faces elicited larger amplitudes from the frontal region to the central region (P2 and P350-550 ms) compared with the personality words after unattractive faces as priming stimuli. The study provides evidence for the facial attractiveness stereotype ('What is beautiful is good') through an implicit priming task.

  15. Effect of attractant sex pheromone on immature larval stages of ixodid tick species.

    PubMed

    Ranju, R S; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Leela, V; Basith, S Abdul

    2012-10-01

    Attractant sex pheromone (ASP) 2,6-dichloro phenol was used in the current study to evaluate the percentage attraction and the behavioural responses of the five ixodid tick species namely Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus microplus (Boophilus microplus), Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and Hyalomma marginatum using petridish bioassay. Two concentrations of 2,6-DCP (0.1 M and 0.05 M) was used for the larval stages of all five ixodid tick species of which 0.1 M concentration was found to have maximum attraction. Trials with 0.1 M ASP revealed highest per cent of attraction in R. sanguineus larvae (71 %) followed by H. bispinosa (55 %) and R. microplus (55 %). With 0.1 M ASP R. haemaphysaloides and H. marginatum showed least attraction (39 % each). However the per cent of attraction of R. haemaphysaloides was higher (46 %) with 0.05 M ASP. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference in per cent of attraction between the different tick larvae using 0.05 and 0.1 M ASP. The larvae also exhibited behavioural responses such as feeding, probing, resting and questing posture.

  16. Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael J; Searle, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that male attractiveness can be enhanced by manipulation of status through, for example, the medium of costume. The present study experimentally manipulated status by seating the same target model (male and female matched for attractiveness) expressing identical facial expressions and posture in either a 'high status' (Silver Bentley Continental GT) or a 'neutral status' (Red Ford Fiesta ST) motor-car. A between-subjects design was used whereby the above photographic images were presented to male and female participants for attractiveness rating. Results showed that the male target model was rated as significantly more attractive on a rating scale of 1-10 when presented to female participants in the high compared to the neutral status context. Males were not influenced by status manipulation, as there was no significant difference between attractiveness ratings for the female seated in the high compared to the neutral condition. It would appear that despite a noticeable increase in female ownership of prestige/luxury cars over recent years males, unlike females remain oblivious to such cues in matters pertaining to opposite-sex attraction. These findings support the results of previous status enhancement of attractiveness studies especially those espousing sex differences in mate preferences are due to sex-specific adaptations.

  17. The effects of van der Waals attractions on cloud droplet growth by coalescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Davis, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of van der Waals attractions in the interaction between cloud droplets has been recently shown to significantly increase the collision efficiencies of the smaller droplets. In the current work, these larger values for the collision efficiencies are used in a population dynamics model of the droplet size distribution evolution with time, in hopes of at least partially resolving the long-standing paradox in cloud microphysics that predicted rates of the onset of precipitation are generally much lower than those which are observed. Evolutions of several initial cloud droplet spectra have been tracked in time. Size evolutions are compared as predicted from the use of collision efficiencies computed using two different models to allow for droplet-droplet contact: one which considers slip flow effects only, and one which considers the combined effects of van der Waals forces and slip flow. The rate at which the droplet mass density function shifts to larger droplet sizes is increased by typically 20-25 percent, when collision efficiencies which include van der Waals forces are used.

  18. The effects of van der Waals attractions on cloud droplet growth by coalescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Davis, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of van der Waals attractions in the interaction between cloud droplets has been recently shown to significantly increase the collision efficiencies of the smaller droplets. In the current work, these larger values for the collision efficiencies are used in a population dynamics model of the droplet size distribution evolution with time, in hopes of at least partially resolving the long-standing paradox in cloud microphysics that predicted rates of the onset of precipitation are generally much lower than those which are observed. Evolutions of several initial cloud droplet spectra have been tracked in time. Size evolutions are compared as predicted from the use of collision efficiencies computed using two different models to allow for droplet-droplet contact: one which considers slip flow effects only, and one which considers the combined effects of van der Waals forces and slip flow. The rate at which the droplet mass density function shifts to larger droplet sizes is increased by typically 20-25 percent, when collision efficiencies which include van der Waals forces are used.

  19. Self-attraction effect and correction on the T-1 absolute gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hu, H.; Wu, K.; Li, G.; Wang, G.; Wang, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The self-attraction effect (SAE) in an absolute gravimeter is a kind of systematic error due to the gravitation of the instrument to the falling object. This effect depends on the mass distribution of the gravimeter, and is estimated to be a few microgals (1 μGal  =  10-8 m s-2) for the FG5 gravimeter. In this paper, the SAE of a home-made T-1 absolute gravimeter is analyzed and calculated. Most of the stationary components, including the dropping chamber, the laser interferometer, the vibration isolation device and two tripods, are finely modelled, and the related SAEs are computed. In addition, the SAE of the co-falling carriage inside the dropping chamber is carefully calculated because the distance between the falling object and the co-falling carriage varies during the measurement. In order to get the correction of the SAE, two different methods are compared. One is to linearize the SAE curve, the other one is to calculate the perturbed trajectory. The results from these two methods agree with each other within 0.01 μGal. With an uncertainty analysis, the correction of the SAE of the T-1 gravimeter is estimated to be (-1.9  ±  0.1) μGal.

  20. Post-release dispersal in animal translocations: social attraction and the "vacuum effect".

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Robert, Alexandre; Le Gouar, Pascaline; Sarrazin, François

    2011-01-01

    Animal translocations are human-induced colonizations that can represent opportunities to contribute to the knowledge on the behavioral and demographic processes involved in the establishment of animal populations. Habitat selection behaviors, such as social cueing, have strong implications on dispersal and affect the establishment success of translocations. Using modeling simulations with a two-population network model (a translocated population and a remnant population), we investigated the consequences of four habitat selection strategies on post-translocation establishment probabilities in short- and long-lived species. Two dispersal strategies using social cues (conspecific attraction and habitat copying) were compared to random and quality-based strategies. We measured the sensitivity of local extinctions to dispersal strategies, life cycles, release frequencies, remnant population and release group sizes, the proportion of breeders and the connectivity between populations. Our results indicate that social behaviors can compromise establishment as a result of post-release dispersal, particularly in long-lived species. This behavioral mechanism, the "vacuum effect", arises from increased emigration in populations that are small relative to neighboring populations, reducing their rate of population growth. The vacuum effect can drive small remnant populations to extinction when a translocated group is large. In addition, the magnitude of the vacuum effect varies non-linearly with connectivity. The vacuum effect represents a novel form of the behaviorally mediated Allee effect that can cause unexpected establishment failures or population extinctions in response to social cueing. Accounting for establishment probabilities as a conditional step to the persistence of populations would improve the accuracy of predicting the fates of translocated or natural (meta)populations.

  1. Modelling optimum use of attractive toxic sugar bait stations for effective malaria vector control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Marshall, John M; Qualls, Whitney A; Schlein, Yosef; McManus, John W; Arheart, Kris L; Hlaing, WayWay M; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C

    2015-12-08

    The development of insecticide resistance and the increased outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors reduce the efficiency of indoor vector control methods. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), a method targeting the sugar-feeding behaviours of vectors both indoors and outdoors, is a promising supplement to indoor tools. The number and configuration of these ATSB stations needed for malaria control in a community needs to be determined. A hypothetical village, typical of those in sub-Saharan Africa, 600 × 600 m, consisting of houses, humans and essential resource requirements of Anopheles gambiae (sugar sources, outdoor resting sites, larval habitats) was simulated in a spatial individual-based model. Resource-rich and resource-poor environments were simulated separately. Eight types of configurations and different densities of ATSB stations were tested. Anopheles gambiae population size, human biting rate (HBR) and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were compared between different ATSB configurations and densities. Each simulated scenario was run 50 times. Compared to the outcomes not altered by ATSB treatment in the control scenario, in resource-rich and resource-poor environments, respectively, the optimum ATSB treatment reduced female abundance by 98.22 and 91.80 %, reduced HBR by 99.52 and 98.15 %, and reduced EIR by 99.99 and 100 %. In resource-rich environments, n × n grid design, stations at sugar sources, resting sites, larval habitats, and random locations worked better in reducing vector population and HBRs than other configurations (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference of EIR reductions between all ATSB configurations (P > 0.05). In resource-poor environments, there was no significant difference of female abundances, HBRs and EIRs between all ATSB configurations (P > 0.05). The optimum number of ATSB stations was about 25 for resource-rich environments and nine for resource-poor environments. ATSB treatment reduced An

  2. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  3. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  4. The undermining effect of facial attractiveness on brain responses to fairness in the Ultimatum Game: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue; Jiang, Shushu; Meng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG). During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as "attractive" and "unattractive") were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs) for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5) in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers' unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2) and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs) elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8) and fair (4:6 and 5:5) offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies). A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG.

  5. Bound states in the three-dimensional electron gas with repulsive or attractive test charges: many-body effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1996-09-01

    In the low-density regime bound states between negative (repulsive) test charges are obtained when many-body effects (exchange and correlation) are incorporated in the screening function of the three-dimensional electron gas via the local-field correction. The Schrödinger equation is solved in the momentum space by diagonalizing the corresponding matrix. We also perform variational calculations and find good agreement between the two methods. For high electron density 0953-8984/8/40/006/img5 (0953-8984/8/40/006/img6 is the density parameter) no bound states are found. Below a critical density 0953-8984/8/40/006/img7 the number and the energy of bound states increase with decreasing electron density. For large 0953-8984/8/40/006/img6 the binding energy for the ground state saturates near 0953-8984/8/40/006/img9. We discuss the wave functions of the ground state and of the lowest excited states. We also present results for the effects of exchange and correlation for a positive (attractive) test charge and we discuss results for the ground state and excited states.

  6. The Effects of Attitude Similarity-Dissimilarity, Religion, and Topic Importance on Interpersonal Attraction among Lebanese University Students.

    PubMed

    Yabrudi, Philip F; Diab, Lutfy N

    1978-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of attitudinal similarity and topic importance on interpersonal attraction when the religion of the stimulus stranger was the same as or was different from that of the S. Each of 80 Lebanese male and female undergraduates at the American University of Beirut responded to an eight-item attitude scale dealing with four important and four unimportant issues, examined later the same scale purportedly filled out by a stranger, and then indicated his attraction toward that stranger. The standard stranger technique was followed which consisted of experimentally manipulating similarity or dissimilarity of a stranger's attitudes and religion with respect to those of the S. The results confirmed the hypothesis in showing that while the variable of religion had no significant effect on interpersonal attraction, the latter was significantly influenced by attitudinal similarity between subject and stranger, particularly on topics considered important by the S.

  7. Effect of stochastically moving border on basins of attraction in a class of piecewise smooth maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Soumitro

    2017-07-01

    Determination of the basin of attraction of an attractor plays an important role in understanding the dynamics of a system. In all the existing literature, the basin of attraction of any attractor has been described to be deterministic. In this paper we show the existence of a non-deterministic basin of attraction of an attractor. We have considered a piecewise smooth (PWS) one-dimensional map, having stochastically varying border, which is allowed to move in a small bounded region of the phase space while retaining the deterministic dynamics on each compartment of the phase space. In case of this type of systems there exists a region in the phase space with the property that orbits starting from a single point lying inside this region do not display the same property of convergence or divergence, i.e., one may converge while another may diverge. In other words, the convergence or divergence of an orbit starting from a point inside this region is a probabilistic event, and the probabilities of convergence and divergence are both non-zero. We also derive the upper and lower bounds of the corresponding probability curves. Since all physical systems contain noise, the occurrence of such non-deterministic basin of attraction is a definite possibility, if the noise affects the position of the border. This may lead to dangerous consequences, as a region of the basin of attraction of an attractor may become non-deterministic, with a non-zero probability of divergence of orbits starting inside it.

  8. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample (N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  9. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P L; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants' eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants' behaviors, participants' sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others.

  10. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants’ eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants’ behaviors, participants’ sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others. PMID:27047365

  11. Courtship feeding in humans? The effects of feeding versus providing food on perceived attraction and intimacy.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Brubaker, Lauren W; Fox, Olivia M

    2013-12-01

    Food sharing may be used for mate attraction, sexual access, or mate retention in humans, as in many other species. Adult humans tend to perceive more intimacy in a couple if feeding is observed, but the increased perceived intimacy may be due to resource provisioning rather than feeding per se. To address this issue, 210 university students (66 male) watched five short videos, each showing a different mixed-sex pair of adults dining together and including feeding or simple provisioning or no food sharing. A survey concerning attraction and intimacy in the dyad was completed after each video. Both provisioning and feeding produced higher ratings of "Involvement," with feeding producing the highest ratings. Similarly, the perceived attraction of each actor to the other was lowest when no food sharing was shown and highest when feeding was displayed. These findings are consistent with a view of feeding as a courtship display in humans.

  12. Effects of gender and physical attractiveness on visual attention to Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Gwendolyn; Miller, Olivia S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined viewers' gaze while observing Facebook profiles of strangers varying in gender and physical attractiveness. Fifty-one participants viewed four Facebook profiles, a physically attractive and unattractive individual of each gender. Participants' eye movements were tracked as they viewed each profile for 60 seconds. Results showed that participants paid more attention to the physical appearance (main profile photograph) of female than of male profile owners and to the personal information (likes and interests) of male than to female profile owners. Participants spent more time focusing on information that was irrelevant to forming an impression of the profile owner (advertisements) when viewing the profiles of unattractive than attractive individuals, suggesting that they made a greater effort to learn about these individuals.

  13. Effect of buccolingual inclinations of maxillary canines and premolars on perceived smile attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Han, Xianglong; Wang, Yanmin; Shu, Rui; Jing, Yan; Tian, Ye; Andrews, Will A; Andrews, Lawrence F; Bai, Ding

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of buccolingual inclinations of the maxillary canines and premolars on the perceived attractiveness of the smile when viewed from the frontal perspective. A smiling frontal photograph was taken of a man. A 3-dimensional digital dental model of this subject was constructed within which the buccolingual inclinations of the canines and premolars could be altered relative to the occlusal plane. Three-dimensional models of the altered digital models were then printed in resin and mounted on articulators. Frontal photos of the mounted models were taken and transferred to the smile image. A series of images was produced with the canines and premolars inclined buccally or lingually by different degrees. The smile images were assessed by 2 panels, orthodontists and laypeople. There was a broad range of esthetic acceptability for the buccolingual inclinations of the maxillary canines and premolars. The range of preferred inclinations was not as broad. Smile esthetics was significantly compromised (P <0.01) when the canines were lingually inclined more than -12°, or the premolars were lingually inclined more than -15°, as perceived by orthodontists and laypersons. Buccally tipping the canines more than 6° also made the smile esthetics less satisfying (P <0.01). It could be esthetically satisfying to position the teeth within the ranges of 0° to -7° of inclination for the canines and -3° to -11° of inclination for the premolars, as assessed by the orthodontists, or of 3° to -10° of inclination for the canines and 5° to -11° of inclination for the premolars, as assessed by the laypersons. Clinicians could exercise flexibility within this range, when compromising tooth positions for transverse jaw discrepancies. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Separating the effects of repulsive and attractive forces on the phase diagram, interfacial, and critical properties of simple fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Herrera, M.; Moreno-Razo, J. A.; Guzmán, O.; López-Lemus, J.; Ibarra-Tandi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Molecular simulations in the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles were performed to study the effect of varying the shape of the intermolecular potential on the phase diagram, critical, and interfacial properties of model fluids. The molecular interactions were modeled by the Approximate Non-Conformal (ANC) theory potentials. Unlike the Lennard-Jones or Morse potentials, the ANC interactions incorporate parameters (called softnesses) that modulate the steepness of the potential in their repulsive and attractive parts independently. This feature allowed us to separate unambiguously the role of each region of the potential on setting the thermophysical properties. In particular, we found positive linear correlation between all critical coordinates and the attractive and repulsive softness, except for the critical density and the attractive softness which are negatively correlated. Moreover, we found that the physical properties related to phase coexistence (such as span of the liquid phase between the critical and triple points, variations in the P-T vaporization curve, interface width, and surface tension) are more sensitive to changes in the attractive softness than to the repulsive one. Understanding the different roles of attractive and repulsive forces on phase coexistence may contribute to developing more accurate models of liquids and their mixtures.

  15. Separating the effects of repulsive and attractive forces on the phase diagram, interfacial, and critical properties of simple fluids.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Herrera, M; Moreno-Razo, J A; Guzmán, O; López-Lemus, J; Ibarra-Tandi, B

    2016-06-07

    Molecular simulations in the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles were performed to study the effect of varying the shape of the intermolecular potential on the phase diagram, critical, and interfacial properties of model fluids. The molecular interactions were modeled by the Approximate Non-Conformal (ANC) theory potentials. Unlike the Lennard-Jones or Morse potentials, the ANC interactions incorporate parameters (called softnesses) that modulate the steepness of the potential in their repulsive and attractive parts independently. This feature allowed us to separate unambiguously the role of each region of the potential on setting the thermophysical properties. In particular, we found positive linear correlation between all critical coordinates and the attractive and repulsive softness, except for the critical density and the attractive softness which are negatively correlated. Moreover, we found that the physical properties related to phase coexistence (such as span of the liquid phase between the critical and triple points, variations in the P-T vaporization curve, interface width, and surface tension) are more sensitive to changes in the attractive softness than to the repulsive one. Understanding the different roles of attractive and repulsive forces on phase coexistence may contribute to developing more accurate models of liquids and their mixtures.

  16. The effect of canine characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when canine teeth are substituted for lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Wendy Jane; Barber, Sophy K; Spencer, Richard James

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effect of canine tooth characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when maxillary canine teeth are substituted for missing lateral incisors. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Non-clinical study undertaken from Leeds Dental Institute, UK. A composite full-face image of a smiling female was used to display various dentitions; a control image with an 'ideal' smile, plus six further images substituting the maxillary lateral incisors with canine teeth either unilaterally or bilaterally with varying size, shape, colour and gingival margin level. The seven images were shown to orthodontists (n = 30), dentists (n = 30) and lay people (n = 30) who were asked to rate smile attractiveness using a visual analogue scale. Dental professionals rated smiles with canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis to be significantly less attractive than an ideal smile unless the substituted canine teeth approximated the lateral incisor in terms of size, shape, colour and gingival margin. Lay people did not find smiles where canine teeth were substituted for lateral incisors significantly more or less attractive than an ideal smile regardless of the canine tooth characteristics. Dental professionals were significantly more perceptive than lay people to the deviation from ideal smile aesthetics due to canine substitution. Smiles with unilateral canine substitution were not found to be significantly less attractive than bilateral canine substitution by all groups. Canine characteristics and observer status will affect how canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis is viewed in terms of aesthetic outcome.

  17. Local molecular field theory for effective attractions between like charged objects in systems with strong Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Gwei; Weeks, John D

    2006-05-16

    Strong, short-ranged positional correlations involving counterions can induce a net attractive force between negatively charged strands of DNA and lead to the formation of ion pairs in dilute ionic solutions. However, the long range of the Coulomb interactions impedes the development of a simple local picture. We address this general problem by mapping the properties of a nonuniform system with Coulomb interactions onto those of a simpler system with short-ranged intermolecular interactions in an effective external field that accounts for the averaged effects of appropriately chosen long-ranged and slowly varying components of the Coulomb interactions. The remaining short-ranged components combine with the other molecular core interactions and strongly affect pair correlations in dense or strongly coupled systems. We show that pair correlation functions in the effective short-ranged system closely resemble those in the uniform primitive model of ionic solutions and illustrate the formation of ion pairs and clusters at low densities. The theory accurately describes detailed features of the effective attraction between two equally charged walls at strong coupling and intermediate separations of the walls. Analytical results for the minimal coupling strength needed to get any attraction and for the separation at which the attractive force is a maximum are presented.

  18. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  19. Misconceptions--A Column about Errors in Geoscience Textbooks. Mythical Effects of Molecular Attraction on Groundwater Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Jesse Marion

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the myth expressed in many early geology textbooks that clay and shale are impervious to water. Misconceptions about the effects of molecular attraction on groundwater appear to have arisen from errant interpretations of correct physicochemical concepts. (PVD)

  20. Misconceptions--A Column about Errors in Geoscience Textbooks. Mythical Effects of Molecular Attraction on Groundwater Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Jesse Marion

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the myth expressed in many early geology textbooks that clay and shale are impervious to water. Misconceptions about the effects of molecular attraction on groundwater appear to have arisen from errant interpretations of correct physicochemical concepts. (PVD)

  1. A Test of Two Competing Explanations for the Attraction-Enhancing Effects of Counselor Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jill G.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    1987-01-01

    Tested two theoretical explanations for attraction-enhancing effects of counselor self-disclosure by constructing counseling analogue which varied the valence (positive or negative) of a counselor's disclosure and its relevance to client's presenting problem. Clients were 70 male college students. Results were mixed, supporting social exchange…

  2. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  3. Job Attraction Predictors for Graduate Professional Students: The Effects of Job Attributes, Gender, and Year of Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Butters, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effects of job attributes and student characteristics on graduate professional students' job attraction using two theoretical models. Dental students evaluated content-validated descriptions of three professional job options. Results indicated that significant predictors were job attributes, job attributes-by-gender interactions, and…

  4. Attracting the World: Institutional Initiatives' Effects on International Students' Decision to Enroll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges have increased their efforts to attract international students, but little is known how these active efforts influence international students' decisions to attend a community college. This longitudinal study focuses on international students at one community college that embarked on an active international student recruitment…

  5. The Effect of Company Recruitment Web Site Orientation on Individuals' Perceptions of Organizational Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ian O.; Lepak, David P.; King, James

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on job opportunities, business students (n=252) visited company websites having either a recruitment or selection orientation or both. Attractiveness of the organization was significantly higher for recruitment-oriented sites. Perceived usefulness and ease of use influenced outcome expectancy and organizational…

  6. Effects of Student Race and Physical Attractiveness on Teachers' Judgments of Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marwit, Karen L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Student and practicing teachers rated severity of classroom misbehaviors ascribed to Black or White attractive or unattractive children. Following student teaching, ratings of Black children's transgressions increased in severity, and ratings of White children's transgressions remained the same. Practicing teachers were affected by student…

  7. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  8. The Effects of Crowding and Interpersonal Attraction on Affective Responses, Task Performance, and Verbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiley, Stephen F.

    This report describes two studies in which 48 male college students and 144 male high school students, respectively, were assigned to high or low spatial density conditions and instructed to construct, as a team, an erector set model within a 40-minute period. High school students were assigned to high, middle, and low attraction groups on the…

  9. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine sampling range for female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for pest tephritid fruit flies. Field studies were conducted in shaded coffee and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were captured. Traps (38 traps ...

  10. Effects of Performer Attractiveness, Stage Behavior, and Dress on Violin Performance Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapnick, Joel; Mazza, Jolan Kovacs; Darrow, Alice-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Determines whether nonmusical attributes of violinists affects judges' rating of their performance. Rated 12 subjects on video, audiovideo, and audio recordings. Reveals significant interactions between performance evaluation and dress, and between evaluation and stage behavior; there was no significant interaction with attractiveness. (DSK)

  11. Effects of Performer Attractiveness, Stage Behavior, and Dress on Evaluation of Children's Piano Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapnick, Joel; Mazza, Jolan Kovacs; Darrow, Alice Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether selected nonmusical attributes of 20 sixth-grade pianists would affect ratings of their performances by 123 musically trained evaluators. States that the visual group evaluators viewed a videotape, without the sound, rating the pianists on appropriateness of dress, stage behavior, and physical attractiveness. The audio and…

  12. Effects of Sex, Attraction, and Acceptance on Children's Help Seeking and Attitudes to Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downe, Alan G.; McDougall, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    A study involving 124 male and 128 female sixth graders found that sex differences existed in willingness to receive help and helper preferences, and that high-attraction subjects showed higher orientation toward including other children in their activities, accepting control from others, and being affectionate around others. (SLD)

  13. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effects of Fee and Title on Credibility and Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautt, Gregory M.; Bloom, Larry J.

    1982-01-01

    Subjects rated a described mental-health professional on credibility and attraction. Varied fee and title in the descriptions. Results indicated subjects were not affected by fee except in willingness to seek therapy. The psychiatrist was consistently rated higher than the counselor, who was rated over the clinical psychologist. (Author/JAC)

  14. Attracting the World: Institutional Initiatives' Effects on International Students' Decision to Enroll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges have increased their efforts to attract international students, but little is known how these active efforts influence international students' decisions to attend a community college. This longitudinal study focuses on international students at one community college that embarked on an active international student recruitment…

  15. The undermining effect of facial attractiveness on brain responses to fairness in the Ultimatum Game: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue; Jiang, Shushu; Meng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG). During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as “attractive” and “unattractive”) were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs) for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5) in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers' unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2) and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs) elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8) and fair (4:6 and 5:5) offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies). A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG. PMID:25805967

  16. Field effects of faecal residues from ivermectin slow-release boluses on the attractiveness of cattle dung to dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Errouissi, F; Lumaret, J-P

    2010-12-01

    A 2-year study was performed in two sites in southern France to assess the effect of ivermectin residues on the attractiveness of cattle dung to colonizing insects. Insect captures were compared between pitfall traps baited with dung from untreated cattle and dung from cattle that had been treated with a slow-release (SR) bolus of ivermectin. Cattle dung was collected at different times after treatment (4, 14, 42, 70 and 98 days). Excretion showed a plateau, with levels ranging between 0.688 µg and 1.123 µg ivermectin per gram of wet dung. Faecal residues affected insect captures at both sites. Effects were independent of the time dung was collected after treatment, except for one result subsequent to a severe drought during the baiting period. Ivermectin-contaminated dung showed a significant attractive effect, with increased captures regardless of the guild to which beetles belonged. This study demonstrates the attractiveness of ivermectin residues over a long period after the treatment of animals. It draws attention to the danger of widespread use of this endectocide-based SR bolus, which is attributable to the preferential attraction of insects to treated dung, which potentially puts at risk the survival of their offspring.

  17. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    Effects of different concentrations of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait on attraction and feeding responses, mortality, and control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In the laboratory, flies that had been exposed to sugar and yeast extract and then deprived of all food for 16-20 h were attracted to 40.0% GF-120, but not to 0.6 and 4.8% GF-120 (vol:vol). Nonstarved flies were not attracted to any concentration. Flies in the field were not attracted to 55.6% GF-120 on cherry leaves, and few flies fed on the bait. In the laboratory, males fed for shorter durations on and ingested lower amounts of 0.6% than 4.8 or 40.0% GF-120, but females fed equally on all concentrations. Spinosad in GF-120 was highly toxic to flies. Lethal concentrations50 (LC50 values) of spinosad for starved flies at 1-4 d were 1.5-0.7 ppm. When gravid flies were exposed to cherries treated with 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120, mortality was greater at each higher concentration, but none prevented oviposition. Field spray tests comparing 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120 in 225 ml of spray per cherry tree resulted in 79-94% lower larval infestations than in controls, but no differences were seen among the concentrations. Evidence from this study indicates that fresh 40.0% GF-120 was attractive in the laboratory but that flies were not attracted to fresh GF-120 from far distances within trees, suggesting that suppression of populations is caused in large part by flies finding the bait through normal movement over large areas.

  18. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  19. The biasing effects of appearances go beyond physical attractiveness and mating motives.

    PubMed

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The influence of appearances goes well beyond physical attractiveness and includes the surprisingly powerful impact of "face-ism" - the tendency to stereotype individuals based on their facial features. A growing body of research has revealed that these face-based social attributions bias the outcomes of labor markets and experimental economic games in ways that are hard to explain via evolutionary mating motives.

  20. Boosting spin-caloritronic effects by attractive correlations in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    In nanoscopic systems quantum confinement and interference can lead to an enhancement of thermoelectric properties as compared to conventional bulk materials. For nanostructures, such as molecules or quantum dots coupled to external leads, the thermoelectric figure of merit can reach or even exceed unity. Moreover, in the presence of external magnetic field or when the leads are ferromagnetic, an applied temperature gradient can generate a spin voltage and an associated spin current flow in the system, which makes such nanostructures particularly interesting for future thermoelectric applications. In this study, by using the numerical renormalization group method, we examine the spin-dependent thermoelectric transport properties of a molecular junction involving an orbital level with attractive Coulomb correlations coupled to ferromagnetic leads. We analyze how attractive correlations affect the spin-resolved transport properties of the system and find a nontrivial dependence of the conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the strength and sign of those correlations. We also demonstrate that attractive correlations can lead to an enhancement of the spin thermopower and the figure of merit, which can be controlled by a gate voltage.

  1. Weak dissipative effects on trajectories from the edge of basins of attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousseph, C. A.; Kruger, T. S.; Manchein, C.; Lopes, S. R.; Beims, M. W.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to present convergence properties of regular and chaotic conservative trajectories under small dissipation. It is known that when subjected to dissipation, stable periodic points become sinks attracting the surrounding trajectories which belong to rational/irrational tori, while chaotic trajectories converge to a chaotic attractor, if it exists. Using the standard map and a mixed plot we show that this simple scenario can be rather complicated and strongly depends on the dissipation intensity. For small dissipations the huge amount of attractors of the phase-space generates a complicated and intricate dynamics where trajectories are steered to their attractors based on the local (non)hyperbolicity, measured by the Lyapunov vectors. Dissipation creates holes (or attracting channels) on the torus from the conservative limit and allows trajectories to penetrate it. These holes are regions of large local hyperbolicity and are related to sticky channels reported recently. For stronger dissipation sinks tend to attract all trajectories, prevailing over the chaotic attractor.

  2. Boosting spin-caloritronic effects by attractive correlations in molecular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    In nanoscopic systems quantum confinement and interference can lead to an enhancement of thermoelectric properties as compared to conventional bulk materials. For nanostructures, such as molecules or quantum dots coupled to external leads, the thermoelectric figure of merit can reach or even exceed unity. Moreover, in the presence of external magnetic field or when the leads are ferromagnetic, an applied temperature gradient can generate a spin voltage and an associated spin current flow in the system, which makes such nanostructures particularly interesting for future thermoelectric applications. In this study, by using the numerical renormalization group method, we examine the spin-dependent thermoelectric transport properties of a molecular junction involving an orbital level with attractive Coulomb correlations coupled to ferromagnetic leads. We analyze how attractive correlations affect the spin-resolved transport properties of the system and find a nontrivial dependence of the conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the strength and sign of those correlations. We also demonstrate that attractive correlations can lead to an enhancement of the spin thermopower and the figure of merit, which can be controlled by a gate voltage. PMID:26805591

  3. Effects of the Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities to the Ingratiation Target.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    dimensions. Pyschological Reports, 1975, 36, 79-85. Cozby , P. C. Self - disclosure : A literature review. Sociometry, 1972, 35, 151-160. Derlega, V. J...GOVT ACCESSION4 NO. 3. 09ECiPiEwTIS CATALOG NUMVER I g. TI~a (dd sulilS. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Effects of the Reciprocity of Self - Disclosure ...8217Ilame of Candidate Paul Douglas Fisher Title of Dissertation Effects of the Reciprocity of Self - Disclosure Upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities

  4. Effects of the Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities to the Ingratiation Target.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    An Overview. Morristown, New Jersey: General Learning, 1975. Cozby , P. C. Self - disclosure : A literature review. Sociometry, 1972, 35, 151-160. r...NR 81-77D . A 25j ’Y- s- 𔃾. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Effects of the Reciprocity of Self - Disclosure THESIS/D#A iI/V...When Dae Entered) • -- - - - -- - Effects of the Reciprocity of Self - Disclosure Upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities to the Ingratiation Target

  5. Internet-based lay person rating of facial photographs to assess effects of a cleansing product and a decent cosmetic foundation on the attractiveness of female faces.

    PubMed

    Bielfeldt, S; Henss, R; Koop, U; Degwert, J; Heinrich, U; Jassoy, C; Meyer, J; Tronnier, H; Jentzsch, A; Blume, G

    2013-02-01

    It is well established that decorative cosmetics can enhance female facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the effects of a cleanser and a decent foundation on attractiveness of female faces. Comparative rating of a set of facial photographs by a group of lay persons revealed that the cleansing product was significantly reducing the attractiveness of the stimulus persons. Treatment with the foundation increased the attractiveness of the female faces clearly. The authors conclude that even unobtrusive cosmetic treatments like cleansers and light foundations may cause relevant changes of the attractiveness of female faces.

  6. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  7. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  8. Effects of Mach Number on Maximum Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    raAruaKJ tablo, grapho Haeh nunber effect on r»\\irirmr> lift is datomlncd for unsuopt end onopt-back Dingo . Suopt-back ulngo oboa tho oarx> early tip...ulngo. &7opt-toack uingo ahan tho anm early tip stalling tondancioa at high opoede ae they do at leu opoede. For unsnopt Dingo tho Cj p^ of

  9. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  10. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  11. Effects of gender diversity management on perceptions of organizational attractiveness: the role of individual differences in attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luis L; Parsons, Charles K

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the authors examined how individual gender-related attitudes and beliefs affect the reactions of men and women to gender diversity management programs in organizations. They found that whereas there were no significant between-sex differences in the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness, there were strong within-sex differences based on individual attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, within the sexes, centrality of one's gender identity, attitudes toward affirmative action for women, and the belief that women are discriminated against in the workplace moderated the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness. The findings, combined with prior research, suggest that it is critical for organizations to incorporate efforts to manage perceptions of gender diversity management programs into their diversity management strategies. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Sarita; Graupmann, Verena; Agthe, Maria; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Blautzik, Janusch; Demirçapa, Idil; Berndt, Andrea; Pöppel, Ernst; Frey, Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and women. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience. PMID:24078106

  13. Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Sarita; Graupmann, Verena; Agthe, Maria; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Blautzik, Janusch; Demirçapa, Idil; Berndt, Andrea; Pöppel, Ernst; Frey, Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and women. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience.

  14. The use of Aedes aegypti larvae attractants to enhance the effectiveness of larvicides.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; Harburguer, Laura; González-Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2016-06-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is an important dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever vector. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes, and the application of larvicides inside containers that cannot be eliminated is still considered a priority in control programs. Larvicidal efficacy is influenced by several factors, including the formulation used, the water quality, and the susceptibility of larvae, among others. If an attractant can be incorporated into a slow-release larvicide formulation, it will be feasible to direct the larvae into the source of insecticide and thereby improving its efficacy. We studied the influence of 1-octen-3ol and 3-methylphenol on the rate of Ae. aegypti larvae mortality using the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), temephos, and spinosad. These chemicals were combined with the larvicides mixed with agar during the bioassays. Mortality was registered every 10 min, and a lethal time 50 (LT50) was calculated. The inclusion of the Ae. aegypti larvae attractants with the larvicides into a solid agar matrix improved their efficiency obtaining a strong and marked reduction in the LT50 compared with the use of larvicides alone.

  15. Quantifying the mosquito's sweet tooth: modelling the effectiveness of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M; White, Michael T; Ghani, Azra C; Schlein, Yosef; Muller, Gunter C; Beier, John C

    2013-08-23

    Current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); however mosquitoes frequently feed on sugar sources outdoors, inviting the possibility of novel control strategies. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings. Simple models of mosquito sugar-feeding behaviour were fitted to data from an ATSB field trial in Mali and used to estimate sugar-feeding rates and the potential of ATSB to control mosquito populations. The model and fitted parameters were then incorporated into a larger integrated vector management (IVM) model to assess the potential contribution of ATSB to future IVM programmes. In the Mali experimental setting, the model suggests that about half of female mosquitoes fed on ATSB solution per day, dying within several hours of ingesting the toxin. Using a model incorporating the number of gonotrophic cycles completed by female mosquitoes, a higher sugar-feeding rate was estimated for younger mosquitoes than for older mosquitoes. Extending this model to incorporate other vector control interventions suggests that an IVM programme based on both ATSB and LLINs may substantially reduce mosquito density and survival rates in this setting, thereby substantially reducing parasite transmission. This is predicted to exceed the impact of LLINs in combination with IRS provided ATSB feeding rates are 50% or more of Mali experimental levels. In addition, ATSB is predicted to be particularly effective against Anopheles arabiensis, which is relatively exophilic and therefore less affected by IRS and LLINs. These results suggest that high coverage with a combination of LLINs and ATSB could result in substantial reductions in malaria transmission in this setting. Further field studies of ATSB in other settings are needed to assess

  16. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Franck, Julie; Colonna, Saveria; Rizzi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A'-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010). Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures with an agreement error on the verb, shows an enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching) objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A'-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations.

  17. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Julie; Colonna, Saveria; Rizzi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A’-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010). Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures with an agreement error on the verb, shows an enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching) objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A’-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations. PMID:25914652

  18. Effect of CO₂ and 1-octen-3-ol attractants for estimating species richness and the abundance of diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2011-05-01

    Studies have shown that both carbon dioxide (CO₂) and octenol (1-octen-3-ol) are effective attractants for mosquitoes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the attractiveness of 1-octen-3-ol and CO₂ for diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest. A Latin square experimental design was employed with four treatments: CDC-light trap (CDC-LT), CDC-LT and 1-octen-3-ol, CDC-LT and CO₂ and CDC-LT with 1-octen-3-ol and CO₂. Results demonstrated that both CDC-CO₂ and CDC-CO₂-1-octen-3-ol captured a greater number of mosquito species and specimens compared to CDC-1-octen-3-ol; CDC-LT was used as the control. Interestingly, Anopheles (Kerteszia) sp. was generally attracted to 1-octen-3-ol, whereas Aedes serratus was the most abundant species in all Latin square collections. This species was recently shown to be competent to transmit the yellow fever virus and may therefore play a role as a disease vector in rural areas of Brazil.

  19. Attraction of Hawaiian seabirds to lights: conservation efforts and effects of moon phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telfer, T.C.; Sincock, J.L.; Byrd, G.V.; Reed, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increased urban lighting on Kauai Island, Hawaii, has resulted in new problems for threatened and endangered procellariiform birds. Between 1978 and 1985,11,767 Kewell's shearwaters, 38 dark-rumped petrels, and 8 band-rumped storm petrels were attracted to bright urban lights, struck unseen objects, and fell to the ground. A salvage effort involving public cooperation and government-run 'aid stations' has returned 90% of these birds to the wild. Nightly fallout of seabirds was significantly reduced during the full moon, but fallout increased as the new moon approached. The heaviest fallout occurred in urban coastal areas, particularly at river mouths. More than 97% of the fallout involved fledgling birds apparently leaving their mountain nesting grounds for the first time. Less than 1%of these birds were recovered again on subsequent nights.

  20. Off-Design Reynolds Number Effects for a Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Wahls, Richard A.; Rivers, S. Melissa

    2005-01-01

    A high Reynolds number wind tunnel test was conducted to assess Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of a realistic, second-generation supersonic transport concept. The tests included longitudinal studies at transonic and low-speed, high-lift conditions across a range of chord Reynolds numbers (8 million to 120 million). Results presented focus on Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities at Mach 0.30 and 0.90 for a configuration without a tail. Static aeroelastic effects, which mask Reynolds number effects, were observed. Reynolds number effects were generally small and the drag data followed established trends of skin friction as a function of Reynolds number. A more nose-down pitching moment was produced as Reynolds number increased because of an outward movement of the inboard leading-edge separation at constant angles of attack. This study extends the existing Reynolds number database for supersonic transports operating at off-design conditions.

  1. Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: the mediating role of perceived attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, K; Pieterse, M E; Pruyn, A

    2008-09-01

    Natural elements in the built healthcare environment have shown to hold potential stress-reducing properties. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism of stress-reducing effects of nature, the present study investigates whether the stress-reducing effects of indoor plants occur because such an environment is perceived as being more attractive. A single-factor between-subjects experimental design (nature: indoor plants vs. no plants) was used in which participants (n=77) were presented with a scenario describing hospitalization with a possible legionella diagnosis. The study was conducted from March to May 2007 in the Netherlands. Subsequently, they were exposed to a photo of a hospital room. In this room were either indoor plants, or there was a painting of an urban environment on the wall. Afterwards, perceived stress and the perceived attractiveness of the hospital room were measured. Participants exposed to the hospital room with indoor plants reported less stress than those in the control condition. Mediation analysis confirmed that indoor plants in a hospital room reduce feelings of stress through the perceived attractiveness of the room. This study confirms the stress-reducing properties of natural elements in the built healthcare environment. It also sheds light on the underlying mechanism causing this stress-reduction.

  2. Effects of Reading Health and Appearance Exercise Magazine Articles on Perceptions of Attractiveness and Reasons for Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pankratow, Melanie; Berry, Tanya R.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of reading exercise-related magazine articles (health, appearance, or control) and the moderating effects of exercise self-identity on reasons for exercise and perceptions of attractiveness, among women in first year university. An additional purpose was to use a thought listing technique, the results of which were examined for evidence of internalization of the exercise-related messages. Participants Female students in their first year of studies between September 2010 and April 2011 (N = 173; mean age = 19.31 years, mean body mass index = 22.01). Methods Participants read a health, appearance, or control article, listed thoughts, and completed questionnaires measuring reasons for exercising, physical self-perception, and exercise self-identity. Results Participants in the health condition rated exercise for health significantly higher than control condition participants. Participants with high exercise self-identity rated attractiveness as a reason for exercising significantly higher than low exercise self-identity participants in both the health and appearance conditions. Participants with higher internalization scores (i.e., accepted societal norms of appearance) reported exercising for attractiveness reasons more so than participants with lower internalization scores. Conclusions The good news is that health messages may be influential and result in wanting to exercise for health purposes. However, exercising for attractiveness was rated highly by participants with high exercise identity who read either the health or appearance articles. Health and appearance are not necessarily distinct concepts for female undergraduate students and the media may influence cited reasons for exercise. PMID:23630618

  3. Effects of reading health and appearance exercise magazine articles on perceptions of attractiveness and reasons for exercise.

    PubMed

    Pankratow, Melanie; Berry, Tanya R; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of reading exercise-related magazine articles (health, appearance, or control) and the moderating effects of exercise self-identity on reasons for exercise and perceptions of attractiveness, among women in first year university. An additional purpose was to use a thought listing technique, the results of which were examined for evidence of internalization of the exercise-related messages. Female students in their first year of studies between September 2010 and April 2011 (N = 173; mean age = 19.31 years, mean body mass index = 22.01). Participants read a health, appearance, or control article, listed thoughts, and completed questionnaires measuring reasons for exercising, physical self-perception, and exercise self-identity. Participants in the health condition rated exercise for health significantly higher than control condition participants. Participants with high exercise self-identity rated attractiveness as a reason for exercising significantly higher than low exercise self-identity participants in both the health and appearance conditions. Participants with higher internalization scores (i.e., accepted societal norms of appearance) reported exercising for attractiveness reasons more so than participants with lower internalization scores. The good news is that health messages may be influential and result in wanting to exercise for health purposes. However, exercising for attractiveness was rated highly by participants with high exercise identity who read either the health or appearance articles. Health and appearance are not necessarily distinct concepts for female undergraduate students and the media may influence cited reasons for exercise.

  4. The effect of microscopic attractive interactions on piezoelectric coefficients of nanoscale DNA films and its resultant mirocantilever-based biosensor signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Zhou, Mei-Hong; Zhang, Neng-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption of charged biomolecules on a substrate will trigger a self-induced electric potential field that could deflect microcantilever biosensors in the nanometer regime. The paper is devoted to a multiscale characterization of the piezoelectric coefficient of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) films with microscopic attractive interactions in multivalence salt solutions, which has a close relationship with biosensor signals. First, two different analytical models of cantilever deflections based on macroscopic piezoelectric theories or mesoscopic liquid crystal theories were combined in the sense of equivalent deformation in order to bridge the relation between the macroscopic piezoelectric coefficient of an adsorbate film and the sensitivity of its microstructure to surrounding conditions. Second, two interaction potentials of the free energy for repulsion-dominated DNA films in NaCl solution or attraction-repulsion-coexisted DNA films in multivalent salt solutions were used to compare the piezoelectric effect and the resultant cantilever deformation at various packing conditions, such as different packing density, various nucleotide numbers and two packing technologies, i.e. nano-grafting or self-assembling technology. The variational tendency of microcantilever deflections predicted by the present multiscale analytical model agrees well with the related DNA-mirocantilever experiments. Negative piezoelectric coefficient of dsDNA film exists in multivalent salt solutions, and its distinctive size effect with different packing densities and nucleotide numbers provides us with an opportunity to obtain a more sensitive microcantilever sensor by careful control of packing conditions.

  5. [A multi-measure analysis of the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects in multi-attribute decision making].

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.

  6. Effect of electric-field-induced capillary attraction on the motion of particles at an oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Boneva, Mariana P; Christov, Nikolay C; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2007-12-28

    Here, we investigate experimentally and theoretically the motion of spherical glass particles of radii 240-310 microm attached to a tetradecane-water interface. Pairs of particles, which are moving toward each other under the action of lateral capillary force, are observed by optical microscopy. The purpose is to check whether the particle electric charges influence the particle motion, and whether an electric-field-induced capillary attraction could be detected. The particles have been hydrophobized by using two different procedures, which allow one to prepare charged and uncharged particles. To quantify the hydrodynamic viscous effects, we developed a semiempirical quantitative approach, whose validity was verified by control experiments with uncharged particles. An appropriate trajectory function was defined, which should increase linearly with time if the particle motion is driven solely by the gravity-induced capillary force. The analysis of the experimental results evidences for the existence of an additional attraction between two like-charged particles at the oil-water interface. This attraction exceeds the direct electrostatic repulsion between the two particles and leads to a noticeable acceleration of their motion.

  7. Effects of flower size and number on pollinator visitation to wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Rush, Scott

    1996-03-01

    Plant traits that increase pollinator visitation should be under strong selection. However, few studies have demonstrated a causal link between natural variation in attractive traits and natural variation in visitation to whole plants. Here we examine the effects of flower number and size on visitation to wild radish by two taxa of pollinators over 3 years, using a combination of multiple regression and experimental reductions in both traits. We found strong, consistent evidence that increases in both flower number and size cause increased visitation by syrphid flies. The results for small bees were harder to interpret, because the multiple regression and experimental manipulation results did not agree. It is likely that increased flower size causes a weak increase in small-bee visitation, but strong relationships between flower number and small-bee visitation seen in 2 years of observational studies were not corroborated by experimental manipulation of this trait. Small bees may actually have responded to an unmeasured trait correlated with flower number, or lower small-bee abundances when the flower number manipulation was conducted may have reduced our ability to detect a causal relationship. We conclude that studies using only 1 year, one method, or measuring only one trait may not provide an adequate understanding of the effects of plant traits on pollinator attraction.

  8. The effect of like-charge attraction on aerosol growth in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Eric B.; Stamm, Benjamin; Chan, Ho-Kei; Maday, Yvon; Stace, Anthony J.; Besley, Elena

    2017-07-01

    The formation of aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan is based extensively on ion-neutral chemistry and physical condensation processes. Herein it is shown that the formation of aerosols may also occur through an alternative pathway that involves the physical aggregation of negatively charged particles, which are known to be abundant in the satellite's atmosphere. It is shown that, given the right circumstances, like-charged particles with a dielectric constant characteristic of nitrated hydrocarbons have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome any repulsive electrostatic barrier that separates them and can subsequently experience an attractive interaction at very short separation. Aerosol growth can then unfold through a charge scavenging process, whereby nitrated aggregates preferentially grow by assimilating smaller like-charged particles. Since hydrocarbon aerosols have much lower dielectric constants, it is shown that a similar mechanism involving hydrocarbon particles will not be as efficient. As a consequence of this proposed growth mechanism, it is suggested that the lower atmosphere of Titan will be enriched in nitrogen-containing aerosols.

  9. Effects of confinement between attractive and repulsive walls on the thermodynamics of an anomalous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, Fabio; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2016-12-01

    We study via molecular-dynamics simulations the thermodynamics of an anomalous fluid confined in a slit pore with one wall structured and attractive and another unstructured and repulsive. We find that the phase diagram of the homogeneous part of the confined fluid is shifted to higher temperatures, densities, and pressures with respect to the bulk, but it can be rescaled on the bulk case. We calculate a moderate increase of mobility of the homogeneous confined fluid that we interpret as a consequence of the layering due to confinement and the collective modes due to long-range correlations. We show that, as in bulk, the confined fluid has structural, diffusion, and density anomalies that order in the waterlike hierarchy, and a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP). The overall anomalous region moves to higher temperatures, densities, and pressure, and the LLCP displaces to higher temperature compared to bulk. Motivated by experiments, we calculate also the phase diagram not just for the homogeneous part of the confined fluid but for the entire fluid in the pore, and we show that it is shifted toward higher pressures but preserves the thermodynamics, including the LLCP. Because our model has waterlike properties, we argue that in experiments with supercooled water confined in slit pores with a width of >3 nm if hydrophilic and of >1.5 nm if hydrophobic, the existence of the LLCP could be easier to test than in bulk, where it is not directly accessible.

  10. Nonlocal Entropic Repulsion Effects on Rod Polymer Induced Depletion Attraction between Spherical Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yeng-Long; Schweizer, Kenneth

    2002-03-01

    The polymer liquid state integral equation approach for treating depletion phenomena in rigid rod-colloid suspensions is generalized to account for spatially nonlocal entropic repulsions which modify rod orientation near an impenetrable particle. A thermodynamically consistent theory for the rod segment-particle direct correlation function is formulated under athermal conditions for thin rods and all ratios of the rod length, L, to sphere diameter, D. Results for the polymer density profile near a colloid, the cross second virial coefficient, and the sphere-sphere depletion potential under dilute polymer conditions have been obtained. Relative to simpler approaches based on the (local) Percus-Yevick closure approximation, the new theory represents a qualitative improvement for the shape of the polymer density profile at small separations, and a major quantitative improvement for the depletion attraction strength at colloidal contact when D>L. Detailed comparisons reveal very good agreement of the theory with both exact simulation results for all size asymmetry ratios, and recent direct experimental measurements of the fd-virus(rod) induced depletion potential between silica colloids where L ~ D.

  11. Effects of confinement between attractive and repulsive walls on the thermodynamics of an anomalous fluid.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Fabio; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2016-12-01

    We study via molecular-dynamics simulations the thermodynamics of an anomalous fluid confined in a slit pore with one wall structured and attractive and another unstructured and repulsive. We find that the phase diagram of the homogeneous part of the confined fluid is shifted to higher temperatures, densities, and pressures with respect to the bulk, but it can be rescaled on the bulk case. We calculate a moderate increase of mobility of the homogeneous confined fluid that we interpret as a consequence of the layering due to confinement and the collective modes due to long-range correlations. We show that, as in bulk, the confined fluid has structural, diffusion, and density anomalies that order in the waterlike hierarchy, and a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP). The overall anomalous region moves to higher temperatures, densities, and pressure, and the LLCP displaces to higher temperature compared to bulk. Motivated by experiments, we calculate also the phase diagram not just for the homogeneous part of the confined fluid but for the entire fluid in the pore, and we show that it is shifted toward higher pressures but preserves the thermodynamics, including the LLCP. Because our model has waterlike properties, we argue that in experiments with supercooled water confined in slit pores with a width of >3 nm if hydrophilic and of >1.5 nm if hydrophobic, the existence of the LLCP could be easier to test than in bulk, where it is not directly accessible.

  12. Effect of attractive interactions between polymers on the effective force acting between colloids immersed in a polymer system: Analytic liquid-state theory.

    PubMed

    Chervanyov, A I

    2016-12-28

    By making use of the polymer reference interaction site model, we analytically study the effect of attractive interactions between polymers on the effective forces acting between colloids immersed in a polymer system. The performed theoretical analysis has no restrictions with respect to the polymer density and relative sizes of the colloids and polymers. The polymer mediated (PM) potential acting between colloids is shown to significantly depend on the strength and range of the polymer-polymer interactions. In the nano-particle limit, where the colloid radius is much smaller than the polymer gyration radius, the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions causes only quantitative changes to the PM potential. In the opposite limit of relatively large colloids, the polymer-polymer interactions revert the sign of the total effective force acting between colloids so that this force becomes attractive at sufficiently large polymer densities. With the objective to study an intricate interplay between the attractive PM forces and steric repulsion in different polymer density regimes, we calculate the second virial coefficient B of the total effective potential acting between colloids. The dependence of B on the polymer density is discussed in detail, revealing several novel features of the PM interactions caused by the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions.

  13. Effects of Cooperative vs Individualistic Learning Experiences on Interpersonl Attraction between Learning-Disabled and Normal-Progress Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences were compared on interpersonal attraction between nonhandicapped students and learning-disabled peers and achievement. Results indicate that greater interpersonal attraction between the learning-disabled and normal-progress students and higher achievement resulted in the…

  14. Effect of Reynolds Number and Mach Number on flow angularity probe sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary calibrations were performed on nine flow angularity probes in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST) and the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). These probes will be used in surveying the test section flows of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The probes used in this study have a pyramid head with five pressure orifices. The calibrations consisted of both isolated probe measurements and rake-mounted multiprobe measurements that covered a range of subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and Reynolds numbers per foot up to 40 X 10 to the 6th power. The preliminary calibration in the 7 x 10 HST included testing the probes both individually and in a rake. The 0.3-m TCT calibration tested two probes singly at varying Reynolds numbers. The results from these tests include Mach number, Reynolds number, and rake-mounting effects. The results of these tests showed probe sensitivity to be slightly affected by Mach number. At Reynolds numbers per foot above 10 x 10 to the 6th power, the probe did not exhibit a Reynolds number sensitivity.

  15. Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relationship between Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kliegl, Reinhold; Wei, Ping; Dambacher, Michael; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly et al., 1994). We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect), to attention switch between objects (object effect), and to the attraction of attention toward the display centroid (attraction effect), also taking into account the design-inherent imbalance of valid and other trials. We simultaneously estimated variance/covariance components of subject-related random effects for these spatial, object, and attraction effects in addition to their mean reaction times (RTs). The spatial effect showed a strong positive correlation with mean RT and a strong negative correlation with the attraction effect. The analysis of individual differences suggests that slow subjects engage attention more strongly at the cued location than fast subjects. We compare this joint LMM analysis of experimental effects and associated subject-related variances and correlations with two frequently used alternative statistical procedures. PMID:21833292

  16. Designing personable and informative job recruiting web sites: testing the effect of the design on attractiveness and intent to apply.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Peg; Chinn, Susan J; Goodrich, Jana; Howard, Gary

    2004-06-01

    To date, most of the limited research conducted about the efficacy of corporate job recruiting web sites has been either anecdotal or based on field surveys. In this study, the effects of using a photograph, a friendly text message, and a list of job tasks in job descriptions were measured on undergraduates' ratings of the Personableness and Informativeness of recruiting web sites. In addition, the relationships between ratings of Personableness and Informativeness on perceptions of organizational Attractiveness and Intent to Apply were tested. Use of a photograph increased ratings of both Personableness and Informativeness. Additional results are provided and directions for research suggested.

  17. Effect of repulsive and attractive interactions on depletion forces in colloidal suspensions: a density functional theory treatment.

    PubMed

    Egorov, S A

    2004-09-01

    The author employs density functional theory to study colloidal interactions in solution. Hardcore Yukawa potentials with soft tails, either repulsive or attractive, are used to model colloid-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. We analyze the effect of these interactions on the solvent-mediated potential of mean force between two colloids in solution. Overall, theory is shown to be in good agreement with recent simulation data. We use the theory to study the density dependence of the colloid-colloid second virial coefficient.

  18. Making vasectomy attractive.

    PubMed

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.

  19. Oceanic signals in rapid polar motion: results from a barotropic forward model with explicit consideration of self-attraction and loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Quinn, Katherine J.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling of non-tidal variations in ocean currents and bottom pressure has played a key role in closing the excitation budget of Earth's polar motion for a wide range of periodicities. Non-negligible discrepancies between observations and model accounts of pole position changes prevail, however, on sub-monthly time scales and call for examination of hydrodynamic effects usually omitted in general circulation models. Specifically, complete hydrodynamic cores must incorporate self-attraction and loading (SAL) feedbacks on redistributed water masses, effects that produces ocean bottom pressure perturbations of typically about 10% relative to the computed mass variations. Here, we report on a benchmark simulation with a near-global, barotropic forward model forced by wind stress, atmospheric pressure, and a properly calculated SAL term. The latter is obtained by decomposing ocean mass anomalies on a 30-minute grid into spherical harmonics at each time step and applying Love numbers to account for seafloor deformation and changed gravitational attraction. The increase in computational time at each time step is on the order of 50%. Preliminary results indicate that the explicit consideration of SAL in the forward runs increases the fidelity of modeled polar motion excitations, in particular on time scales shorter than 5 days as evident from cross spectral comparisons with geodetic excitation. Definite conclusions regarding the relevance of SAL in simulating rapid polar motion are, however, still hampered by the model's incomplete domain representation that excludes parts of the highly energetic Arctic Ocean.

  20. Effects of aging and dilution on attraction and toxicity of GF-120 fruit fly bait spray for melon fly control in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Revis, Hannah C; Miller, Neil W; Vargas, Roger I

    2004-10-01

    Attractiveness and toxicity of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait (Dow AgroScience Indianapolis, IN) to melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were examined to assess the effects of concentration and aging. We tested dilutions of 20, 40, and 80 ppm (AI) (spinosad) against water controls. The 80 and 40 ppm treatments were significantly more attractive than the 20 ppm and control treatments. Attraction was compared between baits aged for 2 and 24 h, fresh bait and water controls. Age had significant effects on both attractiveness and toxicity of GF-120. Baits aged for 2 h were 11 times less attractive to female melon flies than fresh bait. Mortality rates were reduced by 50% when GF-120 was subjected to rain. Our results suggest the need for frequent applications of GF-120 to obtain maximum benefits, particularly in wet tropical climates.

  1. Effects of Number Scaling on Entangled States in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-05-19

    A summary of number structure scaling is followed by a description of the effects of number scaling in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The description extends earlier work to include the effects on the states of two or more interacting particles. Emphasis is placed on the effects on entangled states. The resulting scaling field is generalized to describe the effects on these states. It is also seen that one can use fiber bundles with fibers associated with single locations of the underlying space to describe the effects of scaling on arbitrary numbers of particles.

  2. Effective Gol'dberg number for diverging waves.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mark F

    2016-12-01

    An effective Gol'dberg number is proposed for determining the degree of nonlinear distortion achieved in a diverging wave field. For values that are large compared with unity, the degree of nonlinear waveform distortion is virtually the same as that for a plane wave characterized by the traditional Gol'dberg number having the same numerical value. Expressions for the effective Gol'dberg number are proposed for spherical and cylindrical waves, Gaussian beams, and exponential horns.

  3. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N.; Griffith, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype–phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

  4. Human Capital in Seattle Public Schools: Rethinking How to Attract, Develop and Retain Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Staffing each classroom with an effective teacher is the most important function of a school district. Doing so requires strategic personnel policies and smart practices. This analysis reviews the Seattle Public Schools' teacher policies linked most directly to teacher effectiveness. Ten policy goals frame the analysis. Each of these goals is…

  5. Effectiveness Ratings of Counselors by Coached Clients Related to Attractiveness-Fitness Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Rated normal-weight and overweight male and female counselors on perceived cognitive effectiveness, warmth and empathy, leadership qualities, and global counseling effectiveness. Although all counselors were rated as competent, both male and female counselors who were overweight were rated as less able in all areas tested. (Author)

  6. Range effect on percolation threshold and structural properties for short-range attractive spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiachen; Xu, Limei; Song, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Percolation or aggregation in colloidal system is important in many fields of science and technology. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the percolation behavior for systems consisting of spheres interacting with short-range square-well (SRSW) which mimic colloidal particles, with different interaction ranges. We specifically focus on how the interaction range affects the percolation thresholds in the supercritical region. We find that the contact percolation boundaries are strongly dependent on the interaction ranges of SRSW, especially away from the liquid-liquid critical point. However, varying the interaction ranges of SRSW does not affect much the structure along percolation boundaries especially for low packing fractions. For instance, along the percolation boundary, distributions of coordination number show convergence, and distributions of cluster size are universal for different interaction ranges considered. In addition, either the bond percolation boundaries or isolines of average bond coordination number collapse to those for Baxter sticky model on phase diagram, which confirms the extended law of corresponding states.

  7. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  8. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  9. Effective numbers in the partitioning of biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2016-11-21

    Admissible measures of diversity allow specification of the number of types (species, alleles, etc.) that are "effectively" involved in producing the diversity (the "diversity effective number", also referred to as "true diversity") of a community or population. In metacommunities, effective numbers additionally serve in partitioning the total diversity (symbolized by γ) into one component summarizing the diversity within communities (symbolized by α) and an independent component summarizing the differences between communities (symbolized by β). There is growing consensus that the β-component should be treated in terms of an effective number of "distinct" communities in the metacommunity. Yet, the notion of distinctness is shown in the present paper to remain conceptually ambiguous at least with respect to the diversity within the "distinct" communities. To overcome this ambiguity and to provide the means for designing further desirable effective numbers, a new approach is taken that involves a generalized concept of effective number. The approach relies on first specifying the distributional characteristics of partitioning diversity among communities (among which are differentiation, where the same types tend to occur in the same communities, and apportionment, where different types tend to occur in different communities), then developing the indices which measure these characteristics, and finally inferring the effective numbers from these indices. (1) The β-component reflects apportionment characteristics of metacommunity structure and is quantified by the "apportionment effective number" of communities (number of effectively monomorphic communities). Since differentiation between communities arises only as a side effect of apportionment, the common interpretation of the β-component in terms of differentiation is unwarranted. (2) Multiplicative as well as additive methods of partitioning the total type diversity (γ) involve apportionment effective numbers

  10. Beyond initial attraction: physical attractiveness in newlywed marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2008-02-01

    Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.

  11. The Attractiveness Halo Effect and the Babyface Stereotype in Older and Younger Adults: Similarities, Own-Age Accentuation, and OA Positivity Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Two well-documented phenomena in person perception are the attractiveness halo effect (more positive impressions of more attractive people), and the babyface stereotype (more childlike impressions of more babyfaced people), shown by children, young adults (YA) and people from diverse cultures. This is the first study to systematically investigate these face stereotypes in older adults (OA) and to compare effects for younger and older adult faces. Method YA and OA judges rated competence, health, hostility, untrustworthiness, attractiveness, and babyfaceness of older and younger neutral expression faces. Multilevel modeling assessed effects of rater age and face age on appearance stereotypes. Results Like YA, OA showed both the attractiveness halo effect and the babyface stereotype. However, OA showed weaker effects of attractiveness on impressions of untrustworthiness, and only OA associated higher babyfaceness with greater competence. There also was own-age accentuation, with both OA and YA showing stronger face stereotypes for faces closer to their own age. Age differences in the strength of the stereotypes reflected an OA positivity effect shown in more influence of positive facial qualities on impressions or less influence of negative ones, rather than vice versa. Conclusions OA own-age biases, previously shown in emotion, age, and identity recognition, and OA positivity effects, previously revealed in attention, memory, and social judgments, also influence age differences in the strength and content of appearance stereotypes. Future research should assess implications of these results for age-related differences in susceptibility to appearance biases that YA have shown in socially significant domains, such as judicial and personnel decisions. PMID:24785596

  12. Understanding less than nothing: neural distance effects for negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Wolford, George; Temple, Elise

    2012-08-01

    Little work has examined how the mental number system accommodates counterintuitive quantities such as negative numbers, which seem to extend the left end of the mental number line and reverse the established relationship between digit magnitude and value; even less research has been conducted on the neural systems supporting negative number understanding. This study aimed to determine whether adult behavioral and neural responses to negative number paired comparisons were similar to those expected for positive numbers. Mixed pairs (with one positive and one negative number) were also included. Negative number responses demonstrated an increased typical distance effect relative to that for positives, with decreasing response times and intraparietal sulcus activity for comparisons farther apart than those closer together. Negative pairs also showed more activity than positive comparisons across distances in the occipital lobe, inferior and superior parietal lobule, and bilateral caudate and putamen. Mixed pair effect direction varied based on polarity sensitivity, or whether attention to the negative sign was needed for accurate responses, indicating differences in processing strategy. Adults thus draw on brain areas important in numeric processing when dealing with negatives, but also recruit further areas and strategies to support the unique features of negative numbers. The increased distance effect seen may reflect a less mature understanding of negatives. This work expands our knowledge of the flexibility of the mental number system and its ability to represent difficult quantities.

  13. Electrolyte distribution around two like-charged rods: their effective attractive interaction and angular dependent charge reversal.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Angeles, Felipe; Odriozola, Gerardo; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2006-04-07

    A simple model for two like-charged parallel rods immersed in an electrolyte solution is considered. We derived the three point extension (TPE) of the hypernetted chain/mean spherical approximation (TPE-HNC/MSA) and Poisson-Boltzmann (TPE-PB) integral equations. We numerically solve these equations and compare them to our results of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The effective interaction force, F(T), the charge distribution profiles, rho(el)(x,y), and the angular dependent integrated charge function, P(theta), are calculated for this system. The analysis of F(T) is carried out in terms of the electrostatic and entropic (depletion) contributions, F(E) and F(C). We studied several cases of monovalent and divalent electrolytes, for which the ionic size and concentration are varied. We find good qualitative agreement between TPE-HNC/MSA and MC in all the cases studied. The rod-rod force is found to be attractive when immersed in large size, monovalent or divalent electrolytes. In general, the TPE-PB has poor agreement with the MC. For large monovalent and divalent electrolytes, we find angular dependent charge reversal charge inversion and polarizability. We discuss the intimate relationship between this angular dependent charge reversal and rod-rod attraction.

  14. The Effect of Camera Shot on Interpersonal Attraction for Comedy Performers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Thomas A.; Repensky, Gregory R.

    The television camera is selective in the information in conveys. Since the effect image size has on receiver behavior is important, television production texts perpetually include discussions of camera shots and refer to close-ups as providing the most information. Yet none of the surveyed research has systematically controlled and examined the…

  15. Testing the extreme value domain of attraction for distributions of beneficial fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Beisel, Craig J; Rokyta, Darin R; Wichman, Holly A; Joyce, Paul

    2007-08-01

    In modeling evolutionary genetics, it is often assumed that mutational effects are assigned according to a continuous probability distribution, and multiple distributions have been used with varying degrees of justification. For mutations with beneficial effects, the distribution currently favored is the exponential distribution, in part because it can be justified in terms of extreme value theory, since beneficial mutations should have fitnesses in the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. While the appeal to extreme value theory seems justified, the exponential distribution is but one of three possible limiting forms for tail distributions, with the other two loosely corresponding to distributions with right-truncated tails and those with heavy tails. We describe a likelihood-ratio framework for analyzing the fitness effects of beneficial mutations, focusing on testing the null hypothesis that the distribution is exponential. We also describe how to account for missing the smallest-effect mutations, which are often difficult to identify experimentally. This technique makes it possible to apply the test to gain-of-function mutations, where the ancestral genotype is unable to grow under the selective conditions. We also describe how to pool data across experiments, since we expect few possible beneficial mutations in any particular experiment.

  16. Human Capital in Boston Public Schools: Rethinking How to Attract, Develop and Retain Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Staffing each classroom with an effective teacher is the most important function of a school district. Doing so requires strategic personnel policies and smart practices. The National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ), working with its local partner, the Massachusetts Business Alliance for Education, undertook an analysis of the Boston Public…

  17. Testing Two Theoretical Explanations for the Attraction-Enhancing Effects of Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellingson, Kari Trexler; Galassi, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated differential ability of similarity theory and social exchange theory to predict the effects of self-disclosure in a counseling versus a friendship encounter (n=80 undergraduates). Participants rated the videotaped self-disclosure of an individual in an initial dyadic encounter. Unequivocal support was not obtained for either theory.…

  18. Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-10-01

    Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Self-Attraction and Loading Effect of Ocean to Understand Post-Glacial Rebound and Degree-2 Stokes Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, T.; Seo, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The sea level change arising from the variations of terrestrial water and ice storage yields spatially inhomogeneous pattern due to the self-attraction and loading (SAL) effect. We simulated the SAL effect using GRACE RL05 monthly solutions during 2003-2014 by incorporating forward modeling to correct leakage error. Monthly SAL effect was iteratively applied during forward modeling, and this hybrid scheme is essential to simulate the contribution of SAL effect particularly near the coasts where the effect is most significant. Oceanic mass redistribution predicted by sea level with the SAL effect and forward modeling was compared with that from GRACE gravity data after leakage correction. Since the degree-2 Stokes coefficients and the PGR correction are important to examine the sea level change, we used various time-varying gravity models by replacing different degree-2 coefficients (C20, C21, and S21) and PGR corrections for GRACE gravity data. Alternative coefficients are estimated from satellite laser ranging (SLR) and polar motion. The results show that both variations remarkably agree with each other when GRACE gravity data is reduced by polar motion C21 and S21 and ICE-6G PGR model (Peltier et al., 2015). This result indicates that the SAL effect is useful to examine the self-consistency of time-varying gravity models since the effect of ocean is governed by terrestrial mass variations.

  20. Lewis number and Damkohler number effects in vort ex-flame interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaniego, Jean-Michael

    1994-01-01

    A combined experimental-numerical study of the interaction of a two-dimensional vortex pair with a plane premixed laminar flame has been carried out. The selected geometry is two-dimensional in order to allow for the use of quantitative line-of-sight measurement techniques and for comparisons with two-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The experiment is used to identify possible effects of the Lewis number and of radiative heat losses, and direct numerical simulations reproducing the experimental conditions are used to investigate the role of the Lewis number, of heat losses, and of multi-step kinetics. The heat losses considered in this study are essentially radiative losses from the burnt gases and do not include conductive losses to the walls. This report presents the final results of this study of vortex-flame interactions. The main result is the creation of experimental data sets of vortex-flame interactions, which demonstrate the importance of the Lewis and Damkohler numbers to the flame and which allow for comparison with direct numerical simulations. In turn, the comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the Lewis number effects and complex chemistry play significant roles, which can be reproduced using a two-step reaction mechanism.

  1. The effect of Reynolds number on boattail drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel to determine the effects of varying Reynolds number on boattail drag at subsonic speeds. Six boattailed cone-cylinder nacelle models were tested with the jet exhaust simulated by a cylindrical sting. Reynolds number was varied from about 2.6 million to 132 million by changing model length and unit Reynolds number. Boattail pressure coefficient distributions show that increasing Reynolds number tends to make the pressure coefficients in the expansion region more negative and the pressure coefficients in the recompression region more positive. These two effects were compensating and as a result there was little or no effect of Reynolds number on the pressure drag of the isolated boattails.

  2. The strength of the template effect attracting nucleotides to naked DNA.

    PubMed

    Kervio, Eric; Claasen, Birgit; Steiner, Ulrich E; Richert, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The transmission of genetic information relies on Watson-Crick base pairing between nucleoside phosphates and template bases in template-primer complexes. Enzyme-free primer extension is the purest form of the transmission process, without any chaperon-like effect of polymerases. This simple form of copying of sequences is intimately linked to the origin of life and provides new opportunities for reading genetic information. Here, we report the dissociation constants for complexes between (deoxy)nucleotides and template-primer complexes, as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and the inhibitory effect of unactivated nucleotides on enzyme-free primer extension. Depending on the sequence context, Kd's range from 280 mM for thymidine monophosphate binding to a terminal adenine of a hairpin to 2 mM for a deoxyguanosine monophosphate binding in the interior of a sequence with a neighboring strand. Combined with rate constants for the chemical step of extension and hydrolytic inactivation, our quantitative theory explains why some enzyme-free copying reactions are incomplete while others are not. For example, for GMP binding to ribonucleic acid, inhibition is a significant factor in low-yielding reactions, whereas for amino-terminal DNA hydrolysis of monomers is critical. Our results thus provide a quantitative basis for enzyme-free copying. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. The strength of the template effect attracting nucleotides to naked DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kervio, Eric; Claasen, Birgit; Steiner, Ulrich E.; Richert, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of genetic information relies on Watson–Crick base pairing between nucleoside phosphates and template bases in template–primer complexes. Enzyme-free primer extension is the purest form of the transmission process, without any chaperon-like effect of polymerases. This simple form of copying of sequences is intimately linked to the origin of life and provides new opportunities for reading genetic information. Here, we report the dissociation constants for complexes between (deoxy)nucleotides and template–primer complexes, as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and the inhibitory effect of unactivated nucleotides on enzyme-free primer extension. Depending on the sequence context, Kd′s range from 280 mM for thymidine monophosphate binding to a terminal adenine of a hairpin to 2 mM for a deoxyguanosine monophosphate binding in the interior of a sequence with a neighboring strand. Combined with rate constants for the chemical step of extension and hydrolytic inactivation, our quantitative theory explains why some enzyme-free copying reactions are incomplete while others are not. For example, for GMP binding to ribonucleic acid, inhibition is a significant factor in low-yielding reactions, whereas for amino-terminal DNA hydrolysis of monomers is critical. Our results thus provide a quantitative basis for enzyme-free copying. PMID:24875480

  4. Effect of mercuric ion on attraction to light of artemia sp nauplii.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J P; Trieff, N M; Kalmaz, E E; Uchida, T

    1985-02-01

    Living organisms exhibit a phototactic response which can be altered by certain environmental toxic chemical species. The analysis of photobehavior can help in elucidating environmental factors that influence photomotility reactions of the organisms. A method has been developed that measures the phototactic response of Artemia nauplii under the influence of mercuric ion (Hg2+) in synthetic seawater. The phototactic response of Artemia nauplii was manifested by movement of the organisms from a darkened half to lighted half of an experimental vessel containing synthetic seawater. The density as a function of time of Artemia nauplii is determined by removing aliquots from both light and dark sides and then plating on agar for counting under the dissecting microscope. Measurements consistently show a significant movement of nauplii to the lighted side within 45 min of the start of the experiments. The present investigation demonstrated that at concentrations as low as 0.010 mg HgCl2/liter there is an enhancement of phototactic effect on Artemia nauplii by mercuric ion as compared with control. The phototactic response of Artema nauplii is altered by mercuric ion in a dose-related manner, but the mechanism of this effect is presently unknown.

  5. The Effects of Attractiveness and Source Expertise on Online Health Sites.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wan S; Chung, Mun-Young; Rhee, E Soo

    2017-06-01

    The surface characteristics (presentational or design elements) of online content have been the focus of a growing body of credibility literature in recent decades. However, since the online health information communities such as WebMD do not provide any design options when writing comments on the original post, how the simplistic presentational of comments (e.g., spacing, bullet-points, labeling, and line breaks) can affect web users' responses was examined. Our study found that minimal variations in the presentation of online contents can influence assessments of their credibility and behavioral intentions. In addition, the current study revealed interaction effects between surface characteristics and source expertise. Other findings and implications are discussed.

  6. Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles D.; And Others

    The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face…

  7. [INVITED] Self-induced polarization tracking, tunneling effect and modal attraction in optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasoni, M.; Morin, P.; Bony, P.-Y.; Wabnitz, S.; Fatome, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report the observation and exploitation of the capability of light to self-organize its state-of-polarization, upon propagation in optical fibers, by means of a device called Omnipolarizer. The principle of operation of this system consists in a counter-propagating four-wave mixing interaction between an incident signal and its backward replica generated at the fiber output thanks to a reflective fiber loop. We have exploited this self-induced polarization tracking phenomenon for all-optical data processing and successfully demonstrated the spontaneous repolarization of a 40-Gbit/s On-Off keying optical signal without noticeable impairments. Moreover, the strong local coupling between the two counter-propagating waves has also revealed a fascinating aspect of the Omnipolarizer called polarization-based tunneling effect. This intrinsic property enables us to instantaneously let "jump" a polarization information onto the reflected signal, long before the expected time-of-flight induced by the round-trip along the fiber span. Finally, we discuss how the concept of self-organization could be generalized to multimode fibers, which paves the way to new important applications in the framework of spatial-mode-multiplexing.

  8. An exploratory study of the effects of teacher attractiveness on undergraduates' perceptions of teacher-student sexual involvement.

    PubMed

    Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B; Wilson, Amy K; Finch, Lanjericha V; Scruggs, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether the attractiveness of a teacher affected perceptions of teacher sexual misconduct. Respondents (120 female and 108 male undergraduates) read scenarios depicting teacher sexual misconduct varied by gender dyad (male teacher-female student and female teacher-male student) and two levels of attractiveness (very attractive or ordinary looking). The attractiveness of the teacher had little impact on respondents' perceptions. Significant interactions emerged on most variables between respondent gender and gender dyad. Specifically, male respondents tended to view the female teacher-male student dyad as less negative than the male teacher-female student dyad. Female respondents generally did not make a distinction based on the gender dyad.

  9. A CO2-Free Synthetic Host-Odor Mixture That Attracts and Captures Triatomines: Effect of Emitted Odorant Ratios.

    PubMed

    Guidobaldi, F; Guerenstein, P G

    2016-07-01

    Triatomines, vectors of Chagas Disease, are hematophagous insects. Efforts have been made to develop synthetic attractants based on vertebrate odor-to lure them into traps. However, because those lures are not practical or have low capture efficiency, they are not in use in control programs. Therefore, more work is needed to reach a practical and efficient odor lure. Recently, a three-component, CO2-free, synthetic blend of vertebrate odor (consisting of ammonia, l-(+)-lactic acid, and hexanoic acid), known as Sweetscent (Biogents AG, Regensburg, Germany), was shown to attract and capture triatomines in the laboratory. In this study, using a trap olfactometer and an odor blend with constituents similar to those of Sweetscent (delivered from low-density polyethylene sachets) we found that the odorant ratios of the mixtures have a strong effect in the capture of triatomines. The blend with the most efficient combination of odorant ratios evoked ca. 81% capture in two relevant triatomine species. In the case of the most effective odor mixtures, we measured the odor mass emission for the three components of the mixture and therefore were able to estimate the odorant ratios emitted that were responsible for such a high capture performance. Thus, in those mixtures, pentanoic acid was the main component (ca. 65 %) followed by ammonia (ca. 28%) and, l(+)-lactic acid (ca. 7 %). Our results are encouraging as efficient, practical, and cheap odor baits to trap triatomines in the field would be within reach. The odor-delivery system used should be improved to increase stability of odor emission.

  10. Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) to effectively control malaria vectors in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Traore, Sekou F; Traore, Mohamed M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Xue, Rui-De; Beier, John C

    2015-08-05

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) solutions containing any gut toxins can be either sprayed on plants or used in simple bait stations to attract and kill sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This field study in Mali demonstrates the effect of ATSB bait stations inside houses as a vector control method that targets and kills endophilic African malaria vectors. The studies were conducted in five villages located near the River Niger, Mali. Baseline village-wide assessments of densities for female and male Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were performed by pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in ten houses in each of five villages. To determine the rate of mosquito feeding on bait stations, one bait station per house containing attractive sugar bait (ASB) (without toxin) plus a food dye marker, was set up in ten houses in each of the five villages. PSC collections were conducted on the following day and the percentage of female and male mosquitoes that had fed was determined by visual inspection for the dye marker. Then, a 50-day field trial was done. In an experimental village, one bait station containing ATSB (1% boric acid active ingredient) was placed per bedroom (58 bedrooms), and indoor densities of female and male An. gambiae s.l. were subsequently determined by PSC, and female mosquitoes were age graded. In the five villages, the percentages of An. gambiae s.l. feeding inside houses on the non-toxic bait stations ranged from 28.3 to 53.1% for females and 36.9 to 78.3% for males. Following ATSB indoor bait station presentation, there was a significant reduction, 90% in female and 93% in male populations, of An. gambiae s.l. at the experimental village. A 3.8-fold decrease in the proportion of females that had undergone four or more gonotrophic cycles was recorded at the experimental village, compared to a 1.2-fold increase at the control village. The field trial demonstrates that An. gambiae s.l. feed readily from ATSB bait stations situated indoors, leading to

  11. The effect of esthetic crown lengthening on perceptions of a patient's attractiveness, friendliness, trustworthiness, intelligence, and self-confidence.

    PubMed

    Malkinson, Sam; Waldrop, Thomas C; Gunsolley, John C; Lanning, Sharon K; Sabatini, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Smile esthetics have been shown to play a major role in the perception of whether a person is attractive, and whether they are perceived as friendly, trustworthy, intelligent, and self-confident. A proposed major determinant of the esthetics of a smile is the amount of gingival display, which can be excessive in cases of altered passive eruption. The aim of this study is to see whether altering the amount of gingival display of patients would affect dental professionals' and laypersons' perceptions of the aforementioned social parameters. Patients were identified as having altered passive eruption and excessive gingival display. Smiling "control" photographs were taken and then digitally altered so as to lengthen the teeth and thus reduce the amount of gingival display. These became the "test" photographs. The control and test photographs were shown in random order. The control group of evaluators consisted of senior dental students, and the test group of evaluators comprised students who had no formal dental training. Groups were asked to rate, on a visual analog scale, each picture's attractiveness, friendliness, trustworthiness, intelligence, and self-confidence. The test pictures with less gingival display were consistently and statistically significantly rated higher for all five social parameters than were their control counterparts (P <0.0001). When analyzed as an isolated effect, there were no statistically significant differences between the control group and the test group of evaluators when rating the pictures. Pictures depicting African Americans were judged to be more trustworthy (P = 0.0467) and self-confident (P = 0.0490) than pictures depicting white individuals. Pictures depicting women were judged to be more trustworthy (P = 0.0159) and intelligent (P = 0.0329) than pictures depicting men. All the social parameters were positively and statistically significantly correlated with each other (P <0.0001). Excessive gingival display did negatively

  12. Like-charge attraction of molecular cations in water: subtle balance between interionic interactions and ionic solvation effect.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taichi; Aono, Shinji; Nakano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2014-05-22

    Despite strong electrostatic repulsion, like-charged ions in aqueous solution can effectively attract each other via ion-water interactions. In this paper we investigate such an effective interaction of like-charged ions in water by using the 3D-RISM-SCF method (i.e., electronic structure theory combined with three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular solvents). Free energy profiles are calculated at the CCSD(T) level for a series of molecular ions including guanidinium (Gdm(+)), alkyl-substituted ammonium, and aromatic amine cations. Polarizable continuum model (PCM) and mean-field QM/MM free energy calculations are also performed for comparison. The results show that the stability of like-charged ion pairs in aqueous solution is determined by a very subtle balance between interionic interactions (including dispersion and π-stacking interactions) and ionic solvation/hydrophobic effects and that the Gdm(+) ion has a rather favorable character for like-charge association among all the cations studied. Furthermore, we investigate the like-charge pairing in Arg-Ala-Arg and Lys-Ala-Lys tripeptides in water and show that the Arg-Arg pair has a contact free-energy minimum of about -6 kcal/mol. This result indicates that arginine pairing observed on protein surfaces and interfaces is stabilized considerably by solvation effects.

  13. The Effects of Attitude Similarity and Utility on Liking for a Stranger: Measurement of Attraction with the IJS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesler, Mitchell S.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that attraction to a stranger is a function of the proportion of similar attitudes reported by that stranger. Traditional theories of attraction do not usually differentiate between respect or esteem for another and liking. This study used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test the hypothesis that the desire to work with…

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Teacher Attractiveness on Undergraduates' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Sexual Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.; Wilson, Amy K.; Finch, Lanjericha V.; Scruggs, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether the attractiveness of a teacher affected perceptions of teacher sexual misconduct. Respondents (120 female and 108 male undergraduates) read scenarios depicting teacher sexual misconduct varied by gender dyad (male teacher-female student and female teacher-male student) and two levels of attractiveness (very attractive…

  15. Are Brazil Nuts Attractive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Duncan A.; Swift, Michael R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.

  16. Carbon dioxide and 1-octen-3-ol as mosquito attractants.

    PubMed

    Takken, W; Kline, D L

    1989-09-01

    Interval suction traps were used to study the attractant effect of CO2 and 1-octen-3-ol on trap catches of mosquito populations at 2 different locations in Florida. There was no significant increase in the numbers of mosquitoes caught when the concentration of CO2 was increased from 200 to 1,000 cc/min. One-octen-3-ol used by itself attracted mosquitoes in numbers similar to CO2 released at 200 cc/min. One-octen-3-ol and CO2 acted synergistically in attracting significantly greater numbers of Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles spp. and Wyeomyia mitchellii than either bait used singly, although the response of Culex spp. to this bait combination was less pronounced. Ceratopogonidae (Culicoides furens) and Tabanidae (Diachlorus ferrugatus, Tabanus nigrovittatus and Chrysops spp.) were also attracted to the combined bait.

  17. Reynolds Number Effects on the Performance of Lateral Control Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of Reynolds number on the performance of outboard spoilers and ailerons was investigated on a generic subsonic transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility over a chord Reynolds number range 41 from 3x10(exp 6) to 30xl0(exp 6) and a Mach number range from 0.50 to 0.94, Spoiler deflection angles of 0, 10, 15, and 20 deg and aileron deflection angles of -10, 0, and 10 deg were tested. Aeroelastic effects were minimized by testing at constant normalized dynamic pressure conditions over intermediate Reynolds number ranges. Results indicated that the increment in rolling moment due to spoiler deflection generally becomes more negative as the Reynolds number increases from 3x10(exp 6) to 22x10(exp 6) with only small changes between Reynolds numbers of 22x10(exp 6) and 30x10(exp 6). The change in the increment in rolling moment coefficient with Reynolds number for the aileron deflected configuration is generally small with a general trend of increasing magnitude with increasing Reynolds number.

  18. Effects of Rotation on a Large Rayleigh Number Bridgman Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, M. R.

    1998-11-01

    It is known that rotating a Bridgman furnace in a centrifuge improves the crystal quality at large Rayleigh number(W.Weber, G. Neumann & G. Mddot u)ller, J. Crys. Growth 100, 145 (1990). Here we determine improvements achieved by rotating the ampoule about its vertical axis. We know that, in the absence of rotation, if the Rayleigh number, Ra, is large and Biot number is small, much larger solutal variations in the crystal are produced by azimuthal variations in the side-wall heating than from the axisymmetric component. However, at moderately large Taylor numbers, the first effects are to reduce the helical variation in solute concentration by inhibiting vertical motion in the melt, and so for Taylor numbers larger than O(Ra^1/6), the melt convection due to axisymmetric heating produces the larger solutal variation than that from azimuthal variations. As the Taylor number increases, the helical component of material segregation continues to decline in magnitude. However, in spite of changes in the interfacial boundary layer for Taylor numbers of order Ra^1/3 and larger, the outer flow/boundary layer coupling is unaltered for axisymmetry. It is not until the Taylor number is O(Ra^1/2) that the axisymmetric flow undergoes a change sufficiently dramatic to allow significant reduction in the material segregation from the zero-rotation case.

  19. Effects of non-unity Lewis numbers in diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linan, A.; Orlandi, P.; Verzicco, R.; Higuera, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to carry out direct numerical simulations of diffusion controlled combustion with non-unity Lewis numbers for the reactants and products, thus accounting for the differential diffusion effects of the temperature and concentration fields. We use a formulation based on combining the conservation equations in a way to eliminate the reaction terms similar to the method used by Burke and Schumann (1928) for unity Lewis numbers. We present calculations for an axisymmetric fuel jet and for a planar, time evolving mixing layer, leaving out the effects of thermal expansion and variations of the transport coefficients due to the heat release. Our results show that the front of the flame shifts toward the fuel or oxygen sides owing to the effect of the differential diffusion and that the location of maximum temperature may not coincide with the flame. The dependence of the distribution of the reaction products on their Lewis number has been investigated.

  20. Environmental Esthetics and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, James T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine the effects of visual environmental esthetics on interpersonal attraction and concludes that visual esthetics influence participants' perspectives of their partners in live interpersonal communication settings. (MH)

  1. Effective boson number calculations in Mo and Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cata, G.; Bucurescu, D.; Cutoiu, D.; Ivaşcu, M.; Zamfir, N. V.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of the neutron-proton interaction on the low-lying levels of Mo and Cd isotopes have been considered in the frame of the IBA-1 model by taking into account an effective boson number ( N eff). Both an empirical procedure based on previous IBA-2 mixing calculations and the N p N n scheme provide comparable N eff values. Level spectra and electromagnetic transitions are investigated. The results support the idea that IBA-1 calculations with a suitable N eff can largely simulate IBA-2 mixing calculations, taking advantage of simplicity and a smaller number of parameters.

  2. Zooming in and out from the Mental Number Line: Evidence for a Number Range Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Michal; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The representation of numbers is commonly viewed as an ordered continuum of magnitudes, referred to as the "mental number line." Previous work has repeatedly shown that number representations evoked by a given task can be easily altered, yielding an ongoing discussion about the basic properties of the mental number line and how malleable…

  3. Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Transonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahls, R. N.; Owens, L. R.; Rivers, S. M. B.

    2001-01-01

    A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and the high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at low speed high-lift and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on both the Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.90 for a configuration without an empennage.

  4. Effects of simulated approval-seeking and avoiding on self-disclosure, self-presentation, and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, R J; Hicks, R A; Meyers-Winton, S

    1978-03-01

    Forty-eight undergraduate women assigned an approval-seeking or approval-avoiding role disclosed significantly more to a male listener (C) than did control Ss given no particular set, with no difference found between seeking and avoiding conditions in intimacy of disclosure. But content analyses indicated that approval-seeking Ss presented themselves significantly more positively, and approval-avoiding Ss significantly more negatively than did controls. These data supported the hypothesis that disclosure may serve as an instrumental affiliative act associated with both interpersonal approach and avoidance motives. The hypothesis that simulated attraction facilitates actual attraction was supported more clearly in analyses of Ss' liking ratings of C than in Ss' ratings of C's attractiveness or desirability as a dating partner. The latter findings are discussed in terms of intimacy implications of the attraction measures used.

  5. Clustering Effect on the Number Count of Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, K.

    1992-08-01

    We have tested the cosmological model of Ω0 = 1 and Λ = 0 against the faint galaxy number count taking the clustering effect of galaxies into account. The evolution of the large scale structure is simulated numerically by means of the particle mesh method in three dimensional space. We use 643 particles and the same number of mesh cells. We have found that the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model without the cosmological constant does not explain the excess of the number count observed by Tyson even if the clustering effect is taken into account, provided the cluster size and the correlation length among clusters are less than the simulation box size of 128 h-1 Mpc. The clustering on scales larger than 128 h-1 Mpc is also considered.

  6. Synergistic effect of ethanol to a-pinene in primart attraction of the larger pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda

    Treesearch

    Dariusz Czokajlo; Stephen A. Teale

    1999-01-01

    a-Pinene and ethanol were released in the approximate proportions 1:0.1, 1:0.9 and 1:9 (at 21oC). Ethanol, released in the range of 3-279 mg/day, generally synergized the attraction of T. piniperda to a-pinene(30 mg/day at 21oC), although attraction to the mixtures...

  7. Increasing the Effective Number of Neutrinos with Decaying Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Senami, Masato; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2007-11-20

    We present a model of decaying particles to increase the effective number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} after big bang nucleosynthesis but before the structure formation begins. We point out that our scenario solves the discrepancy between the constraints on N{sub {nu}} from these two epochs, As an example, we consider saxion decay into two axions.

  8. Repellent and Attractive Effects of α-, β-, and Dihydro-β- Ionone to Generalist and Specialist Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, L A; Lakshminarayan, S; Yeung, K K-C; McGarvey, B D; Hannoufa, A; Sumarah, M W; Benitez, X; Scott, I M

    2016-02-01

    In plants, the oxidative cleavage of carotenoid substrates produces volatile apocarotenoids, including α-ionone, β-ionone, and dihydro-β-ionone, compounds that are important in herbivore-plant communication. For example, β-ionone is part of an induced defense in canola, Brassica napus, and is released following wounding by herbivores. The objectives of the research were to evaluate whether these volatile compounds would: 1) be released in higher quantities from plants through the over-expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 (CCD1) gene and 2) cause herbivores to be repelled or attracted to over-expressing plants relative to the wild-type. In vivo dynamic headspace collection of volatiles coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (L.) over-expressing the AtCCD1 gene. The analytical method allowed the detection of β-ionone in the Arabidopsis headspace where emission rates ranged between 2 and 5-fold higher compared to the wild type, thus corroborating the in vivo enhancement of gene expression. A two chamber choice test between wild type and AtCCD1 plants revealed that crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults were repelled by the AtCCD1 plants with the highest transcription and β-ionone levels. α-Ionone and dihydro-β-ionone were not found in the headspace analysis, but solutions of the three compounds were tested in the concentration range of β-ionone found in the Arabidopsis headspace (0.05 to 0.5 ng/μl) in order to assess their biological activity with crucifer flea beetle, two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and silverleaf whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Choice bioassays demonstrated that β-ionone has a strong repellent effect toward both the flea beetle and the spider mite, and significant oviposition deterrence to whiteflies. In contrast, dihydro-β-ionone had attractant

  9. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  10. Web-based recruitment: effects of information, organizational brand, and attitudes toward a Web site on applicant attraction.

    PubMed

    Allen, David G; Mahto, Raj V; Otondo, Robert F

    2007-11-01

    Recruitment theory and research show that objective characteristics, subjective considerations, and critical contact send signals to prospective applicants about the organization and available opportunities. In the generating applicants phase of recruitment, critical contact may consist largely of interactions with recruitment sources (e.g., newspaper ads, job fairs, organization Web sites); however, research has yet to fully address how all 3 types of signaling mechanisms influence early job pursuit decisions in the context of organizational recruitment Web sites. Results based on data from 814 student participants searching actual organization Web sites support and extend signaling and brand equity theories by showing that job information (directly) and organization information (indirectly) are related to intentions to pursue employment when a priori perceptions of image are controlled. A priori organization image is related to pursuit intentions when subsequent information search is controlled, but organization familiarity is not, and attitudes about a recruitment source also influence attraction and partially mediate the effects of organization information. Theoretical and practical implications for recruitment are discussed.

  11. Small scale turbulence and the finite Reynolds number effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonia, R. A.; Djenidi, L.; Danaila, L.; Tang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Failure to recognize the importance of the finite Reynolds number effect on small scale turbulence has, by and large, resulted in misguided assessments of the first two hypotheses of Kolmogorov ["Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 299-303 (1941)] or K41 as well as his third hypothesis [A. N. Kolmogorov, "A refinement of previous hypotheses concerning the local structure of turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid at high Reynolds number," J. Fluid Mech. 13, 82-85 (1962)] or K62. As formulated by Kolmogorov, all three hypotheses require local isotropy to be valid and the Reynolds number to be very large. In the context of the first hypothesis, there is now strong evidence to suggest that this requirement can be significantly relaxed, at least for dissipative scales and relatively low order moments of the velocity structure function. As the scale increases, the effect of the large scale motion on these moments becomes more prominent and higher Reynolds numbers are needed before K41 and K62 can be tested unambiguously.

  12. What Is the Relationship between the Age of the Audience and the Effectiveness of Marketing Techniques in Attracting Students to a Community College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Carol A.

    A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to investigate the relationship between the age of the audience and the effectiveness of marketing techniques in attracting students to the college. The study focused on how and why community colleges market themselves, and why some techniques were more effective than others for…

  13. [Effect of impeller vane number and angles on pump hemolysis].

    PubMed

    Qian, Kunxi; Feng, Zhigang; Zeng, Pei; Ru, Weimin; Yuan, Haiyu

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of impeller design on pump hemolysis, five impellers with different number of vanes or different vane angles were manufactured and tested in one pump for hemolysis comparison. The impellers are made to have the same dimension and same logarithmic spiral vane from which coincide with the stream surfaces in the pump, according to the analytical and three-dimensional design method developed by the authors. Consequently, an impeller with 6 vanes and 30 degrees vane angle has the lowest hemolysis index. This result agrees with the theoretical analyses of other investigators searching optimal number of vanes and vane angle to achieve the highest efficiency of the pump.

  14. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  15. Effects of Lewis Number on Temperatures of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa, K. J.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. I.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical diffusion flames supported on a porous sphere were studied numerically and experimentally. Experiments were performed in 2.2 s and 5.2 s microgravity facilities. Numerical results were obtained from a Chemkin-based program. The program simulates flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, yields both steady-state and transient results, and accounts for optically thick gas-phase radiation. The low flow velocities and long residence times in these diffusion flames lead to enhanced radiative and diffusive effects. Despite similar adiabatic flame temperatures, the measured and predicted temperatures varied by as much as 700 K. The temperature reduction correlates with flame size but characteristic flow times and, importantly, Lewis number also influence temperature. The numerical results show that the ambient gas Lewis number would have a strong effect on flame temperature if the flames were steady and nonradiating. For example, a 10% decrease in Lewis number would increase the steady-state flame temperature by 200 K. However, for these transient, radiating flames the effect of Lewis number is small. Transient predictions of flame sizes are larger than those observed in microgravity experiments. Close agreement could not be obtained without either increasing the model s thermal and mass diffusion properties by 30% or reducing mass flow rate by 25%.

  16. Mach Number Effects on Turbine Blade Transition Length Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Simon, F. F.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a Mach number correction on a model for predicting the length of transition was investigated. The transition length decreases as the turbulent spot production rate increases. Much of the data for predicting the spot production rate comes from low speed flow experiments. Recent data and analysis showed that the spot production rate is affected by Mach number. The degree of agreement between analysis and data for turbine blade heat transfer without film cooling is strongly dependent of accurately predicting the length of transition. Consequently, turbine blade heat transfer data sets were used to validate a transition length turbulence model. A method for modifying models for the length of transition to account for Mach number effects is presented. The modification was made to two transition length models. The modified models were incorporated into the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, RVCQ3D. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured midspan surface heat transfer for stator and rotor turbine blades. The results showed that accounting for Mach number effects significantly improved the agreement with the experimental data.

  17. High Prandtl number effect on Rayleigh-Bénard convection heat transfer at high Rayleigh number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li; Li, Jing; Ji, Shui; Chang, Huajian

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents results of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection heat transfer in silicon oil confined by two horizontal plates, heated from below, and cooled from above. The Prandtl numbers considered as 100-10,000 corresponding to three types of silicon oil. The experiments covered a range of Rayleigh numbers from 2.14·109 to 2.27·1013. The data points that the Nusselt number dependents on the Rayleigh number, which is asymptotic to a 0.248 power. Furthermore, the experiment results can fit the data in low Rayleigh number well.

  18. Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

    2014-08-01

    According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles θ ≃ 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (θ = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range θadh < θ < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle θadh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < θadh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

  19. Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material

    PubMed Central

    Kaginelli, S. B.; Rajeshwari, T.; Sharanabasappa; Kerur, B. R.; Kumar, Anil S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl) detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates). The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes. PMID:20098566

  20. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Spencer A.; Warrier, Sangeeta

    2016-03-15

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.

  1. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spencer A; Warrier, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.

  2. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  3. Subsonic Reynolds Number Effects on a Diamond Wing Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Ghee, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced diamond-wing configuration was tested at low speeds in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in air at chord Reynolds numbers from 4.4 million (typical wind-tunnel conditions) to 24 million (nominal flight value). Extensive variations on high-lift rigging were explored as part of a broad multinational program. The analysis for this study is focused on the cruise and landing settings of the wing high-lift systems. Three flow domains were identified from the data and provide a context for the ensuing data analysis. Reynolds number effects were examined in incremental form based upon attached-flow theory. A similar approach showed very little effect of low-speed compressibility.

  4. Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen; Verlaan, Martin; Zijl, Firmijn; Le Coz, Camille; Kernkamp, Herman

    2017-06-01

    The impact of the self-attraction and loading effect (SAL) in a regional 2D barotropic tidal model has been assessed, a term with acknowledged and well-understood importance for global models but omitted for boundary-forced, regional models, for which the implementation of SAL is non-trivial due to its non-local nature. In order to understand the impact of the lack of SAL effects in a regional scale, we have forced a regional model of the Northwest European Continental Shelf and the North Sea (continental shelf model (CSM)) with the SAL potential field derived from a global model (GTSM), in the form of a pressure field. Impacts have been studied in an uncalibrated setup and with only tidal forcing activated, in order to isolate effects. Additionally, the usually adopted simple SAL parameterization, in which the SAL contribution to the total tide is parameterized as a percentage of the barotropic pressure gradient (typically chosen 10%), is also implemented and compared to the results obtained with a full SAL computation. A significant impact on M2 representation is observed in the English Channel, Irish Sea and the west (UK East coast) and south (Belgian and Dutch Coast) of the North Sea, with an impact of up to 20 cm in vector difference terms. The impact of SAL translates into a consistent M2 amplitude and propagation speeds reduction throughout the domain. Results using the beta approximation, with an optimal domain-wide constant value of 1.5%, show a somewhat comparable impact in phase but opposite direction of the impact in amplitude, increasing amplitudes everywhere. In relative terms, both implementations lead to a reduction of the tidal representation error in comparison with the reference run without SAL, with the full SAL approach showing further impacted, improved results. Although the overprediction of tidal amplitudes and propagation speeds in the reference run might have additional sources like the lack of additional dissipative processes and non

  5. Living with the past: nutritional stress in juvenile males has immediate effects on their plumage ornaments and on adult attractiveness in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Marc; Nemitz, Andrea

    2007-09-19

    The environmental conditions individuals experience during early development are well known to have fundamental effects on a variety of fitness-relevant traits. Although it is evident that the earliest developmental stages have large effects on fitness, other developmental stages, such as the period when secondary sexual characters develop, might also exert a profound effect on fitness components. Here we show experimentally in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, that nutritional conditions during this later period have immediate effects on male plumage ornaments and on their attractiveness as adults. Males that had received high quality food during the second month of life, a period when secondary sexual characteristics develop, were significantly more attractive as adults in mate choice tests than siblings supplied with standard food during this period. Preferred males that had experienced better nutritional conditions had larger orange cheek patches when nutritional treatments ended than did unpreferred males. Sexual plumage ornaments of young males thus are honest indicators of nutritional conditions during this period. The mate choice tests with adult birds indicate that nutritional conditions during the period of song learning, brain and gonad development, and moult into adult plumage have persisting effects on male attractiveness. This suggests that the developmental period following nutritional dependence from the parents is just as important in affecting adult attractiveness as are much earlier developmental periods. These findings thus contribute to understanding the origin and consequences of environmentally determined fitness components.

  6. Asymmetric dark matter and effective number of neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Kurosawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of the MeV-scale asymmetric dark matter annihilation on the effective number of neutrinos Neff at the epoch of the big bang nucleosynthesis. If the asymmetric dark matter χ couples more strongly to the neutrinos ν than to the photons γ and electrons e-, Γχ γ ,χ e≪Γχ ν , or Γχ γ ,χ e≫Γχ ν, the lower mass limit on the asymmetric dark matter is about 18 MeV for Neff≃3.0 .

  7. Fractional Josephson effect in number-conserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng; Lutchyn, Roman

    2015-10-01

    We study the fractional Josephson effect in a particle-number-conserving system consisting of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor coupled to a nanowire or an edge carrying e /m fractional charge excitations with m being an odd integer. We show that, due to the topological ground-state degeneracy in the system, the periodicity of the supercurrent on magnetic flux through the superconducting loop is nontrivial, which provides a possibility to detect topological phases of matter by the dc supercurrent measurement. Using a microscopic model for the nanowire and quasi-one-dimensional superconductor, we derived an effective low-energy theory for the system which takes into account effects of quantum phase fluctuations. We discuss the stability of the fractional Josephson effect with respect to the quantum phase slips in a mesoscopic superconducting ring with a finite charging energy.

  8. Number representation: a question of look? The distance effect in comparison of English and Turkish number words.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Sarah; Krinzinger, Helga; Koch, Iring; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Cohen Kadosh found that Hebrew number words and Arabic digits elicited different distance effects. The numerical distance effect (i.e., faster reaction times and smaller error rates for numbers with larger distance to a standard number, e.g., 5) was smaller for number words than for digits. The author suggested that the result indicated a notation-dependent (i.e., nonabstract) numerical representation. Alternatively, however, it is possible that the distance effect was decreased by perceptual features of the Hebrew number words used as stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we replicated the study of Cohen Kadosh, but with English and Turkish number words compared to Arabic digits. The perceptual features of Turkish number words lead to the hypothesis that the opposite effect should be present: an increased distance effect for number words compared to Arabic digits. On the other hand, English number words show features similar to those of Hebrew number words, thus leading to the expectation of a decreased distance effect for them. Our results confirmed our hypotheses. We conclude that the distance effect can be influenced also by perceptual features in addition to the impact of numerical representations.

  9. The Beauty of Counseling: Effects of Counselor Physical Attractiveness and Self-Disclosure on Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Salzbach, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated influences of physical attractiveness and self-disclosures of nonprofessional counselors in initial counseling interviews. College females saw audiotaped interviews in which an unidentified male counselor revealed no self-information or expressed demographic or personal similarity self-disclosures. Nondisclosing, unattractive…

  10. (Psychological) Distance Makes the Heart Grow Fonder: Effects of Psychological Distance and Relative Intelligence on Men's Attraction to Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Eastwick, Paul W

    2015-11-01

    Interpersonal attraction may be shaped by (a) one's psychological distance from a target (the subjective experience that a target is close to or far from the self) and (b) the perceived standing of a target on a trait relative to the self (as better or worse than the self). We propose that when evaluating a psychologically distant target, individuals may rely on abstract schemas (e.g., the desirability of a partner's traits) and prefer targets who possess more (vs. less) desirable qualities than themselves. However, when evaluating psychologically near targets, concrete contextual details of the environment (e.g., how a target's behavior affects self-evaluations in the moment) may determine individuals' attraction toward targets. Six studies revealed that when evaluating psychologically distant targets, men showed greater attraction toward women who displayed more (vs. less) intelligence than themselves. In contrast, when targets were psychologically near, men showed less attraction toward women who outsmarted them. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Attraction of agrilus planipennis fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to a volatile pheromone: effects of release rate, host volatile and trap placement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attraction of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to a volatile pheromone was demonstrated in three field experiments using baited green sticky traps. A dose-response curve was generated for male A. planipennis to increasing release rates of (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide, (3Z)-lactone, in com...

  12. Effect of chemical ratios of a microbial-based feeding attractant on trap catch of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (SWD) can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin and methionol. Using that 4-component blend, we found that the catch of SWD increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0...

  13. Effect of verbenone on attraction of predatory and woodboring beetles (Coleoptera) to kairomones in Lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    B. Staffan Lindgren; Daniel R. Miller

    2002-01-01

    The response of bark beetle predators and woodboring beetles to the bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, verbenone, was tested in the field with multiple-funnel traps baited with attractant kairomones. Catches of the predators Thanasimus undatulus (Say), Enoclerus sphegeus (F.), Enocleris lecontei (Wolcott) (...

  14. The Differential Effect of Skin Color on Attractiveness, Personality Evaluations, and Perceived Life Success of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, T. Joel; Bielitz, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Skin color in relation to perceived attractiveness, personality ratings, and perceived life success of African Americans was investigated in a 2 (sex of participant) 2 (skin color of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design. Based on prior research, Skin Color Sex of Stimulus Person and Sex of Participant Skin Color interactions were…

  15. The Differential Effect of Skin Color on Attractiveness, Personality Evaluations, and Perceived Life Success of African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, T. Joel; Bielitz, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Skin color in relation to perceived attractiveness, personality ratings, and perceived life success of African Americans was investigated in a 2 (sex of participant) 2 (skin color of stimulus person) 2 (sex of stimulus person) design. Based on prior research, Skin Color Sex of Stimulus Person and Sex of Participant Skin Color interactions were…

  16. The Beauty of Counseling: Effects of Counselor Physical Attractiveness and Self-Disclosure on Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Salzbach, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated influences of physical attractiveness and self-disclosures of nonprofessional counselors in initial counseling interviews. College females saw audiotaped interviews in which an unidentified male counselor revealed no self-information or expressed demographic or personal similarity self-disclosures. Nondisclosing, unattractive…

  17. The effect of collision, Stokes and Reynolds numbers on turbophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Migration of inertial particles toward solid boundaries in turbulent flows is known as turbophoresis. In this study, we investigate the effect of various parameters on turbophoresis through direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow laden with Lagrangian point-particles. We consider a flow of air in a square duct at a bulk Reynolds number of 5,000 to 20,000 dispersed with nickel particles ranging in size from 4 to 16 micron in diameter. We examine the effect of the Stokes and Reynolds numbers on the near-wall particle concentration and its relationship to the turbophoretic velocity. Our results are consistent with the previously published results pertaining to the saturation of the turbophoretic velocity for Stokes numbers larger than 10. Adopting a hard sphere collision model, we examine the role of collisions on the near wall concentration and demonstrate the sensitivity of the results to the restitution coefficient. Our findings show that while reducing the restitution coefficient leads to a higher degree of turbophoresis; collision can decrease the near wall concentration by orders of magnitude for a global particle volume fraction of O (10-5) . This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program 2 (PSAAP2) at Stanford University.

  18. Schistosoma mansoni: assessment of effects of oleic acid, cercarial age and water temperature on parasite-host attraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L; Sterling, Charles R; Lutz, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Although the lifecycle of Schistosoma spp. and pathophysiology of schistosomiasis have been established, the mechanism by which cercariae find their host is not well understood. Speculatively, host infection by random and accidental host contact is not as biologically plausible as a biochemical mechanism of mammalian attraction. A few studies have indicated that biochemical cues and temperature gradients may play a role in host identification, attraction and attachment triggers. This study aimed to elucidate these mechanisms more specifically through evaluation of biochemical, age and temperature influences leading to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attraction and attachment behaviors. Oleic acid, a common unsaturated free fatty acid in the outer layer of human skin, was tested for cercariae attraction across biologically relevant concentrations. Influence of media type (beeswax, nail varnish and agar), age-dependent behavior variability and environmentally appropriate temperatures (22 and 30 °C) were also evaluated. Results indicated that oleic acid at concentrations of 0.3, 0.9 and 1.8 g/mL in beeswax significantly increased median attachment to media (median attachment of 7.50%, 4.20% and 3.71%, respectively, P<0.001), compared with plain beeswax, with maximal attachment of 30.30% at 0.3g/mL of oleic acid. In media containing 0.3 g/mL of oleic acid, cercarial attachment was highest for freshly emerged cercariae to 5h post-emergence, with a significant decrease in attachment behavior at 10h post-emergence (P<0.01). Aquatic temperature at which cercariae were exposed to media did not yield significant results (P value >0.05). Biochemical, age and environmental factors influencing cercarial host attraction and attachment behavior have been elucidated by this study. This information will inform further development of devices for environmental surveillance and potentially improve cercarial exposure prevention strategies.

  19. [Sexual attraction: its dimensionality].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María Angeles; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a new Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ) [Cuestionario de Atracción Sexual, CAS]. The goal was to determine whether sexual attraction could be represented as two different clusters (Attraction to men and Attraction to women), which would imply two negatively correlated factors or a bipolar one. Three studies were carried out with 182, 118, and 425 participants, respectively. Cluster and exploratory factor analyses were performed. The results obtained show satisfactory psychometric properties for the SAQ, the two clusters, and the two predicted negatively related factors or the bipolar factor. Results are discussed in the context of the different conceptions of sexual attraction and the fourfold typology: attracted to both sexes, to men, to women, or to neither sex.

  20. Quantum spin-Hall effect and topologically invariant Chern numbers.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D N; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, L; Haldane, F D M

    2006-07-21

    We present a topological description of the quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) in a two-dimensional electron system on a honeycomb lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We show that the topology of the band insulator can be characterized by a 2 x 2 matrix of first Chern integers. The nontrivial QSHE phase is identified by the nonzero diagonal matrix elements of the Chern number matrix (CNM). A spin Chern number is derived from the CNM, which is conserved in the presence of finite disorder scattering and spin nonconserving Rashba coupling. By using the Laughlin gedanken experiment, we numerically calculate the spin polarization and spin transfer rate of the conducting edge states and determine a phase diagram for the QSHE.

  1. Schmidt number effects in dissipative particle dynamics simulation of polymers.

    PubMed

    Symeonidis, Vasileios; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce

    2006-11-14

    Simulation studies for dilute polymeric systems are presented using the dissipative particle dynamics method. By employing two different thermostats, the velocity-Verlet and Lowe's scheme, we show that the Schmidt number (S(c)) of the solvent strongly affects nonequilibrium polymeric quantities. The fractional extension of wormlike chains subjected to steady shear is obtained as a function of S(c). Poiseuille flow in microchannels for fixed polymer concentration and varying number of repeated units within a chain is simulated. The nonuniform concentration profiles and their dependence on S(c) are computed. We show the effect of the bounce-forward wall boundary condition on the depletion layer thickness. A power law fit of the velocity profile in stratified Poiseuille flow in a microchannel yields wall viscosities different from bulk values derived from uniform, steady plane Couette flow. The form of the velocity profiles indicates that the slip flow model is not useful for the conditions of these calculations.

  2. Quantum effects in the interference of photon number states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.; Hibino, Keito; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Wu, Jun-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Multiphoton interference results in modulations of output probabilities with phase shift periods that are much shorter than 2 π . Here, we investigate the physics behind these statistical patterns in the case of well-defined photon numbers in the input and output modes of a two-path interferometer. We show that the periodicity of the multiphoton interference is related to the weak value of the unobserved intensity difference between the two arms of the interferometer. This means that the operator relations between the photon number differences in input, path, and output can be used to determine the periodicity of the experimentally observed quantum interference, establishing an important link between the classical causality of random phase interference and quantum effects that depend on the superposition of classically distinct possibilities.

  3. The Effect of Algorithms on Copy Number Variant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Benjamin; Chi, Peter; Wang, Kenneth; Raskind, Wendy H.; Kim, Sulgi; Brkanac, Zoran; Yu, Chang-En

    2010-01-01

    Background The detection of copy number variants (CNVs) and the results of CNV-disease association studies rely on how CNVs are defined, and because array-based technologies can only infer CNVs, CNV-calling algorithms can produce vastly different findings. Several authors have noted the large-scale variability between CNV-detection methods, as well as the substantial false positive and false negative rates associated with those methods. In this study, we use variations of four common algorithms for CNV detection (PennCNV, QuantiSNP, HMMSeg, and cnvPartition) and two definitions of overlap (any overlap and an overlap of at least 40% of the smaller CNV) to illustrate the effects of varying algorithms and definitions of overlap on CNV discovery. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a 56 K Illumina genotyping array enriched for CNV regions to generate hybridization intensities and allele frequencies for 48 Caucasian schizophrenia cases and 48 age-, ethnicity-, and gender-matched control subjects. No algorithm found a difference in CNV burden between the two groups. However, the total number of CNVs called ranged from 102 to 3,765 across algorithms. The mean CNV size ranged from 46 kb to 787 kb, and the average number of CNVs per subject ranged from 1 to 39. The number of novel CNVs not previously reported in normal subjects ranged from 0 to 212. Conclusions and Significance Motivated by the availability of multiple publicly available genome-wide SNP arrays, investigators are conducting numerous analyses to identify putative additional CNVs in complex genetic disorders. However, the number of CNVs identified in array-based studies, and whether these CNVs are novel or valid, will depend on the algorithm(s) used. Thus, given the variety of methods used, there will be many false positives and false negatives. Both guidelines for the identification of CNVs inferred from high-density arrays and the establishment of a gold standard for validation of CNVs are needed

  4. Reynolds Number Effects on the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles; Vitaliy, Krivets; Collins, Brett; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    This presentation compares the results of two very different experimental studies of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability: shock tube experiments in which an air/SF6 interface is accelerated by a weak shock wave; and incompressible experiments in which a box containing two different density miscible liquids is impulsively accelerated by bouncing it off of a fixed coil spring. Both experiments are initiated with sinusoidal initial perturbations. The interface perturbation initially remains sinusoidal as it grows in amplitude, but eventually the interfacial vorticity concentrates into points, forming a row of line vortices of alternating sign. The Reynolds number based on vortex circulation ranges from 1,000 to 45,000 in these experiments. It is found that viscous effects have a large, quantifiable effect on the evolution of the individual vortices. The effects of viscosity on the overall perturbation amplitude, however, are small and will be compared to theory.

  5. Gender Agreement Attraction in Russian: Production and Comprehension Evidence.

    PubMed

    Slioussar, Natalia; Malko, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example "The key to the cabinets are rusty") have been the object of many studies in the last 20 years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance, and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages). Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g.,"The key to the cabinets…"), but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g., "The keys to the cabinet…"). Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart. We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension) studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects). Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement attraction in

  6. Gender Agreement Attraction in Russian: Production and Comprehension Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Slioussar, Natalia; Malko, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example “The key to the cabinets are rusty”) have been the object of many studies in the last 20 years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance, and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages). Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g.,“The key to the cabinets…”), but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g., “The keys to the cabinet…”). Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart. We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension) studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects). Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement

  7. Effects of gauge theory based number scaling on geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Effects of local availability of mathematics (LAM) and space time dependent number scaling on physics and, especially, geometry are described. LAM assumes separate mathematical systems as structures at each space time point. Extension of gauge theories to include freedom of choice of scaling for number structures, and other structures based on numbers, results in a space time dependent scaling factor based on a scalar boson field. Scaling has no effect on comparison of experimental results with one another or with theory computations. With LAM all theory expressions are elements of mathematics at some reference point. Changing the reference point introduces (external) scaling. Theory expressions with integrals or derivatives over space or time include scaling factors (internal scaling) that cannot be removed by reference point change. Line elements and path lengths, as integrals over space and/or time, show the effect of scaling on geometry. In one example, the scaling factor goes to 0 as the time goes to 0, the big bang time. All path lengths, and values of physical quantities, are crushed to 0 as t goes to 0. Other examples have spherically symmetric scaling factors about some point, x. In one type, a black scaling hole, the scaling factor goes to infinity as the distance, d, between any point y and x goes to 0. For scaling white holes, the scaling factor goes to 0 as d goes to 0. For black scaling holes, path lengths from a reference point, z, to y become infinite as y approaches x. For white holes, path lengths approach a value much less than the unscaled distance from z to x.

  8. Distinguishing the effects of familiarity, relatedness, and color pattern rarity on attractiveness and measuring their effects on sexual selection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Brooks, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    Mate choice is often based on multiple signal traits and can be influenced by context-dependent factors. Understanding the importance of these signals and factors can be difficult because they are often correlated and might interact. Here, we experimentally disentangle the effects of familiarity, kinship, pattern rarity, and ornament patterns on mate choice in guppies. We estimate whether these factors alter sexual selection on six phenotypic traits known to influence male attractiveness. Rarity of the male's phenotype is the only context-dependent factor that significantly influenced female mating decisions, with common patterns being least attractive. This preference for rare male patterns is a source of negative frequency-dependent selection that may contribute to maintaining the extreme polymorphism in male guppy coloration. Neither visual familiarity nor relatedness between mating partners had any significant effect on mate choice decisions. There was significant linear and nonlinear sexual selection on ornamental traits, but this was not influenced by the context-dependent measures. Our approach highlights the complexity of female mate choice and sexual selection, as well as the value of combining multifactorial experiments with multivariate selection analyses. Our study shows that both negative frequency-dependent selection and disruptive selection contribute to the maintenance of extreme polymorphism in guppies.

  9. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  10. Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Dvorak, Robert G.; Manning, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.

  11. Effect of competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion on the dynamics of globular particle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riest, Jonas; Naegele, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    The dynamic clustering of globular particle suspensions exhibiting competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion such as protein solutions has gained a lot of interest in the last years. We investigate the influence of clustering on the phase behavior, and in particular on the dynamics of globular particle systems. To this end, we explore various pair potential models by a combination of static and dynamic analytic calculation methods in conjunction with Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the cluster peak (intermediate-range-order peak) is present also in the hydrodynamic function characterizing the short-time dynamics. Moreover, an enhanced short-range attraction leads to a larger sedimentation velocity and a smaller self-diffusion coefficient. Our results are useful also for technical applications, such as in the ultrafiltration of proteins.

  12. Prionic Acid: An Effective Sex Attractant for an Important Pest of Sugarcane, Dorysthenes granulosus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Jin, Tao; Peng, Zhengqiang; Guo, Dongfeng; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Chen, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Male Dorysthenes granulosus (Thomson, 1860) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) were caught in traps baited with racemic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid (prionic acid) during field screening trials in China that tested known cerambycid pheromones. This species is an important pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). In follow-up dose-response trials, plastic sachets loaded with 1 or 0.1 mg of prionic acid were equally attractive to male beetles, whereas lower doses were no better than controls. Two commercial prionic acid lures also were attractive, suggesting that traps baited with prionic acid can be rapidly incorporated into integrated pest management programs targeting this major pest. It is likely that this compound is a major component of the female-produced sex pheromone of D. granulosus because this species is in the same subfamily as Prionus californicus Motschulsky, 1845, the species from which prionic acid was originally identified.

  13. Fermion number violating effects in low scale leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eijima, Shintaro; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2017-08-01

    The existence of baryon asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe may be related to CP-violating reactions of three heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) with masses well below the Fermi scale. The dynamical description of the lepton asymmetry generation, which is the key ingredient of baryogenesis and of dark matter production, is quite complicated due to the presence of many different relaxation time scales and the necessity to include quantum-mechanical coherent effects in HNL oscillations. We derive kinetic equations accounting for fermion number violating effects missed so far and identify one of the domains of HNL masses that can potentially lead to large lepton asymmetry generation boosting the sterile neutrino dark matter production.

  14. Aspect ratio effects on revolving wings with Rossby number consideration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y J; Lua, K B; Lim, T T

    2016-09-09

    Numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate the effect of aspect ratio (AR) on the mean lift generation of a revolving flat rectangular wing. The purpose of the study is to address some discrepancies reported in the literature regarding the influence of AR on mean lift coefficient. Here, we consider a range of AR from 1 to 10 and Rossby number (Ro) from 0.58 to 7.57, and our results show that different degrees of coupling between AR and Ro yield different trends of a mean lift coefficient with respect to increasing AR. The choice of reference velocity for the normalisation of mean lift forces also has a significant effect on the perceived AR effect. By isolating the effect of Ro, we found that higher AR produces higher mean lift coefficient until it plateaus at a sufficiently high AR. This finding is consistent with conventional fixed wing aerodynamics. Additionally, our results show that increasing AR reduces the three-dimensional wing tip effect and is beneficial to mean lift generation while higher Ro increases leading-edge vortex instability, which is detrimental to mean lift generation. Therefore, mean lift generation on revolving wings is dictated by the competition between these two factors, which represent two fundamentally independent phenomena.

  15. Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600-700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term.

  16. Reynolds Number Effects at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Banks, Daniel W.; Hall, Robert M.; Wahls, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Lessons learned from comparisons between ground-based tests and flight measurements for the high-angle-of-attack programs on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the X-29 forward-swept wing aircraft, and the X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability aircraft are presented. On all three vehicles, Reynolds number effects were evident on the forebodies at high angles of attack. The correlation between flight and wind tunnel forebody pressure distributions for the F-18 HARV were improved by using twin longitudinal grit strips on the forebody of the wind-tunnel model. Pressure distributions obtained on the X-29 wind-tunnel model at flight Reynolds numbers showed excellent correlation with the flight data up to alpha = 50 deg. Above (alpha = 50 deg. the pressure distributions for both flight and wind tunnel became asymmetric and showed poorer agreement, possibly because of the different surface finish of the model and aircraft. The detrimental effect of a very sharp nose apex was demonstrated on the X-31 aircraft. Grit strips on the forebody of the X-31 reduced the randomness but increased the magnitude of the asymmetry. Nose strakes were required to reduce the forebody yawing moment asymmetries and the grit strips on the flight test noseboom improved the aircraft handling qualities.

  17. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  18. An Active Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph C.; Buzzelli, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit on magnetism that utilizes hands-on activities in which students make hypotheses for discrepant behavior, discover whether a magnet attracts one object through another, measure the strength of magnets, explore levitating paper clips, and play a game dependent on magnetic attraction. (MDH)

  19. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  20. American Cockroach Sex Attractant.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Beroza, M

    1965-02-12

    The structure (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclopropyl propionate) previously assigned to the sex attractant of the American cockroach has now been shown by additional physical and chemical data and biological inactivity of the synthetic preparation to be incorrect. The structure of this attractant remains to be determined.

  1. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  2. Congruency Effects between Number Magnitude and Response Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierck, Esther; Kiesel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Numbers are thought to be represented in space along a mental left-right oriented number line. Number magnitude has also been associated with the size of grip aperture, which might suggest a connection between number magnitude and intensity. The present experiment aimed to confirm this possibility more directly by using force as a response…

  3. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  4. Measuring the Second Chern Number from Nonadiabatic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The geometry and topology of quantum systems have deep connections to quantum dynamics. In this Letter, I show how to measure the non-Abelian Berry curvature and its related topological invariant, the second Chern number, using dynamical techniques. The second Chern number is the defining topological characteristic of the four-dimensional generalization of the quantum Hall effect and has relevance in systems from three-dimensional topological insulators to Yang-Mills field theory. I illustrate its measurement using the simple example of a spin-3 /2 particle in an electric quadrupole field. I show how one can dynamically measure diagonal components of the Berry curvature in an overcomplete basis of the degenerate ground state space and use this to extract the full non-Abelian Berry curvature. I also show that one can accomplish the same ideas by stochastically averaging over random initial states in the degenerate ground state manifold. Finally, I show how this system can be manufactured and the topological invariant measured in a variety of realistic systems, from superconducting qubits to trapped ions and cold atoms.

  5. Reynolds and Atwood Numbers Effects on Homogeneous Rayleigh Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Reynolds and Atwood numbers on turbulent mixing of a heterogeneous mixture of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities are investigated by using high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The flow occurs in a triply periodic 3D domain, with the two fluids initially segregated in random patches, and turbulence is generated in response to buoyancy. In turn, stirring produced by turbulence breaks down the scalar structures, accelerating the molecular mixing. Statistically homogeneous variable-density (VD) mixing, with density variations due to compositional changes, is a basic mixing problem and aims to mimic the core of the mixing layer of acceleration driven Rayleigh Taylor Instability (RTI). We present results covering a large range of kinematic viscosity values for density contrasts including small (A =0.04), moderate (A =0.5), and high (A =0.75 and 0.9) Atwood numbers. Particular interest will be given to the structure of the turbulence and mixing process, including the alignment between various turbulence and scalar quantities, as well as providing fidelity data for verification and validation of mix models. Arindam Banerjee acknowledges support from NSF CAREER award # 1453056.

  6. Attraction of mosquitoes to volatiles associated with blood.

    PubMed

    Allan, S A; Bernier, U R; Kline, D L

    2006-06-01

    Responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex nigripalpus to volatiles and compounds associated with bovine and avian blood that were presented in collagen membranes were evaluated in olfactometer and landing assays. The presence of attractants produced by blood was supported by more attraction of all species to blood than water controls in the olfactometer. Females of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were more attracted to bovine blood than to avian blood, but there was no difference in Cx. nigripalpus responses. In landing assays, significantly more females of all species landed on casings with blood than on water controls. There was no difference in landing of Ae. aegypti on bovine or avian blood. However, significantly more females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus landed on avian blood compared to bovine blood. Blood presented in collagen casings was an effective method for evaluating in-flight attraction and landing in all three species. In the olfactometer, several individual compounds elicited attraction in all species, but none were as attractive as blood for all species. In landing assays, several organic acids and sulfides elicited landing, with Ae. aegypti responding to the greatest number of compounds. These assay methods are effective for evaluation of volatile compounds from blood, and although responses were obtained to several compounds, none were as effective as blood in the olfactometer and landing assays.

  7. Ranking facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Knight, Helen; Keith, Olly

    2005-08-01

    The first aim of this investigation was to assemble a group of photographs of 30 male and 30 female faces representing a standardized spectrum of facial attractiveness, against which orthognathic treatment outcomes could be compared. The second aim was to investigate the influence of the relationship between ANB differences and anterior lower face height (ALFH) percentages on facial attractiveness. The initial sample comprised standardized photographs of 41 female and 35 male Caucasian subjects. From these, the photographs of two groups of 30 male and 30 female subjects were compiled. A panel of six clinicians and six non-clinicians ranked the photographs. The results showed there to be a good level of reliability for each assessor when ranking the photographs on two occasions, particularly for the clinicians (female subjects r = 0.76-0.97, male subjects r = 0.72-0.94). Agreement among individuals within each group was also high, particularly when ranking facial attractiveness in male subjects (female subjects r = 0.57-0.84, male subjects r = 0.91-0.94). Antero-posterior (AP) discrepancies, as measured by soft tissue ANB, showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, a trend emerged that would suggest that in faces where the ANB varies widely from 5 degrees, the face is considered less attractive. The ALFH percentage also showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, there was a trend that suggested that greater ALFH percentages are considered less attractive in female faces, while in males the opposite trend was seen. Either of the two series of ranked photographs as judged by clinicians and non-clinicians could be used as a standard against which facial attractiveness could be assessed, as both were in total agreement about the most attractive faces. However, to judge the outcome of orthognathic treatment, the series of ranked photographs produced by the non-clinician group should be used as the 'standard' to reflect lay

  8. Cost-effectiveness analyses of hepatitis A vaccine: a systematic review to explore the effect of methodological quality on the economic attractiveness of vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Anonychuk, Andrea M; Tricco, Andrea C; Bauch, Chris T; Pham, Ba'; Gilca, Vladimir; Duval, Bernard; John-Baptiste, Ava; Woo, Gloria; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A vaccines have been available for more than a decade. Because the burden of hepatitis A virus has fallen in developed countries, the appropriate role of vaccination programmes, especially universal vaccination strategies, remains unclear. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a useful method of relating the costs of vaccination to its benefits, and may inform policy. This article systematically reviews the evidence on the cost effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in varying populations, and explores the effects of methodological quality and key modelling issues on the cost-effectiveness ratios.Cost-effectiveness/cost-utility studies of hepatitis A vaccine were identified via a series of literature searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, HSTAR and SSCI). Citations and full-text articles were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Reference searching, author searches and expert consultation ensured literature saturation. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were abstracted for base-case analyses, converted to $US, year 2005 values, and categorised to reflect various levels of cost effectiveness. Quality of reporting, methodological issues and key modelling issues were assessed using frameworks published in the literature.Thirty-one cost-effectiveness studies (including 12 cost-utility analyses) were included from full-text article review (n = 58) and citation screening (n = 570). These studies evaluated universal mass vaccination (n = 14), targeted vaccination (n = 17) and vaccination of susceptibles (i.e. individuals initially screened for antibody and, if susceptible, vaccinated) [n = 13]. For universal vaccination, 50% of the ICERs were <$US20 000 per QALY or life-year gained. Analyses evaluating vaccination in children, particularly in high incidence areas, produced the most attractive ICERs. For targeted vaccination, cost effectiveness was highly dependent on the risk of infection.Incidence, vaccine cost and discount rate were the most influential

  9. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived attractiveness on social anxiety for women across social situations.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Weeks, Justin W

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, such as gender role norms, may impact how social anxiety disorder (SAD) is experienced and expressed in different social contexts for women. However to date, these factors have not been examined via experimental methodology. This was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental controlled study. The current study included 48 highly socially anxious (HSA) women (70.9% meeting criteria for SAD) and examined the relationships among psychosocial factors (i.e. gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived physical attractiveness), self-perceived social performance, and state anxiety, across two in vivo social tasks (i.e. conversation and opinion speech). On average, participants reported belief that they ought to be less feminine for the speech task and more masculine for both the conversation and speech tasks. Also, for the conversation task, only lower self-rated attractiveness predicted poorer self-perceived performance and greater post-task state anxiety, above gender role self-discrepancies and confederate gender. For the speech task, only greater self-discrepancy in prototypical masculine traits predicted poorer performance ratings, and it was related to greater state anxiety in anticipation of the task. For HSA women, psychosocial factors may play different roles in social anxiety across social contexts.

  11. The physics of pollinator attraction.

    PubMed

    Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J

    2017-10-01

    Contents 350 I. 350 II. 350 III. 352 IV. 353 V. 353 353 References 354 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects. We discuss the interaction between flower, pollinator and gravity, and how petal surface structure can influence that interaction. Finally, we consider the role of electrostatic forces in pollen transfer and pollinator attraction. We conclude that this new interdisciplinary field is evolving rapidly. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Effects of Reynolds Number on Mixing and Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, H. W.

    2001-12-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method was used to estimate the effects of Reynolds number (Re), and sidewall boundaries, on dispersion of gases in fractured and porous media. The systems studied ranged from idealized channels with parallel grooves and honeycomb structures, to casts of natural fractures and aggregates of sedimented, quasi-spherical particles. For specific configurations of rough, intersecting fractures, Re variation from 0 to 100 causes only a factor ~2 variation in the mixing ratio C2/(C1+C2), where C1 and C2 are the concentrations of solute in the outlet legs of the fracture intersection. However, slight changes in the intersection alignment yield up to factor 5 range in the mixing ratio, for the geometries studied. For both individual fractures and fracture intersections, sidewall boundary effects tend to be overwhelmed by velocity variations within the fracture planes. LB simulations for porous aggregates give good agreement with experimental studies. However, in random aggregates at high Re, it becomes impractical to obtain dispersion coefficients by LB and the method of moments. Alternative LB methods are discussed.

  13. Effects of teicoplanin on cell number of cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kashkolinejad-Koohi, Tahere; Saadat, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic with a wide variation in human serum half-life. It is also a valuable alternative of vancomycin. There is however no study on its effect on cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of teicoplanin on cultured cell lines CHO, Jurkat E6.1 and MCF-7. The cultured cells were exposed to teicoplanin at final concentrations of 0–11000 μg/ml for 24 hours. To determine cell viability, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was performed. At low concentrations of teicoplanin the numbers of cultured cells (due to cell proliferation) were increased in the three cell lines examined. The maximum cell proliferation rates were observed at concentrations of 1000, 400, and 200 μg/ml of teicoplanin for CHO, MCF-7 and Jurkat cell lines, respectively. Cell toxicity was observed at final concentrations over 2000, 6000, and 400 μg/ml of teicoplanin for CHO, MCF-7 and Jurkat cell lines, respectively. A dose-dependent manner of cell toxicity was observed. Our present findings indicated that teicoplanin at clinically used concentrations induced cell proliferation. It should therefore be used cautiously, particularly in children, pregnant women and patients with cancer. PMID:27486356

  14. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  15. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.

  16. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Irwin

    1971-01-01

    This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)

  17. Beyond size–number trade-offs: clutch size as a maternal effect

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research on life-history traits has viewed the link between clutch size and offspring size as a straightforward linear trade-off; the product of these two components is taken as a measure of maternal reproductive output. Investing more per egg results in fewer but larger eggs and, hence, offspring. This simple size–number trade-off has proved attractive to modellers, but our experimental studies on keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) reveal a more complex relationship between clutch size and offspring size. At constant water availability, the amount of water taken up by a snake egg depends upon the number of adjacent eggs. In turn, water uptake affects hatchling size, and therefore an increase in clutch size directly increases offspring size (and thus fitness under field conditions). This allometric advantage may influence the evolution of reproductive traits such as growth versus reproductive effort, optimal age at female maturation, the body-reserve threshold required to initiate reproduction and nest-site selection (e.g. communal oviposition). The published literature suggests that similar kinds of complex effects of clutch size on offspring viability are widespread in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Our results also challenge conventional experimental methodologies such as split-clutch designs for laboratory incubation studies: by separating an egg from its siblings, we may directly affect offspring size and thus viability. PMID:19324614

  18. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  19. A statistical model of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has identified facial averageness and sexual dimorphism as important factors in facial attractiveness. The averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts provide important first steps in understanding what makes faces attractive, and should be valued for their parsimony. However, we show that they explain relatively little of the variance in facial attractiveness, particularly for male faces. As an alternative to these accounts, we built a regression model that defines attractiveness as a function of a face's position in a multidimensional face space. The model provides much more predictive power than the averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts and reveals previously unreported components of attractiveness. The model shows that averageness is attractive in some dimensions but not in others and resolves previous contradictory reports about the effects of sexual dimorphism on the attractiveness of male faces.

  20. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predators Are Attracted to the Olfactory Signals of Prey

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nelika K.; Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Predator attraction to prey social signals can force prey to trade-off the social imperatives to communicate against the profound effect of predation on their future fitness. These tradeoffs underlie theories on the design and evolution of conspecific signalling systems and have received much attention in visual and acoustic signalling modes. Yet while most territorial mammals communicate using olfactory signals and olfactory hunting is widespread in predators, evidence for the attraction of predators to prey olfactory signals under field conditions is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings To redress this fundamental issue, we examined the attraction of free-roaming predators to discrete patches of scents collected from groups of two and six adult, male house mice, Mus domesticus, which primarily communicate through olfaction. Olfactorily-hunting predators were rapidly attracted to mouse scent signals, visiting mouse scented locations sooner, and in greater number, than control locations. There were no effects of signal concentration on predator attraction to their prey's signals. Conclusions/Significance This implies that communication will be costly if conspecific receivers and eavesdropping predators are simultaneously attracted to a signal. Significantly, our results also suggest that receivers may be at greater risk of predation when communicating than signallers, as receivers must visit risky patches of scent to perform their half of the communication equation, while signallers need not. PMID:20927352

  2. Predators are attracted to the olfactory signals of prey.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nelika K; Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2010-09-30

    Predator attraction to prey social signals can force prey to trade-off the social imperatives to communicate against the profound effect of predation on their future fitness. These tradeoffs underlie theories on the design and evolution of conspecific signalling systems and have received much attention in visual and acoustic signalling modes. Yet while most territorial mammals communicate using olfactory signals and olfactory hunting is widespread in predators, evidence for the attraction of predators to prey olfactory signals under field conditions is lacking. To redress this fundamental issue, we examined the attraction of free-roaming predators to discrete patches of scents collected from groups of two and six adult, male house mice, Mus domesticus, which primarily communicate through olfaction. Olfactorily-hunting predators were rapidly attracted to mouse scent signals, visiting mouse scented locations sooner, and in greater number, than control locations. There were no effects of signal concentration on predator attraction to their prey's signals. This implies that communication will be costly if conspecific receivers and eavesdropping predators are simultaneously attracted to a signal. Significantly, our results also suggest that receivers may be at greater risk of predation when communicating than signallers, as receivers must visit risky patches of scent to perform their half of the communication equation, while signallers need not.

  3. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  4. The red-attractiveness effect, applying the Ioannidis and Trikalinos (2007b) test, and the broader scientific context: a reply to Francis (2013).

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A

    2013-02-01

    Francis (2013) tested for and found evidence of publication bias in 1 of the 3 focal relations examined in Elliot et al. (2010), that between red and attractiveness. He then called into question the research as a whole and the field of experimental psychology more generally. Our reply has 3 foci. First, we attend to the bottom line regarding the red-attractiveness effect; it has already been replicated and extended by several independent laboratories. Second, we note that the test applied to our research is an exploratory test meant to be used cautiously and highlight ways in which the application to our research seems incautious. Third, we place the critique in the broader context of the prevailing norms and practices of the field and suggest that the preferred approach to reevaluating and revising the system currently in place is the frank, creative exchange of ideas already underway.

  5. [The attractiveness of various heat insulation substrates and their effect on the reproductive rate of the German cockroach and recommendations for preventing cockroaches].

    PubMed

    Klunker, R

    1989-09-01

    Attractivity of some heat-isolating materials (glass wool, mineral wool, foam polystyrol, "texdur"-sheets and textile isolating mats) to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L. and the effects on rate of increase were studied in the laboratory in comparison with folded cardboard as a check. The influence of structure (pressed sheets or loosely quilted materials) and exposition (single, piled or between sheets of plaster) was represented. Loose glass wool, open or between plaster sheets, shows a clearly higher attractivity than the other materials tested. increase of populations on glass wool is almost the same as on folded cardboards. The solid variants were less suitable for the settlement of the cockroaches. General recommendations for the prevention of infestations by cockroaches are given.

  6. Displaying employee testimonials on recruitment web sites: effects of communication media, employee race, and job seeker race on organizational attraction and information credibility.

    PubMed

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Giles, William F; Armenakis, Achilles A; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated participants' reactions to employee testimonials presented on recruitment Web sites. The authors manipulated the presence of employee testimonials, richness of media communicating testimonials (video with audio vs. picture with text), and representation of racial minorities in employee testimonials. Participants were more attracted to organizations and perceived information as more credible when testimonials were included on recruitment Web sites. Testimonials delivered via video with audio had higher attractiveness and information credibility ratings than those given via picture with text. Results also showed that Blacks responded more favorably, whereas Whites responded more negatively, to the recruiting organization as the proportion of minorities shown giving testimonials on the recruitment Web site increased. However, post hoc analyses revealed that use of a richer medium (video with audio vs. picture with text) to communicate employee testimonials tended to attenuate these racial effects.

  7. Language-Specific Effects on Number Computation in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodent, Celia; Bryant, Peter; Houde, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental question in developmental science is how brains with and without language compute numbers. Measuring young children's verbal reactions in France (Paris) and in England (Oxford), here we show that, although there is a general arithmetic ability for small numbers that is shared by monkeys and preverbal infants, the development of such…

  8. Determination of Avogadro's Number via the Hall Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers and lecturers have reported that the concept of the mole and Avogadro's number are frequently misunderstood by first-year science students. For this reason, it is highly recommended to introduce this fundamental number to high school and freshman science students as clearly as possible. Therefore, it is pedagogically very useful…

  9. Interleukin 8 and CK-6 chemokines specifically attract rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) RTS11 monocyte-macrophage cells and have variable effects on their immune functions.

    PubMed

    Montero, Jana; Coll, Julio; Sevilla, Noemí; Cuesta, Alberto; Bols, Niels C; Tafalla, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    In the current work, we have demonstrated that both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interleukin 8 (IL-8), a CXC chemokine, and CK-6, a CC chemokine, are able of efficiently attracting RTS11, a rainbow trout established macrophage-monocyte-like cell line. Interestingly, two sub-populations of non-adherent cells are distinguishable by flow cytometry that could be identified as immature monocyte- and mature macrophage-like populations, respectively, and the two chemokines studied exert their effects on different populations. Although IL-8 specifically attracts the monocyte-like sub-population, CK-6 specifically attracts the macrophage-like cell sub-population. We have also determined the effects of both of these chemokines on RTS11 phagocytosis, respiratory burst and the expression of other immune-related genes. We found that IL-8 inhibited the phagocytosis capacity of RTS11 cells belonging to the macrophage-like profile. No effect was observed, however, on the respiratory burst, immune function that has been considerably affected throughout the establishment of the cell culture. Concerning the effect that IL-8 and CK-6 have on the expression of other immune genes, we found that IL-8 significantly induced the levels of expression of CK-6, IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) of RTS11 cells. On the other hand, CK-6 induced the levels of expression of IL-8, iNOS and the integrin CD-18, while it had very faint effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results constitute one of the very few studies in which the effect of IL-8, a CXC chemokine, on monocyte-like cells is described. Moreover, it demonstrates that different monocyte-macrophage sub-populations have different reactivity to different chemokines.

  10. Mach number effect on jet impingement heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Brevet, P; Dorignac, E; Vullierme, J J

    2001-05-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer from a single round free jet, impinging normally on a flat plate is described. Flow at the exit plane of the jet is fully developed and the total temperature of the jet is equal to the ambient temperature. Infrared measurements lead to the characterization of the local and averaged heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers over the impingement plate. The adiabatic wall temperature is introduced as the reference temperature for heat transfer coefficient calculation. Various nozzle diameters from 3 mm to 15 mm are used to make the injection Mach number M vary whereas the Reynolds number Re is kept constant. Thus the Mach number influence on jet impingement heat transfer can be directly evaluated. Experiments have been carried out for 4 nozzle diameters, for 3 different nozzle-to-target distances, with Reynolds number ranging from 7200 to 71,500 and Mach number from 0.02 to 0.69. A correlation is obtained from the data for the average Nusselt number.

  11. The molecular basis for venation patterning of pigmentation and its effect on pollinator attraction in flowers of Antirrhinum.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yongjin; Venail, Julien; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul C; Schwinn, Kathy E; Jameson, Paula E; Martin, Cathie R; Davies, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    Pigment stripes associated with veins (venation) is a common flower colour pattern. The molecular genetics and function of venation were investigated in the genus Antirrhinum, in which venation is determined by Venosa (encoding an R2R3MYB transcription factor). Pollinator preferences were measured by field tests with Antirrhinum majus. Venosa function was examined using in situ hybridization and transient overexpression. The origin of the venation trait was examined by molecular phylogenetics. Venation and full-red flower colouration provide a comparable level of advantage for pollinator attraction relative to palely pigmented or white lines. Ectopic expression of Venosa confers pigmentation outside the veins. Venosa transcript is produced only in small areas of the corolla between the veins and the adaxial epidermis. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that venation patterning is an ancestral trait in Antirrhinum. Different accessions of three species with full-red pigmentation with or without venation patterning have been found. Epidermal-specific venation is defined through overlapping expression domains of the MYB (myoblastoma) and bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, with the bHLH providing epidermal specificity and Venosa vein specificity. Venation may be the ancestral trait, with full-red pigmentation a derived, polyphyletic trait. Venation patterning is probably not fixed once species evolve full-red floral pigmentation. © (2010) Plant and Food Research. Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  12. Attitudes and attraction: a new test of the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Ho, S Y

    2000-06-01

    Dissimilarity and similarity between attitudes of the participants and a stranger were manipulated across two sets of issues to test the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses. Participants (N = 192) judged social (liking, enjoyment of company) and intellectual (intelligence, general knowledge) attractiveness of the stranger. The similarity in the first set of attitudes x similarity in the second set of attitudes effect emerged in social attraction, but not in intellectual attraction. Stated simply, dissimilarity had a greater weight than similarity in social attraction, but equal weight in intellectual attraction. These results support the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypothesis that predicts dissimilarity-repulsion to be stronger than similarity-attraction. However, they reject (1) the attraction hypothesis that dissimilarity and similarity produce equal and opposite effects on social attraction; and (2) the repulsion hypothesis that only dissimilar attitudes affect social attraction by leading to repulsion. An equal weighting of dissimilarity and similarity in intellectual attraction further suggested that the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry on social attraction is reflective of a stronger avoidance response in the Darwinian sense.

  13. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae.

  14. Correlates of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisbell, Marshall

    A study assessed the relationship of the independent variables of interpersonal attraction to the dependent variables of feeling good, relational safety, and uncertainty level. Subjects were 75 elementary and secondary school teachers, 61 communication students, 18 child development professionals, and 8 service club members. Each subject completed…

  15. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  16. Attracting Philosophy Students--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A., Ed.

    This is the first in a series of occasional papers designed as a vehicle for the collection and dissemination of ideas for increasing philosophy course enrollments in two-year colleges. A project of the Subcommittee on Attracting Philosophy Students of the American Philosophical Association's Committee on Teaching Philosophy in Two-Year Colleges,…

  17. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with…

  18. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  19. Effective number of accessed nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Viana, Matheus P; Batista, João L B; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-03-01

    The measurement called accessibility has been proposed as a means to quantify the efficiency of the communication between nodes in complex networks. This article reports results regarding the properties of accessibility, including its relationship with the average minimal time to visit all nodes reachable after h steps along a random walk starting from a source, as well as the number of nodes that are visited after a finite period of time. We characterize the relationship between accessibility and the average number of walks required in order to visit all reachable nodes (the exploration time), conjecture that the maximum accessibility implies the minimal exploration time, and confirm the relationship between the accessibility values and the number of nodes visited after a basic time unit. The latter relationship is investigated with respect to three types of dynamics: traditional random walks, self-avoiding random walks, and preferential random walks.

  20. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  1. Effect of Chemical Ratios of a Microbial-Based Feeding Attractant on Trap Catch of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Landolt, Peter J; Adams, Todd B

    2017-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila, can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol. Using that four-component blend, we found that the catch of spotted wing drosophila increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0.5 mg/d to 34 mg/d) from polyethylene sachet dispensers, and with increases in the concentrations of acetic acid (from 0.25% to 4%) or ethanol (from 0.08% to 2%) when dispensed in the trap drowning solution. However, we saw no increase in spotted wing drosophila trapped with increase of the methionol release rate from 0.4 mg/d to 4.9 mg/d or from 0.19 mg/d to 0.8 mg/d, from sachets. A new formulation based on optimized amounts of these four chemicals yielded a doubling of spotted wing drosophila trapped compared to a previously reported formulation. Further field testing confirmed that the simultaneous increases in the release rate of acetoin from a dispenser and the amount of acetic acid in the trap drowning solution provided the increased spotted wing drosophila trap response to the new formulation. These findings provide a practical means to improve the power of this lure to detect and monitor D. suzukii. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Marketing to attract women.

    PubMed

    Dearing, R H

    1987-01-01

    Patient care and marketing programs sensitive to women can help Catholic facilities increase maternity care patient volumes. Four factors influence hospitals' ability to attract women. Women today are better educated and more sophisticated than ever before about health care needs, and they have more providers from which to choose. With limited resources, providers must be discriminating in the type of services they deliver and how. Finally, women make most of the health care decisions for the families. To attract women, providers should offer them personalized care, participation in decisions, information about treatment, attractive facilities, convenience, and affordable costs. Many providers believe Catholic facilities fail to attract maternity patients because they do not perform tubal ligations; however, parents generally see childbirth as a separate event from sterilization. Providers also believe that non-Catholic patients will not use their facilities, but today's patients choose a hospital because of what it offers, not sponsorship. Some patients may not choose Catholic facilities because they see them as less progressive, but this image can be corrected through marketing Catholic facilities' common strengths include their focus on care rather than profit, their compassionate, individualized care, the image of women caring for women, and their stability. Catholic facilities have built on their strengths to attract women patients by reinforcing positive perceptions with innovative programs, marketing directly to women, educating physicians in how to respond to women's needs, increasing linkages with all women in the community, ensuring that the mission of care is reflected in the physical plant, using a marketing program to help employees carry out compassionate care, and surveying patients for feedback on how their needs are met.

  3. The attraction of Brazil nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. A.; Swift, M. R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2006-02-01

    Simulations of intruder particles in a vertically vibrated granular bed suggest that neutrally-buoyant intruders are attracted to one another (Phys. Rev. Lett., 93 (2004) 208002). The simulations, however, ignore important physical effects such as friction and convection which are known to influence intruder behaviour. Here, we present experimental evidence for this intruder-intruder interaction, obtained by monitoring the position of neutrally-buoyant metallic disks in a vibrated bed of glass spheres. An effective long-range attraction is shown to exist between a pair of intruders for a range of driving conditions. If further intruder particles are added, a tightly bound cluster of intruders can form. These results highlight the difficulty of retaining well-mixed granular beds under vertical vibration.

  4. High Reynolds number effects on a localized stratified turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qi; Diamessis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    We report large-eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent flow behind a sphere of diameter D translating at speed U in a linearly stratified Boussinesq fluid with buoyancy frequency N. These simulations are performed using a spectral-multidomain-penalty incompressible Navier-Stokes solver, at Reynolds numbers Re ≡ UD / ν ∈ { 5 ×103 , 105 , 4 ×105 } and Froude numbers Fr ≡ 2 U / (ND) ∈ { 4 , 16 , 64 } . An increasingly richer turbulent fine-structure is observed within the larger-scale quasi-horizontal vortices at later times. Turbulent transport of momentum is examined during the non-equilibrium (NEQ) regime of the turbulent life cycle, with an emphasis on the vertical transport that occurs after the establishment of local buoyancy control. The turbulent viscosities in both horizontal and vertical directions are estimated through the LES data; possible parameterization of the vertical turbulent viscosity with the buoyancy Reynolds number Reb = ɛ / (νN2) (or its easy-to-obtain surrogates) is discussed. The dynamical role of the buoyancy Reynolds number in choosing the vertical turbulence length scales is also investigated. ONR grant N00014-13-1-0665 (managed by Dr. R. Joslin); HPCMP Frontier Project FP-CFD-FY14-007 (P.I.: Dr. S. de Bruyn Kops).

  5. The Effect of the Number of Syllables on Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Eric; Kandel, Sonia; Fayol, Michel; Esperet, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether motor programming in handwriting production can be modulated by the syllable structure of the word to be written. This study manipulated the number of syllables. The items, words and pseudo-words, had 2, 3 or 4 syllables. French adults copied them three times. We measured the latencies between the visual…

  6. Leadership: Improving Its Effectiveness. Research Action Brief Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This brief summarizes the major findings of significant research studies dealing with different leadership behaviors and strategies for increasing leadership effectiveness. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness emphasizes that a leader's effectiveness is determined by how well his leadership style fits the specific…

  7. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  8. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  9. Attractive versus Unattractive Clients: Mediating Influences on Counselors' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kathleen N; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effects of clients' age, physical attractiveness, and behavior on subjects' attraction to the clients. Results indicated that "counselor" subjects were significantly more attracted to child than to adult clients and to clients demonstrating good in-session behaviors. Physically attractive clients were not rated significantly more…

  10. Effect of Mach number on the structure of turbulent spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, L.; Sandham, N. D.

    2006-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations have been performed to study the dynamics of isolated turbulent spots in compressible isothermal-wall boundary layers. Results of a bypass transition scenario at Mach 2, 4 and 6 are presented. At all Mach numbers the evolved spots have a leading-edge overhang, followed by a turbulent core and a calmed region at the rear interface. The spots have an upstream-pointing arrowhead shape when visualized by near-wall slices, but a downstream-pointing arrowhead in slices away from the wall. The lateral spreading of the spot decreases substantially with the Mach number, consistent with a growth mechanism based on the instability of lateral shear layers. Evidence for a supersonic (Mack) mode substructure is found in the Mach 6 case, where coherent spanwise structures are observed under the spot overhang region.

  11. Effects of Counting and Matching on Conservation of Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

    Forty-five children aged four-and-a-half to five-and-a-half years old were given number conservation tasks in three conditions: (1) a count condition in which children were helped to count each set after the transformation; (2) a match condition in which children were helped to connect by a string each animal with its peanut; and (3) the standard…

  12. An innovative mosquito trap for testing attractants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe a simple trap modification for testing or using attractants to collect flying mosquitoes. The trap also can test the effectiveness of spatial repellents. The proposed design may facilitate standardized testing of mosquito attractants and repellents. The trap uses a standard Centers f...

  13. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  14. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A.; Almarza, N. G.

    2015-05-28

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  15. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E

    1977-06-01

    Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction.

  16. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation. PMID:28006077

  17. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-12-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation.

  18. Low Reynolds Number Effects on Hypersonic Blunt Body Shock Standoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inger, George R.

    2003-05-01

    An approximate analytical theory of the onset of viscous effects on hypersonic body nose shock standoff distance is developed. Boundary layers displacement, shock layer vorticity and longitudinal curvature effects are all included, as are the influence of both shock layer density ratio and arbitrary body surface temperature. Validating comparisons with both CFD results and experimental data are also presented.

  19. Can a safety-in-numbers effect and a hazard-in-numbers effect co-exist in the same data?

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Safety-in-numbers denotes a non-linear relationship between exposure (traffic volume) and the number of accidents, characterised by declining risk as traffic volume increases. There is safety-in-numbers when the number of accidents increases less than proportional to traffic volume, e.g. a doubling of traffic volume is associated with less than a doubling of the number of accidents. Hazard-in-numbers, a less-used concept, refers to the opposite effect: the number of accidents increases more than in proportion to traffic volume, e.g. is more than doubled when traffic volume is doubled. This paper discusses whether a safety-in-numbers effect and a hazard-in-numbers effect can co-exist in the same data. It is concluded that both effects can exist in a given data set. The paper proposes to make a distinction between partial safety-in-numbers and complete safety-in-numbers. Another issue that has been raised in discussions about the safety-in-numbers effect is whether the effect found in some studies is an artefact created by the way exposure was measured. The paper discusses whether measuring exposure as a rate or a share, e.g. kilometres travelled per inhabitant per year, will generate a safety-in-numbers effect as a statistical artefact. It is concluded that this is the case. The preferred measure of exposure is a count of the number of road users. The count should not be converted to a rate or to the share any group of road user contribute to total traffic volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual perception of male body attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Liu, F; Wu, J

    2005-02-07

    Based on 69 scanned Chinese male subjects and 25 Caucasian male subjects, the present study showed that the volume height index (VHI) is the most important visual cue to male body attractiveness of young Chinese viewers among the many body parameters examined in the study. VHI alone can explain ca. 73% of the variance of male body attractiveness ratings. The effect of VHI can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal VHI at 17.6 l m(-2) and 18.0 l m(-2) for female raters and male raters, respectively. In addition to VHI, other body parameters or ratios can have small, but significant effects on male body attractiveness. Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness.

  1. Electroosmosis in Membranes: Effects of Unstirred Layers and Transport Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Barry, P. H.; Hope, A. B.

    1969-01-01

    When a current is passed through a membrane system, differences in transport numbers between the membrane and the adjacent solutions will, in general, result in depletion and enhancement of concentrations at the membrane-solution interfaces. This will be balanced by diffusion back into the bulk solution, diffusion of solute back across the membrane itself, and osmosis resulting from these local concentration gradients. The two main results of such a phenomenon are (1) that there is a current-induced volume flow, which may be mistaken for electroosmosis, and (2) that there will generally develop transient changes in potential difference (PD) across membranes during and after the passage of current through them. PMID:5786317

  2. Probiotics and clinical effects: is the number what counts?

    PubMed

    Bertazzoni, Elisa; Donelli, Gianfranco; Midtvedt, Tore; Nicoli, Jacques; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-08-01

    Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host', underlining the need of microbial viability and the requirement of a suitable dose to obtain a health benefit. The dose and the administration regimen are critical issues for probiotics either ingested as foods claiming health benefits or used as drugs in clinics. In fact, regulatory authorities demand to guarantee consumers that a probiotic is effective in the recommended conditions of use and responds to its specific claims. Thus, a proper identification of probiotic strain(s), a definition of the amount of microorganisms surviving by the end of the product shelf-life, and a demonstration of their beneficial effects by appropriate human trials are required. The current knowledge on the effective dose of different probiotic strains used for several disorders is here reviewed.

  3. Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.

  4. A Synesthetic Walk on the Mental Number Line: The Size Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Tzelgov, Joseph; Henik, Avishai

    2008-01-01

    Are small and large numbers represented similarly or differently on the mental number line? The size effect was used to argue that numbers are represented differently. However, recently it has been argued that the size effect is due to the comparison task and is not derived from the mental number line per se. Namely, it is due to the way that the…

  5. A Synesthetic Walk on the Mental Number Line: The Size Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Tzelgov, Joseph; Henik, Avishai

    2008-01-01

    Are small and large numbers represented similarly or differently on the mental number line? The size effect was used to argue that numbers are represented differently. However, recently it has been argued that the size effect is due to the comparison task and is not derived from the mental number line per se. Namely, it is due to the way that the…

  6. Team Competition Effects on Classroom Group Process. Report Number 174.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of a unique form of team competition involving competition among individuals and teams on a variety of classroom group processes. A 3 x 2 (treatment x teacher) design was employed using intact high school social studies classes over a 12-week period. When compared to individual competitions, the team competition…

  7. Effective Reporting. Resources in Institutional Research, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    This monograph is a guide to effective presentation of report data and information from institutional research. The work focuses on several types of presentation: the written report (alternative ways for presenting information, appearance, and the audience); graphic displays or charts (to present words or data in an organized or symbolic fashion;…

  8. Effective Reporting. Resources in Institutional Research, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    This monograph is a guide to effective presentation of report data and information from institutional research. The work focuses on several types of presentation: the written report (alternative ways for presenting information, appearance, and the audience); graphic displays or charts (to present words or data in an organized or symbolic fashion;…

  9. Attraction of subterranean termites (Isoptera) to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bernklau, Elisa Jo; Fromm, Erich A; Judd, Timothy M; Bjostad, Louis B

    2005-04-01

    Subterranean termites, Reticulitermes spp., were attracted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in laboratory and field tests. In behavioral bioassays, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, and Reticulitermes virginicus Banks were attracted to CO2 concentrations between 5 and 50 mmol/mol. In further bioassays, R. tibialis and R. virginicus were attracted to the headspace from polyisocyanurate construction foam that contained 10-12 mmol/mol CO2. In soil bioassays in the laboratory, more termites foraged in chambers containing CO2-generating formulations than in unbaited control chambers. In field tests, stations containing CO2-generating baits attracted R. tibialis away from wooden fence posts at rangeland sites in Colorado. For all of the CO2 formulations tested, termites foraged in significantly more bait stations at treatment fenceposts than in bait stations at the control fenceposts. By the end of the 8-wk study, the number of bait stations located by termites at treatment fenceposts ranged from 40 to 90%. At control fenceposts, termites foraged in only a single station and the one positive station was not located by termites until week 5 of the study. At treatment fenceposts, termites foraged equally in active stations (containing a CO2-generating bait) and passive stations (with no CO2-generating bait), indicating that bait stations may benefit passively from a proximal CO2 source in the soil. CO2 used as an attractant in current baiting systems could improve their effectiveness by allowing earlier exposure of termites to an insecticide.

  10. The effect of genetically enriched (E)-β-ocimene and the role of floral scent in the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatile blends of torenia.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Takeshi; Nishihara, Masahiro; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-03-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit mixtures of volatiles (herbivore-induced plant volatiles, HIPVs) that can attract predators of the herbivores. Although the composition of HIPVs should be critical for the attraction, most studies of transgenic plant-emitted volatiles have simply addressed the effect of trans-volatiles without embedding in other endogenous plant volatiles. We investigated the abilities of transgenic wishbone flower plants (Torenia hybrida and Torenia fournieri) infested with spider mites, emitting a trans-volatile ((E)-β-ocimene) in the presence or absence of endogenous volatiles (natural HIPVs and/or floral volatiles), to attract predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis). In both olfactory- and glasshouse-based assays, P. persimilis females were attracted to natural HIPVs from infested wildtype (wt) plants of T. hybrida but not to those of T. fournieri. The trans-volatile enhanced the ability to attract P. persimilis only when added to an active HIPV blend from the infested transgenic T. hybrida plants, in comparison with the attraction by infested wt plants. Intriguingly, floral volatiles abolished the enhanced attractive ability of T. hybrida transformants, although floral volatiles themselves did not elicit any attraction or avoidance behavior. Predator responses to trans-volatiles were found to depend on various background volatiles (e.g. natural HIPVs and floral volatiles) endogenously emitted by the transgenic plants. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Quantum Reality, Complex Numbers, and the Meteorological Butterfly Effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, T. N.

    2005-04-01

    Meteorology is a wonderfully interdisciplinary subject. But can nonlinear thinking about predictability of weather and climate contribute usefully to issues in fundamental physics? Although this might seem extremely unlikely at first sight, an attempt is made to answer the question positively. The long-standing conceptual problems of quantum theory are outlined, focusing on indeterminacy and nonlocal causality, problems that led Einstein to reject quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory of physics (a glossary of some of the key terms used in this paper is given in the sidebar). These conceptual problems are considered in the light of both low-order chaos and the more radical (and less well known) paradigm of the finite-time predictability horizon associated with the self-similar upscale cascade of uncertainty in a turbulent fluid. The analysis of these dynamical systems calls into doubt one of the key pieces of logic used in quantum nonlocality theorems: that of counterfactual reasoning. By considering an idealization of the upscale cascade (which provides a novel representation of complex numbers and quaternions), a case is made for reinterpreting the quantum wave function as a set of intricately encoded binary sequences. In this reinterpretation, it is argued that the quantum world has no need for dice-playing deities, undead cats, multiple universes, or “spooky action at a distance.”


  12. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

  13. The deleterious effects of high inbreeding on male Drosophila melanogaster attractiveness are observed under competitive but not under non-competitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Terhi M; Roff, Derek A; Rantala, Markus J

    2014-03-01

    In order for the male courtship traits to honestly signal quality they need to be condition-dependent. Moreover, if these traits capture genetic variation in condition they should resemble life-history traits in being subject to strong directional selection and, consequently, suffer strong inbreeding depression. In this study we investigated the effect of high inbreeding on male attractiveness by assessing mating success, mating speed and copulation duration of inbred, outbred and crossbred (constructed by crossing separate, randomly chosen inbred lines) males of Drosophila melanogaster. When set to compete against a standardized competitor and compared to the success rate of the crossbred lines, inbreeding significantly reduced male mating success. Under competition, outbred males initiated copulation significantly sooner than crossbred and inbred males. Under non-competitive conditions, no effect of inbreeding was found on either mating speed or copulation duration. Both mating success and mating speed showed much higher inbreeding depression than male size.

  14. Biobutanol: an attractive biofuel.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Biofuels are an attractive means to prevent a further increase of carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, gasoline is blended with ethanol at various percentages. However, butanol has several advantages over ethanol, such as higher energy content, lower water absorption, better blending ability, and use in conventional combustion engines without modification. Like ethanol, it can be produced fermentatively or petrochemically. Current crude oil prices render the biotechnological process economic again. The best-studied bacterium to perform a butanol fermentation is Clostridium acetobutylicum. Its genome has been sequenced, and the regulation of solvent formation is under intensive investigation. This opens the possibility to engineer recombinant strains with superior biobutanol-producing ability.

  15. The time-course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Darren; Nicol, Janet; Brehm, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    Attraction interference in language comprehension and production may be as a result of common or different processes. In the present paper, we investigate attraction interference during language comprehension, focusing on the contexts in which interference arises and the time-course of these effects. Using evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and sentence judgment times, we show that agreement attraction in comprehension is best explained as morphosyntactic interference during memory retrieval. This stands in contrast to attraction as a message-level process involving the representation of the subject NP's number features, which is a strong contributor to attraction in production. We thus argue that the cognitive antecedents of agreement attraction in comprehension are non-identical with those of attraction in production, and moreover, that attraction in comprehension is primarily a consequence of similarity-based interference in cue-based memory retrieval processes. We suggest that mechanisms responsible for attraction during language comprehension are a subset of those involved in language production. PMID:25258471

  16. The time-course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Darren; Nicol, Janet; Brehm, Laurel

    2014-10-01

    Attraction interference in language comprehension and production may be as a result of common or different processes. In the present paper, we investigate attraction interference during language comprehension, focusing on the contexts in which interference arises and the time-course of these effects. Using evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and sentence judgment times, we show that agreement attraction in comprehension is best explained as morphosyntactic interference during memory retrieval. This stands in contrast to attraction as a message-level process involving the representation of the subject NP's number features, which is a strong contributor to attraction in production. We thus argue that the cognitive antecedents of agreement attraction in comprehension are non-identical with those of attraction in production, and moreover, that attraction in comprehension is primarily a consequence of similarity-based interference in cue-based memory retrieval processes. We suggest that mechanisms responsible for attraction during language comprehension are a subset of those involved in language production.

  17. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    vertically and ± 0.05 C horizontally. Thus, heating through a triple -stub tuner to coaxial Transco uniformity to within 0.1 C may be achieved when...significant discomfort. The use of decimeter-wave therapy in combination The antitumor effects of a triple combination of with radiation therapy is currently...applied with cancer. an inductive Eddy current applicator (3.8-cm di- ameter) at 461 MHz with a Siemens generator. Mice receiving the triple combination

  18. Soviet Material on Internal Wave Effects, Number 5, March 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-15

    Dotsenko , S. F. Effect of inhomogeneity of fluid and ice cover on waves generated by a moving pressure region. IN: Sb. Morskiye...8217miyt’i-i^wg — —-——-—-• ■ I I I I I I I I I t ! I * I I ! I i Dotsenko , S. V., A . N. Nedovesov, M. G. Poplavskaya, and... Dotsenko , S. F. 31 Dotsenko , S. V. 34, 37 Garnaker’yan, A . A . 79 Glotov, A . A . 91

  19. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Electromagnetic Radiation # - A digest of current erature and a forum of communication 1~ ~~~~~~;:~~~~~~Iein:ejnI(T t...unclassified ~ .~~~I4 I~~I~O Security CIas,iac.tioft A - 1140S BiOLOGiCA L. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION A Digest of Current Lite rature and a...Forum of Com munication Preparation of This Digest Supported by.~U.S. Army Research Office — Durham ~/ D D C Under Grant No. DAHCO4-74-G-0132 L

  20. Acute and chronic stress-like levels of cortisol inhibit the oestradiol stimulus to induce sexual receptivity but have no effect on sexual attractivity or proceptivity in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Papargiris, M M; Rivalland, E T A; Hemsworth, P H; Morrissey, A D; Tilbrook, A J

    2011-09-01

    Stress-like levels of cortisol inhibit sexual receptivity in ewes but the mechanism of this action is not understood. One possibility is that cortisol interferes with the actions of oestradiol to induce sexual receptivity. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments with ovariectomised ewes that were artificially induced into oestrus by 12 days of i.m. injections of progesterone followed by an i.m. injection of oestradiol benzoate (ODB) 48 h later. In Experiment 1, ewes were randomly allocated to the following groups: saline infusion+25 μg ODB, saline infusion+50 μg ODB, cortisol infusion+25 μg ODB or cortisol infusion+50 μg ODB (n=5 per group). Saline or cortisol was infused i.v. for 40 h beginning at the ODB injection. In Experiment 2, ewes were infused with saline or cortisol (n=5 per group) for 5h beginning 1h before ODB injection. In both experiments, ewe sexual behaviour (attractivity, proceptivity and receptivity) was quantified every 6h. Blood samples were also collected. The cortisol infusion yielded plasma concentrations of cortisol similar to those seen during psychosocial stress. In both experiments, cortisol suppressed receptivity index (number of immobilisations by ewe/courtship displays by ram) and the number of times ewes were mounted but had no effect on attractivity or proceptivity, irrespective of the dose of ODB (Experiment 1). Cortisol also suppressed LH pulse amplitude. These results suggest that both an acute (5h) and chronic (40 h) infusion of cortisol inhibit oestradiol-induced sexual receptivity in ewes and that increasing the dose of ODB does not overcome the inhibitory effects of cortisol.

  1. Pathogen effects on vegetative and floral odours mediate vector attraction and host exposure in a complex pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lori; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; van der Putten, Wim

    2012-12-01

    Pathogens can alter host phenotypes in ways that influence interactions between hosts and other organisms, including insect disease vectors. Such effects have implications for pathogen transmission, as well as host exposure to secondary pathogens, but are not well studied in natural systems, particularly for plant pathogens. Here, we report that the beetle-transmitted bacterial pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila - which causes a fatal wilt disease - alters the foliar and floral volatile emissions of its host (wild gourd, Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) in ways that enhance both vector recruitment to infected plants and subsequent dispersal to healthy plants. Moreover, infection by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), which also occurs at our study sites, reduces floral volatile emissions in a manner that discourages beetle recruitment and therefore likely reduces the exposure of virus-infected plants to the lethal bacterial pathogen - a finding consistent with our previous observation of dramatically reduced wilt disease incidence in ZYMV-infected plants.

  2. The Light Attracting Effect of Pyridine Derivatives Based Quasi-Solid Electrolyte in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Cai, Molang; Bell, John; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    The pyridine derivatives are added into acetonitrile based electrolyte to establish framework, then form the quasi solid electrolyte. The ion diffusion of cetylpyridinium chloride and cetylpyridinium bromide based electrolytes is enhanced comparing with the ion diffusion of reference acetonitrile electrolyte. The ordered structure of cetylpyridinuium chloride quasi solid electrolyte has been observed by SEM images. Light scattering effect of cetylpyridinuium chloride quasi solid electrolyte is evidenced by the larger resulted by transmitted and scattered spectra. The light harvesting efficiency of device based on C16Cl is much higher than acetonitrile based device. The cell efficiency of C16Cl and C16Br based device are 5.72% and 6.02%, which are 41% and 48% higher than acetonitrile liquid electrolyte based device. The C16l based device produces low cell efficiency 2.06%, which is 49% decrease compare to the blank device due to the limitation of iodide-triodide transportation in the iodide framework.

  3. Effects of Reynolds Number and Stokes Number on Particle-pair Relative Velocity in Isotropic Turbulence: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Bragg, Andrew; Hammond, Adam; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance; Meng, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Effects of Reynolds number (Rλ) and Stokes number (St) on particle-pair relative velocity (RV) were studied using four-frame particle tracking in an enclosed turbulence chamber. Two tests were performed: varying Rλ between 246 and 357 at six St values, and varying St between 0.02 and 4.63 at five Rλ values. By comparing experimental and DNS results of mean inward particle-pair RV, , we observed excellent agreement for all test conditions across a large range of particle separation distance (r) ; however at r <= 10 η (η: Kolmogorov length scale), experimental values were higher than simulation. At fixed St , was found to be independent of Rλ in the observable St , r, and Rλ ranges. At fixed Rλ, increased with St at small r and decreased with St at large r. We further compared and variance of RV, , between experiments, DNS and theoretical predictions by Pan and Padoan (2010). At 0 < St <= 1 , theory-predicted and matched with DNS and experiment in the range of r = 1 - 60 η . As St increased, theoretical predictions were lower than experiment and DNS results. The potential causes of these trends are explored. Additionally, we discuss the observed electrostatic charge effect on particle relative motion in isotropic turbulence and our plans of studying this effect using an integrated experimental, numerical and theoretical approach. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.

  4. Effective swimming strategies in low Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olla, P.

    2011-03-01

    The optimal strategy for a microscopic swimmer to migrate across a linear shear flow is discussed. The two cases, in which the swimmer is located at large distance, and in the proximity of a solid wall, are taken into account. It is shown that migration can be achieved by means of a combination of sailing through the flow and swimming, where the swimming strokes are induced by the external flow without need of internal energy sources or external drives. The structural dynamics required for the swimmer to move in the desired direction is discussed and two simple models, based respectively on the presence of an elastic structure, and on an orientation dependent friction, to control the deformations induced by the external flow, are analyzed. In all cases, the deformation sequence is a generalization of the tank-treading motion regimes observed in vesicles in shear flows. Analytic expressions for the migration velocity as a function of the deformation pattern and amplitude are provided. The effects of thermal fluctuations on propulsion have been discussed and the possibility that noise be exploited to overcome the limitations imposed on the microswimmer by the scallop theorem have been discussed.

  5. Relative Effects of Juvenile and Adult Environmental Factors on Mate Attraction and Recognition in the Cricket, Allonemobius socius

    PubMed Central

    Olvido, Alexander E.; Fernandes, Pearl R.; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Finding a mate is a fundamental aspect of sexual reproduction. To this end, specific-mate recognition systems (SMRS) have evolved that facilitate copulation between producers of the mating signal and their opposite-sex responders. Environmental variation, however, may compromise the efficiency with which SMRS operate. In this study, the degree to which seasonal climate experienced during juvenile and adult life-cycle stages affects the SMRS of a cricket, Allonemobius socius (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) was assessed. Results from two-choice behavioral trials suggest that adult ambient temperature, along with population and family origins, mediate variation in male mating call, and to a lesser extent directional response of females for those calls. Restricted maximum-likelihood estimates of heritability for male mating call components and for female response to mating call appeared statistically nonsignificant. However, appreciable “maternal genetic effects” suggest that maternal egg provisioning and other indirect maternal determinants of the embryonic environment significantly contributed to variation in male mating call and female response to mating calls. Thus, environmental factors can generate substantial variation in A. socius mating call, and, more importantly, their marginal effect on female responses to either fast-chirp or long-chirp mating calls suggest negative fitness consequences to males producing alternative types of calls. Future studies of sexual selection and SMRS evolution, particularly those focused on hybrid zone dynamics, should take explicit account of the loose concordance between signal producers and responders suggested by the current findings. PMID:20673114

  6. A novel design and driving strategy for a hybrid electric machine with torque performance enhancement both taking reluctance and electromagnetic attraction effects into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Nan; Chen, Wan-Pei; Teng, Ching-Cheng; Chen, Mu-Ping

    2006-09-01

    A novel design, the hybrid electric machine, that owns improved competence for the output torque regulation as well as enlarged power density comparing to the conventional brushless machines by making use of the simultaneous performance overlapping concept based on magnetism is proposed in this paper. The developed design concept is focused on electric machine structure and its counterpart drive for applying two main magnetic-power transmitting paths by combination of both features of magnetic tendencies of flux generation that may flow in the path with minimum reluctance and direction owning the electromagnetic motive attraction. The verifications demonstrate that the outputted torque owns effective improvement by the presented concept of the electric machine based on the equivalent 3-hp frame than the conventional brushless motors.

  7. Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component.

  8. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Past research has proven human’s extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention. PMID:27848992

  9. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-11-16

    Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention.

  10. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B

    2013-01-01

    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P < 0.001), the likelihood of ending a perching bout voluntarily (P = 0.013), and time spent sitting during perching (P = 0.007) were lower in low vs. high cages. In this study, replacing plastic mesh nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches.

  11. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  12. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  13. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  14. How facial attractiveness affects sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether and how facial attractiveness affects sustained attention. We adopted a multiple-identity tracking paradigm, using attractive and unattractive faces as stimuli. Participants were required to track moving target faces amid distractor faces and report the final location of each target. In Experiment 1, the attractive and unattractive faces differed in both the low-level properties (i.e., luminance, contrast, and color saturation) and high-level properties (i.e., physical beauty and age). The results showed that the attractiveness of both the target and distractor faces affected the tracking performance: The attractive target faces were tracked better than the unattractive target faces; when the targets and distractors were both unattractive male faces, the tracking performance was poorer than when they were of different attractiveness. In Experiment 2, the low-level properties of the facial images were equalized. The results showed that the attractive target faces were still tracked better than unattractive targets while the effects related to distractor attractiveness ceased to exist. Taken together, the results indicate that during attentional tracking the high-level properties related to the attractiveness of the target faces can be automatically processed, and then they can facilitate the sustained attention on the attractive targets, either with or without the supplement of low-level properties. On the other hand, only low-level properties of the distractor faces can be processed. When the distractors share similar low-level properties with the targets, they can be grouped together, so that it would be more difficult to sustain attention on the individual targets.

  15. The effect of a topical insecticide containing permethrin on the number of Culicoides midges caught near horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Raat, I J; van den Boom, R; van Poppel, M; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2008-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is most likely caused by Culicoides species, although other insects may also play a role. Until now no effective cure has been found for this condition, although numerous therapeutic and preventive measures have been used to control insect hypersensitivity. One such method is to apply a topical insecticide to horses. In this study, the effect of a topical insecticide containing permethrin (3.6%) was examined in seven pairs of horses. The horses were placed inside a tent trap to collect Culicoides spp. and other insects attracted to the horses on two subsequent evenings. On the first evening, both horses were untreated. After the end of this session, one horse of each pair was treated with the pour-on insecticide; treated horses were kept separate from untreated horses. The next evening the pairs of horses were again placed inside the tent trap and insects were collected. Similar percentages of Culicoides were trapped as in earlier studies (C. obsoletus 95.34% and C. pulicaris 4.54%), with healthy horses attracting more Culicoides than horses affected by IBH. The number of Culicoides, the percentage of blood-fed Culicoides obsoletus, and the total number of insects attracted to horses 24 hours after treatment with permethrin were reduced but the reduction was not statistically significant. No negative side effects of permethrin administration were observed.

  16. Fuzzy Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using a D Numbers Based Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinyang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-09-12

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool to define, identify, and eliminate potential failures or errors so as to improve the reliability of systems, designs, and products. Risk evaluation is an important issue in FMEA to determine the risk priorities of failure modes. There are some shortcomings in the traditional risk priority number (RPN) approach for risk evaluation in FMEA, and fuzzy risk evaluation has become an important research direction that attracts increasing attention. In this paper, the fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA is studied from a perspective of multi-sensor information fusion. By considering the non-exclusiveness between the evaluations of fuzzy linguistic variables to failure modes, a novel model called D numbers is used to model the non-exclusive fuzzy evaluations. A D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method is proposed to establish a new model for fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA. An illustrative example is provided and examined using the proposed model and other existing method to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  17. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  18. Perceived Attractiveness and Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Adams and Cohen (1974) demonstrated that facial attractiveness was a salient factor in differential student-teacher interactions. This research investigates further the interaction between teachers and children perceived to be attractive or unattractive by those teachers. It was hypothesized that attractive children would exhibit more "positive,"…

  19. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the

  20. Heterosexual men's ratings of sexual attractiveness of pubescent girls: Effects of labeling the target as under or over the age of sexual consent.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Muireann; Lowe, Rob; Brotherton, Hannah; Davies, Hannah; Panou, Anna; Bennett, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to identify implicit and explicit processes involved in reporting the sexual attractiveness of photographs of the same pubescent girls labeled as either under or within the age of sexual consent in the UK, women, and men. In two studies, 53 and 70 heterosexual men (M age 25.2 and 31.0 years) rated the sexual attractiveness of photographs in each category presented via computer [seeing target photographs of girls labeled as either under- (14-15 years) or within the age of consent (16-17 years)], using a 7-point response box. Ratings in Study 1 were in response to a question asking participants to rate how sexually attractive the person in each photograph was. In Study 2, participants rated how sexually attractive they personally found the target. Response times were also recorded. Several findings were replicated in both studies (although the strength of findings differed). Mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the underage girls were lower than those of overage girls and women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when "underage" girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. No such relationship emerged with the same girls labeled within the age of consent or women. Overall, these data suggest that men find pubescent girls identified as being under the age of consent sexually attractive, but inhibit their willingness to report this; the greater the attraction, the greater the inhibition.